Chapters 32-38

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Chapters 32-38 Powered By Docstoc
					The Politics of Boom
     and Bust
       Political Background
• Harding served one term as U.S.
  Senator from Ohio.
• Republican convention chose
  Harding in 1920 because he was the
  least controversial
• May have been the worst President
  since Grant
• Chose some good people for cabinet
  positions, but most were crooks.
                 Were Back!
• The GOP was back in control and replaced
  progressivism with laissez-faire
• Harding nominated 4 (of 9) Supreme Court
  Justices in his term including ex-president Taft
  as Chief Justice
• Conservatism reigned supreme as the supreme
  court reversed progressive laws
  – Adkins v. Children‘s Hospital (1923) reversing Muller
    v. Oregon (special needs of women in the workplace)
  – Killed the federal child labor laws and restricted
    government intervention in the economy
             Disarmament
• ―Disarmament Conference in 1920-21
  resulted in the 4-Power Treaty which
  bound Britain, Japan, France and
  U.S. to preserve the status quo in the
  Pacific
• 9-Power Treaty opened all of China
• Kellogg-Briand Pact (pact of Paris) –
  Defensive wars were permitted
  preventing a dangerous armaments
  race and reducing the possibility of
  war
President Coolidge signs the Kellogg-Briand Pact 1929
          Raise that Tariff
• Fordney-McCumber Tariff Law raised the
  tariff from 27% to 38.5%
• In 6 years, Harding and Coolidge
  authorize 32 upward changes thinking
  they were protecting America from
  European postwar chaos
• This lack of economic trade created
  international economic distress
        Scandals in Harding‘s
           Administration
• Attorney Generals office accepted bribes
  not to prosecute cases.
• Charles Forbes head of the veterans
  bureau had $250,000 unaccounted for
• Albert B. Fall Sec. of Interior illegally
  leases federal oil reserves after receiving a
  bribe of $100,000+ (Teapot Dome
  Scandal)
• Sales of pardons and illegal alcohol
  permits
       Teapot Dome Scandal
• Federal oil reserves were under control of
  the department of war.
• Fall gets them shifted to Dept. of Interior
• Fall leases Elk Hills in Calif. and Teapot
  Dome in Wyo. to several oil co.
• Fall is given as a gift a cattle ranch in New
  Mexico and hundreds of cattle
    Harding’s Death
• Harding is on a Western states tour
• He and his Ohio Gang play cards drink
  and have a great time
• In Seattle, Harding begins to complain of
  chest pains
• Harding personal physician says it was the
  fish he ate, and the next day Harding dies
  of a Heart attack (August 2, 1923)
        “Silent Cal”
• Calvin Coolidge took the Oath of Office in
  his father‘s house in New England
• Coolidge was a quiet man, shy, and only a
  mediocre leader
• Coolidge was a status quo type of
  president which allowed big business to
  lead the way and morality gave way to
  prosperity
              Farmers
• During the wartime years farmers had
  raked in the money aided by government
  guaranteed pricing
• Once U.S. farmers re-entered the world
  market and technology was used on the
  farms, surpluses in agriculture threatened
  bankruptcy
• 1 in 4 farms survived in the 1920‘s which
  fueled the need for agricultural reform
            Election of 1924
• Republicans kept Coolidge
• Democrats were split by cultural tensions and
  lifestyles (ie. Urbanites and farmers)
• Finally, they nominated John W. Davis (a
  wealthy corporation leader)
• The new Progressive party nominated Senator
  LaFollette supported by farmers
• But the overwhelming prosperity of the U.S.
  allowed Coolidge to slip back into office
1924 Presidential Election Results
               Foreign Policy
• Isolationism continued through the 1920‘s
• The exception was in Latin America where
  Coolidge used force to maintain control
• Foreign debts was the problem that Coolidge
  faced
  – $10 billion the U.S. had lent to European nations was
    now due
  – Tariff walls made it impossible for European countries
    to make a surplus and pay their debts
         The Dawes Plan
• Charles Dawes rescheduled Germany‘s
  reparations and lent money to Germany to
  pay reparations so the Allies could be paid
  so they could pay the U.S.
