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					            EVALUATION RUBRIC FOR FINAL REPORT – PRODUCT PROJECTS
Faculty advisors: Please complete this rubric and return it, with the graded report, to 102 DB by 4:30PM on March 18
 Project Name: _______________________________ Grader Name:________________________
  A+     100%    Truly outstanding technical work and writing. Difficult to imagine anything better by faculty.
  A      95%     Excellent. Substantial insight, originality, creativity, competence. Fully developed and detailed
  B      85%     Strong. Thorough. Shows good understanding, competence. Well developed, w/ supporting detail
  C      75%     Adequate. Demonstrates adequate understanding, competence. Adequately development, detail.
  D      65%     Weak. Shows some understanding and/or competence. Undeveloped or lacking supporting detail
  F      55%     Unsatisfactory. Demonstrates some effort, but little understanding or competence. Undeveloped
  F-     0%      Unacceptable. Completely omitted, or demonstrates very, very little effort.

                     CATEGORY                                                                             GRADE
                                                                        DESCRIPTION
                    (grade weight)                                                                         (A-F)
                                                  Chapters and appendices written in fall term
  FALL TERM, “PAPER DESIGN”
                                                  course have been revised to match tense and
  Chapters 1, 2, 3, 4 & Appendices
  (15%)
                                                  voice with chapters written this term (chapters
                                                  5 and 6).
  IMPLEMENTATION                                  Description of construction issues encountered
  Chapter 5                                       and design changes made. Includes part
  (20%)                                           drawings and engineering analysis to support
                                                  and describe all design changes made before
                                                  testing.
  TESTING                                         Each design requirement is tested according to
  Chapter 6                                       the procedure described in section 1.2.4. All
  (20%)                                           tests are passed or if a test is failed, a
                                                  compelling technical argument is given why
                                                  success was expected. For each test failure a
                                                  detailed and technically justified redesign is
                                                  given including supporting engineering
                                                  calculations and part drawings as necessary.
  CLARITY & CONCISENESS                           Absence of “padding” and unnecessary
  (15%)                                           repetition. Clarity, conciseness and focus..
                                                  Proper sequencing, paragraph breaks, and
  ORGANIZATION
                                                  flow of ideas. Transitions among sentences,
  (15%)
                                                  paragraphs, and ideas. Details fit where placed
                                                  Proper use of writing conventions
  CONVENTIONS
                                                  (punctuation, spelling, capitalization,
  (10%)
                                                  grammar, and usage).
  CITING SOURCES                                  Claims substantiated by correct citations in
  (5%)                                            text and references in bibliography
                   Note: Section 1.2, Requirements, is graded by the course instructor




                                                          1
                            OSU Mini Malter

                              Final Proposal
                               Curtis Barnard
                              Tyler Froemming
                               Aaron Mason
                              Eric Sunderland

                                  2010/11




Project Sponsor: OSU Department of Food Science and Technology
ME 497/498
Project Number: 73
Faculty Advisor: Josef Hortnagl
Sponsor Mentor: Jeff Clawson, Tom Shellhammer
                                               DISCLAIMER

This report was prepared by students as part of a college course requirement. While considerable effort has
been put into the project, it is not the work of a licensed engineer and has not undergone the extensive
verification that is common in the profession. The information, data, conclusions, and content of this report
should not be relied on or utilized without thorough, independent testing and verification. University faculty
members may have been associated with this project as advisors, sponsors, or course instructors, but as such
they are not responsible for the accuracy of results or conclusions.




                                                        2
                                                           TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.   PROJECT DESCRIPTION ............................................................................................................................. 5
  1.1.    Background ............................................................................................................................................. 5
  1.2.    Requirements .......................................................................................................................................... 5
     1.2.1.    Project Description.......................................................................................................................... 5
     1.2.2.    Customer Requirements (CRs) ....................................................................................................... 5
     1.2.3.    Engineering Requirements (ERs) ................................................................................................... 7
     1.2.4.    Testing Procedures (TPs) ................................................................................................................ 9
     1.2.5.    Design Links (DLs)....................................................................................................................... 11
     1.2.6.    House of Quality (HoQ)................................................................................................................ 14
2. EXISTING DESIGNS, DEVICES, AND METHODS ................................................................................ 15
  2.1.    System Level ......................................................................................................................................... 15
     2.1.1.    Design, Device, or Method #1 ...................................................................................................... 15
     2.1.2.    Design, Device, or Method #2 ...................................................................................................... 15
     2.1.3.    Design, Device, or Method #3 ...................................................................................................... 16
     2.1.4.    Design, Device, or Method #4 ...................................................................................................... 16
  2.2.    Component Level .................................................................................................................................. 16
     2.2.1.    Component #1 ............................................................................................................................... 17
     2.2.1.1. Design, Device or Method #1 ....................................................................................................... 17
     2.2.1.2. Design, Device or Method #2 ....................................................................................................... 17
     2.2.1.3. Design, Device or Method #3 ....................................................................................................... 17
     2.2.2.    Component #2 ............................................................................................................................... 17
     2.2.2.1. Design, Device or Method #1 ....................................................................................................... 17
     2.2.2.2. Design, Device or Method #2 ....................................................................................................... 17
     2.2.2.3. Design, Device or Method #3 ....................................................................................................... 18
     2.2.2.4. Design, Device or Method #4 ....................................................................................................... 18
     2.2.2.5. Design, Device or Method #5 ....................................................................................................... 18
     2.2.3.    Component #3 ............................................................................................................................... 18
     2.2.3.1. Design, Device or Method #1 ....................................................................................................... 19
     2.2.3.2. Design, Device or Method #2 ....................................................................................................... 19
     2.2.3.3. Design, Device or Method #3 ....................................................................................................... 19
     2.2.4.    Component #4 ............................................................................................................................... 20
     2.2.4.1. Design, Device or Method #1 ....................................................................................................... 20
     2.2.4.2. Design, Device or Method #2 ....................................................................................................... 20
     2.2.4.3. Design, Device or Method #3 ....................................................................................................... 20
     2.2.5.    Component #5 ............................................................................................................................... 20
     2.2.5.1. Design, Device or Method #1 ....................................................................................................... 20
     2.2.5.2. Design, Device or Method #2 ....................................................................................................... 20
     2.2.5.3. Design, Device or Method #3 ....................................................................................................... 21
3. DESIGNS CONSIDERED ........................................................................................................................... 22
  3.1.    Design #1 .............................................................................................................................................. 22
  3.2.    Design #2 .............................................................................................................................................. 23
  3.3.    Design #3 .............................................................................................................................................. 25
4. DESIGN SELECTED ................................................................................................................................... 27
  4.1.    Rationale for Design Selection ............................................................................................................. 27
  4.2.    Design Description................................................................................................................................ 27
     4.2.1.    Airflow .......................................................................................................................................... 28
     4.2.2.    Barley Chamber ............................................................................................................................ 29
     4.2.3.    Drive Motor .................................................................................................................................. 29
                                                                                 3
     4.2.4.     Augers ........................................................................................................................................... 30
     4.2.5.     Control System.............................................................................................................................. 30
     4.2.6.     Weighing System .......................................................................................................................... 32
     4.2.7.     Access Doors ................................................................................................................................ 32
5. IMPLEMENTATION ................................................................................................................................... 32
  5.1.    Base/Chamber ....................................................................................................................................... 32
  5.2.    Auger System ........................................................................................................................................ 33
  5.3.    Irrigation System ................................................................................................................................... 34
  5.4.    Heating/Ventilation ............................................................................................................................... 35
  5.5.    User Control System ............................................................................................................................. 35
6. TESTING ...................................................................................................................................................... 37
7. APPENDIX A: ENGINEERING CALCULATIONS .................................................................................. 42
  7.1.    Malting Chamber Volume Calculations ............................................................................................... 42
  7.2.    Steeping Water Volume Calculations ................................................................................................... 43
  7.3.    Spray Nozzle Flow Rate Calculations .................................................................................................. 43
  7.4.    Airflow Calculations ............................................................................................................................. 44
  7.5.    Aeration Rate Calculations ................................................................................................................... 45
  7.6.    Boom Rotation Time Calculations........................................................................................................ 45
  7.7.    FEA on load cell support beams ........................................................................................................... 46
8. APPENDIX B: BILL OF MATERIALS ...................................................................................................... 48
9. APPENDIX C: PART DRAWINGS ............................................................................................................ 56
10.     APPENDIX D: BLOCK DIAGRAM AND GUI INTERFACE .............................................................. 57
11.     APPENDIX E: BIBLIOGRAPHY ........................................................................................................... 61




                                                                                 4
                                 1. PROJECT DESCRIPTION

1.1. Background
Oregon is well known for its craft beer culture. A majority of the US hop crop, a major ingredient in beer, is
grown here in the Willamette Valley. Barley, another important ingredient in brewing beer, is also grown in
Oregon, though it is not currently used for commercial brewing. Commercial malting facilities require very
large amounts of barley in order to produce quantities of malt that are able to satisfy the demands of large
brewing companies. The quality of the barley and the malt is very important to the brewers. The limits set
on acceptable barley often discourage Oregon farmers from devoting a considerable amount of time, money,
and energy into producing barley specifically to be malted and brewed because they have no way of
knowing beforehand if the barley will meet specifications. This is where Oregon State University would like
to help Oregon farmers. Specifically, the Department of Food Science and Technology would like to design
and implement a pilot malter. This will allow barley to be malted in batches small enough to not be a risk to
the farmers’ livelihood. The resulting malt can be tested to determine whether or not Oregon barley malt is
suitable for commercial sale. This pilot malter will also be a useful educational tool for the Food Science
students, allowing them to learn about, and experiment with, different malting processes.

1.2. Requirements
This project requires the design and implementation of a device that is capable of malting 150 to 300 pounds
of barley with a budget of $20,000. The malting process involves steeping, germinating, and kilning the
barley. Each stage will be further explained in following sections.

   1.2.1. Project Description
   The Oregon State Department of Food Science and Technology provided a project description as
   follows.

          Oregon beer and spirits are made from malts produced from barley not grown in Oregon. The
          reason Oregon barley is not in Oregon products is a lack of data on the suitability of Oregon
          barley for Oregon- produced malts. Currently, research samples are malted at 350 grams each and
          the minimum commercial run is 350,000 lbs. There is no opportunity for producing malts
          suitable for pilot brewing. The OSU Pilot brewery, located in the Department of Food Science
          and Technology, is the perfect facility for testing, developing, and demonstrating the suitability of
          Oregon barley for Oregon malts. The brewery requires ~ 200 lbs of barley to produce malt for a
          100 gallon brew. Mechanical Engineering students will design, build, and develop a pilot malting
          unit - a “flex box” for steeping, germinating, and kilning in a single unit. The flex box will
          remove the malting bottleneck and get Oregon grain flowing to Oregon glasses. A project budget
          of $10,000 will be provided.

   1.2.2. Customer Requirements (CRs)
   Malter shall steep barley (Weight 10 pts.)
   Steeping is the first main process in malting barley. Steeping is important to increase the moisture
   content of the barley so that it can begin to germinate. Steeping is conducted by immersing the grain in
   water for a period of time and then draining the water off for a period of time. This cycle is repeated
   until the moisture content of the barley is around 45%. An example steeping regime is below, but these
   times are adjustable.


   8 hour immersion followed by a 6 hour couch (drain). Barley moisture percentage after cycle: 33%-35%
                                                    5
6 hour immersion followed by a 10 hour couch. Barley moisture percentage after cycle: 38-41%
4 hour immersion followed by a 2 hour final couch. Barley moisture percentage after cycle: 44-47%

Malter shall aerate steeping water (Weight 20 pts.)
Aerating the steeping water is important to remove excess carbon dioxide produced by respiration of the
barley. The barley grains can also suffocate if the water is not aerated.

Malter shall allow control of inflow water temperature (Weight 20 pts.)
By changing the temperature of the inflow steeping water the time spent in the steeping phase can be
shortened or lengthened. This is something that large malters cannot do, and so the sponsor is interested
in seeing the effects of temperature on steeping times.

Malter shall keep steeping water temperature below 73F (Weight 20 pts.)
Keeping the steeping water below 73F is essential. If the barley reaches a temperature of 75F it will die.
If the barley is killed by high temperatures the grain would have to be thrown away and the process
restarted. The weighting reflects the importance of this requirement.

Malter shall couch barley (sit without water) (Weight 20 pts.)
Couching barley is important so the barley absorbs the moisture in its surroundings. This is where the
barley absorbs the most moisture and so this is weighted more heavily.

Malter shall keep germination temperature below 73F (Weight 25 pts.)
The germination temperature should also not rise above 73F. Just like during steeping if the barley gets
too hot it will die. Germination is when barley tends to heat up so this is an important requirement.

Malter shall keep germination temperature above 58F (Weight 5 pts.)
Keeping the germination temperature above 58F is needed so the barley can effectively germinate. If the
air is too cold then the barley will not germinate. The malter will operate in room temperature
surroundings and so low temperatures aren't likely.

Malter shall turn/mix barley during germination (Weight 25 pts.)
Mixing/turning the barley during germination allows for even moisture and temperature distribution.
Turning also prevents the germinating barley from forming a thick mat of roots. The barley should be
turned every eight hours after the initial 24 hours of germination. This first period of rest is to allow the
barley to strengthen after steeping to prevent damage to the grain. Germination can take anywhere from
one to four days. Mixing/turning is a critical requirement for producing a consistent malted barley and is
weighted accordingly.

Malter shall allow ample adjustment of air flow rate through the grain bed (Weight 20 pts.)
Being able to vary the air flow rate is important as the germination phase and kilning phase require
different air flow rates. During kilning it is also important to adjust air flow rate so that different barley
malt types can be produced.

Malter shall allow ample temperature adjustment of air (Weight 20 pts.)
When kilning the malted barley, it is important to slowly ramp up the air temperature. This stops the
enzymes within the barley from activating. Also, higher temperatures can be used to produce different
malted barley types. Pale malts are kilned for a longer time at lower temperatures, approximately 24
hours at 100F to 120F, and darker malts are kilned at higher temperatures for shorter times.

Malter shall allow for air flow recirculation (Weight 15 pts.)
                                                   6
Air flow circulation will make the kilning phase more efficient in producing highly kilned (darker)
malts.

Malter shall be easy to load and unload barley (Weight 10 pts.)
The customer does not want loading and unloading to be hard or take a long time. They also do not want
to put any unnecessary or stress on their body.

Malter shall be portable (Weight 10 pts.)
The customer would like the malter to be somewhat portable so it can be used in classroom
demonstrations, as well as moving it to other places on campus. The malter should be able to be
transported by a forklift and able to pass through a standard double wide door.

