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    Team # 6 – EastWest Quartet

          Anupam Mishra
     Cheng-Ying (Wendy ) Wang
           Mai P. Nguyen
       Parthenopi Konstantin

         Dr. Jay Tombaugh
     Training and Development
             HMRS 5132

             Fall, 2003
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                                 TABLE OF CONTENTS

A. Book Review: Effective Training, Systems, Strategies, and Practices
B. Book review: Effective Training Strategies                                             12
C. Book review: HRD Survival Skills - Essential strategies to promote training and 22
   development within your organization
D. Annotated Bibliography                                                                 35
    Running Training Like a Business                                                     36
    Mission E-Possible                                                                   38
    Building Leaders At All Levels                                                       39
    Diversity Training Is A Business Strategy                                            40
    Leading To Customer Care                                                             42
    Systematic Strategies                                                                43
    Business Strategy Links with Staffing and Training Practices                         45
    Reinventing SunU                                                                     46
    Organization Change And The Management Of Training In Australian Enterprises         47
    Business Strategy, Work Processes & Human Resources Training: Are They Congruent     49
E. Practitioner Interviews                                                                52
   Giannis Charalambous                                                                   52
   Lee                                                                                    54
   Michelle Rose                                                                          57
   Evelyn Parker                                                                          59
F. Additional Resources
    Additional Research                                                                  61
       Training And Development Of Women Entrepreneurs in China: A Conceptual Model      63
       Women-friendly HRM good for QWL? The case of Hong Kong Based Companies            64
       An Evaluation On The Employees‟ Retraining Programs in Hong Kong                  65
       HRD In Japan                                                                      67
       Japan: Training Comparison                                                        69
       Training, Continuous Improvement, And Human Relations: The U.S. TWI Programs
          And The Japanese Management Style
       Gender Differences In Company Training: The Case Of Taiwanese High-Tech Firms
       Advancement Intentions And Job Attitudes-A Study On The Career Setting Of High-
          Tech Engineers In Taiwan
    Additional Interview: Scoot Hassett
G. Topic Summary                                                                          84
H. Implications                                                                           95
                                       A. BOOK REVIEW

                       By Nick Blanchard and James Thacker

       Training is an “opportunity” for learning but what is learned depends on: the design and

implementation of the training itself, the characteristics of the trainees, and the learning climate

of the organization itself. Learning is defined as a relatively permanent change in cognition that

result from experience and is directly influencing behavior. It can be separated into different

categories, such as skill based, cognitive knowledge and attitudinal learning, which, by

combining it all together, it could be called KSAs (knowledge, skills, and attitudes). Hence,

training is the systematic process of attempting to develop (learn) KSAs in the work

environment. The role of the HRD department is to improve the organization‟s effectiveness by

providing employees with the KSAs that will improve their current or future performance.

However, training is a manager‟s responsibility, whether it is explicitly stated to be in his job

description or just implied from his objectives. Today‟s competitive environment is more intense

than ever before. Significant and rapid changes are affecting the business environment. Hence,

improving and learning new skills is required for any organization to survive.

       Training is a model of an open system. Open systems have a dynamic relationship with

their environment; they are open to influences from their environment, and depend from the

environment for input, which then return as output. In the training organizational environment,

inputs could be considered the organizational needs, employee needs, budget, equipment and the

staff. These inputs are then utilized to produce the output of the training system (improved

KSAs). Another point inferred from the open-systems model of training is that training is a

process, not just a set of discrete programs. Before any input transforms into output it goes into a

waterfall model which includes Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation and then

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Evaluation. The Needs Analysis phase identifies the problems and their cause(s). Training

becomes a solution when the problem is caused by inadequate KSAs. Once Training is

identified as a solution, the Design Development, and Implementation Phases, results in a

training program for the appropriate employees. Finally, the Evaluation Phase assesses both the

training processes and the training outcome.

       Most people understand the value of having a plan of action before starting a project.

Strategic planning is the development of relatively long-term objectives and plans for pursuing

an organization‟s mission. It sets the direction for all other organizational activities. An

organizations mission statement is a general statement of why the organization exists and the

commitments it is making. The mission describes what the organization wants to accomplish,

while strategies define how the organization will go about doing that. These strategies are called

competitive strategies and they are associated with positioning themselves in the marketplace.

Three market positioning strategies illustrate the ends and middle of a continuum of possible

competitive strategies: Market Leader, Market Follower, and Cost Leader. The success of a

competitive strategy will depend on how well it addresses the important external and internal

factors the organization must deal with. Two major internal factors that are strongly related to

strategy are the organization‟s structure and its technology. Organization structure refers to how

a firm is organized, including the policies and procedures used for coordinating the various

activities, such as, organizational design, decision autonomy, and division of labor. The learning

organization is an example of an internal strategy for improving the competency base of the

organization. On the other hand, the external environment consists of elements outside the

organization that influences the organization‟s ability to achieve its mission (ex. Environmental

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uncertainty is due to complexity and instability). External strategies require supportive internal


        It is not enough for the organization to develop competitive strategies-these strategies

must be followed with action, typically referred to as tactics. The strategies are implemented

though a tactical action plan, which consists of the required actions and the unit(s) responsible

for those actions. The process begins with assigning objectives to the different work units of the

organization. The units must then develop strategies and implementation tactics to achieve the

objectives. Eventually, they are translated into individual employee objectives. The objectives

for the HRD unit, as for all functional areas, must be tied directly to organizational strategies.

        Organizational Development (OD) is the field of study that deals with creating and

implementing planned change in organizations. Strategic planning involves change-both in the

way the organization interacts with its external environment and in how it manages its internal

operations. Some examples of OD techniques include Diagnostic and Planning Interventions

(Macro) using survey feedback, organizational confrontation meetings and force-field analysis,

or Techno-structural Interventions.

        Whenever internal change is planned in organizations, three levels should be addressed in

the plan: the organizational itself, groups and their interrelationships, and individuals within

groups. Resistance to change is a common occurrence. Without sufficient motivation change,

resistance is natural. Change requires effort, new learning, and possible shifts of resources and


        In order to design and implement effective training programs, it is necessary to

understand how people learn, what motivates learning and performance, and how the learning

and work environment affects motivation and performance.

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       An employee‟s job performance or behavior in general, is a function of what he knows

and believes (KSAs). If employees don‟t have the KSAs, they can‟t perform. However,

additional factors are important in determining employee performance. A general model of

performance describes how a person‟s performance depends on the interaction of the person‟s

motivation, KSAs, and environment. Motivation arises from a person‟s needs and his beliefs

about how best to satisfy those needs. Theories have evolved separately to describe the

relationship between needs and motivation and between decision processes and motivation.

Needs theories attempt to describe the types of needs people have, their relative importance and

how they are related to each other. Process theories attempt to describe and explain how a

person‟s needs are translated into actions to satisfy the needs. Both motivation and KSAs are

part of our memory and thinking (cognitive structure). Environment refers to the physical

surroundings in which performance must occur, including barriers and aids that we might see as

indicating that our performance will be rewarded or punished.

       Learning is a concept that is difficult to define. Learning is not directly observable, but it

is something that almost everyone says he experienced. Since learning is measured in terms of

relatively permanent changes in behavior, these changes have become the operational definition

of learning for many behaviorists theorists. Cognitive theorist, however, insists that while

learning can be inferred from behavior, it is separate from the behavior itself. There are two

learning theories presented in the book, which both capture critical elements of both behavioral

and cognitive approaches and weave them together in a coherent and compelling fashion. The

first, Gagne‟s approach, is somewhat more behavioral (ex. Signal Learning, Stimulus Response

Learning, Shaping and Chaining, Verbal Association Learning, Concept learning, etc.). The

second, Bandura‟s social learning model, includes more cognitive processes. The cognitive

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processes that are part of social learning theory are motivation, attention, retention, and to some

extent behavioral reproduction. Each model incorporates concepts and principles of both

theoretical perspectives.