• American credit soared and quickly
  became a financial catastrophe by 1929
• He American image in Europe became a
  greedy ―Uncle Sam‖ and soared relations
  between Europe and the US
          Election of 1928

• Coolidge decides not to run for president
  which leaves the Republican nomination to
  Herbert Hoover
• Democrats nominated 4-time NY governor
  Alfred E. Smith
• Hoover triumphed in a landslide
1928 Presidential Election Results
The Economy of the Late 1920s
            • ―Everybody ought to be
              rich‖
            • 200 large companies
              controlled 49% of all
              American industry
            • Too many goods, not
              enough demand
            • Farm prices fell after WWI
            • Farmers not able to repay
              their debts
     The Stock Market Crash
• Stocks hit all-time highs in September of
  1929
• In October, stocks began to fall
• Ex. General Electric stocks bought for
  $400 sold for $283
• Black Tuesday—16.4 million shares sold,
  compared to average of 4 million
• This collapse of the stock market is
  known as the Great Crash
    Why did the market crash?
• Many people bought stocks on margin—like a
  loan
• Companies lied about their profits—remember
  Enron?
• The nation‘s ability to produce goods outran its
  ability to consume them
• Republican Presidents believed in laissez
  faire—no control on businesses
• Stock market was not regulated by government
 The Stock Market Crash
  From Riches to Ruin
• Many wealthy families lost everything, some
  even committed suicide
• Over 5,000 banks collapsed after the first 3
  years of the depression
• Millions of people who never owned a single
  stock lost their jobs, farms and homes
• Bread lines formed, soup kitchens dispensed
  food, families broke down, men blamed
  themselves and the birthrate dropped
• The crash triggered a much wider, long term
  crisis known as the Great Depression
Great Crash
           Hoover Helps?
• The Agricultural Marketing Act – (June
  1929) set up the Federal Farm Board to
  lend money to farm organizations
• (1930) Created the Grain Stabilization
  Corporation and the Cotton Stabilization
  Corporation whose prime goal was to buy
  up surpluses
• Soon prices dropped and both
  departments were overwhelmed
            Hoover Helps?
• Hoover had made a campaign promise to
  lower the tariffs
• The Hawley-Smoot Tariff of 1930 started
  out to lower tariffs but when pushed
  through the Senate and the lobbyists, it
  raised the tariff to nearly 60%
• To all other countries it was a declaration
  of a trade war
                Misery
• If man-made disasters weren‘t enough, the
  Mississippi experienced severe drought in
  1930
• The depression became a calamity with no
  solution
• ―Hoover blankets‖ (newspapers) and
  ―Hoover towns‖ (shacks of scavenged
  materials) became common throughout
  cities across America
          Hoover‘s Dilemma
• Hoover followed the idea of ―rugged
  individualism‖ and shrank from
  governmental handouts
• Only after the depression worsened did he
  try to fix it through ―trickle down‖
  economics
  – Assist the big industries to restore economic
    health
Pioneer for the New Deal
         • Hoover convinced
           Congress to vote immense
           sums ($2.2 billion) for
           useful public works
         • Hoover Dam on the
           Colorado River; established
           the Reconstruction Finance
           Corporation (RFC) and
           passed the Norris-La
           Guardia Anti-Injunction Act
           in 1932 outlawing ―yellow
           dog‖ contracts
      Impoverished Veterans
• Many veterans of WWI were hard hit by
  the depression
• Congress deferred bonuses in 1924 to be
  paid by 1945 and the veterans wanted
  them immediately
• Thousands of veterans moved on
  Washington called the ―Bonus
  Expeditionary Force‖
             Bonus Army
• After the pending bonus failed in Congress
  (summer of 1932) the bonus army failed to
  decamp
• Riots began and Hoover ordered the
  eviction of the Hoover riff-raff by General
  Douglas MacArthur using bayonets and
  tear gas
• The brutal episode brought down the
  popular 1928 Hoover
    Japan’s Imperialism
• September 1931 – Japan invaded
  Manchuria violating the League of Nations
  and other treaties Japan had signed
• The collective security of the world died
Great Depression
    and the
   New Deal
          Election of 1932
• Republicans nominated Hoover without
  enthusiasm
• Democrats nominated Franklin D.
