Spring Break Trip Planner

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					DePaul University	                          Winter 2010




HCI 445 - Inquiry Methods & User Analysis


Spring Break Trip Planner
Project 1: Interviews and Report

By Team Blue
 - KuangYou Cheng
 - Lito Vila
 - Pradeep Nayar
DePaul University	                          Winter 2010




Table of Contents

Executive Summary
                                  iii
  Research Overview
                                iii
  Key Findings
                                     iii
Root Concept
                                       iv
Research Goals
                                     iv
Research Plan
                                       v
  Participants
                                      v
  Procedure
                                         v
Key Findings
                                       vi
  Summary of Interviews
                            vi
         General Demographic Information
           vi
         Travel
                                    vi
         Social Networks & Privacy
                vii
  Presentation Strategies
                         vii
Spectrum
                                          viii
Personas
                                           xi
  Persona A: Sally
                                 xi
         Goals & Motivations 
                     xii
         Frustrations 
                            xii
         Activities and Tasks 
                    xii
         Spectrums
                                xii
  Persona B: Robert
                              xiii
         Goals & Motivations 
                    xiv


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         Frustrations 
                   xiv
         Activities and Tasks 
           xiv
         Spectrums
                       xiv
Usage Scenarios
                           xv
  Scenario A: Sally
                       xv
  Scenario B: Sally
                       xv
  Scenario C: Robert
                      xv
  Scenario D: Robert
                     xvi
Appendix 1: Interview Guide
             xvii
  Introduction
                           xvii
  Warm-up
                                xvii
  General Travel Questions
              xviii
  Deep Focus (Trip)
                     xviii
  Deep Focus (Social Networks)
           xix
  Retrospective
                          xix
  Wrap-up
                                xix
Appendix 2: Interview Notes
               xx
  Introduction
                            xx
  Warm-up
                                 xx
  General Trip Questions 
               xxiii
  Deep Focus (Trip)
                     xxv
  Deep Focus (Social Networks)
        xxviii
  Retrospective
                         xxx
  Wrap-up
                               xxx
Appendix 3: Informed Consent
           xxxi
  Observer Copy
                        xxxi
  Participant Copy
                     xxxii




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DePaul University	                                                                           Winter 2010




Executive Summary

Research Overview
The concept of a “Spring Break Planner” is explored. Target users of this product are expected to
be 18-25 year olds who are either college students or recent college graduates. The initial concept
was for a product that helped users plan a group trip (travel, hotel, and activities), share itineraries
with others on the trip, and then communicate relevant trip and location and itinerary information
with one another while on the trip.

Seven participants from the target user group were interviewed (formal, structured, face to face,
one on one interviews) to assess their travel & privacy preferences and behavior. The information
gathered from the interviews was analyzed and used to develop two distinct personas
representative of the typical targeted users. Four usage scenarios were developed to illustrate the
needs and constraints of the two personas (typical users). The goal is to design a product that will
satisfy these needs.



Key Findings
•   Data from the interviews indicates that the target user is not likely to have a smart phone (due
    to cost issues).
•   Data confirms that target users are likely to go on group trips, but these trips are not restricted
    to the Spring Break time frame.
•   While the target user group is expected to be an avid user of social networks, privacy is
    important to the user, therefore photographs and other personal information (such as location &
    itineraries) will be shared only with select friends and family.




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Root Concept

Going on a trip with friends for spring break can sometimes be difficult to coordinate. There are
several variables that need to be considered not only during the trip planning process, but also
during the trip itself, and in certain cases, after the trip as well.

The root concept is for a product which would serve as a trip planner, or trip assistant that could
be used by trip-goers to plan group spring break vacations. This product would be targeted
towards college students and recent college graduates (i.e. people who typically go on “spring
break” vacations).

Prior to departure, users of this product would be able to enter vacation data such as travel dates,
airline and hotel information, and information about activities planned while at their vacation
destination. The product would collect the information for each of the travelers, and provide each
member of the group with a detailed itinerary for each individual, as well as for the group as a
whole.

While on vacation, users of this product would be able to access these itineraries via a companion
mobile application designed for a mobile device / smart phone. Users would also be able to use
this product to share their physical location with other members in their group, and conversely
check on the locations of the other group members.




Research Goals

Data gathered during the initial research phase will be used to answer the following:

•   RG-1: What are the tasks that the target users perform when preparing / planning a trip?
•   RG-2: Do the target users go on group trips with friends?
•   RG-3: Do the target users prefer to travel with friends, or alone?
•   RG-4: Do the target users share their travel plans with others on the trip?
•   RG-5: Do the target users feel comfortable revealing their current location with others in the
    trip?
•   RG-6: Do the target users use social networks?
•   RG-7: Do the target users have concerns regarding privacy with social networks?


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Research Plan

Participants
The target user group for this product is people between the ages of 18 and 25. The typical user
is either in college, or is a recent college graduate. The target users are people who take
advantage of common time off from school or work to go on a vacation with a group of friends
(e.g. spring break). Participants were all personal acquaintances of the team members.



Procedure
In order to gather information about the target user group, each team member conducted formal,
one-on-one interviews with people who met the target user group criteria (18-25 years old, and
either in college or recent college graduate). Seven interviews were conducted.

The team developed a list of questions to be asked (Interview Guide) in the interviews. These
questions cover general, demographic information, trip / vacation preferences, and privacy issues
associated with social networks.

Interviews began with a review of Informed Consent (see Appendix 3), followed by questions from
the Interview Guide (see Appendix 1). Participants’ answers / comments were recorded in a
notebook for review and analysis after the interviews (see Appendix 2 for a summary of these
notes). After going through all of the questions on the Interview Guide, the notes on the answers /
comments were reviewed with the interviewee to ensure accuracy. Once accuracy was ensured,
the interviewee was reminded of the Informed Consent, and offered the opportunity to withdraw his
or her data from the study (all seven participants agreed to allow his or her interview data to be
used).

In order to ensure that the identity of each interview participant remained confidential, no names
were recorded. Instead of names, a unique identifier (D-01, D-02, etc.) was used to identify each
participant.