Malter shall produce at least 150 lbs of malt per run (Weight 15 pts.)
The customer would like the malter to have a minimum barley processing capacity of 150 pounds. This
is to allow enough malted barley to be produced to brew a batch of beer in the pilot brewery.

Construction and testing of the malter shall not cost more than $20,000 (Weight 10 pts.)
We are given a $20,000 budget and it is important that we work within this limit.

1.2.3. Engineering Requirements (ERs)
1) Refresh vessel volume of water
Replenishing of the water during the steeping phase is important to clean the grain and keep fresh water
accessible to the grain. The target value is to circulate the entire volume once every 4 hours with a
tolerance of <4.5 hours.

2) Increase moisture content of barley
The purpose of steeping is to increase the moisture content of the barley grain. It should go from around
10% up to around 45%. The target value is 47% with a tolerance of +/- 2%.

3) Aeration rate through water
During immersion steeping the water must be aerated or else the grain will suffocate and die. After
talking with industry contacts we decided on an aeration rate of 0.5CFM with a tolerance of >0.2 CFM.

4) Allow control of steeping water temperature
The customer would like to control the temperature of the water coming into the malting chamber. The
range is from the ground water temperature up to 75F.

5) Keep steeping grain temperature below maximum
If barley reaches a temperature of 75F during the malting process it will die. We are targeting to keep
the steeping grain at 70F or below, but have a tolerance of <73F.

6) Drain steeping water
During the steeping phase the water must be drained to allow the barley to couch. To allow couching to
begin quickly we are target a drain time of 15 minutes with a tolerance of <20 minutes.


7) Keep germinating grain temperature below maximum
If barley reaches a temperature of 75F during the malting process it will die. During the germination
process we are targeting to keep the grain at or below 70F, with a tolerance of <73F.

                                                7
8) Keep germinating grain temperature above minimum
If barley is too cold, around 55F, during germination it will germinate slowly and inconsistently. During
germination we are targeting to keep the grain at or above 60F with a tolerance of >58F.

9) Mix grain
Mixing the barley is essential in producing a uniform product. Great western malting mixes their barley
once every 8 hours and we thought that would be a sufficient target. We assigned a tolerance of +/- 0.5
hours.

10) Allow adjustment of airflow rate
The airflow rate needed through the grain bed varies depending on the amount of grain and the phase of
malting which the grain is in. At great western malting the airflow rate is 20 CFM per 100 lbs. of barley
during germination which means for a 150 pound load the flow rate would be ~30 CFM. During kilning
the airflow rate is 137 CFM per 100 lbs. of barley, so with a load of 350 lbs. of barley the maximum
flow rate would be ~478 CFM. To cover these values the target range is 25 CFM – 485 CFM.

11) Allow temperature adjustment of air
The temperature of the air flowing through the grain bed is important during the germination and kilning
phase. During germination the temperature should be that of ambient air. During kilning it should be
adjustable from 120F up to 180F to allow step increases in temperature. This allows for the malt to dry
more consistently and also allows the customer to create different degrees of browning (which create
flavor, aroma, and color). To make sure that 180F is attainable we are designing for a range of ambient
room temperature up to 185F.

12) Recirculate air
To allow the customer to create highly browned malt while keeping the malter efficient it should be able
to recirculate the hot air during the kilning phase. We are targeting a range of recirculation from 10% up
to 95% with a tolerance of +/- 5 %

13) Load barley in less than 15 minutes
The malter should be quick and easy to load so that the malting process can begin promptly. We are
targeting a load time of 10 minutes with a tolerance of <15 minutes.

14) Unload barley in less than 15 minutes
The malter should be quick and easy to unload so that the malter can be cleaned and set up for the next
malting cycle. We are targeting an unload time of 10 minutes with a tolerance of <15 minutes.

15) Shall be less than 72" wide and 84" tall on one side.
The malter should be able to fit through a standard double wide door to allow transportation to different
areas of the OSU campus. We are targeting a width of 50" with a tolerance of <72" and a height of 75"
with a tolerance of <84".

16) Malter shall weigh less than 1000 lbs. unloaded
To allow the malter to be transported by a forklift or pallet jack the malter should weigh less than 1000
lbs. unloaded. We are targeting an unloaded weight of 700 lbs. with a tolerance of <1000 lbs.

17) Process 150 - 300 lbs of barely
The customer needs the malter to process a minimum of 150 lbs. of barley in one batch so it can be used
to brew a batch on the OSU pilot brewing system. The customer would also like to be able to process up
to 300 lbs. of barley in one batch. We are targeting a range of 150 lbs. - 300lbs. of barley processed per
                                                 8
batch with a tolerance of >140 lbs.

18) Cost less than $20,000 to build and test
The customer would like the project to cost less than $20,000 to build. We are targeting the project to
cost less than $15,000 with a tolerance of <$20,000.

1.2.4. Testing Procedures (TPs)
1) Refresh vessel volume of water
To test this requirement we will measure the amount of water flowing out of the malting vessel through
the overflow drain in a specified time. These measurements will be taken with a certified stopwatch and
a graduated cylinder.

2) Increase moisture content of barley
Before steeping the barley we will weigh it, then after steeping/couching we will weigh it again. We
know that barley starts with a moisture content of around 10%, so when the barley is at a
moisture content of 45% we can predict its weight by using our load cell. We will show that our load
cell is in calibration by weighing known weights of barley or water. The barley will be held in a mesh
bag to allow us to weigh it externally on a separate scale. We will also be able to shake out any excess
water held between the grains to ensure accuracy.

3) Aeration rate through water
We will measure the volumetric flow rate of the air with a flow rate meter.

4) Allow control of steeping water temperature
Using our control system we will set the inflow water temperature at different levels. Then we will catch
samples of the water in a bucket and using a calibrated thermometer, we will measure the temperature of
the water samples in the bucket. We will then compare the controlled temperature to the measured
temperature.

5) Keep steeping grain temperature below maximum
Using a calibrated thermometer we can measure the maximum temperature the grain reaches. We will
gather data on our thermocouple readings and make sure the grain temperature is below the maximum
allowed. To show that our thermocouples are calibrated we will take the calibrated thermometer and
measure the grain at different times and different locations during the steeping process with an emphasis
on the middle of the deepest part of the grain bed where it will likely be hottest. We will record the
temperature and compare our measured temperature to the temperature given to us by our
thermocouples.

6) Drain steeping water
Using a certified stopwatch we will time how long it takes for the vessel to drain. Then we will remove
the cleaning cap on the ducting to check that all water has drained from the grain.

7) Keep germinating grain temperature below maximum
Using a calibrated thermometer we can measure the maximum temperature the grain reaches. We will
gather data on our thermocouple readings and make sure the grain temperature is below the maximum
allowed. To show that our thermocouples are calibrated we will take the calibrated thermometer and
measure the grain at different times and different locations during the germination process with an
emphasis on the middle of the deepest part of the grain bed where it will likely be hottest. We will
record the temperature and compare our measured temperature to the temperature given to us by our
thermocouples.
                                                9
8) Keep germinating grain temperature above minimum
Using a calibrated thermometer we can measure the minimum temperature the grain reaches. We will
gather data on our thermocouple readings and make sure the grain temperature is above the minimum
allowed. To show that our thermocouples are calibrated we will take the calibrated thermometer and
measure the grain at different times and different locations during the process with an emphasis on the
shallowest part of the grain bed where it will likely be coolest and record the temperatures. We will
compare our measured temperatures to the temperatures given to us by our thermocouples. To make sure
that the heating system works we will cool a temperature probe with ice water to "trick" the control
system into turning the heat exchanger on.

9) Mix grain
Using a certified stopwatch we will measure the time it takes to complete one mixing cycle. A mixing
cycle includes the time for one auger arm rotation about the chamber to be completed plus the amount of
time until the auger arm begins its next rotation. Auger arm rotation will take around 5 minutes so the
interval between rotations will be around 7 hours and 55 minutes. To make sure that grain is mixed
uniformly we will place batches of colored barley grains in several locations of the grain bed and run the
cycle. After the cycle runs we will view the grain bed. If all of the batches of colored grain have been
visibly disturbed, we know that the augers are preventing matting, and mixing the grain.

10) Allow adjustment of airflow rate
Using an anemometer and varying the airflow rate we can verify that the malter can reach both the
minimum and maximum air flow rate required. We will place the anemometer inside the ducting after
the heat exchanger to make sure that the airflow rates are attained.

11) Allow temperature adjustment of air
Using a calibrated thermometer we can measure the temperature of the air as we vary it using the control
system. We will measure the temperature in the duct after the heat exchanger and in the outlet duct.

12) Recirculate air
By placing an anemometer on the inlet side of the fan and on the outlet/recirculation duct we can
measure what percentage of exhaust air is flowing back into the malting vessel.

13) Load barley in less than 15 minutes
We will load the maximum barley batch size and time it using a certified stopwatch and measure how
long it takes.

14) Unload barley in less than 15 minutes
We will unload 98% of the maximum barley batch size and time it using a certified stopwatch and
measure how long it takes.


15) Shall be less than 72" wide and 84” tall on one side
We will use a certified measuring tape and measure the dimensions of the malter on all sides to make
sure it will fit through a double wide door. We will also move the malter through a door to make sure it
fits.

16) Malter shall weigh less than 1000 lbs. unloaded
Using a certified scale we will weigh the unloaded weight of the malter.


                                                10
17) Process 150 lbs of barely
We will run the malter with both a minimum (150lb.) load and a maximum (300lb.) load to make sure it
can function properly at both levels. We will show data and approval from our sponsors that the malter
can successfully process 150 - 300 pounds of barley.

18) Cost less than $20,000 to build and test
We will tally our entire budget on the website and in our final report to make sure we stay below the
maximum.

1.2.5. Design Links (DLs)
1)Refresh vessel volume of water
On the side of the vessel, at a height above the grain bed, is an overflow drain. By constantly flowing
water into the chamber via the sprinklers and through an inlet in the plenum the overflow will go out the
overflow drain, also taking unwanted dirt and chaff with it.

2) Increase moisture content of barley
The malter will go through wet and dry cycles (steeping and couching), which will bring the moisture
content up to 47%. The cycle times and durations will be variable through the control system so if
another target other than 47% is desired it can be reached.

3) Aeration rate through water
The aeration rate is fairly low and so all that will be required is a large aquarium pump. The aquarium
pump will push air through four nozzles placed below the malting chamber in the plenum. The air will
then bubble up through the grain bed during the steeping phase.

4) Allow control of steeping water temperature
The pilot brewery has access to both a hot water and cold water stream. By using a thermocouple and
solenoids to open the streams a controlled amount we can mix the water to attain the inflow water temp
desired. The water will go to the waste drain until the desired temperature has been reached and
stabilized. It will then be routed into the chamber by closing the dump valve and opening the chamber
inlet valve.

5) Keep steeping grain temperature below maximum
We will have two thermocouples placed in the grain bed to monitor the temperature. If the temperature
begins to rise into an unsafe zone the control system will detect it and spray cold water into the vessel
via the sprinklers.

6) Drain steeping water
At the lowest point of the ducting there is a solenoid valve which will be opened when the couch or
drain cycle is initiated. The water will drain into the same outlet as the overflow drain. We will be able
to check that the water has drained by opening the cleaning cap.

7) Keep germinating grain temperature below maximum
Four 4" thermocouples will extend into the grain bed, two from the chamber perimeter and two from the
middle column of the malter at heights of 3 inches and 9 inches. These thermocouples will be tied into
the National Instruments FieldPoint system and LabVIEW. If the temperature probes measure a
temperature that is above the accepted limit the LabVIEW control system will switch a solenoid to allow
cold water to flow into the grain bed keeping the temperature down.

8) Keep germinating grain temperature above minimum
                                                11
Four 4" thermocouples will extend into the grain bed, two from the chamber perimeter and two from the
middle column of the malter at heights of 3 inches and 9 inches. These thermocouples will be tied into
the National Instruments FieldPoint system and LabVIEW. If the temperature probes measure a
temperature that is above the accepted limit the LabVIEW control system will switch a solenoid to allow
steam to flow into the heat exchanger thus heating the air flowing through the grain bed.

9) Mix grain
The grain will be held in a circular chamber which has two augers attached to an arm that rotates about a
central column. The rotation will be achieved with a roller chain/sprocket system. It will be driven by a
motor mounted to the outside of the lid of the chamber, with the shaft aligned with the center of the
central column. Attached to the motor shaft will be a sprocket that will transfer force via chain to
another sprocket on the end of the auger arm, also slowing the motor down from 6 rpm to 3 rpm.
This will rotate a shaft that has two more sprockets on it. One will mesh with a chain attached to the
inner perimeter of the barley chamber which will propel the arm about the central pivot. The other
sprocket will drive the auger rotation with another chain.

10) Allow adjustment of airflow rate
The blower will be attached to a variable frequency drive (VFD) which will allow for adjustment of the
air flow rate from the LabVIEW control system.

11) Allow temperature adjustment of air
The air coming into the malter will first have to flow through a steam-air heat exchanger. By using a
solenoid and the control system we can change the amount of steam going into the heat exchanger and
thus control the inflow air temperature.

12) Recirculate air
The outlet of the blower will flow into a T which will have a hand operated damper attached to the outlet
branch. When 100% recirculation is desired the damper is fully closed allowing the air to flow back into
the ducting and through the grain bed. If 0% recirculation is desired the damper is fully opened allowing
the air to flow into the surrounding environment.

13) Load barley in less than 15 minutes
The malter has a flip top lid which will allow the user to dump bags of barley in very easily and quickly.

14) Unload barley in less than 15 minutes
On the front of the malter is a manway which can be opened at the end of the malting process to get
grain out. A chute will attach below the manway to allow the user to rake the malt out and into a bin.


15) Shall be less than 72" wide and 84” tall on one side
We have designed the malter to be 50" in diameter and less than 84” tall.

16) Malter shall weigh less than 700 lbs. unloaded
By using lighter weight material where stainless steel isn't needed and trying to reduce the amount of
complexity we are keeping the weight under the limit.

17) Process 150 lbs of barely
We calculated the volume that a maximum load of 300 lbs. of barley would fill and designed the malter
to hold that capacity. Room for an extra 50 lbs was added to the design to protect the device against
overloading. We also made sure that the augers are close enough to the bottom of the chamber so that
                                                12
when running a smaller batch it will thoroughly mix the grain.

18) Cost less than $20,000 to build and test
The malter uses some high cost material (Stainless Steel) and some expensive electronic sensors, but we
have sourced parts so that we do not go over budget. We've also tried to eliminate as many unnecessary
features as possible to keep the design simple and low cost.