       Learning is one of the most fundamental processes of survival, yet trainers and managers

continually complain about trainees who don‟t pay attention, are disruptive, and generally

demonstrate a resistance to the training they are receiving. The first step to understand resistance

to learning is viewing learning as a performance outcome. Clearly, adults are not resistant to

learning if they perceive the learning to be of practical value. Training, then should take into

account the motivational and cognitive processes that influence the trainee‟s readiness and

willingness to learn. Participation, choice, personal experience, critical reflection and critical

thinking are key characteristics of adult learning.

       The main objective of training is to improve the performance of both the individual and

the organization. Training Needs Analysis (TNA) is a systematic method for determining what

needs to be done to bring performance in a particular job or set of jobs to the expected level.

       TNA is generally made up of three distinct but closely related components: organization

analysis, operations analysis, and person analysis. Organizational analysis involves looking at

the internal environment of the organization and determining its fit with organizational goals and

objectives, as well, any constraints on training. Operational analysis examines specific jobs to

determine the requirements (KSAs) that are necessary to get the job done (i.e., expected job

performance). Finally, person analysis examines those who occupy the jobs to see if they have

the required KSAs to carry out the job. Even though the three parts of a TNA are conceptually

distinct, in practice much of the information is gathered at the same time and is closely

interrelated. When the standards for the job (operational analysis) do not mach an employee‟s

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performance (person analysis), a performance discrepancy exists. In this case, several questions

must be answered to answer if the performance discrepancy is worth fixing. If it is worth fixing

then various steps followed to determine the cause of the discrepancy and ways to alleviate it.

There are situations that training might not be needed. In those cases there are alternative

solutions, such as, reward/punishment incongruence, feedback, or obstacles in the system. An

alternative solution to training could be a job aid, or even practice could solve the problem, or, in

the worst case, changing the work itself. If on the other hand, training is required, the next step

is to develop a clear and unambiguous list of the KSAs that required training.

       Once it is clear which KSAs are needed in a particular situation, the next step is to

translate those needs into training objectives. These objectives are then used to determine the

design of training (content, methods, material, etc.). Decisions about integrate what we know

about “how people learn”, (learning theory) with “what they need to learn” to develop the

appropriate training, that is how the training needs will be addressed. It is indisputable that the

plan must take into consideration any constrains (money, time, facilities, etc.) the organization

may have. On the basis of all this information, a particular design is created and a training

program is developed.

       Training objectives refer to all the objectives that have been developed for the training

program. The term trainee reaction objectives refer to the objectives that have been set for how

trainees should feel about the training and their learning environment. The training‟s learning

objectives describe the KSAs that trainees are expected to acquire throughout the training

program, and the ways that learning will be demonstrated. Transfer of training objectives

describe the changes in job behavior that are expected to occur as a result of transferring, the

KSAs gained in training to the trainee‟s job. Organizational outcome objectives for the training

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describe the outcomes the organization can expect from the changes in the trainee‟s job behavior

due to the learning. Ideally, a training program would develop objectives in all four areas.

       Deciding which performance deficiencies to address and which KSAs to provide in

training determines the learning objectives, the transfer of training objectives, and the

organizational outcome objectives. While the content of the various types of objectives differ,

the structure and process of developing them is the same. Objectives are statements of what is

expected to be accomplished. A good objective had three components: Desired outcome,

Conditions, and Standards. Developing good training objectives takes time, effort, and careful

thought. Training objectives do benefit the trainer, they provide value to the trainee, the trainee

designer and evaluations of the training program.

       In a perfect world it would be possible to develop the perfect training program for every

training need that has been identified. However, reality prevails, since there are many

constraints that could be faced in developing a training session. The two most common

constraints are organizational-environmental constraints which include budget limitations which

force to choices of whom gets trained and what type of training and the other is the trainee

population which faces the issue of different levels of KSAs.

       Transfer of training refers to how much of what is learned in training transfers to the job.

There have been suggested three possibilities regarding transfer of training: (1) a higher level of

job performance (positive transfer), (2) no change in job performance (zero transfer), or (3) a

lower level of job performance (negative transfer). The goal is to have training result in positive

transfer to the job. Research into factors that influence transfer of training has focused on three

areas: conditions of practice, identical elements, and stimulus variability. The research also

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provides evidence that the nature of feedback, the strategies used for retention, and goal setting

can influence how will the training is transferred back to the job.

        To develop an effective training package, it is necessary to understand the various factors

that facilitate learning and transfer. This is a basic output of the design phase. The second

output is the identification of the evaluation objectives. However, training managers can come

up with a surprising number of reasons for not evaluating training, like there is nothing to

evaluate since training isn‟t expected to accomplish anything, or, no one really cares about

evaluating training since it wasn‟t specifically asked. The argument for ignoring evaluation

makes some sense, on the surface. Perhaps the biggest reason for abandoning the resistance is its

benefit. This is especially true today when more organizations are demanding accountability at

all levels.

        In evaluation, there are two areas that can be addressed: process and outcome.

Evaluation of the process examines how the training was designed, developed, and carried out,

before training, and during training. Outcome evaluation determines how well training

accomplished its objectives. Four types of outcomes that are probably the best-known are:

reaction that will influence how much can be learned, learning which determines how much

behavior can change back on the job and behavior on the job which determines how much

organizational impact the training can have.

        Once decision to evaluate training has been made, the evaluator must become familiar

with a number of issues beyond the criterion issue. Now the important issue to be raised is the

degree of effectiveness of the findings. After all, evaluation is both time-consuming and costly.

However, there are threats to validity both internally and externally. Internal validity refers to

the confidence someone has that the results of the evaluation are in fact correct. Internal threats

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associate with history events, maturation of changes that occurred, testing, instrumentation, etc.

The evaluation has to be internally valid before it can be externally valid. External validity is the

confidence that these finding will generalize to others who undergo the training. The two types

of evaluation design most often used, are the posttest-only method which occurs when training is

provided and then a posttest is given, and the other one is the pretest/posttest method.

       There are various alternative methods of instruction which differ in their ability to

influence knowledge, skills, and/or attitudes. Hence it is important to understand the strengths

and weaknesses of each one in order to know which one is appropriate for each situation. There

are four basic methods used in today‟s work environment: lectures and lectures discussions,

computer based training (CBT), games and simulations, and finally on-the-job training (OJT).

       Nearly all training programs have some lecture component. The lecture is best used to

create a general understanding of a topic or to influence attitudes through education about a

topic. Several variations in the lecture format allow it to be more or less formal or interactive.

The clearest difference is the role trainees are expected to play. The lecture by itself does not

include trainees interacting with the trainer. Many companies, on the other hand, are

implementing computer based training (CBT) as an alternative to classroom-based training.

Some of the reasons for this are: reduces trainee learning time, reduces the cost of training,

provides instructional consistency, affords privacy, and allows the trainee to master learning.

However, developing a CBT program from scratch is a labor-intensive process requiring

knowledge and skills in learning, programming, and computer systems. Therefore it is a costly


           Alternatively, training games and simulations are designed to reproduce or simulate

processes, events, and circumstances that occur in the trainee‟s job. In this way, trainees can

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experience these events in a controlled setting where they can develop their skills or discover

concepts that will improve their performance. Equipment simulators, business games, in-basket

exercises, case studies, role plays, and behavior modeling are examples of this technique.

Nevertheless, the most frequently used training method, especially in smaller businesses, is to

use the more experienced and skilled employees, whether co-workers or supervisors, to train less

skilled and experienced employees. This on-the-job training (OJT) takes many forms and can be

supplemented with classroom training. OJT is clearly a useful method for skill enhancement,

since trainees are applying their knowledge in the actual job situation. Thus transfer of training

occurs naturally. However, the major concern of OJT is the competency of the trainer.

       Audiovisuals (AVs) can be useful enhancements for meeting all three types of training

objectives (K, S, and A) and are easily applied to any of the other methods discussed. It consists

of any physical, mechanical and/or electronic media used to provide or assist instruction.

Typically they are used as a supplement to other methods of training, rather than as a standalone

means of instruction, though some are effective training devices by themselves.