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Key Findings

Summary of Interviews
The following information was gathered from the formal, one-on-one interviews conducted with
seven research participants:

General Demographic Information
•   1 of 7 participants has a smart phone.
•   6 of 7 participants use text messaging.
•   All participants (7 of 7) are money-conscious.

Travel
•   Most participants (6 of 7) like to take group trips (travel in groups of 2 to 12 people) (RG-2, 3).
•   4 of 7 participants travel 1-2 times per year (RG-1).
•   3 of 7 participants travel 4-6 times per year (RG-1).
•   6 of 7 participants typically travel to destinations where they have friends or family (RG-1).
•   5 of 7 participants will plan their trips at least one month in advance (RG-1).
•   4 of 7 participants settle shared expenses immediately (e.g. splitting the check at dinner); while
    2 of 7 participants will have someone keep track of all expenses, and then settle up at the end
    of the trip (Note: Participant D-06 does not go on group trips).
•   5 of 7 participants research their trips extensively (travel / hotel / activities / etc.) on the internet
    (check prices and reviews), while the remaining 2 of 7 will let others do the research and
    planning for them (RG-1).
•   “Spring break” travel:
    • 1 of 7 participants did not go anywhere on his / her last break (participant D-03).
    • 1 of 7 participants went to a new location (D-06).
    • 5 of 7 participants visited friends or family.
    • 2 of 7 participants went on “structured” trips (D-01, 6).
    • 4 of 7 participants went on “hang out” trips (D-02, 4, 5, 7).
•   Hotel research: Participants research the hotel for different reasons (RG-1).
    • To see pictures of the hotel / rooms.
    • To find the best price.
    • To read reviews (specifically, to read comments on cleanliness).
    • To read about the location of the hotel.
•   6 of 7 participants share travel itineraries with other people (RG-4).




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Social Networks & Privacy
•   6 of 7 participants use a social network (RG-6).
•   The frequency with which social network users check their social networks ranges from 1-2
    times per week to 10 times per day. All 6 social network users access their accounts via a
    laptop or desktop computer (i.e. not with a smart phone or other mobile device).
•   1 of 7 participants use a “social login” (log in to multiple accounts via a single login on a social
    network).
•   6 of 7 participants are concerned about privacy on social networks (D-04 does not have a
    social network account) (RG-7).
•   5 of 7 participants post photographs on social networks (D-02, 3, 5, 6, 7), and enjoy the
    “tagging” feature.
•   All social network users (6 of 7 participants) restrict both profile and photograph viewing to
    “friends” or “friends of friends” (RG-7).
•   Identity theft (RG-7):
    • 3 of 7 participants have been victims of email hacking, with spam being sent from their
         email accounts (D-03, 4, 6).
    • 4 of 7 participants reported never having had problems.
•   Location sharing (RG-5):
    • 4 of 7 participants have heard of mobile applications that reveal your location via social
         networks (D-03, 5, 6, 7).
    • 0 of 7 participants use applications that reveal / broadcast your location via social
         networks.
    • 7 of 7 participants stated that they would not be comfortable sharing their location
         information with strangers.
    • 5 of 7 participants stated that they would be comfortable sharing location information with
         select friends (D-01, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7).


Presentation Strategies
The information gathered from the interviews was analyzed for key attributes regarding travel
behavior / preferences, and social network & privacy behavior / preferences. The following
methods were used to present the findings:

•   Spectrums: Individual interviewee data was then plotted against key attributes on spectrum
    charts.
•   Personas: These charts were then reviewed for trends, and used as a basis for the
    development of two distinct Personas (Sally and Robert). The purpose of these personas is to
    provide examples of typical / target users of the Spring Break Trip Planner.
•   Usage Scenarios: To further illustrate the typical / target user, two usage scenarios have been
    developed.




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Spectrum

Interview data was analyzed to find key common attributes of the participants. These attributes
are expected to be shared by the typical / targeted product user, to varying degrees. The goal or
this analysis is to identify trends in users’ travel behavior / preferences and users’ social network &
privacy behavior / preferences.

The key attributes identified are:

    •    Travel Frequency: How often a participant travels?
    •    Travel Planning: How far in advance participants plan trips, and how deeply they research
         their options?
    •    Expense Tracking: How participants handle group expenses when on a group trip (some
         prefer a “pay as you go” approach while others prefer having a designated “accountant” in
         the group who tracks expenses, and settles up after the trip)?
    •    Social Network Usage Frequency: How often participants login to their social networks?
    •    Willingness to Share: The extent to which participants are willing to share personal
         information via social networks.

The spectrum legend below is associated with the interview subjects using the following table:

         Interview Subjects         D-01      D-02     D-03      D-04     D-05      D-06      D-07


         Spectrum Legend                       2        3         4
                                     1                                      5         6        7




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Travel Frequency

    4 7              5        3     2                              6     1

Rarely                                                                          Often
(Once a year)                                                          (Once a month)


Travel Planning

         1                    6             2       3                    4     5   7

None                                                                      Extensive
(Starts a few days before trip)                         (Starts 2 months before trip)


Expense Tracking

    1                6   3          5                                    4     2   7

Immediate                                                                 Settle Later
( As you go)                                                            (After the trip)


Social Network Usage Frequency

   4                                    1       3         2               6    5    7

Never\Rarely                                                                 Often
(Once a month)                                            (Ten or more times a day)


Willingness to share

     1       4                                  5         6    2         7         3

Not Willing                                                            Very Willing
(Doesn't share with anyone)                         (Shares with friends of friends)




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The spectrum analysis reveals that there is some natural clustering of user behavior. For example,
participants D-01 and D-06 both travel often, perform little trip planning, and settle expenses on a
“pay as you go” basis. This indicates that a user who travels often may not require much
assistance when it comes to researching a trip, and that same user prefers to settle expenses
immediately.

Another clustering that becomes evident is that of participants D-01 and D-04. These two use
social networks rarely or not at all, and these two are also the least willing of the group to share
personal information with others.

These natural clusters were used to develop the personas in the following section.

