Five Famous Symbols of American Culture (DOC) by wpr1947

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									                                A Teaching Plan for Unit 4
                              (In New Horizon College English Book 3)

Ⅰ Time: 10 class hours
Ⅱ Contents:
     Listening and speaking
     Section A Five Famous Symbols of American Culture
     Section B Engelbreit’s the Name, Cute is My Name
Ⅲ Suggested Timetable:
 1. The first two-class-hour session for listening and speaking (Unit 4 in College English Listening
 and Speaking Course Book 3).
 2. Next four-class-hour session for Section A
 3. The fourth two-class-hour session for exercises of Section A
 4. The fifth two-class-hour session for Section B and Section C
Ⅳ Aims and Requirements:
Listening and Speaking:
1. Train the students’ ability to understand the main idea and grasp important details of the listening
2. Give the students a chance to exchange views on the texts they have heard to enable them to have
      a deeper understanding of the texts.
Section A Five Famous Symbols of American Culture
Students will be able to:
1. understand the main idea (some typical symbols of American culture)and structure of the
    text(narration according to the time sequence);
2. learn some rules of interpreting new vocabulary and usage related to culture in English;
3. grasp the key language points and grammatical structures in the text;
4. conduct a series of reading, listening, speaking and writing activities related to the theme of the
Section B       Engelbreit’s the Name, Cute is My Name
1. Teach the reading skill: appreciating figurative language.
2. Enable students to learn some new words and grasp the main idea of the text .
Ⅴ Focal Points and Difficult Points:
Listening and Speaking:
1. Enable students to be familiar with the passage listening skill
2. Grasp some words and expression which often appear in CET-4
Section A Five Famous Symbols of American Culture
1. The understanding of some terms in American culture
2. The differences between American and Chinese culture.
Section B     Engelbreit’s the Name, Cute is My Name
1. Ask the students retell the story.
2. Learn some new words.

VI. Suggested Teaching Procedure and Methodology:
Listening and Speaking:
1. Pre-listening Task: arrange the students in pairs and ask them to discuss the following
①What do you think of stress?
②Have you ever experienced stress?
③What should we do to deal with stress?
Some key words and expressions in Language Focus:
  stressful: adj, causing stress

2. Background Information:
      People often experience stress as a result of events in their lives. Stress is a physical condition
that results from real or expected problems. People may experience stress when they lose a job or feel
threatened. Common signs include increased heart rate, higher blood pressure and muscle tension.
3. Listening to text 1 and 2
4. Speaking Tasks: ask the students to get into pairs and explain to them how to carry out Speaking
    Task A- Reflections on the texts, then select a pair to present their views in class.

           Section A          Five Famous Symbols of American Culture

1. Introduction

                                      An E-mail From My Friend
Dear Gladys,
    How are you doing recently? I hope everything goes well. I have chosen Chinese culture this
semester, and I really have some problems understanding it, as it is quite different from the American
culture. Can you tell me some symbols of Chinese culture so that I can learn more about it and pass
this course successfully.
        I look forward to hearing from you soon.
           Best wishes!
                                                                                   Sincerely Yours,


(from the letter we can draw the students to the subject of Chinese symbols and therefore to the
American symbols, which is the topic of this unit)

2. Background Information
①The Statue of Liberty
   The idea of creating the Statue of Liberty began in France at a dinner party hosted by Edouard
Rene Lefebvre Laboulaye, a scholar. Laboulaye and Frédéric-Auguste Bartholdi, a sculptor, began to

discuss the idea of presenting the United States with a monument to memorialize independence and
human liberty.
   Bartholdi sailed from France to New York on June 8, 1871, to propose the building of the statue to
honor the friendship between France and the United States. As the ship pulled into New York Harbor,
Bartholdi spotted the perfect location, Liberty Island.
    Bartholdi traveled across the United States carrying a sketch of the statue and a small model.
Everyone was receptive, but financial backing was difficult to find.
②Barbie dolls
   It was the late 1950s when Ruth Handler noticed her daughter playing with paper dolls and
imagining them in grown-up roles. Since most dolls at the time were baby dolls, Ruth envisioned one
that would inspire little girls to think about what they wanted to be when they grew up. Ruth created a
teenage fashion model doll named Barbie (after her daughter), and the rest is history.
   Barbie has been an integral part of the lives of millions of young girls. Her timeless appeal has
resulted in a dedicated legion of fans that love to collect her.