       After choosing the method that is best suited to meet various goals of training, there are

development and implementation issues to be considered. In the development phase, the trainer

needs to be concern with tools that enhance the way of learning and understanding, such as,

questioning, encourage trainee to respond, coaching, etc. Another important part of any training

program is the environment. The best training is of little value if it is conducted in a place that

there is a lot of distractions, uncomfortable setting, difficulty in setting audiovisual presentations,

or similar problems. Hence, this should be taken into great consideration before the training

takes place. Equally important in the success of an effective training session, is the role of the

trainer, his KSAs and the credibility that he can communicate as a trainer.

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       Last phase of the cycle of processes is the Implementation. Before the training program

is ready for general use, typically two steps should be undertaken: a dry run and a pilot. The

format is a “first test” of new material; here the training package may not be presented in its

entirety. The latter is the first full-blown presentation of the training using finished materials; is

a full-fledged program. After the pilot, revisions that have been identified need to be completed.

Thus training will continue to be modified until desirable outcomes can be reliably achieved.

The evaluation process is a continuous one.

       A good training process first develops an understanding of the employee‟s training needs

before designing the training program. For management development this is not an easy task.

Typically a manager‟s effectiveness is to determine how well his unit meets its objectives.

However, determining his training needs from the performance of the unit is problematic. The

key to effective management is to know the context in which his operating, know what is

required in order to create the best match with the context, and to have the KSAs to do what is

required. Thus management development programs should, in general, provide training

programs that address these issues. The most obvious source of management training is the

organization itself. If all that mentioned above are done, the technical expert can indeed become

the effective manager necessary in today‟s competitive environment.

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                                            B. BOOK REVIEW

                                 EFFECTIVE TRAINING STRATEGIES

                                    James R. Davis & Adelaide B. Davis

           In today's knowledge-based society, where intellectual capital is an organization's most

competitive asset, learning is a serious business. But to insure that learning actually happens

takes more than a few clever activities and trendy techniques. Effective Training Strategies offers

a comprehensive approach to creating a focused philosophy of learning, choosing the best

approach to planning programs and activities, and developing appropriate systems for assessing


           The Authors draw on their own experiences as educators, their broad-based

conversations with trainers, and a synthesis of the latest research from such diverse fields as

psychology, sociology, philosophy, and communications, to describe seven powerful training

strategies-each providing an easy-to-understand framework for thinking about a particular kind

of learning. They provide a detailed description of each strategy the well-researched learning

theory behind it, illustrative examples of it in practice, its strengths and weaknesses, and

practical guidance to its appropriate use-and demonstrate the strategy in action, showing how the

facilitator can use it effectively to maximize learning. For managers, supervisors, trainers,

engineers, and consultants alike, Effective Training Strategies demonstrates how to facilitate the

many types of learning required to ensure that individuals, groups, and teams do their jobs more

effectively, efficiently and, sometimes, even more creatively. This compendium of solid theory

and current practice challenges the quality expectations that organizations have for learning, and

offers a rich set of real-world examples of how to set new standards of excellence for

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knowledge-based performance, take the guesswork out of training, and contribute to increasing

the overall effectiveness of organizations.

       Seven Key Strategies to Increase the Effectiveness of Organization are–

   1. The Behavioral Strategy

   2. The Cognitive Strategy

   3. The Inquiry Strategy

   4. The Mental Models Strategy

   5. The Group Dynamics Strategy

   6. The Virtual Reality Strategy

   7. The Holistic Strategy

       They provide a detailed description of each strategy the well-researched learning theory

behind it, illustrative examples of it in practice, its strengths and weaknesses, and side-by-side

comparisons showing its appropriate uses and demonstrate the strategy in action, showing how

the facilitator can use it effectively to maximize learning. Based on well-researched theories of

learning, this book is rich in examples from over 65 worldwide leaders-including Eastman

Kodak, Motorola, SHARP, United Airlines, Norsk Hydro, ABB Atom, Boeing, TELEBRAS,

and the U.S. Air Force. The book combines educational theory with training strategies, all

essential ingredients to achieve effective designed learning.

       The chapters of this book are grouped in three parts as follows: Part one, “Preparing for

Learning” addresses the organizational context of learning. The concept of learning

organization used in the book refers to learning within the organization. A learning organization

is one where all of the individuals in it, in their own place and through out the system, are

learning. It also helps individuals, groups and teams do their job effectively, efficiently and

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creatively. Chapter one, “ The New Importance of Learning” demonstrates how the place of

learning in organizations has been deeply influenced by the new status of knowledge, global

market competition, technology, organizational change and demographic diversity. All work

today requires some level of skill and knowledge. Much work requires very high level of

knowledge and new understandings of how to apply knowledge to knowledge. Many people

work in learning-dependent occupations. This gives training a new importance, a new challenge

and a new responsibility. The skills of the labor force are going to be the key competitive

weapon in the twenty-first century. This puts learning into the spotlight as one of the most

important things an organization does. Organizational change is getting people to perform work

in new ways and usually that means formal and informal training. The greater the organizational

change and the greater the redefinition of the work, the more training is required to make it

actually happen. As individuals in an interconnected world population interface more frequently,

human differences take on new importance, setting up a crucial need for better understandings of

diversity. Each of these forces requires learning something new. No organization can survive

today without perpetual learning. Chapter two, “Reframing Training”, suggests that training

needs to be reconceptualized and given new status as a central activity of the learning

organizations. A broader definition of training emphasized learning as a process and includes

informal as well as formal learning facilitated by many types of people at different levels of the

organization. The job description for trainers is to facilitate learning. Training is a special type of

education that has no preconceived limitations as to purpose, place and quality. Chapter Three,

“Learning in Organizations”, explores how organizations of various purposes, types, sizes,

structures and cultures make differing arrangements for learning and how they develop a

philosophy of learning that shapes their goals for training. The first step is to understand the

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characteristics of the organization according to its purpose, type, size, structure and culture.

Different types of organizations generate different kinds of arrangements for learning. The issue

is appropriateness. An organization needs a philosophy of learning, expressible in a few key

words, to help focus and prioritize its efforts to maximize learning.           In Chapter Four,

“Planning for Learning”, basic planning guidelines are offered as well as a technique for

establishing learning outcomes. Planning is basically an attempt to establish and clarify goals-

organizational goals for learning at the macro level and the more immediate goals for learning at

the micro level. Since learning is just one factor among other personnel and workplace variables,

everything directed toward maximizing learning needs to be done well.

    Use of rational planning models and checklists.

    Balance interests and power through people centered negotiation.

    Borrow concepts from the field of curriculum planning to analyze the subject: scope,

       breadth, depth, centrality and balance, sequence, gap and intention.

    Identify and elaborate desired learning outcomes in order to select appropriate Training


Among the triad of approaches to getting things done - goals, strategies and tactics - strategies

are the most neglected in training.

       In Part Two, “Understanding Training Strategies”, seven effective training strategies

and the theories of learning on which they are based are set forth and illustrated with examples of

actual training done in organizational settings. A separate chapter devoted to each of the seven

strategies contains a description of its typical use, the key concepts, its historical origins, the

research supporting it, role of the facilitator, appropriate technologies and the examples of its use

in organizations.

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        1. Behavioral Strategy- takes place best through skill development and coaching. It

           can be used in different ways like using detailed training manuals, instructional

           design and computer-assisted instruction. Following steps are facilitated:

                  State objectives and clearly define them as observable behavior.

                  Establish present performance level and identify prerequisite skills.

                  Break complex learning activities into their component parts through task


                  Shape, through steps, successive approximations of the goal.

                  Use various forms of well-timed reinforcement as feedback.

                  Model and allow sufficient time and opportunities for practice.

                  Employ appropriate technologies.

        2. Cognitive Strategy-This kind of learning takes place best through presentations

           and explanations, which can be delivered more effectively by applying theory in

           three critical areas.

                  Attention: Help to focus and get attention.

                  Information processing: Link new information to prior knowledge and put

                   present information in context.

                  Memory: Provide ways to remember like pneumonic devices, semantic

                   association, encoding, imagery, method of loci and rehearsal.

        Cognitive Theory is used to guide and design formal presentations, but its principles

        also apply to presentations in written form and other media.