          Travel Frequency

            4 7        5        3 2                                 6 1
         Rarely                                                           Often
         (Once a year)                                           (Once a month)

          Travel Planning

                 1          6                      2    3               4    5 7
         None                                                        Extensive
         (Starts a few days before trip)           (Starts 2 months before trip)

          Expense Tracking

             1         6 3              5                               4    2 7

         Immediate                                                    Settle Later
         ( As you go)                                               (After the trip)

           Social Network Usage Frequency

           4                                1          3    2           6    5 7

         Never\Rarely                                                     Often
         (Once a month)                                (Ten or more times a day)

          Willingness to share

            4                       1                   5   6   2       7       3

         Not Willing                                                Very Willing
         (Doesn't share with anyone)             (Shares with friends of friends)


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Personas

Persona A: Sally




20, Female, Student


“I can’t believe it’s been a year since I saw my brother. School really is a full time job”

Sally is a 20 year old DePaul student majoring in Sociology. She is from Orange County, CA. She
moved to Chicago one year ago. Her school work is keeps her very busy and she misses her
family. When she studied high school in San Francisco, she went back home every school break.
She cannot believe it’s been a year since she last saw her family. When she was in Orange County,
she traveled with her family most of time and seldom planned for the trip by herself. She never had
to worry about trip expenses because her mother usually paid for her.

Sally is addicted to Facebook, and shares her photos on Facebook during every trip. She thinks it
is cool to let her friends to see her current location and photos. She thinks maybe she can meet or
find someone she knows near that location. However, she doesn’t have a smart phone. The data
plan is too expensive for her, so she cannot share her pictures immediately and has to wait until
she is back to the hotel so that she has internet access. She is disappointed about that.

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Goals & Motivations

•   Wants to know different airline’s ticket price, time schedule.
•   Wants to know the location of different hotels and ways to commute to scenic spots.
•   Wants to know which plane + hotel or hotel + car packages is the best for her.
•   Wants to share her location and photos with her friends during the trip.
•   Wants to find someone she knew near her current location.


Frustrations

•   There is no way to compare different routes, she has to use google map by herself.
•   Sometimes it is hard to split out the expenses with her friend.
•   Safety concerns if she shares her current location to strangers.
•   Doesn’t have a smart phone.


Activities and Tasks

•   Should be able to see results and comparison of all plane, hotels, traveling packages.
•   Should be able to see results and comparison of all routes and transportation methods.
•   Would be interested in sharing and knowing her/ friends current location.
•   Wants to keep track of her expenses.


Spectrums

Travel Frequency




Travel Planning




Expense Tracking




Social Network Usage Frequency




Willingness to share




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Persona B: Robert




24, Male, Recent Graduate


“Heard that David’s getting married…looks like a trip to Las Vegas is on the horizon!”

Robert is 24 years old, received his bachelor’s degree in computer science two years ago, and has
been working full time as a computer programmer since graduation. Robert works and lives in
Chicago, with two roommates. Robert grew up in the suburbs of Chicago, and now likes to spend
much of his free time exploring and learning about the different neighborhoods in Chicago. On
Fridays and Saturdays, Robert often spends time with friends, exploring restaurants and bars in
different parts of Chicago. On Sundays, Robert usually drives out to the suburbs to have dinner
with his parents and little sister. In the spirit of adventure, Robert likes to try different routes to get
to his parents’ home.

Robert considers himself a “computer nerd.” He uses Facebook to keep in touch with college
friends, high school friends, as well as new friends from Chicago. Robert and his friends often take
small, weekend road trips, but lately they’ve been talking about taking a “real” trip. Robert has
registered his email address with Orbitz.com, and receives many trip suggestions, which he often
discusses with his friends. Robert and his friends are very eager to take a big trip, but they are all
on tight budgets, as they are still getting accustomed to having to pay rent, buy groceries, car
insurance, student loans, etc.



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Goals & Motivations

•   Wants suggestions for fun destinations with a group of friends.
•   Wants to find a trip that will fall within his budget and that of his friends.
•   Wants to know different airline’s ticket price, time schedule.
•   Wants to know about different things to do at destinations – specifically, great restaurants, and
    nightlife.
Frustrations

•   Robert is having a tough time adjusting to his new lifestyle – just two years ago, he had months
    and months of vacation, but now he has just ten days.
•   Coordinating a group trip is harder now that everyone has different schedules.
•   Being one of the few people in his circle of friends who has a car, he is often the group chauffer,
    and feels like he comes out losing because he is always paying for gasoline.
•   Wishes he could afford a gps or smart phone so that he could be more adventurous when driv-
    ing around the city.
Activities and Tasks

•   Should be able to have a way for Robert and his friends to all see proposed trips (dates, prices,
    activities).
•   Should be able to see different travel and hotel options for each proposed destination.
•   Should be able to see suggestions for comparable / more affordable destinations with flexible
    dates (e.g. “if you like Orlando, maybe you’ll also like Miami).
•   Should be able to reserve / book a vacation for the group, but have each traveler pay for his or
    her own costs.
Spectrums
Travel Frequency




Travel Planning




Expense Tracking




Social Network Usage Frequency




Willingness to share




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Usage Scenarios

Scenario A: Sally
Sally really misses her family, and she wants to go back home to Orange County, California to visit
them this spring break. Plane tickets become very expensive this time of year, so she uses
websites such as Expedia.com, Orbitz.com, and Priceline.com to find affordable plane tickets. The
flight from Chicago to California lasts five hours, and Sally hopes that someone from her school will
be on the same flight so that the time will pass more quickly. Luckily, Sally doesn’t have to worry
about expenses and accommodations because she will be staying with her mother in her lovely
home. While visiting her family, Sally would like to post some pictures on Facebook – she wants to
introduce her friends to her hometown.



Scenario B: Sally
Sally is burnt out and needs a break from school work and pressure, so she and her friends plan to
go to Miami during the winter break. This will be their first time planning a trip by themselves. Sally
just found out that it is really time consuming to compare different plane tickets, hostels, and
different routes. They want to spend their money wisely. They don’t want to stay in an expensive
hotel with bad facilities and location. Sally and her friends decide to split the work - each person is
responsible for one thing, and each person will keep track of expenses and they will settle up after
the trip. Sally and her friends don’t have a smart phone and they have to decide where they are
going on each day. They need a well- structured plan so that they don’t waste time and get lost.
One thing Sally feels is a great inconvenience is that they cannot wander spontaneously since they
don’t have internet access while they are traveling.