  Roosevelt from NY (distant cousin of T.R.)
• Roosevelt‘s platform focused on a ―New
  Deal‖ for the common man
• Hoover was swept out of office
Election of 1932
Franklin D. Roosevelt to Herbert Hoover: Just leave
       them Herb. I'll do it all after March 4th.
    The Three “R”’s
• In Roosevelt‘s inaugural address, he promised
  the government would wage war on the
  depression
  – His historic quote: ―the only thing to fear is fear itself‖
• He immediately called a special session of
  Congress to pass legislation to help the
  depression
• His reform laws were meant to give relief,
  recovery and reform
            100 Days
• Many of the reforms was owed to the
  Progressive movement and long overdue
• New Deal measures embraced ideas as
  unemployment insurance, old-age
  insurance, minimum wage laws,
  conservation and child labor
         Managing Money
• The banking crisis needed to be solved
• Roosevelt pumped confidence into the
  American people using his famous
  ―fireside chats‖
• The Glass-Steagall Banking Reform Act
  created the Federal Deposit Insurance
  Corporation (FDIC) which insured
  individual deposits up to $5,000
             Prohibition?
• Roosevelt supported and then signed a bill
  to legalize the sale of beer with a 3.2%
  alcohol content
• The repeal of prohibition was ratified later
  in 1933
         CCC & CWA
• Civilian Conservation Corps provided
  employment for young men
• Projects included planting trees, building
  reservoirs, developing parks, and
  improving irrigation
• Civil Works Administration put 4 million
  people to work constructing schools, roads
  and parks
          NRA & PWA
• The National Recovery Administration
  called for a temporary ―blanket code‖ -
  national minimum wage and workers were
  allowed to organize unions
• The Public Works Administration spent
  over $4 billion public works (ie. Grand
  Coulee Dam)
Grand Coulee Dam
                 TVA
• The Tennessee Valley Authority (1933)
  was passed to create thousands of jobs by
  developing hydroelectric power
• The result was full employment of the
  area, cheap electric power, low-cost
  housing, restoration of eroded soil,
  reforestation, and clean water
 Housing and Social Security
• Federal Housing Administration (FHA) gave
  loans to people improving their homes or
  building new ones
• Gave birth to U.S. Housing Authority (USHA)
  which lent money for low-income housing
• Social Security Act of 1935 – provided federal-
  state unemployment insurance and retired
  workers would receive payments generated by
  the currently employed
Paying the Farmers Not to Farm
• Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA)
  was established to create ―artificial scarcity‖ by
  eliminating surpluses by limiting the amount of
  acreage farmed
• It did raise farm income but produced farming
  unemployment as a result
• It was found unconstitutional in 1936 and the
  Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act of
  1936 paid farmers to leave their land fallow or
  plant soil conservation crops (ie. Soybeans)
        The Dust Bowl
• The Great Plains region—N. & S. Dakota,
  Nebraska, Colorado, Kansas Oklahoma and
  northern Texas
• Farmers plow the plains, eliminating the
  protective layer of grass
• Wheat replaces grass—tractors make it
  much easier
• Severe drought
• High winds
• Layers of top soil blown away, leaving
  dunes of grit and sand
        ―Okies‖ and ―Arkies‖
• For the next five years, 350,000 refugees
  fled the dust bowl area and headed for the
  agricultural fields of California in
  ―junkyards on wheels‖
• John Steinbeck wrote the best seller The
  Grapes of Wrath (1939)
An abandoned farm in
      Kansas
A family in a “lean-to” tent
A family trying to escape
     the dust bowl
     Organized Labor
• The Supreme Court disbanded the
  NRA
• The Wagner Act (National Labor
  Relations Act of 1935) reasserted the
  right of labor to self-organize and
  bargain collectively through
  representatives of their own choice
  – The Committee for Industrial
    Organization (CIO) led by John L. Lewis
    won support from unskilled workers using
    the sit-down strike
       Wages and Hours Bill
• Congress passed the Fair Labor
  Standards Act in 1938 which established
  minimum wages and maximum hour levels
• The eventual goal was $.40 an hour and a
  40 hour work week where working children
  under 6 was illegal
  – Excluded agricultural, service and domestic
    workers
           Election of 1936
• Republicans nominated the governor of
  Kansas, Alfred M. Landon
• Republicans criticized the ―New Deal‖ as
  socialist while President Roosevelt
  claimed ―I welcome their hatred.‖
• Democrats road the landslide election
  back into the White House
1936 Election
           The Nine Old Men
• Being elected overwhelmingly gave
  Roosevelt the ―green light‖ for New
  Deal programs
• The conservative Supreme Court had
  overturned 7/9 cases brought before
  them
• Six of the nine judges were over 70
  which Roosevelt viewed them as
  obstructive
• Roosevelt proposed that a new judge
  be admitted for every judge over
  seventy bringing the count to 15 judges
Packing the Court?