        3. Inquiry Strategy- It is based on philosophical writings about building

           supportable arguments and the process of dialogue. This theory fosters clear

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            thinkers and experts in creative, critical and dialogical thinking. It involves

            practicing thinking under the guidance of a facilitator who understands thinking

            processes. Critical thinking is knowing what point of view is being presented and

            how it is being supported. There are some theories for Creative thinking and the

            factors that show various aspects of creative thinking are fluency, flexibility,

            originality and elaboration. The five factors on which is based the description of

            the creative process are preparation, incubation, insight, evaluation and

            elaboration. Finally, the essence of dialogical thinking is in truly experiencing the

            inner logic of alternative point of view.

        4. Mental Models Strategy- effective problem solvers and decision makers use

            mental models to deal with cognitive overloads when too many ideas collect all at

            once and boggle the mind. The best training for problem solving is solving

            problems, and the best training for decision-making is making decisions. This

            kind of learning is facilitated best through cases and projects.

           Problem solving model: is useful for identifying the goal state, initial state,

            problem space and solution paths. In the problem space other mental models are

            useful such as random search, hill climbing, means-ends analysis, working

            backward, split- half method, simplification, using actual data, contradiction,

            graphs and diagrams and analogy. Effective problem solvers avoid the pitfalls of

            misunderstanding the problem, unrecognized presuppositions and functional


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           Decision-making model: is useful for describing desirable values, identifying and

            weighing important outcomes, generating options, noting the attributes of options

            and matching these options back with outcomes and values.

        5. Group Dynamics Strategy- groups are used widely in organizations for many


               Groups are good for tasks where the sum is greater than the parts for

                generating ideas, for changing opinions, attitudes and beliefs and for

                cultivating participation and a sense of belonging.

               Groups have identifiable characteristics.

               Teams have mission and it goes through phases and stages over time.

               Communication in groups is about both the task and procedures.

               Groups develop cohesion and structure.

               Group members play roles and make rules.

            Effective communication in groups requires active listening and awareness of

            body language. There are different types of teams and video and networked

            computers are useful technologies for supporting learning in groups. Groups work

            best when they are composed of right people to do the job. A group needs to be

            large enough to accomplish its task and small enough so that everyone can


        6. Virtual Reality Strategy- Jobs that need to be practiced before they are

            performed need to have Virtual Reality training because making mistakes can

            cause big problems. Role plays, dramatic scenarios and games and simulations

            provide a safe virtual reality where the role to be played can be learned and with

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           increased level of proficiency. Role playing requires careful choices among other

           options for arrangements, well-crafted roles and a facilitator able to draw people

           into playing various types of roles and role relationships. Dramatics scenarios

           require appropriate preparations to develop the script and set the scene, and an

           active job for the facilitator in directing the drama and helping others to learn.

           Simulations require extensive preparations because once set in motion they should

           run themselves. Sophisticated virtual realities may be high-tech or low-tech.

           High-tech virtual realities draw on many media coordinated by computers to

           simulate situations almost indistinguishable from reality. Low-tech virtual

           realities are clever in their use of people to simulate social systems. Some

           simulated realities are even better than reality.

        7. Holistic Strategy- The holistic strategy provides a natural way of learning called

           “reflection-in-action” It is used when an organization is rich in experience or has

           potential for learning. Experience based learning is a cycle that moves through

           stages of concrete experience, reflective observation, abstract conceptualization,

           active experimentation and then back to concrete experience again. It is holistic

           because it draws on all scenes and reflects the capacity of the brain to take in and

           synthesize many aspects of experience at once. It can be maximized through

           formal opportunities for reflection, particularly through one-to-one conversation

           with a skilled helper such as mentor, counselor or animator. The Holistic Strategy

           is based on theory and research findings about how brain functions as a three-part,

           highly interconnected, well-wired neurological system for dealing with

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               experience. The brain is designed for natural learning and picks up information

               from experience.

In Part Three, „Maximizing Learning”, the focus is on how to use strategies. Chapter

Twelve, “Choosing and Using Training strategies”, compares the strengths and shortcomings

of each strategy and offer suggestions about how to choose the right strategy for the intended

outcomes. There is a four step process for selecting right strategy - consider the organizational

context, review general plans, focus on learning outcomes and compare the strategies

systematically. The important characteristics of adults as learners are presented in Chapter

Thirteen, “Adapting Strategies to Participants”. The human characteristics that are most

likely to influence learning are life stage and developmental tasks, cognitive development,

intelligence, aptitude and achievement, motivation and emotional intelligence, learning styles

and gender, ethnicity and social class. In using training strategies it is important to consider the

learners and take into account how they react and what need to be done to maximize their

learning using strategies. Learning is maximized when there is a good fit, the right challenge and

proper support. The final chapter, “Assessing Learning Outcomes”, discusses how learning can

be assessed to determine if maximum learning is being achieved. The focus is on the particular

kind of assessment appropriate for each strategy. Assessment provides feedback for the learner

and the facilitator and information about subject matter content and learning outcomes.

Assessment can be formal or informal, qualitative or quantitative, done by observing or asking

and carried out before, during or after. The most effective assessment flows from the Training

strategies used, is embedded in planning.

The Seven Training Strategies: Side-by-Side Comparison

STRATEGY          BEST USE             THEORY              PARTICIPANTS            FACILITATOR

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Behavioral   beginning or      behavioral           exploring actively    setting objectives
             advanced          psychology           adjusting to feedback determining present
             skill             operant conditioning                       performance level
             development                                                  performing task
                                                                          analysis providing
Cognitive     presentations     cognitive psychology attending to, process- selecting, ordering,
             and                                    ing, and remembering and presenting
             explanations                           information             information

Inquiry      critical, creative philosophical and     responding to          establishing climate
             and dialogical     psychological studies questions              asking questions
             thinking           of critical thinking  analyzing arguments    probing assumptions
                                and creativity        generating creative    examining assertions
                                                      ideas                  asking for evidence
                                                      understanding          seeking new ideas
                                                      opposing viewpoints
Mental       problem solving basic problem solving appropriate mental      providing information
Models       decision making expected utility         models               about problem-solving
                                theory                                     and decision making
                                group communication                        techniques
                                theory                                     guiding discussion of
                                                                           case monitoring
                                                                           progress on projects
Group         examination of group                    speaking and active composing groups
dynamics     beliefs,          communication         listening process and developing and using
             opinions and      theory                task behavior         instruments
             attitudes                               teamwork              monitoring groups
             collaboration and                                             facilitating deeper
             working in teams                                              communication
Virtual       development of Psychodrama socio-       practicing real life  setting the scene
Reality      competence and drama gaming and         roles through role    designing the scripts
             confidence in a simulation theory       play, dramatics       and scenarios
             simulated                               scenarios and         intervening or
             environment                             simulations           stepping back
Holistic      personal           holistic learning    simultaneous multi- identifying
             learning and self- constructivist       channel processing of experiences matching
             discovery          philosophy and       experience reflection experiences to
             through            psychology brain                           participants providing
             experience         research                                   useful mechanisms for
                                                                           reflection providing
                                                                           skilled help as mentor,
                                                                           counselor, animator

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                                       C. BOOK REVIEW

                                        By Jessica Levant

      It is not a book about how to “do” training and development; rather it is about how the

customer connection must underline all training and development efforts throughout the

organization for it to stay viable. Customer refers to the direct recipients of your training and

development programs. (Sometimes it refers to the organization as a whole)

      The systematic approach is usually presented as the backbone of any competently planned

training and development course.

                                     Analyze needs

     Monitor & evaluate results                          Establish objectives

            Implement solution                         Design solution

It is an internal model, it compasses the tasks that must be performed within the organization to

get the ”product” right, but does not incorporate how to engage various customers in those tasks.

There are activities which should be attended to every step. Every marketing process starts with

identifying potential customer and then learning what the customer population wants the market

phase. Marketing efforts of an internal service depend a great deal on image for their continued

success. Visibility only helps if it is positive! There is also a need to maintain and strengthen

client relationships. This personal attention phase allows the introduction of appropriate

promotional activity so that when it is time to launch the planned program, customers are eager

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to participate. The next phase is just as crucial: openness to feedback, demonstration of concern

to get it right and to continue getting it right, flexibility, and ability to adapt in a timely manner

all come together to ensure that what is provided continues to meet the needs of the customers.