                                               13
         1.2.6. House of Quality (HoQ)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Engineering Requirements




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Shall weigh less than 1000 lbs. unloaded


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Cost less than $20,000 to build and test
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Shall be less than 72" wide and 84" tall
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Unload barley in less than 15 minutes
                                                                                                                                                                       Allow control of steeping water temp




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Keep germinating grain temp below


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Keep germinating grain temp above
                                                                                                   Increase moisture content of barley




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Load barley in less than 15 minutes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Allow adjustment of airflow rate
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Keep steeping grain temp below
                                                                  Refresh vessel volume of water




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Process 150 - 300 lbs of barley
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Allow temp adjustment of air
                                                                                                                                         Aeration rate through water
Customer Requirements




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Drain steeping water




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Recirculate air
                                                                                                                                                                                                              maximum




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      maximum


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          minimum
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Mix grain
                                                         Weight

Malter shall wash barley                                 5 X
Malter shall steep barley                                10                                         X
Malter shall aerate steeping water                       20                                                                               X

                                                                                                                                                                        X
Malter shall allow control of inflow water temperature 20
Malter shall keep steeping water temperature below
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      X
73F                                                    20
Malter shall couch barley (sit without water)          20                                                                                                                                                                                       X

Malter shall keep germination temperature below 73F                                                                                                                                                                                                                            X
                                                         25

Malter shall keep germination temperature above 58F                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                X
                                                         5
Malter shall turn/mix barley during germination          25                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    X
Malter shall allow ample adjustment of air flow rate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           X
through the grain bed                                    20
Malter shall allow ample temperature adjustment of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              X
air                                                      20
Malter shall allow for air flow recirculation            15                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 X
Malter shall be easy to load and unload barley           10                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       X                                     X
Malter shall be portable                                 10                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     X                                          X

Malter shall process at least 150lbs of barley per run                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               X
                                                         15
Construction and testing of the malter shall not cost
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        X
more than $20,000                                        10
Testing Plan                                                         1                                2                                    3                              4                                           5                          6                             7                                   8                            9                         10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Design Link                                                          1                                2                                    3                              4                                           5                          6                             7                                   8                            9                         10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
                                                                  once/ 4 hours +/- 0.5 hour




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              once/8 hours +/- 0.5 hour
                                                                                                                                                                       Tap ground water to 75F




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             W: 50" <72" H: 75" <84"


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   150 to 300 lbs. >140 lbs.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        700 lbs. <1000 lbs.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          25CFM to 485CFM
                                                                                                                                         0.5 CFM >0.2 CFM




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     $15,000 <$20,000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            5% to 95% +/- 5%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             ambient to 185F
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               15 min. <20min.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               10 min <15 min
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     10 min <15 min




Target w/ tolerance
                                                                                                   47% +/-2%




                                                                                                                                                                                                                              70F <73F




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        70F <73F


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            60F >58F




                                                                                                                                                                       14
                  2. EXISTING DESIGNS, DEVICES, AND METHODS

2.1. System Level
People have been malting barley for at least the last 2000 years. The process has become more automated
and precise as technology advances, but the fundamentals remain the same. It is possible to malt barley by
hand, and indeed many home brewers do this regularly, though the results would likely not pass quality
standards for large breweries. The current system that the Oregon State University Department of Food
Science and Technology is using to malt barley is more sophisticated than most home brewers. They have
been using several pieces of food processing equipment that get the job done, though the equipment was not
designed for this particular use. Due to this, a system level discussion of the current process will be included
here. Also included will be a pilot malter that is available for purchase, as well as the process followed by
Great Western Malting, a large commercial malting company.

   2.1.1. Design, Device, or Method #1
   Currently the food science and technology department steep barley in a brewing kettle, germinate in a
   second vessel equipped with a ribbon mixer, and kiln in a dehydrator that they can reset to perform the
   necessary task. With relation to the customer requirements the current system falls short in several
   places. The tank used to steep the grain lacks a simple way to remove the chaff and dirt that appears
   when the barley is washed. It does steep and couch the barley and allows for control of water
   temperature. It does not aerate the steeping barley, so there is a risk of suffocation of the barley. When it
   comes to germination, the barley first has to be moved to another vessel. While there, the germination
   temperature is uncontrolled, unless someone sprays or dumps water on it by hand. The ribbon mixer
   likely works well when preventing matting among the germinating grains, though it may subject the
   grain to unnecessarily rough handling. After that, another move of the barley from one tool to the next is
   required. There the grain can be dried. The equipment currently being used for this allows for some
   control of air temperature and flow, but it does not meet all of the customer requirements. Lastly, due to
   the number of different pieces of equipment used in the process, it is not portable. This malting process
   also requires many hours of time and labor under the current method.

   2.1.2. Design, Device, or Method #2
   Schmidt-Seeger, a German manufacturer of malting
   equipment, currently produces a pilot sized malting
   system that is capable of handling 2800 lbs of grain
   per batch (www.schmidt-seeger.com). Here the
   steeping phase is separate from the germination and
   kilning phases. Although the batch size is 14 times
   larger than the design requirements for this project, it
   is still a useful system to look at. This unit allows for
   water temperature control during the steeping stage, as
   well as aeration control during both the steep and
   germination stages. The interesting thing about the
   pilot malter is the combination germination and
   kilning vessel (GKV). Rather than having a
   rectangular vessel it is circular. This allows the mixing
   augers to rotate around a shaft and move through the
   grain. This method mixes the grain more evenly (due
   to the lack of corners) than in a rectangular system,      Figure 1. Schmidt-Seeger pilot malting system
   giving a more uniform finished product. The largest problems with the customer requirements that this
                                                    15
   pilot malting unit has is that it produces much more malted barley than needed, it is not portable, and it
   likely exceeds the project budget.

   2.1.3. Design, Device, or Method #3
   Great Western Malting Co. (GWM) is a large commercial malting company located in Vancouver, WA.
   They produce batches of malt that range from 140,000 to 300,000 pounds. This is over 800 times the
   batch size expected of the pilot malter to be designed but, once again, the same basic malting procedures
   can be found. Their focus is on solving different problems than this project though, because they are
   making such large batches of malt. Uniformity is their goal. There are kilning beds, for example, that are
   so large that the air temperature from one end of the kilning bed to the other can be as much as ten
   degrees Fahrenheit difference. Similar discrepancies between the pilot malting unit sold by Schmidt-
   Seeger and our customer requirements show up with Great Western’s design. Theirs is a large factory
   which is neither portable nor within our budget. We also require a much smaller batch size.

   2.1.4. Design, Device, or Method #4
   The final system level design considered
   was a micro malting system from Custom
   Laboratory Products, located in Scotland,
   which can handle a batch size of around
   17 pounds. This system differed from the
   two previous in that the steeping and
   germination phases were separate from
   the kilning phase. The company stated
   that they think separating steeping from
   kilning is necessary because each process
   is so different and effectively carrying out
   each process in one vessel is not possible.
   The problem with the micro malting
   system is that it is almost a “too perfect”
   environment and doesn’t allow one to
   evaluate commercial quality malted
                                                          Figure 2. Custom Laboratory Products kiln
   barley. The system sample size is so
   small that issues often seen in a commercial factory are not present. One interesting solution in the
   system though is the way they humidify the air during the germination cycle. Rather than mist water in
   the air stream, which is how GWM does it, they bubble air through water. They also allow for control of
   the ratio of humid air to dry air to allow a progressive rootlet drying regime.


2.2. Component Level
Malting is a basic linear process in which barley seed is germinated and dried to produce malted barley. To
fulfill the customer requirements the malter must perform four critical functions. The first is steeping, which
entails repeatedly soaking and draining the dry barley seed. During this phase the moisture content of the
barley is brought from 10% to 45%, at which point germination commences. The second function is airflow,
which is important in both keeping the barley alive during the germination phase and drying it during the
kilning phase. Third is mixing during the germination phase. Mixing helps keep the barley at a uniform
moisture and temperature during the germination and kilning phase. It also makes the barley easy to unload
by not allowing a root mat to form. Finally the kilning phase is important in that it stops the modification
process, reduces the weight of the barley which makes it easier to unload, increases the storage life, and


                                                    16
develops the flavor and color of the barley. If these essential tasks are completed successfully, the result will
likely be very high grade barley malt.

   2.2.1. Component #1
   Washing the barley is the first process in malting. It is crucial to eliminate the dirt and chaff or leftover
   husk. There are a number of possible methods that will wash the barley.

       2.2.1.1.    Design, Device or Method #1
       Schmidt-Seeger as well as GWM uses an overflow method on their steeping vessels. Water is
       constantly fed into the vessel. The overflow will spill into a drain pipe. All of the dirt and chaff
       floats to the top of the water and is carried out when the water overflows. This is a very effective
       method to continually wash a large batch of barley.

       2.2.1.2. Design, Device or Method #2
       Another method to wash the barley is a skimming method. Instead of having a continuous water
       flow into the steeping vessel, the tank is filled with water and then a device will skim off the top few
       inches of water that include all of the dirt and unwanted husks. This is a more cost efficient method
       but can be less likely to get all of the unwanted debris.

       2.2.1.3.    Design, Device or Method #3
       A vacuum method can also remove dirt and chaff from the water. When all of the unwanted remains
       float to the top of the vessel, a vacuum is turned on which sucks up the top few inches of water. This
       seems like a good method to clean the barley but requires extra labor to clean out the vacuum.


   2.2.2. Component #2
   Steeping is the phase of malting in which the grain is hydrated from 10% moisture content to 45%
   moisture content. It is necessary to raise the moisture content of the grain to initiate germination. This is
   done by periods of wetting and couching or draining. The couching has been found to speed up the
   steeping process because it encourages vigorous respiration to take place within the grain. Respiration
   then lets the barley absorb more water the next time it is wetted.

       2.2.2.1.    Design, Device or Method #1
       Flat bottom steeping is much as the name implies. A vessel that has a flat bottom is repeatedly
       flooded and drained with water. These vessels can either have a lid or not. If they do have a lid they
       also require a CO2 removal system. If open topped, the ambient air dilutes the CO2 produced from
       respiration. These vessels can be aerated in a number of ways. Commonly, aeration nozzles are
       placed evenly about the floor of the vessel. As long as there is some sort of temperature control on
       the steeping water this would satisfy all of our customer requirements that involve steeping.

       2.2.2.2. Design, Device or Method #2
       Great Western Malting uses steeping vessels that are essentially large cylindrical tubes with funnel
       shaped bottoms. This allows them to load and unload the barley much more easily than a flat bottom
       steeping vessel by pumping the barley in and out through the funnel at the bottom. When dealing
       with the batch sizes of that magnitude, the time and effort it takes to move the grain is a large
       concern. The aeration nozzles in the vessels they use are placed in concentric rings around the
       funnel. They can pump water into and out of the vessel as well as remove CO2. With the
       temperature control on the water inlet this design also satisfies all of the steeping customer
       requirements. The problem with this design is that it would likely require a separate steeping
                                                    17
   container, which would increase the complexity, cost and weight of the design as well as likely
   limiting the portability of the device.

   2.2.2.3.    Design, Device or Method #3
   Another steeping technique is to spray water over the grain with a freely draining bottom.
   Respiration is constant with this method but there are problems with uniform moisture gain. The
   barley on top of the bed will receive more water than the barley near the bottom. This could
   potentially be a large problem with commercial production because of the sheer size of the batches
   produced. With the batch sizes associated with this project it could be assumed that this problem
   would not significantly affect the quality of malt. Aeration would not be a problem with this design
   so those customer requirements would be satisfied. A simple control of the water temperature being
   sprayed on the grain would control the steep temperature, as well as potentially allowing for control
   of the germination phase temperature as well. Furthermore this method would not require a separate
   vessel, thus not affecting the potential for a highly portable device, or increasing the weight or cost
   any more than necessary.

   2.2.2.4.    Design, Device or Method #4
   Similar to plant nursery sprinkler heads, there are misting heads also used in the plant nursery
   industry. The misting heads put out a very fine mist of water droplets, more like fog than rain. A free
   draining tray for the grain would also have to be used. A benefit to misting heads would be a very
   uniform distribution of water on top of the grain bed due to the mist mixing in the air space above
   the grain. A downside would be a low flow rate which would slow the vertical penetration of the
   water through the grain bed.

   2.2.2.5.    Design, Device or Method #5
   Ebb and flow hydroponic systems flood a growing tray with water
   for a set amount of time and then lets the water drain. The water is
   pumped into the tray from a reservoir. Within the reservoir is a fill
   valve, where water from the pump enters the tray, and an
   overflow valve, where excess water flows back into the reservoir.
   Once the tray is filled with enough water to flow into the
   overflow valve it circulates the water. The overflow water
   splashes back into the reservoir, aerating it, and then is
   pumped back into the tray. This recirculation lasts until the     Figure 3. Ebb & flow hydroponic system
   set time has elapsed. The water then flows back out of the
   tray through the fill valve and pump. Some residual water is left in the tray, which is good for plants
   with roots, but may lead to rotting of barley. A benefit to this method is that chaff from the barley
   would float on top of the water and could be directed to the overflow valve.


2.2.3. Component #3
During the germination phase the barley begins to grow rootlets. If let to sit undisturbed, these rootlets
will grow longer and longer and begin to mesh together. The grain will then be unable to dry properly
which will produce inferior malt. Matting also traps the heat produced by the barley during respiration,
which can be enough to kill some of the batch. To prevent this and to allow for even drying, the grain is
turned, mixed, or tumbled approximately once every eight hours throughout the germination and kilning
phases.



                                                18
2.2.3.1.   Design, Device or Method #1
Barley malt, until around the 1940’s was turned by hand. Around
then, malters began using automatic devices for preventing matting.
Hand turning does technically satisfy the customer requirements
and would be the easiest to implement. The problem with that
design is that the barley must be turned about once every eight
hours. This means hiring someone, or having a student be
responsible for turning the grain. It can be done with a shovel or
other hand tool. This design is not ideal, due to the fact that the
barley may need to be turned at inconvenient times of day and
forgetting to perform this duty could ruin the batch. The advantage
is that a human will be able to make sure that all the barley has been
turned, and also be able to reach into corners and other areas an
automated machine might not be able to.
                                                                            Figure 4. Floor malting
2.2.3.2. Design, Device or Method #2
The germination beds at Great Western Malting, as well as the pilot malter sold by Schmidt-Seeger
both use augers to turn the barley. Both of these designs boast a series of augers in a line parallel, or
tangential to the length of the bed (Figure 5). These lines of augers then move back and forth the
length of the bed on tracks or around the bed on a pivot, turning the barley every eight hours. Motion
of the augers is very slow to limit damage inflicted on the grain by handling. This design has been
proven successful by industry and does satisfy the customer requirement regarding the turning of the
barley.
                                                                          Figure 5. Augers turning barley
                                                                          in a commercial germination bed
                                                                          (www.mopos.com)




2.2.3.3.   Design, Device or Method #3
Disc ploughs are used around the world to prepare fields for planting. Disc ploughs work by
dragging a series of concaved discs through soil. They are arranged offset from one another to allow
them to pickup and turn the soil they are being used on. A similar device might be used to turn the
grain. This would satisfy the customer requirement. One potential problem with this is that the discs
                                             19
   may be too rough with the grain, thus damaging it and adversely affecting the quality. Another issue
   would arise if the bed depth was too large for the disc ploughs to reach the bottom.