• FDR was hugely criticized and one of FDR‘s
  biggest political mistakes
• However:
  – Justice Owen J. Roberts began voting liberally
  – The Supreme Court upheld minimum wage, Wagner
    Act and the Social Security Act
  – One resigned and FDR name Justice Hugo Black to
    the court
  – By losing the battle of court packing, he won the
    support of his New Deal
       Deficit Spending
• 1937 – the economy took a
  sharp downturn
• Roosevelt turned to the British
  economist John M. Keynes by
  using planned deficit spending
  (Keynesianism)
• This became the new spending
  tradition of the federal
  government
            Critics Say
• Roosevelt saved free enterprise
• Roosevelt has been called the greatest
  conservative since Hamilton (Hamiltonian
  in big government and Jeffersonian in
  looking out for the ―common Man‖
• Roosevelt guided America when the ideas
  of communism and fascism swept Europe
SHADOW OF
   WAR
        London Conference
• Summer of 1933 – 66 nations met to work
  out foreign trade and to stabilize the
  exchange rate in all foreign currency
• Roosevelt pulls out of the conference not
  wanting to be tied to other economies
• This collapse of cooperation encourages
  European nationalism and stops
  international cooperation
           Wash our hands
• U.S. isolationism encourages the promise
  of Filipino independence by 1946 in the
  McDuffie Act of 1934
• Recognized the Soviet Union in 1933
• Roosevelt ushered in the ―Good Neighbor‖
  policy to Latin America
  – Marines left Haiti 1934
  – Cuba was released from the Platt Amendment
  – Mexico was allowed to nationalize oil fields
       Reciprocal Trade
• Secretary of State Cordell Hull wanted low
  tariffs, believing trade was a two-way
  street
• Reciprocal Trade Agreements of 1934
  allowed the president to lower tariffs up to
  50% provided the other country was willing
  to respond
• Hulls succeeded in negotiating 21 pacts
  with other countries by 1939
         Europe’s Dictators

• Communist USSR led by
  Joseph Stalin
• Fascist Italy run by Benito
  Mussolini
• Nazi Germany run by Adolf
  Hitler
Rome-Berlin Axis 1936
          The Rising Sun

• 1931 – Japanese invade Manchuria and
  drop out of the League of Nations
• 1934 – terminated the Washington Naval
  Treaty
• 1938 - Japanese controlled most of China
• Japan signed a treaty with Germany and
  Italy
       Mussolini and Africa
• Mussolini began to rebuild
  his armies
• Mussolini wanted a colonial
  empire
  – Most territories were already
    taken
  – Mussolini invaded the small
    country of Ethiopia
  – Nobody tried to stop Italy;
    League of Nations lost the
    ability to guard the world
 U.S. Neutrality Acts of 1935-37

• 1. No transportation of weapons or
  other items to warring nations
• 2. No borrowing money from the U.S.