       Sustainable training and development activity can be represented by the formula

 “S=Q+R+M.” Q (Quality) refers to such things as the method of the delivery, competence of

 trainer or other experts, accuracy of materials, administration and resource management. R

 (Relevance) means what you are offering relates to the customer-perceived need and drives

 corporate performance. M (Marketability) is the extent to which the contribution made by the

 training and development function is perceived by its customers as added value to the

 organization effectively, your “desirability.”

       For the purpose of this book, a useful definition of marketing will focus on the

 connection. And the definition is everything you do that is aimed at getting the customer to

 want what you have to offer. It focuses on the customer and the supplier and the things they do.

 Below are some points to improve the performance:

–   Getting the Customer to Want: Getting the customer to want what you can offer is

what you have to do! A perceptive training and development manager would formulate a training

and development strategy that meets the organizational needs, but do so knowing that individual

appeal is also vital. The three essentials should be kept in mind. Quality, Relevance and


–   Getting Exposure: To get your customers and therefore your organization to derive

the benefits you intend and to keep you a viable function within the organization. You must be

seen to be doing the right things at the right time in order to be allowed to continue doing them.

You remind people of your service in a way that appeals to them.

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      No book about marketing can ignore reference to “the marketing mix.” “Four P‟s”.

Product (It might seem a redundant issue as this is a book about performance improvement;

however, the content and style of the training or the learning activities will be dealt with under

packaging), Price (e.g. cost, time ,effort) , Promotion (e.g. who you are ,what you do , how you

advertise those things) and Place (e.g. which needs you decide to address and what kind of image

you choose to have).And the fifth ”P” could also be added : People(also about who you are, and

the choices you make in recruiting or contracting with those people who reflect the quality and

relevance of what you are offering ).It is important to remember that you and your departmental

staff are constant advertisements and be sure those “ads” deliver are in tune with your intention.

      More useful than the list of “P‟s” is a step-by-step list of activities. The following list

comprises key areas for attention:

–Define your market identify your customer.

–Choose your focus establish where to put competing needs and resources.

–Strive to build and develop relationships with your customers.

–Get the packaging right pay attention to contextual issues.

–Assess your image in the organization

–Decide what your image should be

–Plan, Create, and promote the image you need

–Learn to maintain customer focus at all times

–Pay special attention to administration

      Three important things to analyze your market: Who are your customers, What will satisfy

your customer and How are you match your service to their need. The entire organization is your

customer. But it is not useful to lump the entire organization into one customer base. To

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effectively provide the means of bridging the gap between what people are employed to do and

what people are capable of doing, you must continually make the various customer groups aware

of your role. And the first step is to consider the following categories that make up your


1. Direct Customer: Those they require training or development to perform effectively their job.

   These are the direct recipients of your efforts the participants. You must identify who they

   are. The useful technique is to map them. Then you differentiate between them; in that way

   the relevance of what you are providing will be apparent to the target group.

2. Sponsor: Those who hold the strings, whether purse strings or political strings. If you have an

   organization chart, look at it closely and think about the name fill the boxes. Remember that

   power does not always come from higher level. Identify the key players that you must

   consistently influence to maintain your own power. It is vital to ensure that your employee

   performance improvement strategy is seen to be an essential part of the business strategy.

3. Influencers: Having the internal grapevine spread the word on your behalf can be a key

   contributor to your ongoing success. Influencers are those who can sway your direct

   customers and sponsors. Certainly all those who experience direct benefits from your

   customers‟ training, their managers, colleagues, customers etc. Influencers can be divided

   into champions, blockers and doomsayers.

      Trying to do all things to all people will only result in a half-baked end product. It‟s

important to decide where to focus your resources at any particular time. There are three ways to

approach this problem.

–The Biggest Payoff: A strategic training and development manager should consider where the

biggest payoffs will come from when determining the bulk of training solutions to be

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undertaken. A payoff is more than the expected results of the training activity. One way to look

at payoffs is to view the possibilities against very specific criteria relevance (how relevant your

suggestions are to solving the performance or organizational problem), awareness (how aware

your customer groups might be of the subject areas of your proposals) and added value (how

much added value the training or development solution will generate). The best is the proposals

with greatest impact, low current awareness (high surprise value) and high added value.

–The Internal Payoff: Questions to ask when looking for payoffs. Benefit questions (e.g. How

much money will it save/ bring in?) and Cost considerations (e.g. How long will it take for the

result to be noticed?) There is no easy solution for identifying payoffs. Some training results are

immediately visible; most are not. Part of your job is to help to help make those payoffs visible.

–Build a Critical Mass: It is useful to analyze your customers in another way: according to their

levels of trust in you and agreement with your purpose. The key here is to identify into which

area particular customers fall. The high-value customers are on the right-hand side.

                  H       BEDFELLOWS                         ALLIES

        LEVEL OF              FENCE SITTERS

                                ENEMIES                    OPPONENTS

                          L               LEVEL OF TRUST                    H

      Forming relationships will provide you many obvious and less obvious benefits. Different

relationships involve different levels of attention and service. If you can evaluate your customer

relationships in terms of the level of service that is required, you will be able to “schedule” the

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amount of attention you need to give and plan the time and the resources necessary to service

this need more appropriately.

      There is a logical progression in the development of a relationship between supplier and

customer. Stage I (Understanding) extends from the first meeting to the initial provision of some

service. At a certain point the nature of the customer‟s problem will become sufficiently clear to

you and you will be ready to offer a solution. This is when you may be poised for Stage II

(Building Trust). Whether you get there or not will depend on the willingness and ability of each

of you to build a deeper level of trust. Moving from Stage II to Stage III (Joint Problem Solving)

involves a further deepening of the relationship into a sense of full partnership.

      There are three types of relationships transactional customers (Stage I), key relationship

customers (Stage II) and partnering customers (Stage III), and each has different relationship


      Forming, developing and nurturing relationships involve both skills and systems. It is not

enough just to have good relationship skills. Methods for “connecting” and a system for keeping

in touch are also essential. The point of keeping in touch is that there should be a system, not be

left to chance.

      Customer relationships offer a unique approach to understanding functional areas.

Customer relationships can give the professional an operational perspective on the business and

sometimes the industry as a whole.

      Raising your awareness of contextual areas will give you some ideas for fine-tuning them

to match the needs and perceptions of your customers. Looking at context means going beyond

what might have been know as the best way to generate a useful learning experience and

focusing on the issue of format, timing, environment, style and personal style.

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–Format: How the improved performance gets delivered. It encompasses all the various training

delivery alternatives, including guided self-development, group activities, one-to-one

arrangements, etc. The key is to be sensitive to the customer and forget “what we‟ve always

done.” Be aware that the way in which you label your initiatives and materials carries important

messages. Labeling is a vital promotional tool. You do need to consider your cultural

environment, but also think about the message course titles convey.

–Timing: What has changed is the acceptance of past procedure. Many companies perceive the

traditional training day as an unrealistic luxury. Part of looking at training needs involves finding

out when the would-be participants can actually take part and adjusting formats creatively to

match the business priorities. Timing also means being sensitive to customers‟ important

deadlines and heavy work periods. Another aspect of timing is use of time during the training

program itself. Finally, be sure that the “creative use of time” is not just for the trainer‟s benefit.

–Environment: People are more receptive to learning if they are not too far from their comfort

zone. Comfort can come from both physical and psychological: The people encountered, The

training site, Domestic concerns, Location, Welcoming procedures. Keep in mind that taking the

participant away from the comfort zone on purpose can be effective. It has frequently been

documented that motivation decreases when people are too comfortable.

–Style: The style of your training initiatives will be formed by the way in which you

communicate them, the types of activity you use, and the ways in which your trainers deliver

them. Styles must fit with what you and your organization are trying to do.

–Personal Styles: Trainer style should be an important consideration when matching context with

culture. As people have different learning styles, so do trainers have a range of training styles?

Attention to style requires choosing an individual trainer style to suit the customer group. We all

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fall into the trap at one time or another of selecting people who are most like ourselves. You

must watch this carefully because it is often necessary to bring in a style different than our own.

        To determine the context need, one way is to use your general knowledge and intuition. Or

you can think about it by various groups‟ (senior manager, mid-level manager, individual

contributors or specialists, lower-level staff) priorities in training. The key is to look, listen, and

ask before, during, and after training experience.