3.. Pre-reading Activities
Listen to the passage and try to find out what are the five symbols.
Answer: 1. The Statue of Liberty
           2.   Barbie
           3.   American Gothic
           4.   Buffalo Nickel
           5.   Uncle Sam
   Passage A gives us some insight into the origins of symbols by which the United States of America
is known around the world. The Statue of Liberty is a female figure which derives from the two
favorite women in French artist Bartholdi’s life. Another symbol of American culture is the Barbie doll,
which derives from an old German toy model with the American designer’s daughter’s name on it.
The great American Gothic painting is in the medieval European style showing the faces of an
American dentist and the artist’s sister. The Buffalo nickel derives from an admiration for the
American Buffalo and the Indian people. The most lasting image of America derives from the partly
true but mostly fictitious story of Uncle Sam.

4. Work on Section A
A) Structure of the Text ( a method of analyzing the text structure is employed)
     Part 1 ( Paras. 1-4): The Statue of Liberty
     Part 2 ( Paras. 5-10): Barbie
     Part 3 ( Paras. 11-14 ):American Gothic
     Part 4 (Paras. 15-18):Buffalo Nickel
     Part 5(Paras. 19-22): Uncle Sam
B) Detailed study of each part.
Part 1 ( Paras. 1-4): The Statue of Liberty
A. Scan this part and try to find answers to these questions.

1.When, who, what?
2. Purpose?
3. About the creator?
4. How did he created the statue?
5. When did the creator finish the statue? How did he like the statue?

Answers for reference:
Who and what: Frederic Auguste Bartholdi, French artist
When: In the mid-1870s
Purpose: Celebrating US independence and the France-America alliance.
About the creator: He was in love with a woman whom he married in 1876 in spite of his mother’s
How did he create the Statue of Liberty?
It is said that he had used his wife’s arm as the model, but felt her face was too beautiful for the statue.
So for the face, he chose his mother’s.
When did the creator finish the statue? How did he like the statue?
In 1886; the creator called it “my daughter, Liberty”.

B. Language points
① His mother could not approve of her son’s affection for a woman she had never met. (para.2)
——his mother couldn’t agree to her son’s love for a woman…
vi. approve of (sb./sth.) 同意
→She doesn’t want to take her new boyfriend home in case her parents don’t approve (of him)
vt. approve sth./sb. 批准
→The Parliament has approved a program of education reform.
② The same year Bartholdi had assembled the statue’s right arm and torch,…(para.3)
——fit together (the parts of sth.)组装,装配
e.g. She spent the whole day to assemble the computer.)
——(cause people or things to) come together; collect (使)集合,(使)聚集
e.g. The whole school (was) assembled in the main hall)
③The Statue of Liberty was dedicated on an island…(para.4)
——dedicate oneself / sth. to sth.把…奉献给
e.g. dedicate her life to helping the poor)
——dedicate sth (to sb/sth) 以庄严的仪式把…奉献给(上帝. 圣徒等)
      e.g. the church was dedicated in 1880
       这座教堂于 1880 年举行献堂礼

Part 2 ( Paras. 5-10): Barbie
A. Scan this part and try to find answers to these questions.
1. Real name for Barbie?

2. Model for Barbie?
3. How do people feel about Barbie?

Answers for reference:
Barbie’s real name: Barbara
The creation of Barbie: The model for Barbie was a German doll; the new version was named after
Barbara, who was then a teenager.
How do people feel about Barbie?
Barbie has become the universally recognized Queen of the Dolls.
Barbara is said to have loved the doll but Ken, Barbara’s brother, was disgusted by the doll.

B. Language points
①Barbara Handler was the daughter of Elliot and Ruth Handler, co-founder of the Mattel Company.
co-founder 联合创始人
       (co- means accompany, sharing, with or joint)
e.g.       operate→ cooperate            exist→ coexist
        director → co-director ( Page 101 Ex Ⅶ)
②Although with an exaggerated breast size (para.7)
v. make (sth.) seem larger, more important, better or worse than it really is 夸张,夸大
e.g. This is a highly exaggerated version of the incident.
→The problem has been greatly exaggerated
※although with an exaggerated breast size
        ( although she has an ……)
——the structure of “conjunction+ prepositional phrase” ( Page 103 Ex Ⅸ)
③be disgusted by: dislike greatly. (para.10)
e.g. I was greatly disgusted by his words

Part 3 ( Paras. 11-14 ):American Gothic
A. Scan this part and try to find answers to these questions.
1. Who painted it?
2. What was it famous for?
3. Who were the models?