2.2.4. Component #4
Kilning is the phase in which the grain is dried and allowed to develop color and flavor. In combination
with airflow the air is heated progressively to dry the grain. The process occurs over a 24-48 hour
period. The temperature is increased in steps over this period from around 120F to 180F.

   2.2.4.1.    Design, Device or Method #1
   Clothes dryers essentially perform the same task as the kilning phase of barley. Hot air is blasted
   through wet clothes to dry them. This is accomplished by flowing air over an electric heating
   element. The heating element is made up of coils of nichrome wire, which has a high resistance. As
   the electricity flows through the nichrome wires they heat up. Due to the similarity of the task that a
   dryer element is built for, and our customer needs, implementing this device would likely not be
   very complicated.

   2.2.4.2. Design, Device or Method #2
   Household gas furnaces work by using a direct-heat heat exchanger. Gas is ignited by an electric
   heating element and then flows through the heat exchanger. Air then flows across the heat exchanger
   which increases the temperature of the air. If the air is re-circulated through the device, not as much
   gas needs to be used to heat the air because it will retain some heat from the previous heating. This
   will save on the amount of gas needed and the time it takes to heat the air.

   2.2.4.3.    Design, Device or Method #3
   The radiator in a car is often seen as a way to cool the engine, but it’s also a way to heat the air
   flowing over the radiator. The radiator is an indirect heat exchanger in which a fluid (water, oil, etc.)
   is heated and then cooled by air flowing over the channels of hot fluid. The fluid flows from the heat
   source (the engine) to the heat exchanger (radiator) and the heat is transferred from the fluid to the
   air. The fluid is then re-circulated throughout the engine.


2.2.5. Component #5
The malted barley has to be removed from the mini malter in order to be useful for brewing. This
process will depend on the design of the vessel, but some methods will apply regardless of the shape.

   2.2.5.1.    Design, Device or Method #1
   Similar to the turning of the malt, this process could be done by hand. One or two people with
   shovels could unload 200 to 300 pounds of malt, though this would be the most labor intensive way
   to perform the task. Unloading by hand would also take significantly longer than automatic methods.
   This does not satisfy the customer requirement of being easy to load and unload. On the other hand,
   it would not require any special designs, nor would it cost anything to implement. This method
   would also eliminate the chance of mechanical failure.

   2.2.5.2. Design, Device or Method #2
   At Great Western Malting they are producing batches of a size that makes unloading by hand
   unfeasible. Instead they have a system that lowers a beam into the grain on one end of the kilning
   bed. A winch is then attached to that beam that drags the beam from one end of the bed to the other.
   The grain is scraped off one layer at a time. With the amount of barley this project is designed for, it
                                                 20
would only take one run of a similar method to empty our device of grain. This would meet the
customer requirement of being easy to unload in that it requires little physical labor, and is not very
technologically complicated.

2.2.5.3.   Design, Device or Method #3
A third method of unloading the grain would be to design something similar to a dump truck. If one
wall or section of a wall was capable of being lowered or opened, the bed could then be tipped up
and the grain emptied. This satisfies the requirement of being easy to unload. This design would
have more points of failure, but would also require the least amount of effort.




                                             21
                                   3. DESIGNS CONSIDERED


3.1. Design #1




                        Figure 6. Proposed Design #1 – 2 Vessel Malter

One design to consider is having a malter that performs the steeping phase in a separate vessel. This vessel
could be any shape or size, as long as it is large enough to handle the appropriate amount of barley. The
barley would be allowed to steep and couch in this separate, waterproof section. Aeration nozzles would be
required to keep the water full of oxygen to allow the barley to breathe during this stage of the malting
process. A system for removing CO2 buildup would need to be in place if the vessel were to have a lid. Due
to the small batch size in this malter it would be just as acceptable to have an open steeping chamber. This
would allow the CO2 to diffuse out of the vessel on its own. The barley could be washed in this separate
vessel as well. An overflow drain near the top of the vessel will allow the dirt and chaff to be flushed out of
the barley. Load Cells would be needed in the steeping vessel to measure the weight of the batch. This
would allow the operators to track the moisture gain of the barley. When the grain had absorbed enough
water to begin the germination phase it would be moved to the germination and kilning vessel (GKV). The
simplest way to do this would be to have the steeping vessel above the GKV. It would be a simple matter to
open a valve at the bottom of the first vessel and flush the grain down into the GKV. Augers that run along a
track on the outside of the GKV would spread the grain evenly throughout bed. The same augers would also
be responsible for turning/mixing the barley to prevent matting during germination and allow for even
drying during kilning. Fans will pull air through the GKV. This air will allow for healthy respiration during
germination. Using a heat exchanger, the same air can be heated to dry the grain during the kilning phase. A
set of sprinklers or misters above the GKV will enable the vessel to cope with the heat produced during
germination, as well as keep the air humid. Lastly, one section of the wall will open on hinges to allow for
quick and easy unloading of the finished malt.



                                                      22
Pros
Do not have to make one vessel compatible with all three processes.
Simple design
Industry standard

Cons
More material required (expensive)
Larger, less portable
Requires moving the grain from one vessel to another


                                                               Figure 7. Proposed Design #1 – 2 Vessel Malter
                                                       The two vessel malter could also have a cylindrical second vessel.




3.2. Design #2




 Figure 8. Proposed Design #2 – Cylindrical One Vessel Malter side view




                                                       23
                                                                                  Figure 8. Proposed Design
                                                                                  #2 – Cylindrical One Vessel
                                                                                  Malter top view




The second design we looked at was a circular type, similar to the Schmidt-Seeger pilot malting system
described in section 2.1.2. The main difference is the ability to also kiln in our proposed design. Kilning is
accomplished by using a heat exchanger in which hot water under high pressure flows through a heat
exchanger to heat incoming air. The heat exchanger is seen in the above pictures to the right of the circular
malting chamber. After the air passes through the heat exchanger it then flows into two 4" diameter pipes
arranged in a Y formation. The pipes are drilled with many holes to allow a more even distribution of
airflow through the grain. Above the pipes is a false bottom with a mesh size large enough to allow adequate
airflow, yet small enough to keep barley from passing through. The hot air flows through the barley and is
finally sucked out the top of the malter by a high pressure blower. This same air flow path is used during
germination, but without the heat exchanger on.

Steeping is accomplished by a series of sprinklers hanging from the top of the malter. As designed, the
malter would be free draining and so would not immerse the barley in water, but would be wetted by the
sprinklers. The sprinklers would also serve to keep the temperatures down and the humidity high during
germination.

Finally, mixing is accomplished by two augers which rotate around a shaft in the center of the malter. This
circular design would allow for the barley to travel around the chamber. If the airflow and water penetration
through the grain bed were not uniform this travel would help mix the grain to attain a uniform product.
Also the lack of corners would prevent grain from getting stuck and receiving too much or too little airflow
or water.

Pros
Creates a very uniform malted barley
Easy to clean because of lack of corners
Sprinklers are cheap, yet foolproof way to keep germinating grain cool and humid




                                                   24
Cons
Circular design may be expensive to manufacture
Malter would be larger and less portable
Lack of immersion during steeping wouldn't allow even water adsorption

3.3. Design #3                                                           Figure 9. Proposed Design
                                                                         #3 – Rectangular One
                                                                         Vessel Malter side and top
                                                                         view




                                                                         Figure 10. Proposed Design
                                                                         #2 – Rectangular One
                                                                         Vessel Malter isometric
                                                                         view




                                                25
The rectangular shaped single-chambered malter is another design that was considered. This malter has been
designed to have rounded corners to allow the augurs to mix all of the barley. The round edges will have the
same radius as the augurs. The pictures above show a rough sketch of the rectangular malter. The chamber
that contains the barley will be inside an outer casing. The outer casing will house the sprinklers, fans, and
overflow system. Sprinklers have been placed under the barley chamber to humidify the air. There are also
fans at the bottom of the barley chamber that will aerate the barley during the germination and kilning
phases. The overflow system will wash the barley. We will fill up the barley chamber with water during the
steeping phase and when the chamber is full the water will flow over the edges. The overflow water will be
directed to the waste drain. There will be two circular augurs that will mix the barley during germination
and kilning. The augurs will travel linearly throughout the chamber.

Pros
Cheaper and easier to manufacture
Overflow system will result in consistent water absorption
Not as bulky

Cons
Airflow will not be as efficient
May be hard to control the cooling during germination




                                                   26
                                          4. DESIGN SELECTED

4.1. Rationale for Design Selection
In chapter 3 we examined three distinctly different design solutions: a two vessel system, a circular single
chamber system, and a rectangular single vessel system. The decision has been made to pursue the circular
single chamber design because it will produce a more uniform and higher quality product. With the circular
design we also chose to include revisions and additions of certain components. The ventilation of the
circular chamber is slightly different than the sketch. Instead of Y shaped pipes, a diffuser spreads the air
from the plenum inlet to the barley chamber. Another difference is that the heat exchanger has been moved
above the water level. Also, because we chose to immerse the grain in water, aeration nozzles have been
added to the bottom of the malting chamber for use during steeping. The aeration nozzles are necessary to
keep the grain alive during the steep phase. The reason for using the immersion technique to steep the barley
is to produce the highest quality malt. If we did a free drain technique the barley would not have as
consistent water content throughout the barley. The chamber is flooded with water from the plenum. Instead
of including another phase to wash the barley, we have decided to wash the barley during the steeping phase
using an overflow technique. Water is continually pumped into the barley chamber. In the side of the
chamber there is a hole with a pipe leading to a drain. When the water reaches the level of the hole in the
chamber the top layer of water, along with the dirt and chaff floating in it, will flow out of the chamber to
the drain. Sprinklers will be used during the germination phase to cool the barley. After the steeping phase a
drain valve opens that allows all of the steeping water to flow out of the barley chamber. We decided to
keep the blower for aeration because it is ideally suited for the application. The grain bed causes the airflow
to back up during germination/kilning so a fan that can operate at a high pressure is needed. Blowers can
provide the power to move a high volume of air at a high pressure. To heat the air for the kilning process, a
steam heat exchanger is used. This heat exchanger was custom made to fit our specifications.

4.2. Design Description
The overall design for the device to be constructed to satisfy the customer requirements can be summarized
as a single chamber pilot malter. It will steep, germinate, and kiln the grain in one chamber
Figure 11 – Front cut out view of pilot malter




                                                    27
Figure 12 – ISO view of pilot malter.

    4.2.1. Airflow
    Airflow during germination is critical so that the grain can breathe and does not suffocate from CO2
    production. Airflow is also important during kilning to facilitate efficient and even drying/browning of
    the malted barley. The flow path of the air through the malting system will be as follows: (1) Air first
    flows through the air-steam heat exchanger. The heat exchanger is used mostly during kilning in heating
    the incoming air up to 185F. It will also heat incoming air during germination if ambient temperature is
    too cool. By regulating how much steam and when the steam is allowed to flow through the heat
    exchanger we can regulate the air temperature. (2)The air then flows through 4" ducting down towards
    the plenum and diffuser. At the end of this ducting is an access cap which allows the user to open and
    clean the duct out between malting batches. (3)When the air enters the plenum it is distributed by a
    diffuser so that the grain receives a uniform airflow. (4)Air then flows up through the grain bed and
    towards the top of the malting chamber where the 4" exhaust duct is located. (5)The air then exits the
    chamber via an exhaust duct and flow into the blower. The blower is a radial blade blower which can
    handle flow rates from 30-485CFM and static pressures of 4" WC. (6)After going through the blower
    the air exhausts into a T duct. On the other side of the straight flow path is a manually operated damper.
    When fully open the air will exit to the surrounding environment. When fully closed the air turns 90
    degrees and flow back into the ducting after the heat exchanger. By manually changing the amount the
    damper is open, the user can adjust the amount of airflow recirculation.

    To size the blower we used values given to us by John Cuti of Great Western Malting Co. The
    calculations are shown in section 6.2.

    Another important aspect of airflow in the malter is aeration during the steeping cycle. While immersed
    in water the barley needs air supplied to it so that it will not suffocate. To accomplish this we placed
                                                      28
four aeration nozzles in the plenum. Air is pumped through these nozzles by a small aquarium air pump
placed on the side of the malting chamber.

We used values provided by John Cuti to calculate the aeration rate need for the mini malter. To see the
calculations refer to section 6.3.

4.2.2. Barley Chamber
The barley chamber has two lid sections; one that is fixed to the chamber using bolts and one that is free
to open and close using a hinge. The fixed lid is bolted to a flange which is welded to the barley
chamber. We chose to bolt the lid on to the chamber so it could be removed if something breaks or
otherwise needs maintenance inside the chamber. The opening lid is bolted on to the fixed lid by a hinge
so it can be opened and closed at anytime during the process.

There is an overflow drain hole in the barley chamber 16 inches above the bottom of the grain bed. The
maximum grain bed height is 12 inches. We chose the drain hole to be above the maximum height so
barley would not flow out of the chamber. The overflow valve will always be opened during steeping
and closed during germination and kilning.




Figure 13 – Back view of malter showing access cap and overflow drain.



There is a screen at the bottom of the grain bed to support the grain and still allow water to flow through
the bottom of the bed. This screen is in two halves which allows for the removal of the screen for
cleaning if barley gets stuck in the plenum. The screen is supported by a number of cross beams so the
weight of the barley does not collapse the screen. To provide additional support, there are additional
supports along the inside wall of the chamber.

4.2.3. Drive Motor
Research with industry representatives has shown that physically abusing the barley has a negative
effect on the quality of malt produced, especially in the initial 24 hours after steeping. Because of this,
the motor was sized at 500 in-lbs or torque and 6 rpm. The slow speed is to reduce the chance of
damaging the barley. There is a chain running along the inner perimeter of the barley chamber that is
154.5 inches long. Using a two and a half inch diameter sprocket on the motor shaft and a five inch
diameter sprocket on the drive shaft, the speed of the motor is reduced to 3 rpm. With a three inch
                                                 29
diameter sprocket meshing with the perimeter chain this results in the auger boom rotating once around
the chamber in a just over five minutes. See section 6.4 for the boom rotation time calculations.




Figure 14 – Auger boom and drive gears.