        Determining just what the right image is for your organizational culture will give you a

head start in making the right link with your customer. Image is in the “eye of the beholder,” but

there are many things you can do to influence what your customer “behold.” Our image of a

thing or a person comes from what we see, what we hear, what we expect. There are three major

components that make up “image” Outward Appearance, Your Reputation and The Mental


–Outward Appearance: The outward appearance of your training function is made up of those

factors your customer come face to face with, such as how your materials look, how quickly you

respond to requests or criticism… Once you determine what image you want to portray, you will

be able to develop ideas for bringing your outward appearance in line.

–Your Reputation: Your reputation comes from memory, gossip and stamp of approval. What

others say about you obviously depends to a great degree on their perception of their experiences

with you. You can make monitor what you think are your customers‟ perceptions; ask for

feedback, respond positively and work hard to create those impressions you want them to take


–The Mental Picture: A mental picture is more subjective that reputation. Mental pictures are

made of impressions imprinted on our minds. While you cannot control the creation of the

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mental pictures that make up the image people have of you, you can try and learn what they are

and counter them with new actions. And consider the time it takes to develop a positive mental


      There are several ways you can gather clues to the images others have of you. You can

review the enrollment umbers of your training activities and try to learn the reason for any

abnormalities. You can know from the budget the company gives you. To make the process a bit

easier, you can use “the training image survey.” The survey results will ultimately reveal that

others perceive the training department as more or less: reactive, people-driven, system-driven

and strategic.

      To know what the right image is, the main point is to know the image you want to portray

and know how to promote it. However, choosing the right components of “image” needs to

include what the customer wants. As you have come to know the various personalities within

your organization, you will be able to track to what kind of image generates the best response

from them. You may determine how you‟d like others to see you, and then carefully assess each

customer group against your results.

      Depending on your team size and resources, you must do some degree of targeted

marketing activities. In fact, there is usually plenty of room for creativity in promoting your

image. Remember that the customers are dynamic; so must your image be.

      To benefit in the long term from all the hard work you have done, you need to maintain

your marketing focus. This means always keeping the customer in mind. Specifically, it means

constantly defining and highlighting what the customer benefits will be. Maintaining your

marketing focus, so that it stays customer-oriented, breaks down into five areas:

1. Ensure that you have identified the needs of your target customers.

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As the pace of change has increased in modern organizations, tolerance for outmoded ideas or

methods is practically unacceptable. Recognizing the changing needs of your customer groups is

the only way to avoid being marginalized.

2. Promote your service via benefits that match your customers‟ needs.

Successful promotion is based on benefits derived from an understanding of your customers‟

needs, and how they can be met. Benefits are what people buy, not features. Part of your

marketing plan must be to relate specific benefits to your customer groups, and remind them of

what they are getting. You and your team should make benefits clear both in writing and face-to-

face communication.

3. Make the most of your network of communication links

When you have a clear idea of the “who,” you can start looking at some “hows”(ways to

communicate effectively with your targets)- following are few ideas.

One-to-One (Face-to-Face and Telephone), Meetings, Information Technology, Paper-Based


4. Stay visible and add value in everything you try to do

If those who do not participate in training can see the benefits that training has given to others

and the added value that it has produced in the organization, you will go a long way in

establishing a successful training and development function. There are three key rules to keep in

mind. First, always do at least a bit more than is expected. Second, never commit to what you

cannot deliver. Third, seek to add value in every activity.

5. Build and improve relationships constantly with your customers

      How administration procedures impact the overall success of the training strategy. It

covers the “moments of truth” when staffs talk to existing and potential customers, and it deals

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with the quality of the service we offer to back up the excellent of our training and development

“product.” Starting from the beginning and examine each aspect of the administration procedure.

–Customer-Friendly System: You can check the following aspects to improve the customer-

friendly   system;   Professional     standards,   training   directories   and   calendars,   course

announcements, booking procedures, managing attendance, pre-course information, site

arrangement and registration.

–In The Training Room: Don‟t push too hard for people to stick to unrealistic breaks contract

with them ,to allow something reasonable. Needless to say, furniture should be of the highest

possible standard. Nothing looks worse than poorly presented visual materials on paper or on


–Course Materials: The key factor is consistency. All your materials should be of a standard that

reflects your brand of excellent. In addition to the course presentation, pay attention to the style

of the handouts. Make sure you and your training team are consistent with the message that is

being delivered.

      Find ways to receive and capture feedback on your administration as well as on the service

you provide. It will help you see from “the other side” and nip any problems in the bud.

      There are sound business reasons for relying to varying degrees on external providers for

your training and development function. From a marketing standpoint, the use of the external

providers does say something to your customer. The important thing is to be in control of what it

says. The source (the external provider) of that performance improvement solution should be

seen to be driven by your function.

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      Determining which of the reasons for using external help you are driven by. This will

determine how you select and brief the consultant, and therefore, how they interact with your

customer. You must consider the following aspect when using the external consultant.

–Selection Criteria: The point is that your choice invites value judgments from your customers.

Which consultant you provide is a context issue and your sensitivity in selecting him or her will

be perceived as the image people have of the training and development department.

–Introducing the Alien: Once you have selected an external consultant, it is important that you

properly introduce them into organization. Inform the departments why the consultants will be

working with them.

–Managing Quality: When you use an external consultant, you should cautiously monitor the

project and his/her work. First, remain knowledgeable about how the projects are progressing so

you can adequately represent the training function‟s contribution to the business. Second,

maintain the standards set and nip in the bud any potential problems or veering off track.

–Managing the Relationship: Your relationship with the training consultant will affect the

relationship between the consultant and your customer. If you want the consultant to carry a

positive message about the organization and the training function, you will need to make the time

to develop a quality relationship with the consultant.

      Many training and development functions consider or actually experiment with offering

their “products” or specialized expertise outside their own organization. It is a way to develop a

reputation that raises your profile both outside and inside your organization.

      Marketing externally can benefit you and your organization. Giving them the opportunity

to work in new environments with different audiences can enhance their skills and maintain their

interest- real development opportunity for training staff. Many training and development

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departments overlook the need to provide development mechanisms for the trainers themselves,

and working outside the function is an ideal vehicle for personal development. It can also

sharpen commercial skills like financial management, contract negotiations, and public relations.

      There are two ways to consider operating internally as an “extra” commercial endeavor. If

you are part of a large organization, you can offer your expertise to other divisions or

subsidiaries. Alternatively, in a smaller organization, you can offer support in a new range of

services. Offering your services in-house can suggest to people that you are approachable,

flexible, professional, and helpful.

      Selling to the outside your organization is certainly a way to increase your customer-base,

generate additional revenue for your organization, and most importantly, from the perspective of

the book, enhance your image. If you decide to market your department‟s expertise to outside

organizations, you will reach your market. Just like marketing internally, you must both be seen

and let people know what you are offering. If you considering external involvement, think

carefully about the level at which you will offer your services. Whatever you do, you should seek

to add value, and be perceived as doing so.