• 3. Americans were not allowed to
  travel on vessels belonging to warring
  nations
     Spanish Civil War
• Hitler supported fascist Francisco Franco and
  his rebel army against the Republican
  government (a practice war for Germany)
• By March 28, 1939, all Republican armies
  disbanded or surrendered
• Franco became dictator of Spain
        Appeasing Japan
• August of 1937 – Roosevelt gave his
  ―Quarantine Speech‖
  – He called for economic embargoes which
    resulted in protests from isolationists not
    wanting direct involvement
  – America‘s isolationist mood intensified
           Re-Arming the
             Rhineland
• Buffer zone between Germany
  and France
• After WWI, no military in this
  corridor
• 1936, Hitler decides to re-
  militarize gambling that France
  wouldn‘t react
     Austrian Relation
• Hitler invades Austria
• Publicly claims a union (Anschluss)
  between Germany and Austria
• Britain and France don‘t react




                             Announcement to the
                             Reichstag of an Anschluss
      The Munich Conference
             betrays
         Czechoslovakia
• German minority lived in the
  Sudetenland
• Czechs had a string of
  strong fortifications along the
  border / their only defense
• Hitler demanded the
  acquisition of the
  Sudetenland to protect the
  German minority by October
  1, 1938
       Czechs call for help
• To avoid war Neville
  Chamberlain, (British
  Prime Minister) struck a
  deal with Hitler
• Hitler could have the
  Sudentenland if Germany
  promised to seek no more
  territorial expansion
• Britain betrayed the last
  democracy in eastern
  Europe
           Reasons for
          Appeasement
• Many Europeans believed that
  Germany had been wronged at
  Versailles
• Officials were scared of
  communism / Germany was anti-
  communism
• Britain and France underestimated
  Hitler‘s desire for conquest
• Britain and France followed a
  policy of appeasement
      Hitler and Stalin
• August 23, 1939,
  Hitler and Stalin
  sign a non-
  aggression pact
• Stalin buys time
  to bolster his
  military
                  WWII
• Hitler invades Poland
  September 1, 1939
• Britain and France declare
  war
• And Americans swore, they
  were not going to be
  ―suckers‖ again
• Hitler‘s Nazi army rolled over
  Denmark, Norway and
  conquered France by June
  1940
  Roosevelt’s Policy 1939
• September 1939- Congress lifted the
  ban on armed shipments
• Other materials used for war were to be
  sold on a ―cash and carry‖ basis
• Congress voted to rebuild the Army and
  Navy
• Sent American destroyers to Britain in
  return for military leases in the
  Caribbean
          Election of 1940
• Republicans had two leading contenders:
  Senator Robert A. Taft of Ohio and
  Thomas E. Dewey of NY
• At the Republican convention, latecomer
  Wendell L. Willkie turned the convention
• President Roosevelt vowed to see the
  crisis through and challenged the sacred
  two-term tradition
• Voters voted for experience
            Lend-Lease Act
• The Lend Lease Bill #1776 would allow a
  limitless amount of arms to victims of
  aggression
• It intended to bolster those nations
  indirectly defending the U.S. which
  abandoned any pretense of neutrality
• Hitler viewed it as a unofficial declaration
  of war
      Operation Barbarossa
• June 22, 1941 – Hitler invaded the Soviet
  Union betraying the Pact of 1939
• The United States sent aid immediately to
  the Soviet Union and extended $1 billion
  (out of $11 billion eventually)
• With Germany at the gates of Moscow, the
  Atlantic Conference was held
     The Atlantic Conference
• Winston Churchill and Franklin Roosevelt
  met and outlined the Atlantic Charter
  – No new territory after WW2
  – Self-determination of imperial colonies
  – Disarmament and a new League of Nations
        Clashes with U-boats
• July 1941 – Roosevelt made
  the decision to convoy lend-
  lease ships to Iceland
• After the US destroyer Greer
  tried to hunt a German U-
  boat, Hitler proclaimed a
  shoot-on-sight policy
• October 17 – Kearny was
  sunk and two weeks later the
  destroyer Reuben James
                     Oil
• After Germany captured France, the U.S.
  enacted economic sanctions against Japan
• Japan continued to pursue territory
• U.S. demanded Japan withdraw from China
• Japan invaded French Indochina
• Roosevelt froze all Japanese assets
• Japan needed the Dutch East Indies for oil
• Attacking the East Indies would mean war
The Plan of Attack

• Admiral Isoroko Yamamoto designed
  the conquest of the Western Pacific
• November 26th - 6 aircraft carriers and
  27 warships and auxillary craft left
  Japan for Hawaii
• 6 a.m. the first wave of fighters were
  launched
• Japanese aircraft arrived at 7:55 a.m.