4.2.4. Augers
The augers are sized accordingly to the size of the barley chamber. It is important to mix the barley well
so the width of the augers span from the outside of the center shaft to the inside of the barley chamber
wall with only very little room for barley to sit untouched. It is also a good assumption that the grain in
those spaces will be mixed as well due to the forces exerted by the surrounding grain. With regards to
the height, the augers were made taller than the grain bed at maximum load height to allow for the grain
size growth during steeping and for the slight build up of grain above the auger created by its natural
motion.

4.2.5. Control System
The control system for the malting machine is run by LabVIEW and includes eight temperature sensors,
six solenoid valves, three relay switches, one load cell, one VFD controller and one anemometer.

Four 4" thermocouples are inside the malting
chamber. Two are attached to the inner column at
heights of 3" and 9" from the grain bed and two
are placed on the outer wall at heights of 3" and
9" from the grain bed. These are used to measure
grain bed temperatures throughout the malting
process. If a measured temperature is out of the
control limits, then solenoid valves are actuated
via the LabVIEW control program. If the
temperature is too high then cold water is sprayed
through the chamber sprinklers. If the
temperature is too low then steam is sent through
the heat exchanger to heat the inflowing air.



                                                30
                                                     Figure 15 – View of augers showing thermocouple cut-outs.
One thermocouple is placed in the piping of the inflow steeping water. We have two solenoids
controlling the hot and cold streams of water. By adjusting the flow rate of each stream we can adjust
the water temperature. Before the water flows into the malting chamber it flows through a bypass pipe
and into the drain water pipes. The thermocouple is placed in the bypass pipe. When the temperature of
the water steam stabilizes at the desired temperature, the solenoid valve is actuated which allows the
water to flow into the malting chamber.

One thermocouple is placed in the ducting after the heat exchanger, but above the water line in the
inflow ducting. This probe is used to control the inflow air temperature. The LabVIEW control system
reads the temperature and adjusts the solenoid that controls steam flowing into the heat exchanger.

Two thermocouples are placed in the exhaust ducting. One will be dry bulb and the other wet bulb. This
way we can measure the humidity of the air after it has passed through the grain. This helps the user
determine when the kilning process is finished. The load cell placed under the malter is also used to
measure the weight of the grain. By knowing the initial weight and water content the load cell can be
used to estimate the moisture content of the malted barley. If the humidity measurement is not working
correctly then the user can use the load cell to determine when kilning is finished.

One solenoid valve is used to control water spraying into the inflow ducting. This auxiliary sprinkler
serves two purposes. First it is used to fill the chamber more quickly during steeping and allow water to
flow up through the barley rather than just on top of it. This helps with providing fresh water to all the
barley and more adequately clean away all the chaff. Secondly, it is used during germination to humidify
the air flowing through the chamber. When the stream is activated the solenoid will open and pull water
from the inflow water piping. This allows us to control the auxiliary sprinkler separately from the main
chamber sprinklers.

Three relays are used in this malting system. The first relay turns on/off the air pump which aerates the
barley during steeping. It is turned on when the barley is immersed in water and off when it is couching.
The second relay turns on/off the auger mechanism. The final relay turns on/off the blower. The blower's
rpm is controlled with a Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) controller which allows the user to adjust the
airflow rate during germination and kilning. An anemometer is placed in the inflow ducting above the
water line to measure the airflow rate so that the user can see how much air the blower is flowing
through the chamber at a given moment.




                                               31
   4.2.6. Weighing System
   To allow the user to correctly measure the moisture
   content in the barley a load cell measures the weight of
   the barley before steeping and after couching. All of
   the vertical weight is supported by the load cell and its
   supporting members. With a maximum weight of 4000
   pounds applied to the load cell we had concerns about
   the stress in the supporting beams. We performed a
   finite element analysis on the highest stressed beams,
   of which the calculations can be found in Appendix
   6.5. The legs are supported by linear bearings which
   reduce the vertical friction of the legs and support any
   horizontal forces by the malter.

                                                               Figure 16 – Load cell configuration

   4.2.7. Access Doors
   To allow the users to easily and efficiently load and unload the barley we have placed two access doors
   on the malter. The first door is a flip top lid in which grain can be dumped into the malting chamber.
   The second door is a manway placed on the front side of the chamber near the bottom. This allows the
   user to quickly remove the malted barley with a rake.



                                     5. IMPLEMENTATION

5.1. Base/Chamber
The base was the first part to be constructed. We machined all of the support members and welded the base
in house. It was relatively easily put together and no significant
problems were encountered. The main chamber was the next
part that was built. JVNW, out of Camby, OR, graciously
donated the chamber with no cost to us. They also donated the
two lid sections, the flange for the lids, and the wheel track.
After we received the chamber from JVNW, we took the
chamber to RJH Enterprises to have some additional stainless
steel parts welded to the chamber. RJH welded the overflow
piping on to the side of the chamber, the ducting onto the
plenum, the 4 x 2 rectangular tube into the chamber, the top leg
supports, the top flange for the lids, and the center shaft. Once
we got the chamber back from RJH we then started welding the
screen supports into the chamber. Once the screen supports
were welded into the chamber, we welded the wheel track into
the chamber. We ran into a few problems at this point. First of    Figure 17 - Malter Chamber
all, when the auger boom was put into the chamber the wheel
did not touch the track in some places. This was troublesome because the outer chain would have to be
raised above the wheel track to be able to mesh with the drive gear. We ended up grinding off some of the

                                                    32
welds and raised the wheel track in the section that was too low. Second, the wheel track was not quite
concentric with the shaft that the augur boom rotated about. We had to grind the wheel track down in some
spots to compensate for this. This was likely due to the chamber not being perfectly circular. After we
finally got the wheel track ground down, we then welded the chain onto the wheel track. Initially we were
going to weld the chain on the bottom of the wheel track but found it was easier to weld it right on the edge.
Next, we manufactured the diffuser and welded it to the bottom of the plenum to allow the incoming air to
be evenly distributed throughout the grain bed. It was made from thin stainless steel sheet metal. The last
parts to be welded to the chamber were support tabs around the inside wall of the chamber. We chose to
include this feature to give the screen more support so it would not collapse when the barley is loaded and to
eliminate any gaps along the chamber wall that could allow barley to be flushed out of the chamber. After
the first test run of the malter, we noticed that the solenoid drain valve was being clogged by chaff small
debris from the barley. A wire screen was placed under the chamber floor sections to catch this debris and
prevent the solenoid from becoming clogged. This worked well and is simple to clean between batches.
Lastly, pallet guides were welded to the bottom of the base to enable the user to move the malter quickly
and easily.

5.2. Auger System
We decided to manufacture the augers ourselves rather than
order custom made augers from an outside source. After getting
quotes from two companies and comparing to other similar
companies online we found that the augers would be really
expensive and had lead times that would not have allowed us to
meet our deadlines. The blades are made from thin stainless
steel sheet metal. The blades are connected to a 1 inch shaft by
round support pins. We welded a pin every 90 degrees to give
the blades enough strength to prevent bending or breaking when
mixing the barley. We made 1 inch gaps 3 and 9 inches from
the bottom of the augur shaft in the flights to allow us to put
thermocouples around the chamber protruding into the grain
bed to monitor the temperature. The augur boom chassis is            Figure 18 - Augers & Thermocouples
made from a 4x6 rectangular stainless steel tube. We then
machined the holes for the bearings and shafts. There are slots in the side of the chassis to allow access to
the chain and gears as well as the bearing bolts. We had a little trouble at first when we tried to fit the augur
boom into the chamber. The augur boom was designed for a chamber with an inside diameter of 50 inches.
The actual chamber had an outside diameter of 50 inches. This difference was just enough to make the
augur boom not fit. To solve this problem we slotted the holes for the center shaft and bearing bolts so the
boom could be adjusted back and forth when placed into the chamber. We also constructed a chain
tensioning device consisting of a slotted slide and springs for the drive chain. This was also in response to
the chamber not being perfectly circular.




                                                     33
5.3. Irrigation System
The incoming irrigation system was based on mainly 1” stainless steel pipe, five spray nozzles and five
solenoids. Four spray nozzles reside near the top side of the center column within the malting chamber.
Water comes into the malter through the main support beam, up the center column into a tubing splitter,
                                                                      through four short lengths of plastic
                                                                      tube and finally out the four spray
                                                                      nozzles. There is also an auxiliary spray
                                                                      nozzle located in the air duct which is
                                                                      used to humidify air, quicken the
                                                                      steeping fill time and provide fresh
                                                                      water for recirculation during steeping.
                                                                      The interior spray nozzles and auxiliary
                                                                      spray nozzles are controlled by two
                                                                      solenoid valves allow them to run
                                                                      independently of each other. Upstream
                                                                      from the spray nozzle solenoids are the
                                                                      shunt solenoid and hot water solenoid.
                                                                      The shunt solenoid is left open until the
                                                                      desired incoming water temperature is
                                                                      attained. Once the thermocouple
                                                                      registers a steady water temperature the
                                                                      solenoid closes and sends water to the
                                                                      spray nozzles. To attain the desired
                                                                      water temperature the hot water
                                                                      solenoid is opened and closed at a given

Figure 19 - Irrigation rear view                                     frequency to keep the water within a
                                                                     one to two degree window. The cold
water line does not have a solenoid and if the desired water temperature cannot be attained a message on the
operating program tells the user to either turn up/down the cold water or turn up/down the hot water line.

The other part of the irrigation system is the overflow drain and chamber drain. The overflow drain is a 2”
stainless steel pipe that allows excess water to spill out of the chamber during steeping. There is a 2” ball
valve that is opened during the steeping/couch phase and then closed during the germination and kilning
phases. These parts were all threaded except one part of the overflow drain had to be welded to the side of
the malting chamber. The chamber drain is a 1” stainless steel pipe in the bottom of the incoming air duct
with a solenoid valve attached. We had some difficulty cutting a hole in the duct for the 1” pipe, but
eventually used a plasma cutter and got a satisfactory hole. RJH enterprises then welded the 1” pipe for us.
The rest of the fittings were threaded and so were relatively easy to put together.

For additional renderings and photos of the irrigation go section 11.1




                                                    34
5.4. Heating/Ventilation
The heating system is made up of two
primary components: the steam heat
exchanger and the radial blade blower. The
blower pulls air through the heat exchanger
down through the duct, up through the
malting chamber and then blows the air
either out to the environment or into the
recirculation duct. The heat exchanger side
ducting was constructed by Madden
Fabrication and is 4” schedule 40 pipe. As
mentioned earlier we had to cut a hole in
this duct and it was a little bit of a pain so
we probably should have contracted that out
as well. There is a custom duct transition
between the heat exchanger and 4” duct that
was made by DIY heating. The recirculation Figure 20 - Top view of heat exchanger & blower
ducting was simply purchased from Home Depot and the recirculation damper was purchased from McGill
Airflow. The blower was purchased from Grainger and the heat exchanger was purchased from USA Air &
Coil. The ventilation and heat system was fairly easy to put together as the only custom parts were the
supports for the heat exchanger and diffuser. The supports were welded to the top of the malter by Chris
Dent and we simply drilled holes in the supports and the heat exchanger so we could bolt it in place. The
diffuser was made of stainless steel sheet metal that was cut to size, ground down and welded. A circular
diffuser would likely perform better, but would be complex to manufacture.

Additional photos can be seen in section 11.2


5.5. Control System
The control system consists of a PC running a LabView program communicating to National Instruments
FieldPoint modules to control the solenoids, VFD, and motor and read the Thermocouples and the Load
Cell.

The electrical wiring and components needed to be wash down safe for the Pilot Plant. For this project we
excluded the computer, the blower and the auger motors to keep within our budget. The remaining electrical
components are housed in a NEMA 4X housing and connected through ½” trade size liquid-tight flexible
conduit, connectors and junction boxes. With no experience with this electrical protection system, the
design evolved through trial and error, in particular the wiring was all longer than initially expected due to
the large minimum bend radius of the flexible conduit and running through multiple junction boxes between
the end device and the electrical housing. This was also an issue in adapting the metric connection on the
solenoids to the U.S. customary system of the flexible conduit, since no preexisting adapter was available
one was improvised using webbed plastic tubing and hose clamps. Most of the components for the electrical
protection system are available at Home Depot, but the cabinet was ordered from McMaster.

The PC connects via Ethernet to the FieldPoint modules which are contained in the electrical box. The
FieldPoint modules directly to the thermocouples and load cell, but indirectly to the solenoids and auger
motor through solid state relays. This difference is required since the power output by the FieldPoint
modules is not great enough to directly power the solenoids or auger motor. Each of the solenoids and the
auger motor are also bypassed with a commutating diode hooked up in reverse polarity to the device so that

                                                    35
when the device is switched off, the current generated by the collapsing magnetic field of the coil is shunted
through the diode and prevents damage to the rest of the electrical system.

A computer power supply was used since the devices required more power than the FieldPoint modules
could provide. It was also used since they are commonly available and inexpensive.

One unexpected problem occurred because the thermocouples required extension with thermocouple wire
instead of ordinary hookup wire. We were not familiar with this requirement of thermocouples to ensure
accuracy and it took a while to find out that this was causing inconsistent behavior in the thermocouple
readings.

The control program provides a user interface incorporating many of the features requested by the project
sponsors. Controls for the duration and temperature control targets for each steep, couch, germination and
kiln phase are provided. A panel displays the grain bed temperature and load cell readings for different
phases. A manual tab allows low level control over the malter solenoid states, blower speed and activation
of the auger.




                               Figure 4 LabView Control Program Front Panel

Changes to the control system were made to save cost in keeping the number of computer analog output
lines at 8 or below. Other changes occurred to simplify the design since they were not required to achieve
the engineering or customer requirements. The figure below shows an updated control system schematic.




                                                    36
  Hot        Cold
                                             Steam
 Water      Water
                                             Source
 Source     Source
                                                                                                                                                    T




  Hot
 Water                                                                                Air
                                        Steam
Solenoid                                                                            Exhaust
                                       Solenoid                    Air from
                        T                                        environment

                                                                                                             Blower

                                                                                                            Auger
                                                                                    Recirculate             Motor
                                                                                     Air Valve
                                                                          T
 Shunt        Air      Chamber        Steam
                                     Exhaust
Solenoid     Inlet     Sprinkler
           Sprinkler   Solenoid
           Solenoid
                                                                                                    T                                                   T


                                                                                                    T                                                   T

                                                                                                                  Malting
                                                                                                                 Chamber


                                                                                                                                    P

                                                                                                                        Load cell

                                                 Drain
                                                Solenoid
                                                                                                                    Overflow line


                                                                       FieldPoint TC
                                                  Drain
                                                                      Internal Bus

                             FieldPoint AO
                                                  Internal Bus      FieldPoint Controller
                                                                                                  Internal Bus         FieldPoint AI


                                                                        Ethernet


                                                                              PC




                                                                                                                                              Air
                                                                                                                                            Steam
                                                                                                                                           Electrical
                                                                                                                                             Water
                                                                                                                                         Air and Water

                                                                                                                                        Physical Contact
                                                                                                                                         / Mechanical



                                     Figure 5 Control System Schematic



                                                      6. TESTING


                                                             37
1) Refresh vessel volume of water
To test this requirement we will measure the amount of water flowing out of the malting vessel through the
overflow drain in a specified time. These measurements will be taken with a certified stopwatch and a
graduated cylinder.