Scenario C: Robert
Robert just received a call from his best friend, David, telling him that he is getting married. David
and his fiancée want to hold a party in Las Vegas. Robert decides to go there because he wants
to celebrate David’s happiness. Robert can only stay in Las Vegas for four days because of his
work schedule. He doesn’t want to spend a lot of money on a hotel, so he decides to stay in a
hostel. Robert’s next concern is renting a car while in Las Vegas. He wants to find someone who
can carpool with him in order to cut down on the car rental costs. He is also wondering if his other
friends also want to visit some places or sites in or near Las Vegas while they are there. If they can
share the car or hotel, that would be great.



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Scenario D: Robert
Robert is really busy these few weeks. He wants to relax so he plans to go to Mexico with his girl-
friend and some of his girlfriend’s friends this coming Thanksgiving break. Robert received many
traveling packages suggestions and deals from Orbitz.com. However, Robert still has to make a
schedule for what the group is going to do each day in Mexico. Robert reviews many comments
and blogs to help him schedule the trip. He also has to do some research on different routes and
the way to the scenic spots since he is the only driver in this trip. One thing that really annoys
Robert is that it is hard to track the expenses during the trip. Besides, the driver usually has to pay
for the gasoline and tolls. He wants everyone to share the expenses, but sometimes it is hard to
settle up. In spite of his frustrations, Robert is still very excited about the trip, and cannot wait to
share his photos and blog on Facebook.




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Appendix 1: Interview Guide

Introduction
While going over the informed consent form.
Thank you for participating in our research. We are trying to learn more about how people plan and
interact when going on group trips. This interview should take less than thirty minutes. This
interview is focused on understanding the trip planning process and is not on analyzing you. All the
information gathered will be used only by the people conducting the interview and your information
will be kept confidential. There will be no negative consequences if you decide not to participate or
change your mind later.



Warm-up
1. How old are you? (possibly provide a specific age range, if they seem uncomfortable)
    1.1.      Under 18
    1.2.      18 - 24
    1.3.      25 - 34
    1.4.      35 - 44
    1.5.      45 - 54
    1.6.      55 - 64
    1.7.      65 & above
2. Are you a full time student? If no, go to question 6.1.
3. Where do you attend school?
4. What is your major?
5. Graduate / undergraduate / other?
6. Graduation date
    6.1.      When are you graduating?
    6.2.      When did you graduate?
7. What do you do for a living?
8. Do you own / use a computer / internet?
9. Do you own / use a smartphone?
10. Do you use text messaging? On average, how often do you text message per day?




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General Travel Questions
11. Have you gone on any trips recently?
12. What kinds of trips do you like to take?  Road trip?  Fly somewhere?  Cruise?
13. How often do you travel?
14. When you travel, do you prefer to travel in a group, or by yourself?
15. Who were the others in the trip?
16. Friends from out of town, or local friends?
17. Is there a vacation destination that you go to often?
    17.1.     Please tell me about this destination
    17.2.     How do you plan trips to this destination?
18. How far in advance do you plan group trips?
19. What is your trip planning sequence (travel?, hotel? )?
20. How do you handle expenses while on a group vacation?
    20.1.     Treasurer \ Accountant?
    20.2.     Every man for himself?
    20.3.     How do you settle accounts after a trip?
21. Have you ever planned a trip using the internet?
22. Which websites have you used to plan trips?



Deep Focus (Trip)
23. Tell me about a recent trip you took.  How did you plan it?
24. Did you make a trip during your last spring break?
    24.1.     When taking a group trip, how do you buy airplane tickets?
    24.2.     How did you share\keep track of common expenses?
25. How did you decide where to stay?
    25.1.Do you read the reviews left by others or friends?
26. Could you reflect on the planning stage of your last spring break trip?
27. Could you reflect on how the trip went?
28. How did you communicate with your other friends during the trip?
29. Did you share your itinerary with others on your trip?
30. How did you know the travel plan of others in your trip?




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Deep Focus (Social Networks)
Changing gears....
31. What social networks do you use?
32. How often do you use social networks?
33. How do you access your social networks?
    33.1.     Computer?
    33.2.     Telephone?
34. Do you use your social login to log into other sites? Give me an example.
35. Do you have any privacy concerns using your social login?
36. Do you post photographs on social networks?
37. How are your privacy settings on photographs?
38. How do you feel about tagging?
39. Do you tag friends in photographs?
40. Do you let friends tag you?
41. Have you ever had a problem with privacy (e.g. identity theft) ?
42. Do you use special features like “Facebook Places”?
43. Have you heard of “Foursquare”? Do you have an account?
44. Do you use “Foursquare tips”?
45. Are any of your friends in Foursquare? Do they use it often?
46. Are you comfortable sharing your location via your telephone (GPS)?
    46.1.     with friends?
    46.2.     with strangers?
47. How do you communicate with friends while on vacation (friends that are on the trip with you)?
    47.1.     Call?
    47.2.     Text?
    47.3.     Email?
    47.4.     Social Network?


Retrospective
Summarize the notes from all the questions covered above. Ask the participant if there was
anything they would like to add to your notes.

Wrap-up
Thank you for taking the time in participating in our research. Re-iterate that their information will be
kept confidential.




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Appendix 2: Interview Notes

Introduction
Each of the interviewees were walked through the interview using the interview guide. All of the
responses from each of the 7 subjects we interviewed are consolidated in this report.Each
Interviewee was given an identification number to keep their identity anonymous.