First and Second Wave
      December 7, 1941
• U.S.S. Arizona hit and sunk with 1,177
  crew
• U.S.S. Oklahoma was hit and rolled killing
  400
• California and West Virginia sank at their
  moorings
• Nevada tried to run, but was beached to
  avoid blocking the harbor
Japanese Battle Photograph
Japanese Aerial Photo
Japanese Aerial Photo:
U.S.S. Arizona being hit
U.S.S. Arizona
U.S.S. Utah
U.S.S. West Virginia
Japanese Photograph:
  Torpedo hitting the
     Okalahoma
   U.S.S. Maryland and
capsized U.S.S. Oklahoma
U.S.S. Nevada beached
U.S.S. Shaw
U.S.S. Tennessee trapped
 between W. Virginia and
         Arizona
 U.S.S.
Downes &
 U.S.S.
 Cassin
Oil burning on the
      water
     December 7, 1941 losses
                       U.S.        Japan

• Personnel Killed     2,388
  64
• Personnel Wounded     1,178
  Unknown
• Ships sunk                  12
  5
• Ships damaged             9
• Aircraft destroyed      164
  29
• Aircraft damaged        159
  74
 U.S.S.
Arizona
Memorial
U.S.S Arizona’s Resting Place
Roosevelt Demands War
•   Roosevelt addresses congress
•   Congress declares war on Japan
•   Britain declared war on Japan
•   December 11, 1941 - Germany and Italy
    declared war on the U.S.
  Japanese controlled S.E.
           Asia
• Japanese seized Guam, Hong Kong, Malaya,
  Singapore, the Philippines, and the Dutch
  East Indies
• Douglass MacArthur was forced to retreat
  from the Philippines to the Bataan peninsula
• MacArthur fled by presidential order
• 78,000 American and Filipino soldiers
  surrendered
• Marched 120 miles on the infamous Bataan
  Death March
• 2/3 of American prisoners died
     Reasons for Japanese
          conquests
• U.S. was not prepared for war
• Britain was fighting for its life
• France and the Netherlands were
  occupied by Germany
• Some colony‘s welcomed the Japanese to
  escape colonial rule
America in
World War II
              Europe First
• The public cried ―Get Japan First‖
• Washington had agreed with the British
  (ABC agreement) of destroying Hitler first
• America had to tool itself for ―total war‖
• Unfortunately, the first victims of war
  would be our own
        Japanese Internment
• After Pearl Harbor, Anti-Japanese feelings
  intensified
• Americans thought Japanese would sabotage
  industry and espionage would occur
• Congress established the War Relocation
  Authority
• Evacuated more than 110,000 Japanese to
  internment camps in isolated areas
• Conditions resembled prisons
• Whites grabbed any private Japanese holdings
  at a fraction of what these holdings were worth
              Atonement?
• Dec 1944 - Korematsu v. United States
  (the Supreme Court upheld the
  constitutionality of the evacuation order)
• 1976 - President Gerald Ford admitted
  that the interment camps were wrong
• 1988 Japanese Americans received a
  formal apology
• Congress compensated Japanese
  survivors $20,000 each
    The Government Steps In
• Est. Office of Price Administration (OPA) -
  to keep shortages from causing inflation
• The War Production Board (WPB) -
  directed the conversion of peacetime
  industries to wartime manufacturing
• Created the Office of War Mobilization
  headed by James F. Byrnes
• ―assistant President‖ basically ran the
  country while Roosevelt ran the war
        Man & Woman Power
• 15 million men were enlisted
  in WW2; 216,000 women
  served in non-combative
  ways
• The draft left American
  businesses with a labor
  shortage
  – Mexican workers came to
    help agriculture
  – Women filled the factories
    (―Rosie the Riveter‖)
America Reaches Children
America Reaches Children
         Wartime Migrations
• War industry spurred migration for the
  chance to be employed
• 1.6 million blacks move west and north
• Native Americans moved to major cities
  – Some Indians of the Navajo tribe were used
    to send code in their native language (code
    talkers or windtalkers)
          A. Philip Randolph
• Organized African-Americans working on
  railroads / unionized them and won wage
  increases and cuts in working hours
• Planned a march on Washington for July 4,
  1941 over the discrimination in the work force.