2) Increase moisture content of barley
We placed 6.35 lbs. of barley (@10% moisture content) into a mesh bag and ran through the below steep
and couch cycle:
Immersed in water: 10 hours
Couched: 13 hours
Immersed in water: 8 hours
Couched: 12 hours
After the above steep/couch cycle the final weight was 8.35 lbs. giving us a final moisture content of 46.1%
this is within the target range.




   Initial weight of barley(left), beginning of steep cycle(center), final weight of barley(right):




3) Aeration rate through water
We put an air flow meter in line with one of the lines and checked to make sure a proper flow rate was
obtained. The value obtained was 0.3 CFM.


                                                    38
4) Allow control of steeping water temperature
We followed the testing procedure and got consistent results with a degree or two of our target incoming
water temperature. There was a problem with the maximum switching frequency of the hot water solenoid
not being high enough. It still works but for some temperatures the user has to fine tune the incoming hot
water line flow rate until the solenoid can switch quickly enough.

5) Keep steeping grain temperature below maximum
Using a calibrated thermometer we can measure the maximum temperature the grain reaches. We will
gather data on our thermocouple readings and make sure the grain temperature is below the maximum
allowed. To show that our thermocouples are calibrated we will take the calibrated thermometer and
measure the grain at different times and different locations during the steeping process with an emphasis on
the middle of the deepest part of the grain bed where it will likely be hottest. We will record the temperature
and compare our measured temperature to the temperature given to us by our thermocouples.

6) Drain steeping water
Using a certified stopwatch we will time how long it takes for the vessel to drain. Then we will remove the
cleaning cap on the ducting to check that all water has drained from the grain.

This test was simple to perform although we were unable to meet the time we were hoping to. We did not
expect the drain solenoid to restrict flow as much as it does. It takes approximately 45 minutes to fully drain
the chamber. This is the same amount of time it takes commercial malters, such as Great Western Malting,
to drain their steeping chambers so there is no worry that it will adversely affect the quality of malt
produced, we simply did not meet the drain time we specified for ourselves.

7) Keep germinating grain temperature below maximum
Using a calibrated thermometer we can measure the maximum temperature the grain reaches. We will
gather data on our thermocouple readings and make sure the grain temperature is below the maximum
allowed. To show that our thermocouples are calibrated we will take the calibrated thermometer and
measure the grain at different times and different locations during the germination process with an emphasis
on the middle of the deepest part of the grain bed where it will likely be hottest. We will record the
temperature and compare our measured temperature to the temperature given to us by our thermocouples.

There are two main problems with the incoming water system. The first is the spray nozzles don’t quite
spray over the entire surface of the grain bed. Grain located near the center column only gets a slight amount
of residual water on its surface. This is only a problem during germination when the spray nozzles are used
to cool the grain bed if the temperature rises too high.

8) Keep germinating grain temperature above minimum
Using a calibrated thermometer we can measure the minimum temperature the grain reaches. We will gather
data on our thermocouple readings and make sure the grain temperature is above the minimum allowed. To
show that our thermocouples are calibrated we will take the calibrated thermometer and measure the grain at
different times and different locations during the process with an emphasis on the shallowest part of the
grain bed where it will likely be coolest and record the temperatures. We will compare our
measured temperatures to the temperatures given to us by our thermocouples. To make sure that the heating
system works we will cool a temperature probe with ice water to "trick" the control system into turning the
heat exchanger on.

9) Mix grain
Using a certified stopwatch we will measure the time it takes to complete one mixing cycle. A mixing cycle
includes the time for one auger arm rotation about the chamber to be completed plus the amount of time
                                                    39
until the auger arm begins its next rotation. Auger arm rotation will take around 5 minutes so the interval
between rotations will be around 7 hours and 55 minutes. To make sure that grain is mixed uniformly we
will place batches of colored barley grains in several locations of the grain bed and run the cycle. After the
cycle runs we will view the grain bed. If all of the batches of colored grain have been visibly disturbed, we
know that the augers are preventing matting, and mixing the grain.

The auger system clearly mixes/disturbs the grain as it travels around the chamber. After testing it was
determined that it would perform better if the augers rotate more often than the minimum of once every
eight hours. This has been adjusted in the control program.

10) Allow adjustment of airflow rate
We followed the testing procedure and measure the airflow rates before and after the blower to verify that it
can pull enough air through the malting chamber. We did encounter problems when the malter was fully
loaded at 300 pounds during germination. The pressure due to the grain bed was much higher than expected
so a larger blower would do a much better job during kilning.

11) Allow temperature adjustment of air
We had a miscommunication with the sponsor and found that obtaining steam at 80 psi was not possible.
The fittings within the pilot plant cannot handle such a high pressure and so we were only able to obtain 45
psi at a maximum. This still provides enough heat to kiln the malt for making pale malt, but it’s not possible
to kiln the malt to a darker color. There was also a problem with the steam solenoid not being able to stay
closed. We checked the specifications of the solenoid and it should handle steam at pressures up to 150 psi,
but for some reason when we passed 25 psi it would not stay closed when the computer told it to. It was able
to operate properly at pressures lower than 25 psi.

12) Recirculate air
We were able to recirculate from 5% to 100% of the air, but a design mistake was made and the
recirculation was placed after the heat exchanger not allowing it to efficiently heat the air. This is a simple
correction as an addition duct can be placed before the heat exchanger to allow for efficient reheating of the
air.

13) Load barley in less than 15 minutes
We will load the maximum barley batch size and time it using a certified stopwatch and measure how long
it takes.

Loading the barley simply involve dopening the lid and pouring the grain into the chamber. It is easily
accomplished in less than 15 minutes

14) Unload barley in less than 15 minutes
We will unload 98% of the maximum barley batch size and time it using a certified stopwatch and measure
how long it takes.

To unload the barley the front hatch is opened and a container placed below. The user is then able to reach
in and scoop the grain out of the chamber. The lid can be opened and a paddle used to reach the barley on
the other side of the chamber. The chamber can be unloaded simply in 5 to 10 minutes at a casual pace.

15) Shall be less than 72" wide and 84” tall on one side
We will use a certified measuring tape and measure the dimensions of the malter on all sides to make sure it
will fit through a double wide door. We will also move the malter through a door to make sure it fits.


                                                    40
While the malter is less than 72” wide it is taller than 84”. The heat exchanger that was purchased is taller
than we expected and the additional height introduced by the pallet guides make the malter taller than 84”. It
can still be taken out of the pilot brewery through the bay door but it will not be able to fit through a
standard double door.

16) Malter shall weigh less than 1000 lbs. unloaded
The malter failed to meet the height requirement and so will not meet the customer requirement regardless
of the outcome of this test. We chose to spend time on more pressing issues and did not end up weighing the
malter.

17) Process 150 lbs of barely
We will run the malter with both a minimum (150lb.) load and a maximum (300lb.) load to make sure it can
function properly at both levels. We will show data and approval from our sponsors that the malter can
successfully process 150 - 300 pounds of barley.

18) Cost less than $20,000 to build and test
We have tallied our entire expeditures within our bill of materials and have come up with a final total cost of
$18,499.59 which leaves an additional $1,500.41 for improvements to the design next term.




                                                    41
                       7. APPENDIX A: ENGINEERING CALCULATIONS

   7.1. Malting Chamber Volume Calculations




300 mL of barley            First steep 0 hrs.      First couch 8 hrs.          Second steep 15 hrs.




Second couch 21 hrs.        Third steep 29 hrs.     Final couch 39 hrs. ~525 mL

223.6 grams of barley after steeping expanded to a volume of 525 milliliters.

223.6 g  0.493lbs.
525mL  32.04in 3
32.04in 3         in 3      in 3
           64.99       65
0.493lbs.          lb.       lb.

With a maximum load of 350 pounds (15% safety factor over true max load of 300 lbs.):
              in 3
350 lbs.  65       22750 in.3
               lb.
With a 12 inch deep grain bed:


                                                      42
 22750 in.3
               1895 .9in.2
   12 in.
Inner support column is 6 inches in diameter so ri is 3 inches:
ro 2  ri 2  1895.9in.2
ro 2  1895.9in.2  ri 2
       1895.9in.2   3 2
ro                           24.74in.  25in.
               

    7.2. Steeping Water Volume Calculations




Must take the volume of barley into account. Weighed out 76.11 grams of barley and place into a beaker. Added
90 mL of water to beaker so that the water line was at the 150 mL line on the beaker. So:




With a 150 lb. batch:



Maximum water volume would then be:



    7.3. Spray Nozzle Flow Rate Calculations
Target a 15 min. fill time:



Using five filling nozzles the minimum flow rate per nozzle must be:




                                                        43
   7.4. Airflow Calculations

John Cuti of Great Western Malting Co. gave us some numbers based on their airflow rates. For germination
they flow 300,000 CFM for 1,460,000 lbs. of barley.
 300 ,000 CFM            CFM
                  0.205
 1,460 ,000 lbs.          lb.

During kilning they flow 500,000 CFM for 365,000 lbs. of barley.
500 ,000 CFM           CFM
                1.370
 365 ,000 lbs.          lb.

The airflow rate is much lower per pound during germination so to get the lower limit the fan will need to flow
we see what the rate would be with 150lbs. of barley:
      CFM
0.205        150lbs.  30.75CFM
        lb.

For the upper limit we use the kilning airflow rate per pound with a maximum batch size of 300 lbs. of barley:
      CFM
1.370        300lbs.  411CFM
        lb.

We have an anemometer which measures the air velocity. In order to check that we are attaining the desired
flow rate we need to convert volumetric flow rate to air velocity for both a four inch duct and six inch duct.
4” inch duct diameter




6” duct diameter




                                                        44
    7.5. Aeration Rate Calculations

John also gave us an aeration rate of 25 CFM per 25 tons of barley. Along with the aeration rate he told us that
they use 1 nozzle per 3.2 square feet of water surface area. The aeration rate is the amount of air bubbled
through the steeping water.
  25CFM                CFM
               0.0005
 50 ,000 lbs.           lb.

The grain cannot be over-aerated an so we find the aeration rate for 350lbs. of barley:
                   CFM
350 lbs.  0.0005            0.175 CFM
                     lb.
                   min .            L           L
0.175 CFM  60             28 .32 3  297 .36
                    hr.            ft .        hr.
                                        2
From section 7.1 there is 1895.8 in of surface water:
                          ft.2
1895.8in.2  0.00694 2  13.2 ft.2
                         in.
          2
 13.2 ft.
               4.125  4 Nozzles
      ft.2
3.2
    Nozzle

    7.6. Boom Rotation Time Calculations
Perimeter   D   3in  9.42in
9.42 rotation (3 rotation )  28.26 min
        in
                   min
                                    in