Warm-up
1. How old are you? (possibly provide a specific age range, if they seem uncomfortable)

 Interviewee         Age Range           Age (If specified)
D-01            18-24               23
D-02            18-24               24
D-03            35-44               N/A
D-04            18-24               22
D-05            18-24               23
D-06            18-24               24
D-07            18-24               22

2. Are you a full time student? If no, go to question 6.1.

 Interviewee          Response
D-01            No
D-02            No
D-03            Yes
D-04            Yes
D-05            Yes
D-06            No
D-07            Yes

3. Where did you attend school?

 Interviewee                      Response
D-01            Carnegie Mellon
D-02            University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign
D-03            DePaul University
D-04            Roosevelt University
D-05            DePaul University




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 Interviewee                       Response
D-06            DeVry University
D-07            College of DuPage

4. What is your major?

 Interviewee                       Response
D-01             Communication Design
D-02             Graphic Design & Photography
D-03             Human Computer Interaction
D-04             Finance
D-05             Finance
D-06             Computer Science
D-07             Music

5. Graduate / undergraduate / other?

 Interviewee                    Response
D-01            Undergraduate
D-02            Undergraduate
D-03            Graduate
D-04            Undergraduate
D-05            Graduate
D-06            Undergraduate
D-07            Undergraduate

6. Graduation date

    6.1.      When are you graduating?

    6.2.      When did you graduate?

 Interviewee                   Response
D-01            Aug, 2009
D-02            Aug, 2009
D-03            Mar, 2011 (Expected)
D-04            Apr, 2011 (Expected)
D-05            Mar, 2012 (Expected)
D-06            June, 2008
D-07            June, 2011 (Expected)

7. What do you do for a living?

  Interviewee                           Response
D-01                 Graphic Designer


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  Interviewee                            Response
D-02                 Graphic Designer
D-03                 Full-time Student
D-04                 Full-time Student
D-05                 Full-time Student
D-06                 Computer Programmer
D-07                 Full-time Student

8. Do you own / use a computer / internet?

  Interviewee                            Response
D-01                 Yes
D-02                 Yes, but the internet connection at home isn’t
                     too good.
D-03                 Yes, but I don’t have internet at home.
D-04                 Yes
D-05                 Yes
D-06                 Yes
D-07                 Yes

9. Do you own / use a smartphone?

  Interviewee                            Response
D-01                 No. Doesn’t want one. Too Expensive and
                     doesn’t like touch.
D-02                 No, but want one when I can afford it.
D-03                 No
D-04                 Yes
D-05                 No. Too Expensive.
D-06                 No. Doesn’t wan to pay of it.
D-07                 No. Parents won’t pay for it.

10. Do you use text messaging? On average, how often do you text message per day?




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  Interviewee                              Response
D-01                 Yes. 4-5 times a day. Have an un-limited plan.
D-02                 Yes. 3-4 times a day. Have an un-limited plan.
D-03                 No. I wish I could turn off this function.
D-04                 Yes. 5-6 msgs per day.
D-05                 No. Try to avoid it since I use a pre-paid phone.
D-06                 Yes. 20 - 30 per day.
D-07                 Yes. Around 60 per day.



General Trip Questions
11. Have you gone on any trips recently?

12. What kinds of trips do you like to take?  Road trip?  Fly somewhere?  Cruise?

  Interviewee                                                            Response
D-01                 Yes. I went on a trip recently to Pittsburg. I usually travel within the country and try to stay with friends
                     and family. I usually avoid hotels and any place expensive.
D-02                 Yes. I went on a camping trip 3 weeks ago with 5 childhood friends. I usually fly out of the country
                     with my family once every 5 yrs.
D-03                 Yes. Went to Wichita, KS. I like to take trains.
D-04                 Yes. I go to california every summer to visit my dad. I like going on cruises.
D-05                 Yes. I travel within the city limits. I love road trips.
D-06                 Yes. Went to Ireland for 2 weeks to celebrate St. Patricks day! I usually take road trips.
D-07                 Yes. I flew to Idaho. I usually fly to a destination and avoid road trips.

13. How often do you travel?

14. When you travel, do you prefer to travel in a group, or by yourself?

15. Who were the others in the trip?

16. Friends from out of town, or local friends?

  Interviewee                                                            Response
D-01                 I travel 5-6 times a year. I mostly fly to a location. I like traveling in groups but ever since I got a job I
                     have been traveling alone since most of my friends are out of town.
D-02                 I try to restrict my travel over summer and make shorter road trips. I tend to travel in groups varying
                     from 1 other companion to a group of around 5 friends.
D-03                 Usually travel every 4 months. Like traveling both in a group or individually. Now that I am married, I
                     travel with my wife. I used to travel a lot more with friends.
D-04                 I travel once a year. I like to travel in a group and so far I have travelled only with my family.
D-05                 I travel every 6 months. I like traveling in a group. I usually travel with friends and family.




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  Interviewee                                                       Response
D-06                 I take trips once every 2-3 months. I usually travel with a group of people. Anywhere from 4 to 12
                     people.
D-07                 I travel once a year and I usually fly by myself to visit someone.

17. Is there a vacation destination that you go to often?

    17.1.     Please tell me about this destination
    17.2.     How do you plan trips to this destination?
  Interviewee                                                       Response
D-01                 I go to Pittsburg often since my family & friends are there. I usually decide a couple of weeks in
                     advance and plan my trip around cheap flight tickets.
D-02                 I travel to the Philippines with my family and this is usually planned a few months in advance.
D-03                 I go to wichita often because my family is there. The airport there is very small and the plane ticket is
                     expensive. There is only one train goes to wichita per day and the schedule is bad, so i usually drive.
D-04                 I usually go to orange county to visit my dad. I go there on an airplane.
D-05                 I don’t go to a destination very often since I just came to the states in september.
D-06                 I go to SIU (Carbondale) every 2-3 months with a small group of friends.
D-07                 I visit friends in Idaho once a year.
18. How far in advance do you plan group trips?