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                             D. ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

                                     CITATION LIST

1. Adelsberg, Van; David, Trolley, “Running Training Like a Business”, Training &
   Development, Vol. 53, Issue 10, October 99, pp.56
2. Galagan, Patricia A, “Mission E-Possible”, Training & Development, Vol. 55, Issue 2, Feb
   2001, pp. 46
3. Gale, Sarah Fister, “Building Leaders At All Levels”, Workforce, Vol. 81, Issue 10, Oct
   2002, pp. 82
4. Laabs, Jennifer, “Diversity Training Is A Business Strategy”, Personnel Journal, Vol. 72,
   No.9, September 1993, p25
5. Morris, John, “Leading To Customer Care”, Industrial and Commercial Training, Vol. 28,
   Issue 5, 1996, pp. 7-10
6. Pangarkar, Ajay; Kirkwood, Teresa, “Systematic Strategies”, CMA Management, Vol. 76,
   Issue 9, Dec , p.275
7. Ragburam, Sumita; Arvey, Rchard, “Business Strategy Links with Staffing and Training
   Practices”, Human Resources Planning, Vol. 17, Issues 3, 1994, pp.55
8. Smith Peter A., “Reinventing SunU”, Training & Development, Vol. 48, Issue 7, Jul 1994, pp. 23.
9. Smith, Andrew, et all, “Organization change and the management of training in Australian
   enterprises”, International Journal of Training and Development, Vol. 7, Issue 1360-3736,
10. Valle, Ramon et all, “Business Strategy, Work Processes And Human Resources Training:
   Are They Congruent”, Journal of Organization Behavior, Vol. 21, 2002, p. 283-297

____________________________________________________________________35 of 99
Adelsberg, Van; David, Trolley, “Running Training Like a Business”, Training &
Development, Vol. 53, Issue 10, October 99, pp.56

       This excerpt presents the new perspective of training and development that should be

regarded as an enterprise, focusing on business issues, not on training content. The core of the

concept “Running training like a business” stresses on simultaneously achieving effectiveness

and efficiency. In order to attain both, the following keys need to be taken into consideration:

 Link training and development to business strategy: it is imperative to understand what

   customer‟s expectation is. The next step is to provide training that aligns with customer‟s

   business strategy by developing employees‟ skill to fulfill those goals.

 Focus on business issues, not training content: unlike traditional training that offer enhanced

   skills, the new role of training is to identify the issues facing business and then to formulate

   training strategy meeting the challenges.

 Let demand shape training and development offerings: training constantly undergoes changes

   in response to customer demands. Thus, offering training must keep up with the emerging


 Clarity training and development‟s business mission: Clear mission enables training to focus

   on important business that customers demand. Therefore, training becomes a critical part of

   preparing businesses to work closely together for customers.

 See training and development as enterprise, not a function: the purpose of this statement

   relies on the idea of concentrating on customers, their issues, and their needs, which must be

   satisfied through training system. The new training must be ensured to align with the needs

   of business, which is further enhanced by new technology making the training system

   accessible to every part of the business.

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 Expose hidden costs: Few businesses are aware of hidden cost from training expenditures. In

   fact, only a small part of cost is visible, organizations hardly recognize the rest, which is

   however higher than visible cost including lost productivity, wasted training investments, or

   lost opportunity. So, with running training like a business, once hidden cost is sizable, it‟s

   easier to measure the effect of training on business.

 Aggressively reduce cost while building and maintaining reliable processes: Assessment and

   gauge of business value derived from training expenditures help organization substantially

   bring down its training cost by eliminating inefficient training. Efficiency will be achieved if

   organization puts more reliable training system and processes in place.

 Operate as a variable cost, be flexible and opportunistic in sourcing: training like a business

   operates as a variable cost in response to the accelerating pace of change in business. So,

   training works as system integrator with focus on flexibility in sourcing training services that

   offer more value but lower cost.

 Measure what matters: Effectiveness and efficiency are the most important key in doing

   business. Efficiency measures including total cost, cost per unit, number of participants,

   utilization rates, throughput and so on need to be assessed and adjusted to sustain business

   operations. Effectiveness measures are linked to what customers perceive and what they gain

   in tangible values, and to the expectation of executives who invest in the training.

   Overall, traditional training can‟t keep pace with the fast changing business, running training

like business even if challenging is the way organization should adopt to deliver a better value.

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Galagan, Patricia A, “Mission E-Possible”, Training & Development, Vol. 55, Issue 2, Feb
2001, pp. 46

       The article refers to electronic training introduced to Cisco in the United States where e-

learning becomes inseparable from the company‟s business strategy. According to Cisco, E-

learning encompasses information, communication, education and training that aim to enable

employees to do a better job. The advantage of e-learning can be seen through the increase of

productivity and its accessibility in space and time. Importantly, in order to keep up with the fast

changing business, e-learning is the effective way to update and grow employees‟ skills and

knowledge in high volume with a shorter time. At Cisco, the vision of its leader turned the

company from messy training to a leader in e-learning. Notably, the lead of Internet Learning

Solutions Group started from integrating all e-learning activities across the company and then

categorizing learning resources according to the customer‟s segment. Learner can access the

training resources via portals called Field E-Learning Connection that contains more than 8,000

learning resources and is organized around a set of learning roadmaps covering the jobs of every

person in the organization. It solves the problem of classroom training in terms of timeliness,

relevance and worldwide accessibility. To measure the effectiveness of this new method of

training, either assessment questions appear throughout the module or the help of live mentors

who observe learner‟s new skills in action are put in place. However, to prove how e-learning

would work compared to classroom training, the group conducted a test involving 200

participants, The result showed that e-learners had a pass rate of 10% better than classroom

trainees. However, the road to e-learning is not as smooth as believed, it constantly faces the

issues concerning cost effective, the compatibility of the tools used for e-learning, and the

resistance to change.

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Gale, Sarah Fister, “Building Leaders At All Levels”, Workforce, Vol. 81, Issue 10, Oct
2002, pp. 82.

   Development of leadership skills in employees through training becomes strategically

imperative for the organization owing to the recently increasing pace of change in business that

requires employees‟ freedom and reliability in decision-making to meet customer expectation,

especially the front-line staff. Hence, offering leadership training is a critical business strategy

that enhances employee‟s superior performance, makes them responsible for and proud of their

work, thereby boosting company productivity and reducing turnover rate. Contrary to the old-

fashioned leadership development in the stable environment where leadership development

opportunities focused only to executives or potentials, leadership at all level helps organization

prepare a pool of talent to respond immediately to the arising needs. Following is leadership

practical training conducted in three different companies of small, medium and large size in the

United States.

   Remarketing Services of America Inc having 650 employees nurtures the entrepreneurial

spirit in its staff at all level by different approaches. At managerial level, whether newly hired or

internally promoted, they must undergo an evaluation to determine their leadership strengths and

gaps and participate in 360-degree assessment rating them on 14 established leadership

competencies after 6 months on the job. Based on the results, a customized training program is

designed to develop their skills. Regarding the potentials, training immediately needed

leadership skills such as relationship building, conflict resolution are provided first and other

skills will be offered after the new position is assumed. Furthermore, the 12-month Leadership

Emerging and Development Program extends to motivated employees, giving them opportunities

to expand their potential for future role. The annual low turnover rate can therefore attribute to

its corporate value: personal growth and idea-sharing.

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   At the Fujitsu Transaction Solutions Inc. with around 1,000 employees, the foundation of the

company business strategy relies on professional development, leadership and accountability.

Driven by this corporate culture, employees are encouraged to take up leadership role in a way

that balances freedom and responsibility. The company creates a web-based training and

development system from KnowledgePool called Career Resource Center where employees can

navigate from skills assessment, evaluation and mapping career goals to individualized

development program. In addition to the web-based training course, a database cataloging the

skills of company‟s staff allows management to make fairer selection. The Center is clearly a

signal to staff that the company supports personal growth, creating a winning culture.

   Unysis Corp.‟s culture is grounded in its belief that leaders will create an environment that

can change and adapt to the economy. Training leadership at all levels are regarded as priority in

the company. The leadership curriculum comprises six courses within two tracks concentrating

on culture and leadership skills. Classroom-based courses cover topics related to team leadership

skills, understanding cultural issues or developing management. After class, the networking

opportunities such as weekly lunch discussion is set up to maximize the impact of the training.

The program proves successful considering the high recommendation made from former

attendees and also helps improve relationship between superior and subordinates.

Laabs, Jennifer, “Diversity Training Is A Business Strategy”, Personnel Journal, Vol. 72,
No.9, September 1993, p25.

   This article addresses the concern for diversity training that should be considered as an

integral part of the overall business strategy because effective training on cultural awareness seen

as a means of improving management and employment relationship will lead to increased

productivity and a more adaptable and flexible workforce. Diversity training is very important

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for both staff and management. This training will help managers and top executives understand

how their organization policies should be designed with due consideration to cultural awareness

embodied in organization‟s corporate culture. Also once understanding culture differences,

managers will be better in team building and therefore get the very best people and more

committed workers. Staff also benefit from this training too. Specifically, they have better

understanding about cultural differences, thereby increasing tolerance for ethnically diverse

people. Furthermore, it helps people more flexible and able to deal with changes in the new era.