154.5in
      in
           5.47 min
28.26 min




                                                       45
7.7. FEA on load cell support beams




                                      46
47
                                8. APPENDIX B: BILL OF MATERIALS


Part Description                    Manufactur   Mfg. Part     Qua     Unit     Total     Lead   Order   Arriv   Return
                                    er           Number        nity    Cost     Cost      Time   ed?     ed?     ?
1/2" Auger Shaft 6ft                McMaster     1256T18           1   $58.6    $58.6     1      Yes     Yes     Return
                                                                            0         0   week                   ed
Drive Sprocket Shaft, 5/8 in        McMaster     1301T191         1    $26.3    $26.3     1      Yes     Yes
diameter, 3 ft length                                                       2         2   week
304 SS Round Rod Dia 3/4" 12"       McMaster     1301T221         1    $17.9    $17.9     1      Yes     Yes
long                                                                        7         7   week
1" Dia. SS Shaft 3'                 McMaster     1301T262         2    $47.8    $95.6     1      Yes     Yes
                                                                            3         6   week
6"x6" Steel Plates                  McMaster     1388K111         4    $33.6    $134.     1      Yes     Yes
                                                                            8      72     week
3' Hinge                            McMaster     1658A7           1    $15.3    $15.3     1      Yes     Yes
                                                                            3         3   week
4" Handle                           McMaster     1726A33          1    $9.17    $9.17     1      Yes     Yes
                                                                                          week
auger shaft sprocket                McMaster     2345K361         3    $71.3    $213.     1      Yes     Yes
                                                                           1       93     week
Stainless Steel 14 teeth sprocket   McMaster     2345K382         1    $89.9    $89.9     1      Yes     Yes
                                                                           9        9     week
3 inch diameter sprocket            McMaster     2345K421         2    $101.    $203.     1      Yes     Yes
                                                                          59       18     week
5 in diameter sprocket              McMaster     2500T129         1    $49.6    $49.6     1      Yes     Yes
                                                                           2        2     week
2.5 in diameter sprocket            McMaster     2500T463         1    $17.0    $17.0     1      Yes     Yes
                                                                           5        5     week
1/8" NPT Tap                        McMaster     2525A112         1    $5.20    $5.20     1      Yes     Yes
                                                                                          week
1/4" NPT Tap                        McMaster     2525A113         1    $6.02    $6.02     1      Yes     Yes
                                                                                          week
1/4" - 18 NPSM tap                  McMaster     2526A32          1    $23.8    $23.8     4      Yes     Yes
                                                                           9        9     days
1"-12 Tap                           McMaster     26035A222        1    $17.1    $17.1     1      Yes     Yes
                                                                           8        8     week
Shaft Coupling Dia 3/4"x.235"       McMaster     3084K33          1    $32.5    $32.5     1      Yes     Yes
Bore                                                                       3        3     week
Square Spray Nozzles                McMaster     33925K54         5    $11.1    $55.8     1      Yes     Yes
                                                                           6        0     week
Swivel fittings for nozzles         McMaster     34615K73         5    $18.2    $91.3     1      Yes     Yes     Return
                                                                           6        0     week                   ed 1
Triclamp 2"                         McMaster     4322K153         1    $11.3    $11.3     4      Yes     Yes
                                                                           3        3     days
Tri Clover Clamp                    McMaster     4322K156         1    $16.7    $16.7     1      Yes     Yes
                                                                           1        1     week
Tri Clover Ferrule                  McMaster     4322K166         1    $22.4    $22.4     1      Yes     Yes
                                                                           1        1     week
Tri Clover End Cap                  McMaster     4322K225         1    $23.8    $23.8     1      Yes     Yes
                                                                           1        1     week
Triclamp pipe fiting 2"             McMaster     4322K413         1    $64.2    $64.2     4      Yes     Yes
                                                                           2        2     days
Triclamp hose ferrule 2"            McMaster     4322K775         1    $38.0    $38.0     4      Yes     Yes
                                                                           1        1     days
1" to 1/2" elbow                    McMaster     4429K139         1    $18.9    $18.9     1      Yes     Yes
                                                                           6        6     week
                                                          48
2" Brass Elbow                       McMaster   4429K168    1   $36.2   $36.2   1      Yes   Yes
                                                                    3       3   week
3/4" to 1" Tee                       McMaster   4429K234    1   $26.4   $26.4   1      Yes   Yes
                                                                    6       6   week
1.5" to 3/4" reduction for HEx       McMaster   4429K746    2   $32.2   $64.4   4      Yes   Yes
                                                                    2       4   days
1" to 1/2" reduction                 McMaster   4443K757    1   $11.4   $11.4   1      Yes   Yes
                                                                    9       9   week
1" SS Elbow                          McMaster   4464K16     4   $10.2   $40.8   1      Yes   Yes
                                                                    2       8   week
2" SS Elbow                          McMaster   4464K19     1   $30.3   $30.3   4      Yes   Yes
                                                                    1       1   days
1" SS Tee                            McMaster   4464K53     3   $14.6   $43.9   1      Yes   Yes
                                                                    6       8   week
2" SS Tee                            McMaster   4464K56     2   $46.4   $92.8   4      Yes   Yes
                                                                    4       8   days
1" SS Cap                            McMaster   4464K89     1   $9.13   $9.13   1      Yes   Yes   Return
                                                                                week               ed
2" to 1" bushing                     McMaster   4464K173    2   $19.7   $39.4   4      Yes   Yes
                                                                    0       0   days
1" SS coupling                       McMaster   4464K216    1   $13.8   $13.8   4      Yes   Yes
                                                                    2       2   days
Triclamp gasket 2"                   McMaster   4509K15     1   $0.45   $0.45   4      Yes   Yes
                                                                                days
Tri Clover Gasket                    McMaster   4509K18     1   $1.09   $1.09   1      Yes   Yes
                                                                                week
Overflow Elbow SS304                 McMaster   45605K516   1   $11.2   $11.2   1      Yes   Yes
                                                                    9       9   week
3/4" NPT Nipple                      McMaster   4568K191    1   $2.77   $2.77   1      Yes   Yes
                                                                                week
3/4" brass nipple for steam          McMaster   4568K194    1   $4.65   $4.65   4      Yes   Yes
solenoid                                                                        days
Teflon Tape                          McMaster   4591K12     2   $1.74   $3.48   4      Yes   Yes
                                                                                days
2" Brass Ball Valve                  McMaster   47865K28    1   $51.0   $51.0   1      Yes   Yes
                                                                    3       3   week
1" SS304 Pipe 24"                    McMaster   4813K61     1   $38.5   $38.5   1      Yes   Yes
                                                                    5       5   week
1" SS304 Pipe 36"                    McMaster   4813K62     1   $57.8   $57.8   1      Yes   Yes
                                                                    4       4   week
1" SS Threaded Pipe 18"              McMaster   4813K126    1   $28.9   $28.9   1      Yes   Yes
                                                                    6       6   week
2" Pipe SS304 18"                    McMaster   4813K129    2   $55.9   $111.   1      Yes   Yes
                                                                    4      88   week
2" SS Nipple 3.5"                    McMaster   4830K164    1   $11.2   $11.2   4      Yes   Yes
                                                                    2       2   days
1" SS Nipple 1.5"                    McMaster   4830K221    3   $3.50   $10.5   4      Yes   Yes
                                                                            0   days
1" SS Nipple for check solenoid 2"   McMaster   4830K223    1   $4.27   $4.27   1      Yes   Yes
                                                                                week
1" SS Nipple 4"                      McMaster   4830K226    1   $7.50   $7.50   4      Yes   Yes
                                                                                days
1" SS Threaded Pipe 8"               McMaster   4830K229    3   $12.3   $37.1   1      Yes   Yes
                                                                    9       7   week
1" SS Threaded Pipe 12"              McMaster   4830K232    1   $17.9   $17.9   1      Yes   Yes
                                                                    5       5   week
2" SS pipe 4"                        McMaster   4830K286    1   $11.7   $11.7   4      Yes   Yes
                                                                    6       6   days
2" SS pipe 5"                        McMaster   4830K287    2   $14.2   $28.5   4      Yes   Yes
                                                      49
                                                                  5       0   days
2" SS pipe 8"                     McMaster   4830K289     1   $22.3   $22.3   4      Yes   Yes
                                                                  2       2   days
1" SS Nipple 2.5"                 McMaster   4830K324     1   $4.98   $4.98   4      Yes   Yes
                                                                              days
Compression Tube Adapter          McMaster   50775K339    5   $1.60   $8.00   1      Yes   Yes   Return
                                                                              week               ed 4
Flow rate meter                   McMaster   5079K26      1   $38.9   $38.9   4      Yes   Yes
                                                                  4       4   days
Through Wall spray fittings       McMaster   5111K207     5   $11.2   $56.0   1      Yes   Yes
                                                                  0       0   week
3/16" to 1/8" tube adapter        McMaster   5116K82      1   $2.88   $2.88   1      Yes   Yes
                                                                              week
3/16" ID Air Line                 McMaster   5195T64     25   $0.37   $9.25   1      Yes   Yes
                                                                              week
1/2" Tube Manifold                McMaster   5203K65      1   $23.7   $23.7   1      Yes   Yes
                                                                  0       0   week
Hose for discharge 2"             McMaster   5293K42     10   $2.72   $27.2   4      Yes   Yes
                                                                          0   days
3/16" Through wall tube adapter   McMaster   5463K821     1   $11.5   $11.5   1      Yes   Yes
                                                                  9       9   week
1/2" dia shaft bearing            McMaster   5912K16      4   $10.2   $41.0   1      Yes   Yes
                                                                  7       8   week
5/8" dia shaft bearing            McMaster   5912K17      2   $11.7   $23.4   1      Yes   Yes
                                                                  0       0   week
SS 3/4" shaft coupling            McMaster   6099K43      1   $41.9   $41.9   1      Yes   Yes
                                                                  8       8   week
Chain Connecting Link             McMaster   6264K52      3   $2.78   $8.34   1      Yes   Yes
                                                                              week
ANSI 40 SS roller chain           McMaster   6264K56      1   $15.4   $15.4   1      Yes   Yes
connecting link                                                   6       6   week
ANSI 40 SS roller chain 20 ft     McMaster   6264K407     1   $386.   $386.   1      Yes   Yes
                                                                 20      20   week
ANSI 40 SS roller chain 5 ft      McMaster   6264K531     1   $96.5   $96.5   1      Yes   Yes
                                                                  5       5   week
2" Linear Ball Bearings           McMaster   6489K68      4   $143.   $573.   1      Yes   Yes
                                                                 39      56   week
SS 1" dia shaft bearings          McMaster   6670K22      2   $71.7   $143.   1      Yes   Yes
                                                                  2      44   week
Conduit Fittings                  McMaster   7119K72     20   $1.75   $35.0   4      Yes   Yes
                                                                          0   days
Auger bearings                    McMaster   7208K52      6   $23.0   $138.   1      Yes   Yes
                                                                  2      12   week
Ball Bearing 5/8" Dia.            McMaster   7208K53      2   $22.3   $44.7   1      Yes   Yes   Return
                                                                  9       8   week               ed
Ball Bearings1" Dia.              McMaster   7208K55      2   $30.1   $60.3   1      Yes   Yes
                                                                  8       6   week
Junction boxes                    McMaster   7219K11      4   $6.11   $24.4   4      Yes   Yes
                                                                          4   days
GHT to NPT adapter                McMaster   73605T85     2   $3.36   $6.72   1      Yes   Yes
                                                                              week
Flexible Conduit                  McMaster   74525K81    50   $1.24   $62.0   4      Yes   Yes
                                                                          0   days
3.5" dia. Steel Tube 1'           McMaster   7767T751     2   $44.1   $88.3   1      Yes   Yes
                                                                  5       0   week
2" dia. Steel rod 3"              McMaster   7786T16      1   $9.66   $9.66   1      Yes   Yes
                                                                              week
4" dia. Steel Plate 1/2"          McMaster   7786T52      4   $8.34   $33.3   1      Yes   Yes
                                                                          6   week
                                                   50
Electronic enclosure 24" x 20"      McMaster   7812K26        1   $263.   $263.   4      Yes   Yes
                                                                     23      23   days
Enclosure mounting panel.           McMaster   7812K66        1   $54.5   $54.5   4      Yes   Yes
                                                                      9       9   days
Loctite for thermocouples , etc.    McMaster   8149K13        1   $5.42   $5.42   4      Yes   Yes
                                                                                  days
Caster for Arm                      McMaster   8359T213       1   $24.2   $24.2   1      Yes   Yes
                                                                      7       7   week
1/8" Dia. SS 3'                     McMaster   88955K222      3   $13.1   $39.5   1      Yes   Yes
                                                                      8       4   week
1"x2"x6' Steel Bar                  McMaster   8910K294       6   $96.7   $580.   1      Yes   Yes
                                                                      4      44   week
304 SS Round Tube OD 2" ID 1.5"     McMaster   89495K113      1   $100.   100.0   1      Yes   Yes
24" long                                                             06       6   week
304 SS 24" Round Tube OD 6" ID      McMaster   89495K292      1   $352.   $352.   1      Yes   Yes
5.5"                                                                 59      59   week
DIN Rail 36"                        McMaster   8961K15        1   $4.90   $4.90   1      Yes   Yes
                                                                                  week
1/2" x 1/2" SS stock 6'             McMaster   89825K101      1   $36.7   $36.7   4      Yes   Yes
                                                                      7       7   days
304 SS Square Tube 1"x1" 72"        McMaster   89825K113      2   $59.7   $119.   1      Yes   Yes
long .120 thick                                                       2      44   week
304 SS Square Tube 2"x2" 72"        McMaster   89825K135      1   $108.   $108.   1      Yes   Yes
long .120 thick                                                      89      89   week
304 SS Rect Tube 4"x2" 72" long     McMaster   89825K666      1   $197.   $197.   1      Yes   Yes
                                                                     50      50   week
4"x6"x3' SS Rect Tube               McMaster   89825K743      1   $279.   $279.   1      Yes   Yes
                                                                     38      38   week
24"x36" SS sheet for diffuser       McMaster   8983K29        1   $52.0   $52.0   1      Yes   Yes
                                                                      3       3   week
12"x24"x0.60" SS plate              McMaster   8983K62        4   $23.6   $94.7   1      Yes   Yes
                                                                      8       2   week
Auger Boom Pivot Shaft 12" SS       McMaster   89895K274      1   $29.9   $29.9   1      Yes   Yes
.12" thick wall                                                       5       5   week
304 SS Rect Bar 4"X1/4" 12" long    McMaster   8992K491       4   23.41   93.64   1      Yes   Yes
                                                                                  week
304 SS 90 deg angle 3.5"x3.5" 3/8   McMaster   8993K871       1   $53.0   $53.0   1      Yes   Yes
thick                                                                 1       1   week
2" Round Tubing .120 6'             McMaster   89955K41       4   $85.1   $340.   1      Yes   Yes   Return
                                                                      1      44   week               ed 2
6" x 6" Medium Hard Rubber          McMaster   9013K851       1   $15.6   $15.6   1      Yes   Yes
                                                                      4       4   week
SS 6mm Locknut, 100 pack            McMaster   90715A007      1   $7.25   $7.25   1      Yes   Yes
                                                                                  week
Poly Tubing                         McMaster   9149T35       10   $2.40   $24.0   1      Yes   Yes
                                                                              0   week
SS 6mm Screws, 100 pack             McMaster   91500A148      1   $10.3   $10.3   1      Yes   Yes
                                                                      9       9   week
1" SS Nipple for Duct drain 3"      McMaster   9157K45        1   $5.11   $5.11   1      Yes   Yes
                                                                                  week
304 SS Round Disc Dia 6" 1/2"       McMaster   9208K77        1   $59.2   $59.2   1      Yes   Yes
thick                                                                 2       2   week
304 SS Round Disc Dia 8" 1/2"       McMaster   9208K84        2   $91.8   $183.   1      Yes   Yes
Thick                                                                 3      66   week
304 SS Wire Screen 36"x108"         McMaster   9226T271      27   $8.14   $219.   1      Yes   Yes
                                                                             78   week
bearing nut, 10 pack                McMaster   94804A335      2   $5.22   $10.4   1      Yes   Yes
                                                                              4   week
Auger Mounting Flange               McMaster   9684T1         2   $28.3   $56.6   1      Yes   Yes   Return
                                                        51
                                                                         0       0   week                ed 2
Stainless Steel Chamber             JVNW                         1   $0.00   $0.00   3       Yes   Yes
                                                                                     weeks
Drive Motor                         Bison Gear    011Q107-       1   $368.   $368.   1       Yes   Yes
                                                  0267                  95      95   week
12" x 15" Air-Steam Heat Coil       USA Coil &                   1   $742.   $742.   4       Yes   Yes
                                    Air                                 00      00   weeks
Grainger Blower                     Dayton        7D751          1   $587.   $587.   2       Yes   Yes
                                                                        00      00   weeks
Handheld Thermometer                Omega         HH67           1   $59.0   $59.0   1       Yes   Yes
                                                                         0       0   week
Anemometer                          Omega         HHF11A         1   $315.   $315.   1       Yes   Yes
                                                                        00      00   week
Load Cell                           Omega         LCGB-2K        1   $460.   $460.   1       Yes   Yes
                                                                        00      00   week
Steam Solenoid Coil                 Omega         SV14COIL-      1   $60.0   $60.0   1       Yes   Yes
                                                  12DC                   0       0   week
3/4" Steam Solenoid                 Omega         SV4003A        1   $310.   $310.   1       Yes   Yes
                                                                        00      00   week
1/2" Brass Solenoid                 Omega         SV6003         1   $104.   $104.   1       Yes   Yes
                                                                        00      00   week
3/4" Brass Solenoid                 Omega         SV6004         1   $178.   $178.   1       Yes   Yes
                                                                        00      00   week
1" Brass Solenoid                   Omega         SV6005         3   $194.   $582.   1       Yes   Yes
                                                                        00      00   week
Solenoid Coil                       Omega         SV8COIL-       5   $20.0   $100.   1       Yes   Yes
                                                  12DC                   0      00   week
1/2" Thermocouple 1/8" thread       Omega         TC-J-          1   $34.0   $34.0   2       Yes   Yes
                                                  1/8NPT-G-              0       0   weeks
                                                  72
4" Thermocouple Custom              Omega         TC-J-NPT-      4   $60.0   $240.   1       Yes   Yes
                                                  G-72-4                 0      00   week
1/2" Thermocouple 1/4" thread       Omega         TC-J-NPT-      2   $34.0   $68.0   1       Yes   Yes
                                                  G-72                   0       0   week
Air Pump                            Coralife      SL-38          1   $80.6   $80.6   1       Yes   Yes
                                                                         0       0   week
4" Stainless steel ducting          Madden                       1   $517.   $517.   1       Yes   Yes
                                    Fabrication                         50      50   week
PSU Power Cord                      Curtis                       1   $0.00   $0.00   1 day   Yes   Yes
Ethernet Cables                     Curtis                       1   $0.00   $0.00   1 day   Yes   Yes
National Instrument Chassis &       Jeff                         1   $0.00   $0.00   1 day   Yes   Yes
Modules                             Clawson
Air flow rotameter                  Grainger      5P332          1   $70.5   $70.5   1       Yes   Yes   Return
                                                                         6       6   week                ed
Stopwatch                           Traceable     137583         1   $29.8   $29.8   1       Yes   Yes
                                                                         7       7   week
Rectifiers 100V/1a Rectifier        Mouser        512-          10   $0.20   $2.00   1       Yes   Yes
General Purpose                     Electronics   1N4002                             week
Ethernet Crossover Cable            Mouser        545-N010-      1   $5.37   $5.37   1       Yes   Yes
                                    Electronics   010-GY                             week
Solid State Relays DIN Rail Mount   Mouser        558-           1   $70.2   $70.2   1       Yes   Yes
SSR 60V DC 10 AMP                   Electronics   CKM0610                1       1   week
Wire - Single Conductor 16AWG       Mouser        566-9980-      1   $64.8   $64.8   1       Yes   Yes
STR PVC, red                        Electronics   100-02                 0       0   week
Wire - Single Conductor 16AWG       Mouser        566-9980-      1   $64.8   $64.8   1       Yes   Yes
STR PVC, white                      Electronics   100-09                 0       0   week
Wire - Single Conductor 16AWG       Mouser        566-9980-      1   $52.0   $52.0   1       Yes   Yes
STR PVC, black                      Electronics   100-10                 3       3   week