19. What is your trip planning sequence (travel?, hotel? )?

  Interviewee                                                       Response
D-01                 I usually plan my trips on a whim. I first make sure I have a place to stay by calling my friends in the
                     city I am planning to go to. I then look for a cheap flight using Orbitz or Travelocity and finally end up
                     booking the flight from the airline site cause it is sometimes cheaper and I can add my airline miles to
                     it.
D-02                 Trips in groups are usually planned a month in advance. I usually chat with friends I plan on traveling
                     with via Google Chat. I let my friends do the planning as I just keep myself informed of what has been
                     taken care of.
D-03                 I usually plan my trip at least a month before I go. I would discuss the destination with my wife or
                     friends first and decide the way we travel and then check price.
D-04                 I plan my trip two months in advance since the plane ticket is usually cheaper. I go to my dad’s place
                     so I just need to book flight.
D-05                 I think two months in advance. I’ll decide destination first.
D-06                 I usually have my rough travel plans set two weeks before a road trip – who’s driving, and where we
                     will be staying.
D-07                 I plan my trips well in advance (a couple of months), but for some reason I never get around to buying
                     my plane ticket until very late, when prices have gone up.

20. How do you handle expenses while on a group vacation?
    20.1. treasurer / accountant?
    20.2. every man for himself?
    20.3. how do you settle accounts after a trip?


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   Interviewee                                                        Response
D-01                 While traveling in a group, I tend to try to sort expenses during the trip as an when we need to pay for
                     anything. If we are going on a camping trip, we go the grocery together and we split the bill among
                     ourselves. We do not get too picky about how much we exactly owe each other down to the cent.
                     We usually know each other well enough that we cover each other appropriately, if needed.
D-02                 We usually have a designated accountant that keeps tabs on common expenses. At the end of the
                     trip, the accountant sends everyone how much they owe one another. We usually try to share
                     common items like cost of gas, hotel or tickets for shows and end up spending money on food
                     individually.
D-03                 In my trip, most of time each person pays for him/herself. We only share hotel room if we need to
                     book hotel. I like to settle account before the trip
D-04                 I usually travel with my family so my mom will pay for me. If I travel with my brother, I have to pay for
                     him
D-05                 In my trip, I usually pay for myself, only share if we went to a restaurant.
D-06                 We usually take an “every man for himself” approach. Or we split expenses (one person pays for gas,
                     and another pays for beer). For a big trip (like going to Ireland), one person paid for all of the plane
                     tickets, and then we each paid him back right away (before going on the trip). While in Ireland, we
                     used the same approach that we always use – every man for himself.
D-07                 No. No group trip
21. Have you ever planned a trip using the internet?

22. Which websites have you used to plan trips?

   Interviewee                                                        Response
D-01                 Yes. I have used Orbitz and Travelocity to find flights but have always bought flight tickets directly from
                     the individual flight websites.
D-02                 I usually start by doing a google search on the destination I am going to. I use a variety of discount
                     travel sites and don’t only try one site for all my needs. I have always had a lot of luck with
                     studentuniverse.com
D-03                 I usually use Expedia, Orbitz, Cheaptickets, and Amtrak.
D-04                 Depends on how I travel, but I usually use Priceline, Amtrak, greyhound and Travelocity.
D-05                 I just use Expedia to book tickets.
D-06                 Yes – Orbitz (for Ireland) and Mapquest (for roadtrips)
D-07                 Yes – Expedia


Deep Focus (Trip)
23. Tell me about a recent trip you took.  How did you plan it?

   Interviewee                                                        Response
D-01                 I went to see the Kentucky Derby recently with a group of friends. A friend based in Kentucky invited
                     us a few months ago but it was 3 weeks before the trip we realized we had a car we could use to get
                     to Kentucky. Since we had a car, we filled it up with friends and split the cost. I only had to spend
                     money on a fine hat for the derby.




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   Interviewee                                                        Response
D-02                 I went on a camping trip 3 weeks ago. I was in touch with my friends over google chat 3 weeks
                     before going and let them plan the trip. I just pitched in for all the common expenses.
D-03                 I went to Wichita to visit my family because of my brother’s wedding.
D-04                 I went to California to visit my dad. I booked the tickets two months in advance because they are
                     cheaper.
D-05                 My last trip was in Taiwan. I just follow my friends’ schedule.
D-06                 I went to Ireland with a group of friends (six of us) for St. Patrick’s day. We all agreed on travel dates,
                     and then one guy bought all six plane tickets at once (on Orbitz) so that we could be sure that we’d
                     be flying together. We then paid him back right away (personal check). The same guy also booked
                     the hotel rooms, but we paid for those once we got there, splitting the costs evenly.
D-07                 I went to visit a friend in Idaho. I planned it by talking to my friend on the phone, and settling on a
                     date a month and a half away. Then I looked on Expedia for airfare, and of course procrastinated and
                     didn’t buy my ticket until a couple of weeks before the trip.

24. Did you make a trip during your last spring break?

    24.1.     When taking a group trip, how do you buy airplane tickets?
    24.2.     How did you share\keep track of common expenses?
   Interviewee                                                        Response
D-01                 Yes. I made multiple trips. Spring break is the time I get to take a break from school and make trips to
                     meet friends and family. Last spring break, I started off by spending time with friends on a camping
                     trip, shared a ride with another friend driving to Philadelphia. Spent some time with my brother in
                     Philadelphia before flying to Pittsburg to meet my parents for a couple of days. Any time there were
                     common expenses, I paid my share upfront.
D-02                 I usually don’t make trips during spring break. I try to catch up with school and finish projects I need
                     to complete.
D-03                 I didn’t go anywhere last spring break. I use Expedia, Orbitz, etc these websites to buy plane tickets.
                     In the trip, for major expenses, done before hand
D-04                 I went to China last spring break. I went there with my school so I didn’t need to plan anything. I don’t
                     keep track of my expenses during the trip. I checked my money using online banking after the trip.
D-05                 I went home last spring break. I use online websites to buy tickets. In the trip, I take notes to keep
                     track my expenses.
D-06                 No – I don’t get an official spring break anymore. My friends and I planned the Ireland trip to coincide
                     with St. Patricks day, so I suppose you could say that it was the grown up version of spring break.
D-07                 No – I went during a winter break, between Thanksgiving and Christmas.
25. How did you decide where to stay?