• Roosevelt, concerned with national unity,
  signed Executive Order 8802 (opened all jobs in
  defense plants without discrimination) and
  created the Fair Employment Practices
  Commission
           Doolittle‘s Raiders
• 16 B-25 bombers, led by James Doolittle, left the
  Hornet to bomb Japan
• The decision was to bring the war home to the
  Japanese
• Flew 800 miles to bomb oil and navy
  installations
• Most planes flew off course / Doolittle hit a
  hospital / some dropped payload in ocean / one
  crashed in the Soviet Union
• Sent a message to the Japanese public that they
  were not immune from attack
               Coral Sea
• First carrier battle in history
• Lasted two days, with the Japanese
  abandoning their attack and invasion in
  New Guinea
• US lost the Lexington and the Yorktown
  was damaged - 81 aircraft lost
• Japanese lost the Shoho - 105 aircraft
                  Midway
• Admiral Nagumo launched attack on Midway
• Yorktown raced to defend Midway with carriers
  and Enterprise and Hornet
• Admiral Yamamoto was unaware of the
  Enterprise and Hornet and was caught off guard
• Americans launched dive bombers and
  destroyed the Akagi, Kaga, Sorya, and Hiryu
• Japanese advantage was lost / US gained
  advantage in Pacific
Japanese Fighters and Midway Island
       Battle of Guadalcanal
• Japanese were building an airfield on
  Guadacanal
• US sent two task forces including 3
  carriers
• 5 separate sea battles would take place
• Japanese would send for reinforcements
• Americans continued to wear down the
  Japanese by sending reinforcements /
  high cost of life for victory
 Battle of
Guadalcanal
  Pacific Island Hopping ‗43-45
• Americans attempted to hop from island to
  island in the Pacific led by Admiral Chester
  Nimitz
• Japanese would fight to the death / no
  evacuation
• 1943 - US would take the Marshall Islands,
  Gilbert Islands and the Soloman Islands
• 1944 - Marianas, Philippines and Guam
• General Douglas MacArthur returned to the
  Philippines
               Iwo Jima
             (Spring 1945)
• US needed bomber bases closer to Japan
• US attacked February 19, 1945 and held
  the beach after brutal fighting / 4 days later
  captured Mount Suribachi
• Japanese troops dug an elaborate system
  of underground tunnels
• 25 days long, bloodiest of any Marine
  fight
• US casualties outnumbered Japanese
Iwo Jima
               Okinawa
      (April 1 - June 21, 1945)
• 82 days of fighting in Okinawa for US staging of
  Japanese invasion force
• One week of bombarding the island before
  invasion
• Japanese drew American forces into the interior
• Navy lost more than 5,000 men (FYI: 2nd to
  Pearl Harbor) due to kamikazes
• US casualties 75,000 / Japanese casualties
  120,000
     War Turns Against Hitler
• Oct 1942 - General Bernard
  Montgomery defeats Marshall Erwin
  Rommel at El Alamein
• January 1943 – U.S. bombers joined
  the RAF‘s bombing campaign using B-
  17 bombers (Flying Fortress)
• The Germans were besieged at
  Stalingrad and surrendered February
  2, 1943
• May 1943 - Axis forces in North Africa
  surrendered after defeat in Tunis
• Roosevelt and Churchill agree to an
  allied jump from Africa to Sicily to the
  Italian mainland
     Invasion of France
• June 6, 1944 (D-Day) – Operation Overlord
  began with the invasion of Normandy
  breaking Germany‘s ―Atlantic Wall‖
• Within a week, the Allies gained control of 80
  miles of coastline
• General George Patton drove his armored
  divisions across France
             Free France
• August 26, 1944 - With the assistance of
  the French resistance, Charles de Gaulle
  returned to the capital of France
• Allied forces moved toward Germany with
  the first important German city (Aachen)
  falling in October 1944
         Election of 1944
• Republicans nominated Thomas E.