Answers for reference:
Who painted it? Grant Wood.
What is it famous for? An often copied interpretation of the solemn pride of American farmers. It
   shows a serious-looking man and a woman standing in front of a farmhouse.
Who were the models? His dentist for the man and his sister for the woman.

B. Language points
①American Gothic (para.11)
——of or like a style of building common in Europe between the 12th and the 16th centuries 哥特式的
e.g. On the other side of the street is a famous Gothic church.
——(of literature) of or like stories in which strange things happen in horrible places 恐怖的;怪异的
e.g. Gothic novels usually describe romantic adventures in mysterious or frightening settings.
②Grant Wood rose to fame in 1930 with his painting American Gothic. (para.12)
rise to fame = come to fame 出名
③He was strongly influenced by medieval artists and inspired by the Gothic window of an old
farmhouse. (para.12)
——give sb. a feeling of wanting and being able to do sth. good, create a work of art, etc. 给…以灵
e.g. The lake scenery inspired him to write his great poetry
——fill sb. with confidence 鼓舞;激励
e.g. inspire hope / loyalty / enthusiasm in sb;     inspire sb. with loyalty

Part 4 (Paras. 15-18):Buffalo Nickel
A. Scan this part and try to find answers to these questions.
1. What do we know about American coins?
2. Why was it produced?
3. Where did Fraser find a model buffalo?
4. What happened to the model buffalo later?

Answers for reference:
What do we know about American coins?
American coins honor prominent figures of the US government but the Buffalo nickel has three actual
American Indians as models
Why was it produced? To honor a pair of connected tragedies from the settlement of the American
frontier—the destruction of the buffalo herds and the American Indians.
Where did Fraser find a model buffalo? From New York City’s Central Park Zoo.
What happened to the model buffalo later? Two years later, it was sold for $100 and killed for
meat, a hide ,and a wall decoration made from its horns.

B. Language points
① …honored a pair of connected tragedies from the settlement of the American frontier.(para.16)
 ( Am.E: border) 边境;边界;边疆(注: 一般 boundary 只指相邻的边界)

e.g. Sweden has frontiers with Norway and Finland
②. …famed artist James Earle Fraser went against tradition by using three actual American Indians
as models for his creation. (para.17)
go against: be opposite to 与.…..相反,违背
   Lying goes against my principles.

Part 5(Paras. 19-22): Uncle Sam
A. Scan this part and try to find answers to these questions.
1.What are the two meanings of “US”?
2. How did Flagg’s portrait of Uncle Sam look like?
3. Retelling: What is the origin of Uncle Sam?
               How did the portrait of Uncle Sam come to be known?

Answers for reference:
What are the two meanings of “US”? United States and Uncle Sam.
How did Flagg’s portrait of Uncle Sam look like? A tall man with white hair and a small beard on
his chin, a dark blue coat and a tall hat with stars on it—it was a self-portrait of Flagg.
What is the origin of Uncle Sam?
Uncle Sam came from someone who was called Sam Wilson. Sam Wilson joined in American
Revolution at an early age and at 23, he started a meatpacking business. During a later war in 1812, he
supplied the army with meat stamped “EA-US”, identifying the company (EA) and country of origin
(US). Then it was said that US stood for “Uncle Sam” and Uncle Sam soon earned his fame as a figure
supplying the army.
How did the portrait of Uncle Sam come to be known?
After the war, a character called Uncle Sam became popular in political cartoons, which came from an
earlier cartoon character called Brother Jonathan. Then years later it was an American artist, James
Montgomery Flagg who created the most enduring portrait of Uncle Sam, a tall man with white hair
and a small white beard on his chin, a dark blue coat and a tall hat with stars on it.
B. Language points
①During a later war in 1812, Wilson gained a position inspecting meat for US Army forces. (para.21)
——look at sth. closely or in great detail 检查
e.g. The customs officer inspected his passport suspiciously.
 inspect sb./sth. for sth.
e.g. inspect the crime scene for fingerprints.
——make an official visit to make sure that rules are being obeyed, work is being done properly, etc
Several government officials came to inspect our factory last week.