    25.1.     Do you read the reviews left by others or friends?
   Interviewee                                                        Response
D-01                 Money is my major constraint. I try to avoid spending for hotels, if I can. I usually travel to cities where
                     I have friends or family so that I can save on hotel expenses. If I have to get a hotel room, I usually go
                     with something cheap. I don’t need a fancy hotel as I would be spending very little time at the hotel
                     anyways. I scan hotel reviews very quickly to see what people have said about the place.




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   Interviewee                                                         Response
D-02                 If I have to stay in a hotel, the key things I look for is Price, location and cleanliness. I am very
                     particular about how clean the rooms are. I am usually price conscious but it depends on the people I
                     am traveling with. I usually go with what the group decides. The hotel reviews are important but the
                     proximity to fun activities is important too.
D-03                 If I need to reserve hotel, I would read online reviews and check the picture of the room.
D-04                 I just went to California so I can stay in my dad’s place. I would read the reviews by other people if I
                     need to reserve a hotel.
D-05                 First, I google it and find something I want. I read reviews so that I can know which one is better.
D-06                 For Ireland, we just used Orbitz’s recommendations for hotels, and went with the cheapest option.
                     We piled into two hotel rooms, and then took turns sleeping on the floor. Yes, we looked at the re-
                     views…we avoided places that had bad reviews (places that had complaints about the hotel being
                     rundown).
D-07                 I stayed with my friend – that was the whole point of the trip.
26. Could you reflect on the planning stage of your last spring break trip?

27. Could you reflect on how the trip went?

28. How did you communicate with your other friends during the trip?

29. Did you share your itinerary with others on your trip?

30. How did you know the travel plan of others in your trip?

   Interviewee                                                         Response
D-01                 When I am planning for a trip, I usually communicate with friends via email and\or by calling them.
                     After booking my tickets I usually send them a copy of my itinerary and they share their travel itinerary
                     with me too. On the trip I am usually with the person I am traveling with. If they are missing or I do not
                     know where they are, I would call them.
D-02                 When I am planning for a trip, I usually communicate with friends via google chat. After booking my
                     tickets I usually don’t send them a copy of my itinerary and they usually don’t share their travel
                     itinerary with me too. We text each other. On the trip if someone is missing, I would call them rather
                     than text them as it is likely that they will pick a phone call. I also like listening to their voice to make
                     sure they are ok rather than rely on text messages.
D-03                 No trip last spring break. If I am on vacation, I only contact friends in the same trip. I don’t like share
                     any information to other people not in this trip. I need to relax so I don’t want any calls from them.
D-04                 The trip to China was planned by school. It was very good and I went to many cities. If I want to con-
                     tact with my friends, I just talk to them if they are in the same trip. If not, I use my phone or calling
                     cards.
D-05                 I just follow my friends’ schedule but the trip went well. I will use cell phone or internet to contact with
                     my friends
D-06                 We usually take road trips to SIU. While driving down to SIU last December, we started to talk about
                     taking a “real” trip, and came up with the idea of going to Ireland for St. Patrick’s day. Sometime after
                     New Year’s we started looking at the feasibility of the trip (cost of plane tickets and hotel). Once we all
                     agreed that we could do it, we set our price limits for plane tickets, and checked options daily until we
                     decided to pull the trigger, and buy the tickets. While we were in Ireland, we communicated by talking
                     to one another. None of us wanted to pay the crazy roaming fees, so we didn’t use our phones. You
                     could say that we shared our itineraries…..but each of us had the same itinerary. The “sharing “ that
                     we did is that we all received an email from Orbitz when the tickets where purchased.


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   Interviewee                                                         Response
D-07                 I communicated by talking to my friend. When I bought the ticket, I had a copy of it sent to my
                     friend’s email address.


Deep Focus (Social Networks)
Changing gears....

31. What social networks do you use?

32. How often do you use social networks?

33. How do you access your social networks?

    33.1.     Computer?
    33.2.     Telephone?
   Interviewee                                                         Response
D-01                 I use Facebook as I lost a bet with a friend. I initially didn’t like the idea but I slowly saw the value in
                     keeping in touch with friends and family. I check it from my computer a couple of times a week.
D-02                 I use Facebook and check it everyday. I check it from a computer since I don’t have a smart phone.
D-03                 I have Facebook and I log in at least once a day. I use computer since I don’t have a smart phone.
D-04                 I don’t have a Facebook account but I use AIM and MSN, and I log in every day. I have a smartphone
                     but I always log in from my laptop.
D-05                 I use Facebook and I log in several times a day. I don’t have a smartphone so I can only log in from
                     my computer.
D-06                 Facebook; 3-4 times a day; access via computer.
D-07                 Facebook, myspace, gmail chat, msn chat, meebo, 10 times a day, access via computer.
34. Do you use your social login to log into other sites? Give me an example.
35. Do you have any privacy concerns using your social login?
   Interviewee                                                         Response
D-01                 No I do not use my Facebook login to sign in to other sites. Yes I do have privacy concerns.
D-02                 No I do not use my Facebook login to sign in to other sites. Yes, I have privacy concerns.
D-03                 No.
D-04                 No. All my accounts are different user names.
D-05                 No. But I know some people link their Facebook to their online album or blog.
D-06                 I don’t use a social login.
D-07                 Yes – no real concerns about privacy with login.
36. Do you post photographs on social networks?
37. How are your privacy settings on photographs?
38. How do you feel about tagging?
39. Do you tag friends in photographs?
40. Do you let friends tag you?
   Interviewee                                                         Response
D-01                 No. I do not post photos in Facebook. I don’t like the tagging feature. I don’t tag friends and I
                     sometimes remove tags if I don’t like my picture being tagged.
D-02                 Yes. I use that mainly. I change the setting of the photo depending on what photos I am sharing.



