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Forestry

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					         Forestry


    By: Johnny M. Jessup
FFA Advisor/Agriculture Teacher
Introduction
   There are 483 million acres of timberland in the
    United States and 248 million acres of other
    forestland for a total of 731 million acres.
What is Forestry?
   …. is the management
    of forests.
   A forest is a complex
    association of trees,
    shrubs, and plants
    which all contribute to
    the life of the
    community.
A Forest Consists of…
   Evergreens
       Trees that do not shed their leaves on a
        yearly basis.
       Conifers
         Evergreens  trees that have needle-like
          leaves and produce lumber called
          softwood.
Important Softwood Species
   Southern Pine
       Includes loblolly, longleaf, shortleaf, & slash pine.
       Most commonly used for pulpwood & plywood.
   Douglas Fir
       Perhaps the most important species of tree in the U.S.
       Used for construction lumber & plywood.
   Frazier Fir
       Used for commercial Christmas tree production.
       Grown in the mountains of North Carolina.
A Conifer Forest
A Forest Consists of…
   Deciduous Trees
       Trees that shed their leaves or needles every year and
        produce lumber called hardwood.
   Lumber
       Boards that are sawed from the trees and sold by the
        board foot.
   Board Foot
       A unit of measurement for lumber equal
        to 1” x 12” x 12”.
Important Hardwood Species
   Ash
       Used for handles & baseball bats.
       Resembles oak & has a high resistance to shock.
   Birch
       Used for furniture, plywood, & paneling.
       Made into veneer.
   Oak (Red & White)
       Flooring, furniture, & fencing.
       Very strong wood.
A Deciduous Forest
Forestry Products
   Plywood
       Construction material made of thin material made of
        thin layers of wood glued together.
   Pulpwood
       Wood used for making fiber for paper and other
        products.
   Veneer
       Very thin sheet of wood glued to a cheaper species of
        wood that is used in paneling & furniture making.
Forest/Wood Lot
 Management
Forest Management
   Proper management of a wooded area
    involves more than just the harvest of trees
    or the removal of unwanted species.
   Many factors have to be taken into
    consideration such as: soil, water, type of
    trees, and availability of markets.
   Scientific growing of trees is silviculture.
Goals of Forest Management
   To use forest
    resources without
    depletion of forest
    lands.
   Profit to the wood
    lot owner while
    preserving &
    making wise use
    of resources.
Replacing Harvested Trees
   Necessary in all but virgin forest or forests
    that have never been harvested by humans.
   Least expensive way of seeding is to
    replace harvested trees is “natural seeding”.
       Source of seed must be available in forest.
Replacing Harvested Trees
   A surer method of replacing harvested
    trees is to plant seedlings.
       Can be planted with one species or
        several compatible species.
Managing Growing Timber
   Prescribed burn
       Used to reduce risk of wild fires by
        eliminating forest litter.
   Prescribed thinning
       Recommended to remove some trees when
        competition slows the growth of all trees.
Harvesting Timber
   Clear Cutting
       All trees in an area
        are removed.
   Seed-Tree Cutting
       Cutting all but a few
        larger trees that
        remains as seed
        bearers.
Harvesting Timber
   Shelterwood Cutting
       Enough trees are left standing to reseed the lot and to
        protect the area until the young trees are well
        established.
   Diameter Limit Cutting
       All trees above a certain diameter are cut.
   Selection Cutting
       Used in mixed forests of trees consisting of different
        ages & species.
 Careers &
Equipment in
  Forestry
Forest Careers
   Are related to growing, managing,
    & harvesting trees for wood &
    wood by-products.
   Examples:
       Forester
       Forest Ranger
       Logging Foreman
Careers
   Foresters
       A service-oriented career
        that helps with the
        science of growing trees.
       Provide assistance in
        managing forests for the
        family as well as the
        commercial grower.
       May recommend
        reseeding a harvested
        tract with the most
        appropriate seedlings.
Careers
             Forest Ranger
                 Find employment
                  primarily with the
                  government to
                  manage forests on
                  state and federal
                  lands but may also
                  assist with fire
                  prevention, etc. on
                  private lands as well.
Careers
   Timber cruiser
       Hired by private landowners & companies to
        estimate the tree volume on a tract of land.
       Do outdoor work that requires
        physical stamina.
       Require a high school
        diploma and special
        training in estimating tree
        volume & value of timber.
Careers
   Logging Foreman
       Supervises a crew
        involved in the
        harvesting phase.
       Responsible for
        overseeing &
        managing logging
        operations.
Careers
   Chain Saw & Felling Machine Operators
       Take down trees & prepare them for loading.
Careers
   Skidder Operator
       Move felled trees from the cutting site to
        the loading area.
Careers
   Loaders
       Load felled trees on logging trucks.
Forestry Equipment
   Increment Borer
       Checking growth
        rate of trees.
       Used to
        determine the age
        of trees within a
        stand.
Forestry Equipment
   Planting Bar
       Used for setting
        out tree seedlings.
Forestry Equipment
   Tree Scale Stick
       Used to estimate tree volume.
Forestry Equipment
   Tree tape
       Gives the most
        accurate
        measurement in
        determining the
        average
        circumference of
        trees.
Measuring Trees
Biltmore Tree Scale Stick
   Used to measure diameter and height in
    trees.
   The stick is 25 inches long….
       This is also the distance you hold the stick
        from your eye when measuring.
Measuring Diameter
   Measure diameter at
    dbh (Diameter at
    Breast Height).
       dbh = 4 ½ feet from
        the ground
Measuring Height
   We measure height by walking 1 chain
    from the base of the tree.
   1 chain = 66 feet
Measuring Height




         1 Chain = 66 feet
Timber Marking
   Selecting trees that are to be cut before
    the harvest.
   Select individual trees that are….
       Inferior species; value wise
       Short bodied or otherwise poorly formed
       Overmature
       Injured as a result of disease, insects, etc.
Designed By:
   Johnny M. Jessup, FFA Advisor
       Hobbton High School