②….working with a man who had signed a contract with the government to provide meat to the army.
——n. a legal document that states and explains a formal agreement between two different people or
groups 合同,契约
e.g. We have signed a contract with the school for the supply of vehicles/to supply vehicles
——v. make a written legal agreement with sb. for a purpose 订合同,订契约
e.g. We have contracted with an enterprise for the supply of fuel
③ After the war, a character called Uncle Sam began appearing in political cartoons, his from
evolving from an earlier cartoon character called Brother Jonathan that was popular during the
American Revolution. (para.22)
v. (cause to) develop gradually (使)演变,变化,发展
e.g. Some people still don’t believe that man evolved from monkeys.
④The most enduring portrait of Uncle Sam was Created by artist James Montgomery Flagg in his
famous army recruiting posters of World Wars ⅠandⅡ
v. persuade sb. to become a new member of an organization, esp. the army 招募,征兵
e.g. The students are recruiting new members to the club.

5. Text Structure Analysis (narration according to the time sequence)
1. Ex: Page 105-107 Learn to find out the time markers and finish the exercise on P107
2. For the composition lesson: How to write a narration?
3. Sample: The day My Classmate Fell Ill.(after class)

6. Assignments for Section A:
1. Finish the remaining exercises on the textbook
2. Try to find more information about the symbols of America (of course more than five) and then
discuss about them next time.

            Section B           Engelbreit’s the Name, Cute is My Name
1. Reading skills: Figures of Speech
在本篇的阅读技巧训练里, 我们主要是体会文章中的词句的言外之意,也就是引申意义或比喻
1. crushed
   To crush is to press something so hard that it is broken.
   Here it means the harsh words from publishers made her heart broken.
2. a come-down from her high expectations
   To come down is to move downward and lower.

   Here it means drawing greeting cards was a fall in her life’s goal.
3. boasts
   The car is personified. A car cannot boast; only the creator of the card boasts.
4. acid
   Acid means have a sour or bitter taste.
   If a person has an acid tongue, she or he is very critical of others or other things.
5. trademark
   A trademark is a special name, sign, word, marked on a product.
   Here it means being cute is Mary’s distinctive characteristic.
6. the core of Engelbreit’s life
   A core is the central part of a certain fruit.
   A core of one’s life means the important part of one’s life.
7. feet are planted firmly on the ground
   When one puts his or her feet firmly on the ground, he or she is down-to-earth.
   In other words, he or she is very realistic or practical.
8. taking off
   To take off is to leave the ground and begin to fly.
   Here it means her work began to be successful.
2. Ask students to finish reading Text B in ten minutes and doing exercises on Page 117
3. Structure of the Text
Part I (Para. 1-5) The author introduces us Mary Engelbreit, her company and her cards
Part II (Para. 6-11) The author tells us how Mary Engelbreit realized her American dream
Part III (Para. 12-13) Mary Engelbreit takes down-to-earth attitude towards her life, and she eventually
                        realized her dream of illustrating a children’s book.
本文的主要线索是主人公 Engelbreit 是如何实现她的美国梦的。
浏览课文的第六段到第十一段,                       通过简单的时间和事情搭配的练习,                        大致了解主人公 Engelbreit
练习)    。
How did Engelbreit realized her American dream? (Para.6-11)

A. impressed with illustrations from the
   children’s books                                      1.   from age four
B. sold hand-drawn cards to a local shop                 2.   as soon as she could hold a pencil
C. married                                               3.   while she attended secondary school
D. worked for greeting-card companies                    4.   two years after she met Phil Delano
E. started her own company                               5.   after that ill-fated trip to New York
F. worked in an art-supply shop and later as a           6.   while she was eight months pregnant
   designer                                              7.   after graduate
G. licensed the copyright to the cards                   8.   three years after she started her company
H. started drawing

4. Background information
                                         American Dream
“…To someone like me who came here with absolutely NOTHING and gained absolutely
EVERYTHING. It is not fanciful to see this state as a Golden Dream.
For millions of people around the world, California has ALWAYS glimmered with hope and glowed
with opportunity. Millions of people around the world send their dreams to California with the hope
their lives will follow. “
                           ――remarks from Schwarzenegger when he was sworn in as the Governor of California

What is the American Dream?