                                                           52
3A to 220 Vdc, DIN Rail Relay,   Mouser        881-         6   $28.8   $173.   1       Yes   Yes
AC/DC Control                    Electronics   DX6R3E-              5      10   week
                                               02
Duct Damper                      McGill        UVC25        1   $85.0   $85.0   2       Yes   Yes
                                 Airflow                            0       0   weeks
4"x8"x36" Steel skids            Speedy                     2   $117.   $235.   1       Yes   Yes
                                 Metals                            52      04   week
400 watt PSU                     Dynex         DX-          1   $59.9   $59.9   1 day   Yes   Yes
                                               400WPS               9       9
VFD Controller                   AC Tech       ESV152N0     1   $330.   $330.   1 day   Yes   Yes
                                               2YXC                00      00
Welding                          RJH                        1   $2,05   $2,05   2       Yes   Yes
                                 Enterprises                     0.00    0.00   days
Custom Hex & Blower Duct         DIY Heating                1   $213.   $213.   4       Yes   Yes
                                                                   00      00   days
4" Tee Duct                      DIY Heating                1   $19.2   $19.2   4       Yes   Yes
                                                                    9       9   days
Stainless Steel Grating          Grating                    1   $558.   $558.   1       Yes   Yes
                                 Pacific                           00      00   week
Steam Trap                       Armstrong     881          1   $190.   $190.   1       Yes   Yes
                                                                   95      95   week
6" duct elbow                    Home                       2   $4.94   $9.88   1 day   Yes   Yes
                                 Depot
Wiring for VFD and Blower        Cherry City                1   $700.   $700.   1 day   Yes   Yes
                                 Elec.                             00      00
Screws for load cell             Home                       1   $0.48   $0.48   1 day   Yes   Yes
                                 Depot
4" Duct elbow                    Home                       2   $3.98   $7.96   1 day   Yes   Yes
                                 Depot
4" flexi duct                    Home                       2   $6.35   $12.7   1 day   Yes   Yes
                                 Depot                                      0
6" duct collar                   Home                       1   $4.28   $4.28   1 day   Yes   Yes
                                 Depot
Duct tape                        Home                       1   $3.38   $3.38   1 day   Yes   Yes
                                 Depot
                                 Home          034481115    1   $2.47   $2.47   1 day   Yes   Yes
                                 Depot               120
                                 Home          092326110    1   $12.8   $12.8   1 day   Yes   Yes
                                 Depot               167            9       9
Grounding Bar                    Home          782114793    1   $2.94   $2.94   1 day   Yes   Yes
                                 Depot               374
                                 Home          034481043   10   $1.94   $19.4   1 day   Yes   Yes
                                 Depot               928                    0
3/8" Nipple                      Home          048643072    4   $1.96   $7.84   1 day   Yes   Yes   Return
                                 Depot               411                                            ?
3/8" Hex Nipple                  Home          048643067    3   $1.93   $5.79   1 day   Yes   Yes   Return
                                 Depot               608                                            ?
Rectangular cover                Home          092326110    4   $1.07   $4.28   1 day   Yes   Yes
                                 Depot               013
                                 Home          051411276    8   $1.27   $10.1   1 day   Yes   Yes
                                 Depot               935                    6
1/2" Strap                       Home          051411961    4   $0.48   $1.92   1 day   Yes   Yes
                                 Depot               114
Ground Wire                      Home          051411463    1   $1.15   $1.15   1 day   Yes   Yes   Return
                                 Depot               199                                            ?
Flexible Connector               Home          051411204    2   $2.32   $4.64   1 day   Yes   Yes
                                 Depot               402
Conduit                          Home          051411640   15   $1.33   $19.9   1 day   Yes   Yes
                                 Depot               057                    5
                                                     53
Pipe Bushing                 Home         048643072    4   $2.44   $9.76   1 day   Yes   Yes
                             Depot              619
screws                       Home         030699332    2   $0.98   $1.96   1 day   Yes   Yes
                             Depot              113
2" caster                    Home         039003064    1   $2.98   $2.98   1 day   Yes   Yes
                             Depot              815
Hex bolts for caster         Home                      2   $0.42   $0.84   1 day   Yes   Yes
                             Depot
Hex nuts for caster          Home         000000436    6   $0.26   $1.56   1 day   Yes   Yes
                             Depot              971
Hex bolts                    Home                     16   $0.46   $7.36   1 day   Yes   Yes
                             Depot
Hex Nuts                     Home         030699968   16   $0.50   $8.00   1 day   Yes   Yes
                             Depot              480
Mesh bag                     Corvallis                 1   $5.95   $5.95   1 day   Yes   Yes
                             Homebrew
Terminal Kit                 Fred Meyer                3   $3.59   $10.7   1 day   Yes   Yes   Return
                                                                       7                       1?
Heat Shrink                  Jerry's                   1   $1.99   $1.99   1 day   Yes   Yes
Spade Terminal               Jerry's                   1   $2.19   $2.19   1 day   Yes   Yes
Ring Terminal                Jerry's                   2   $2.19   $4.38   1 day   Yes   Yes
PVC Connector                Jerry's                   1   $5.99   $5.99   1 day   Yes   Yes
Surge Protector              Jerry's                   1   $8.99   $8.99   1 day   Yes   Yes
16 gauge power cord          Jerry's                   1   $7.47   $7.47   1 day   Yes   Yes
90 degree brass elbow        Jerry's                   1   $4.19   $4.19   1 day   Yes   Yes
Brass hex nipple             Jerry's                   1   $5.29   $5.29   1 day   Yes   Yes   Return
                                                                                               ?
Braided PVC                  Jerry's                   6   $1.78   $10.6   1 day   Yes   Yes
                                                                       8
Plastic barbs for PVC        Jerry's                   6   $1.69   $10.1   1 day   Yes   Yes
                                                                       4


Computer desk                                          1   $300.   $300.           No
                                                              00      00
disconnecting means switch                             1   $20.0   $20.0           No
                                                               0       0
emergency stop button                                  1   $20.0   $20.0           No
                                                               0       0

Material Total Cost
                                                           $18,031.96




Shipping                     McMaster     420                      $88.9
                                                                       3
Shipping                     McMaster     420a                     $4.70
Shipping                     McMaster     426                      $9.68
Shipping                     McMaster     353                      $93.3
                                                                       8
Shipping                     McMaster     328                      $109.
                                                                      38
Shipping                     McMaster     378                      $27.4
                                                                       3
Shipping                     McMaster     377                      $80.7
                                                 54
                                                      2
Shipping           McMaster    390                $18.4
                                                      5
Shipping           McMaster    385                $9.99
Shipping           Armstrong                      $9.20
Shipping           McMaster    456                $5.17
Shipping           McMaster    477                $10.6
                                                      0

Grand Total Cost
                                          $18,499.59

Budget                                    $20,000.00
Net                                       $1,500.41




                                     55
9. APPENDIX C: PART DRAWINGS




             56
10.APPENDIX D: BLOCK DIAGRAM AND GUI INTERFACE




                      57
            Component Information Flow Chart

                                       Monitor




                       Mouse         PC/ LABview        Keyboard                         Indicator Lights




                                    DAQ assistant


                                                                                                  Auto Valve 1
                                                                                                  (Sprinkler In)


                     Temperature                       Voltage Out
                                   Voltage In module
                       module                            modual

                                                                                                 Auto Valve 2
                                                                                                (Over Flow Out)
  Temp Probe 1
   (air flow in)



                                                                                                 Auto Valve 3
                                     Load sensor
                                                                                               (Waste Water Out)
  Temp Probe 2
  (Chamber air)



                                                                                                  Auto Valve 4
  Temp Probe 3                                                                                     (Steam In)
                                   Lid closed sensor
(Bottom grain bed)



                                                                                                  Auto Valve 5
                                                                                               (Pressurized air in)
                                                                     Center Turn Motor
  Temp Probe 4                     Auger arm home
 (Top grain bed)                    position sensor




                                                                       Auger Motor
  Temp Probe 4
    (water in)




                                                                       Blower Motor




                                                       58
OSU Mini Malter User Interface
   Parameter Set Up Panel
                                                                                                                    E-
                                                                               START
                                                                                                                   STOP
       Temperature and Flow Parameter Set Up




     Steep Water                  Germination                                              Kiln Air                Kiln Air
                                                            Germination
     Temperature                      Air                                                Temperature             Temperature
                                                            Air Flow Rate
                                  Temperature                                              Step 1                  Step 2



     Upper Limit: 70              Upper Limit: 70          Upper Limit: 30 cfm           Upper Limit: 250        Upper Limit: 250
     Lower Limit: 50              Lower Limit: 60          Lower Limit: 8 cfm            Lower Limit: 120        Lower Limit: 120



       Kiln Air
                                   Kiln Air Flow
     Temperature                                                                      System Status Indicators
                                       Rate
      Final Step



     Upper Limit: 250             Upper Limit: 500 cfm                                             Stand-           Cycle
                                                                              Error
     Lower Limit: 120               Lower Limit:30                                                   by           Running
                                                                            Indicator
                                                                                                  Indicator       Indicator




                     Time Step Set Up
                                                                               Cycle total Time: 10080 min



            Wash & Steep & Couch



     Wash Phase                                                                                                      Second
                                   First Steep               First Couch                 Second Steep
                                                                                                                     Couch




   Time Limit: 60 min           Time Limit: 540 min        Time Limit: 360 min          Time Limit: 360 min        Time Limit: 600 min




     Final Steep                  Final Couch                Extra Steep                  Extra Couch




   Time Limit: 240 min          Time Limit: 120 min         Time Limit: 60 min           Time Limit: 60 min




           Germination & Kiln


   Germination                    Interval
                                                                                        Second Kiln               Final Kiln
    Total time                    between                 First Kiln step
                                                                                           step                     Step
                                auger cycles




  Time Limit: 5760              Time Limit: 540          Time Limit: 120 min         Time Limit: 120 min           Time Limit 120




                                                                                     59
        OSU Mini Malter User Interface
         Graphical Cycle Monitor Panel
                                                                                                                             E-
                                                                                      START
                                                                                                                            STOP

  Cycle Progress
                                    Time Elapsed : 120 min




                                                                                                                         Extra
               Washing           First          First        Second         Second         Final          Final
Set Up                                                                                                                   Steep/         Germination
                Cycle           Steep          Couch          Steep         Couch          Steep         Couch
                                                                                                                         Couch


                                                                                              System Status Indicators

Auger         First Kiln      Second         Final Kiln
                                                             Finished!
Cycle           Step          Kiln Step        Step
                                                                                                          Stand-              Cycle
                                                                                        Error
                                                                                                            by              Running
                                                                                      Indicator
                                                                                                         Indicator          Indicator


 Cycle Temperature Profile




Temperature Measurment
      Increment
                                                              Graph of Temperature Probe data vs. Time



     Period between
   Measurements: 1 min




    Cycle Weight Profile




   Weight Measurment
       Increment
                                                                   Graph of Load Cell data vs. Time



     Period between
   Measurements: 1 min




         Water Use Profile




   Valve Signal Increment
                                                                   Graph of Valve Signal data vs. Time



          Period between
        Measurements: 1 min




                                                                                 60
                           11.APPENDIX E: PHOTOS & RENDERINGS

   11.1.       Irrigation System




Isometric view of the irrigation system




                                           61
Right side view of irrigation system




                                       62
Center column with spray nozzles and overflow drain in background




                                                    63
   11.2.      Heating/Ventilation System




Red arrows show the direction of airflow




                                           64
Custom made air diffuser on the air inlet of the plenum


                                 12.APPENDIX E: BIBLIOGRAPHY


       "Our Home: Distillery - Virtual Distillery Tour | Bowmore Islay Single Malt Scotch Whisky." Home |

Bowmore Islay Single Malt Scotch Whisky. Web. 18 Oct. 2010. <http://www.bowmore.co.uk/our-

home/distillery-virtual-distillery-tour?guide=eddie&location=malt-barn&play_all=false>.



       “Malt Plants.” MOPOS. Web. 19 Oct. 2010. <http://www.mopos.com/production-

programme/malt_plants.htm?lang=en>



       "Schmidt-Seeger Malt Processing Technology Malting Technology." Schmidt-Seeger GmbH. Web. 18

Oct. 2010. <http://www.schmidt-seeger.com/en/products_processing1.html>.



                                                      65