  Dewey Governor of NY
• Democrats nominated Roosevelt
  for a fourth term
• Roosevelt‘s age concerned
  Democrats which created a vice-
  presidential battle for nomination
  which went to Senator Harry S.
  Truman
• Roosevelt won based on how well
  the war was going
        On to Berlin
• Allied forces under Eisenhower
  and Soviet forces moved
  towards Berlin
• One last desperate push was
  made by Hitler (Battle of the
  Bulge) in December 1944 but
  stalled
• By March, Allies had reached
  Rhine River and the Elbe River
  in April
• April 16, 1945 - Soviets started
  to bombard Berlin
• High-ranking Nazi‘s had
  already left the capital
          Roosevelt Dies
• Pressures of war allowed
  President Roosevelt to take a
  vacation in Warm Springs,
  Georgia
• April 12, 1945 - while
  Roosevelt was getting his
  portrait painted died of a
  cerebral hemorrage
• Eleanor Roosevelt notified
  Vice President Harry S.
  Truman he would be
  President
What happened to Mussolini?
• Allied forces pushed into northern Italy
• Mussolini and his mistress, Clara Petacci,
  were captured by partisans while trying to
  escape to Switzerland - both were shot
  – (FYI) Their bodies were taken to Milan and
    hung upside down in the center of town
• April 29 - the German commander in Italy
  surrendered unconditionally
Mussolini
           The Holocaust
• America has been criticized for not doing
  anything to help the plight of the Jews
  during the Holocaust
• Roosevelt‘s administration was slow to
  react
     End of the Third Reich
• April 29th - Hitler married Eva Braun
• April 30 - Hitler and Eva Braun commit
  suicide at his defensive bunker in Berlin
• Nazi party folded without Hitler and
  Germany unconditionally surrendered on
  May 8, 1945
• V-E Day (Victory in Europe)
The Manhattan Project
• June 17, 1942 - Roosevelt decided to
  pursue the development of the bomb
• Albert Einstein hinted of a German project
  in his 1939 letter to Roosevelt
• July 16, 1945 - the bomb was detonated
  from a 100ft tower at Jornado del Muerto
  desert in Alamogordo, New Mexico
• The bomb produced a huge crater, sent a
  mushroom cloud 8 miles high at the core
  it produced heat 3 times the sun
• (FYI) It had taken 2 years, 3 months and
  16 days to develop the first nuclear
  weapon
From left: Neils Bohr, Robert Oppenheimer, Richard Feyman, Enrico Fermi
     Truman’s Options
President Truman had 3 choices:
  Allied planners had worked out plans to
   invade Japan
  A possible naval blockade and conventional
   bombing could defeat Japan
  Use the new atomic bomb
      Potsdam Conference
• Truman was at Potsdam, Germany to
  discuss eastern European postwar plans
  (last meeting between the Big 3)
• July 26, 1945 - the Allies issued their
  demand that Japan surrender
     Japan’s Surrender
• August 15, 1945 - Emperor Hirohito
  broadcast Japan‘s surrender
• General MacArthur accepted the formal
  surrender on the battleship Missouri in
  Tokyo Bay on September 2, 1945
              August 6, 1945
• The Enola Gay (B-29), piloted by Colonel
  Tibbets, dropped ―Little Boy‖ on Hiroshima
• 80,000 died immediately
• 35,000 injured
• Others died later from radiation and fallout
• Japan did not respond to demands of
  surrender
• Stalin declared war on Japan on August 8th,
  attacking Manchuria, Korea and Sakhalin
• US dropped ―Fat Man‖ on Nagasaki
• (FYI) The Bock‘s Car, piloted by Major
  Sweeney, was originally supposed to bomb
  Kokura but it was overcast that day

				
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