The term was first used by James Truslow Adams in his book The Epic of America which was written
in 1931. He states: "The American Dream is "that dream of a land in which life should be better and
richer and fuller for everyone, with opportunity for each according to ability or achievement. It is a
difficult dream for the European upper classes to interpret adequately, and too many of us ourselves
have grown weary and mistrustful of it. It is not a dream of motor cars and high wages merely, but a
dream of social order in which each man and each woman shall be able to attain to the fullest stature
of which they are innately capable, and be recognized by others for what they are, regardless of the
fortuitous circumstances of birth or position."
In the United States’ Declaration of Independence, our founding fathers: "…held certain truths to be
self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain
unalienable Rights, that among these are life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness." Might this
sentiment be considered the foundation of the American Dream?
It is a phrase connoting hope for prosperity and happiness, symbolized particularly by having a house
of one's own. Possibly applied at first to the hopes of immigrants, the phrase now applies to all except
the very rich and suggests a confident hope that one's children's economic and social condition will be
better than one's own.
It's thought to be achievable by "hard work, courage, and determination", or by "getting rich quick”.
The concept often involves moving upward in the social classes, and may involve icons such as car,
house, partner and pet.
The concept of American dream is thought to have inspired immigrants interested in visiting the
United States. Throughout its history, the United States has been seen as an entrepreneurship-friendly
because of the vast natural resources and often minimal law enforcement.
The concept of the American Dream has been the subject of much criticism by many. The main
criticism is that the American Dream is misleading. These critics say that, for various reasons, it
simply is not possible for everyone to become prosperous through determination and hard work alone.
The consequences of this belief can include the poor feeling that it is their fault that they are not
successful. It can also result in less effort towards helping the poor since their poverty is seen as
"proof" of their laziness. The concept of the American Dream also ignores other factors of success
such as luck, family, language, and wealth one is born into (although proponents of the dream would
claim that starting wealth is irrelevant because of the belief that there is no level of poverty one cannot
rise from with hard work). It also fails to take inheritable traits such as intelligence and physical
attributes into account.
    400 年前,一群理想主义的清教徒们离开了继承和世袭制度盛行的欧洲大陆,将自己
    在 1865 年至 1900 的流金岁月时代,由于商业,重工业,铁路以及重商主义经济政治

痼疾,  而美国整个社会正在感染日益严重的               ,
                         “纵向流动硬化症” 这在政治方面表现得最为明显。
统计表明,在 1979 至 2000 年间,社会最底层 20%的家庭收入只增长了 6.4%,而最上层 20%的
家庭收入却增长了 70%,  最上层 1%的家庭收入增长了 184%,最顶尖的 0.1%或 0.01%增长得更快。
在 1979 年,美国社会最上层 1%的收入是最底层 20%家庭的 133 倍,到了 2000 年,这个比例上
升到了 189 倍。
   30 年前,全美前 100 名高级企业主管的平均年收入是 130 万美元,是普通雇员的平均收入
的 39 倍,但在今天,前 100 名高级企业主管平均每年要将 3750 万美金收进腰包,这个数字比
他们自己的雇员高出 1000 倍。
                                        ,只有 12%的
  经济政策学院指出,美国的社会流动性从 20 世纪 70 年代以来就在不断下降,
人口从社会的底层(收入最低的 20%)上升到最上层(收入最高的的 5%)。

5. Language points
Part I (Para. 1-5)
① So she was disappointed when all the book publishers she visited turned her down. (line 3-4)
turn(sb./ sth.)down phrasal verb [M]
to refuse an offer or request
e.g. ① he turned down the job because it involved too much traveling.
      ② He offered her a trip to Australia but she turned him down.
② Today Mary Engelbreit sells an astonishing 14 million greeting cards a year. (line 8)
astonish verb [T] 使……惊讶
If something or someone astonishes you, they surprise you very much
e.g. She astonished everyone by announcing her engagement.
联想:由 astonish 派生的形容词 astonished, astonishing 也很常用(至于 astonished 和 astonishing
的区别,就不细讲了)               。