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   Interviewee                                                        Response
D-03                 I think tagging is cool. I post photos online but I don’t tag any of my friends because I am lazy. But I
                     don’t mind being tagged. I share my photos with my friends and friends’ friends
D-04                 No Facebook account.
D-05                 I post photos and tag my friends. I don’t mind being tagged if I look good in the photo. I only share
                     my photos with my friends.
D-06                 I post photographs. I like tagging. I don’t tag people, but I let others tag me. I have my privacy set-
                     tings so that only my friends can see my photos.
D-07                 I post photographs. I like tagging. I tag people. I let others tag me. Only my friends can see my
                     photographs.
41. Have you ever had a problem with privacy (e.g. identity theft)?
   Interviewee                                                        Response
D-01                 No.
D-02                 No. I hope I never have identity theft issues.
D-03                 Yes, Someone hacked my MySpace account long time ago.
D-04                 My email account was hacked.
D-05                 No.
D-06                 The only trouble I’ve had with privacy is that my email was hacked, and all of my friends received an
                     email from me, offering discount Viagra!
D-07                 Never.
42. Do you use special features like “Facebook Places”?
43. Have you heard of “Foursquare”? Do you have an account?
44. Do you use Foursquare “tips”?
45. Are all your friends in Foursquare? Do they use it?
   Interviewee                                                        Response
D-01                 I have not heard of “Facebook Places” or “Foursquare”. I don’t have an account in either.
D-02                 I don’t know both of them.
D-03                 I know these functions but I never use them. I know some of my use friends use foursquare
D-04                 Never heard of them.
D-05                 I like Facebook places but never use them because I don’t have a smartphone. Never heard of four-
                     square.
D-06                 I don’t use “Facebook places.” I’ve heard of foursquare, but don’t use it. Some of my friends are on
                     it, but I don’t know whether or not they use it.
D-07                 I don’t use either one of those. I’ve heard of both of them, but I don’t use them, and I don’t know
                     anyone who does use them.
46. Are you comfortable sharing your location via your telephone (GPS)?
    46.1. with friends?
    46.2. with strangers?
   Interviewee                                                        Response
D-01                 I am only interested in sharing my location with a very few friends.
D-02                 I am only interested in sharing an approximate location with a select few friends.
D-03                 No. only if I got lost or need direction in emergency.
D-04                 I only want to share information with my friends.




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   Interviewee                                                       Response
D-05                 I think I share information with my friends, not strangers.
D-06                 I don’t feel comfortable sharing my location with friends or strangers. If my friends wand to know
                     where I am, they can call me.
D-07                 I’m fine with sharing my location with my friends, but not with strangers.
47. How do you communicate with friends while on vacation (friends that are on the trip with you)?
    47.1. call?
    47.2. text?
    47.3. email?
    47.4. social network?
    47.5. twitter?

   Interviewee                                                       Response
D-01                 I call them.
D-02                 Call.
D-03                 I don’t like to contact them or be contacted when I am on vacation.
D-04                 Call, email or MSN/AIM.
D-05                 Use my phone or Facebook.
D-06                 In Ireland, we were all together the whole time, so we communicated by talking to one another. At
                     SIU, we use a mix of text and calling.
D-07                 I was with my friend most of the time, so aside from an occasional text (e.g. “just landed”), we just
                     talked.




Retrospective
Summarize the notes from all the questions covered above. Ask the participant if there was
anything they would like to add to your notes.

Wrap-up
Thank you for taking the time in participating in our research. Re-iterate that their information will be
kept confidential.




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Appendix 3: Informed Consent

Observer Copy
I am being asked to voluntarily participate in a research study involving my group travel planning
behavior and habits. The total time commitment will be approximately 30 minutes. I understand
that I must be 18 years or older to participate in this study.

I understand that my participation may be recorded or video-taped for research purposes only. No
personal data will be disclosed to anybody. My name will not be directly associated with any data.
The confidentiality of the information related to my participation in this research will be ensured by
maintaining records only coded by identification numbers. Any subject identification keys will be
destroyed at the end of the study.

I understand that the observer believes that this experiment poses no greater risks or discomforts
to me beyond that associated with sitting in an interview for prolonged periods of time. There are
no known or expected risks to a pregnant woman, the embryo or fetus.

If experiencing discomfort, I may stop the research at any time. My participation in this study may
also be stopped by the investigator at any time without my consent if it is believed the decision is in
my best interest.

If you have questions about this study you should contact the following individual:

Dr. Craig Miller
DePaul University
745 CDM Building
Chicago, IL - 60604
312-362-5085
cmiller@cs.depaul.edu

I understand what has been explained in this consent form about my participation in this study. I do
not need any further information to make a decision whether or not to volunteer as a participant in
this study. By my signature below, I give my voluntary informed consent to participate in the
research as it has been explained to me, and I acknowledge receipt of a copy of this form for my
own personal records.


________________________ ________________________________ _____________
Volunteer Signature	 	    Printed Name		      	     	      Date

________________________ _______________________________ _____________
Observer Signature	 	     Printed Name		     	      	     Date




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Participant Copy
I am being asked to voluntarily participate in a research study involving my group travel planning
behavior and habits. The total time commitment will be approximately 30 minutes. I understand
that I must be 18 years or older to participate in this study.

I understand that my participation may be recorded or video-taped for research purposes only. No
personal data will be disclosed to anybody. My name will not be directly associated with any data.
The confidentiality of the information related to my participation in this research will be ensured by
maintaining records only coded by identification numbers. Any subject identification keys will be
destroyed at the end of the study.

I understand that the observer believes that this experiment poses no greater risks or discomforts
to me beyond that associated with sitting in an interview for prolonged periods of time. There are
no known or expected risks to a pregnant woman, the embryo or fetus.

If experiencing discomfort, I may stop the research at any time. My participation in this study may
also be stopped by the investigator at any time without my consent if it is believed the decision is in
my best interest.

If you have questions about this study you should contact the following individual:

Dr. Craig Miller
DePaul University
745 CDM Building
Chicago, IL - 60604
312-362-5085
cmiller@cs.depaul.edu

I understand what has been explained in this consent form about my participation in this study. I do
not need any further information to make a decision whether or not to volunteer as a participant in
this study. By my signature below, I give my voluntary informed consent to participate in the
research as it has been explained to me, and I acknowledge receipt of a copy of this form for my
own personal records.


________________________ ________________________________ _____________
Volunteer Signature	 	    Printed Name		      	     	      Date

________________________ _______________________________ _____________
Observer Signature	 	     Printed Name		     	      	     Date




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