近义词:surprise, amaze, startle, shock
这几个近义词的用法和 astonish 很相似,它们都常用在这样的一些句型中:
 Sth. / Sb. surprises/ amazes/ startle / shocks sb.
 It surprises/ amazes/ startle / shocks sb. that„
 It surprise / amazes/ startle / shocks sb. to do„
 What surprises / amazes/ startle / shocks sb. is„
它们派生形容词的方式和 astonish 也很相似:
 astonish~astonished~astonishing
 surprise~surprised~surprising
 amaze~amazed~amazing
 startle~startled~startling
 shock~shocked~shocking
③ It’s probably no accident that one of Engelbreit’s bolder cards shows a young girl in
      overalls,…(line 13)
bold adjective
1) 无畏的,大胆的 fearless and daring
e.g. The little boy was bold enough to walk in the dark street.
2) 清晰的,醒目的 clear and distinct
3) in bold type/print 用粗体字
④ can recognize her cards from 20 paces away—bright, funny, and with an eye to the past.
   (line 17)
with an eye to
注意,此短语非短语动词,虽然中文翻译为“关注”                                   ,但在句子中不能直接作谓语。
e.g. He bought the cottage with an eye to retiring there.
⑤ Her cards usually have elaborate border designs comprised of repeated images:… (line 18)
comprise (formal) (部分)组成(整体)
If you say that something comprises or is comprised of a number of things or people, you mean it has
them as its parts or members
常用结构:be comprised of(整体)由„„(部分)组成
e.g. The class is comprised mainly of Italian and French students.
近义词或词组:compose ;consist;constitute;be made up of
 compose:be composed of(整体)由„„(部分)组成
 consist:consist of (整体)由„„(部分)组成
 constitute:     (部分)组成(整体)
 be made up of(整体)由„„(部分)组成
⑥ Her business card once featured a drawing of Ann Estelle…(line 23-24)
feature 既可以作名词也可以作动词。下面把它常用的几个意思简单介绍一下:
作名词:① 特色,特征 a prominent aspect of something
           ② 相貌,面貌 the characteristic parts of a person’s face
           ③ 故事片 the principal film in a program at a movie theater
           ④ 专题报道,特写 a special or prominent article in a newspaper or magazine
作动词:(slightly formal)
以„„为特征,为特色 have as a feature
e.g. This restaurant features the most famous chefs in France.
注意:feature 有时易与 figure 弄混淆,所以简单讲讲 figure 的用法。
figure 既可以作名词也可以作动词。下面把它常用的几个意思简单介绍一下

作名词:① 图表 a diagram or picture illustrating textual material
    ② 体形,外形 the shape of the human body
    ③ 数字 digit
    ④ 名人,人物 a well-known or notable person
    ⑤金额,价格 a amount of money expressed numerically
作动词:猜想,估计 calculate, estimate, reckon

Part II (Para. 6-11)
① I can’t express my gratitude for his support. (line 45)
gratitude 感激,感谢
联想:altitude 海拔,高度
        attitude 态度
        solitude 孤独,独居
② Children, pets, even “good old Moon” started showing up on her cards. (line 50-51)
show up phrasal verb, informal
to arrive somewhere in order to join a group of people, especially late or unexpectedly
e.g. We were expecting thirty people to come, but half of them never show up.

Part III (Para. 12-13)
① Despite her success, Engelbreit’s feet are planted firmly on the ground. (line 59)
have one’s feet on the ground idiom
have a sensible or realistic attitude to life
e.g. He is always talking about his big plans to be a great actor. You should tell him to keep his feet on
the ground.
② With her work taking off in so many directions,…(line 63)
take off phrasal verb
to suddenly start to be successful or popular
e.g. her singing career has just begun to take off.
③ 单词的派生
一下这些生词的常用的派生词,可以帮助我们轻而易举扩大词汇量。                                             (粗体字单词为本课生词)

6. Open questions
1. Nowadays “cute” is becoming a popular word. People often say sb. is cute or sth. is cute. Can you
    give a definition of the word cute? Do you think Engelbreit is a cute woman?
2. In your opinion what are prominent factors which would contribute to realizing your dream?
3. The text tells us a story of how an ordinary woman realized her American dream. But, for us, how
    about a Chinese dream? Do you have a Chinese dream?

                         Section C Life in Low-Grade Terror
1. Ask the students to read Section C within 10 minutes and finish doing exercises on Page 119
2. Check on the answers.


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