Organizations can reap the fruits of this training such as reducing turnover, having the best

people, handling fewer grievances, increasing customer contacts, decreasing conflict and

misunderstanding amongst groups, acquiring new approach to thinking and problem solving.

       There are many ways incorporating management and development techniques that

address diversity issues. Diversity should be made part of training and needs to be incorporated

into organizational policies and procedures, especially the issues of selection, performance-

review motivation or promotion. While those topics are taught, cultural and gender differences

should be included so as to help managers understand how diversity issues influence the process.

Overall, the best strategy for cultivating a corporate culture that values the spirit of diversity is

that deeds must go with words, e.g. equal opportunity. Moreover, managing diversity must be

understood as a learning process. Recruitment, retention, and promotion strategies need to be

changed as a result of incorporating a diversity program into the organization. Finally, it‟s clearly

inevitable that problems may arise such as resistance to change, communication barrier between

management and employees, or the lack of visibility, credibility of management, or management

failing to do what they said, or failure of implementing inputs taken from employees. In order to

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overcome them, it requires that top management must build trust by committing to listening to

people and take remedial action.

Morris, John, “Leading To Customer Care”, Industrial Commercial Training, Vol. 28, Issue
5, 1996, pp. 7.

   The article emphasizes the importance of customer care training which should be considered

as a part of an ongoing business strategy rather than a short-term training needs if organizations

want to achieve sustainable competitive advantage. As the bottom line of doing business is to

gain customer loyalty, customer care training must be therefore incorporated in company‟s

overall business strategy and regarded as strategic issue. Customer care training should focus on

the way in which customers are treated. In order for training successful, the role of leadership is

critical. First, leaders must support the program starting from clarifying company‟s business

mission that is linked with customer satisfaction. Once mission is stated, leaders need to

communicate clearly and regularly with others and to create culture in such a way that becomes

value and belief for the entire organization. The role of leader is critical at this stage because the

way they behave toward customers, either internal or external, will be examined and produces

great impact on the staff. Hence, in order to promote effective customer care, leader should (1)

make commitment to the customer satisfaction mission and get involved in it; (2) demonstrate

that words always go with deeds; (3) continuously improve the standards of care in dealing with

customers, either internal or external; (4) incorporate customer care into appraisal and incentives

at all levels; (5) set up benchmarking against “best of the best”. Since customer satisfaction is a

goal, measurement should be put in place. Hence, setting standards for measurement are

required, which includes (1) identify key processes involved in delivering customer satisfaction;

(2) break each processes down into detailed transactions; (3) compare the process to competitor‟s

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and identify the standards and policies the competitors implement; (4) determine your customer

satisfaction mission, standard and policies; (5) identify criteria signaling success for


   Once mission is identified and compared with the current one, the next step is action plan and

implementation with the involvement of staff at all levels. At this stage, the training program is

designed to fit customer satisfaction requirements that basically address two key issues:

communication and autonomy. The latter enhances the authority to act to improve customer

service while the former is effective tool to carry out the plan.

   Overall, customer care becomes an important aspect emerging as sustainable competitive

advantage in today business given the current increase of competition. Training on customer

service should be seen as long-term goal and part of overall business strategy.

Pangarkar, Ajay; Kirkwood, Teresa, “Systematic Strategies”, CMA Management, Vol. 76,
Issue 9, Dec , p.275

   Unlike traditional view of seeing training as an expense with intangible results, training and

learning are now regarded as the cornerstone of business success. Training must now run as a

business function having profit center and holding accountability to business performance.

Measuring return on training investment is used as a vehicle to evaluate the financial impact on

employees‟ acquired knowledge. The American Society for Training and Development‟s survey

on training practices and expenditures found that “a solid relationship exits between a company‟s

performance and its workplace learning and development practices.” Investment in human

capital becomes a central component of a growing company‟s competitive strategy. To make the

training measurable, professionals suggest to use Kirpatrick model comprising four level

evaluation model:

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   1. the reaction of training participants

   2. the evaluation of what participants learned

   3. the application or transfer of training to job

   4. the measurement and impact of the training on organizational performance

   Measuring the ROI of training must be done at level three and four. Although this model is

effective for measuring the return, managers are inclined to measure it based on the formula

expressing the ratio of net benefits divided by the direct/indirect cost. Financial measurement,

yet important, doesn‟t really reflect other key business impact such as increased employee

morale, better communication, or increased customer satisfaction. Rather, they should measure it

against some types of objective or benchmark. So, the first step in building learning strategy

involves in determining business objectives that give direction where company needs to be. The

next step focus on planning out the required criteria to link training to it and then on considering

issues related to desired outcomes in this plan such as people‟s involvement, external/internal

process, expectation from senior management. Once done, benchmark must come in for

quantifying outcomes or measuring everything that training may improve. The condition for the

attainment of desired outcomes counts on clear communication with people about your

expectation and consistency in words and deeds. It is also important to reinforce training activity

through on-the-job practice or positive reinforcement that will lead to lasting result and better

return exceeding monetary expectation. Finally, controls should be put in place to monitor the

implication and results of the learning strategies. Learning Management system will help

company out while tracking down organizational learning including employee‟s performance

before and after training.

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Ragburam, Sumita; Arvey, Rchard, “Business Strategy Links with Staffing and Training
Practices”, Human Resources Planning, Vol. 17, Issues 3, 1994, pp.55

       The article examines the relationship between staffing and training practice and business

strategy by answering the two research questions (1) whether the practices of buying skills vs

building skills vary with business strategy and (2) whether different functional skills are

associated with different business strategies. In answering the questions, a conceptual model had

been drawn, describing the link between business strategies and staffing and training practices.

Depending on company‟s business strategies, i.e. defense or prospect, the practices of staffing

and training will vary accordingly. With the defender - static environment, low price, high

quality – training is extensive and conducted in house, focusing on building narrow skills related

to production, quality control and finance whereas prospector – dynamic environment, new

products and new markets – engages external training on broad skills such as marketing, research

and development and is low on the amount of training. Based on the above expectation, a

research was conducted with a sample of 780 firms composed of more than 100 employees

within manufacturing sector. Questionnaire was mailed out and 176 responses received. The

survey used staffing and training practices and business strategy as variables and business

performance and size as control variables. The findings reveal that most of the correlation

between the strategy dimension and staffing and training practices were low. However, the

results of this study indicate some predictable relationship between the two dimensions. For

instance, prospect strategy shows the positive relationship with type and source of skills. The

result indicated that the practice of buying skills correlated with prospector since its strategy

focused on new markets and breakthrough products, hence external skills would be preferably

brought in. Contrary to the aforesaid expectation, defense dimension shows no correlation with

internal staffing and a high level of training. It might attribute to the informal or on-the-job

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training, rather than formal training, that managers receive. The results also indicates that type of

skills conforms with business strategy in the case of prospect strategy, as high percentage of staff

was found to be trained in the areas of R&D, marketing and sales whereas defense dimension

doesn‟t show a relationship with staffing and training practices.

Smith Peter A., “Reinventing SunU”, Training & Development, Vol. 48, Issue 7, Jul 1994,
pp. 23

       The article examines the process of reinvention at Sun Microsystems‟s training

organization aiming to link its training to customer‟s demand and overall business strategies. The

reason to do so is due to a number of driving forces pushing organization to think of new way to

meet customer‟s expectation, namely the frequently changing technologies and products in high-

tech business, training solutions that must be developed quickly and train a large quantity of

people to fit customers‟ needs, company‟s interest in developing competence of knowledge

workers and learning organization, and limited HR staff handling training. In order to respond to

these forces, company started with a “white paper” in which business units were expected to

determine its customers, customers‟ motive to buy its products, competitors, action plan,

necessary skills and resources. The white paper served as a framework for group discussion and

led to the use of “stands” as a way of articulating how company wanted to operate in the future.

The stand was developed for each elements of the SunU-system model. SunU‟s reinvention

methods combined the new process of stands and invention with the change-management

approaches. The stand and system model evolved through small group meeting and were

finalized by analysis of appropriate operations to fulfill business goals. The system model and

stands served as focused reference for team‟s activities. Notably, the new business processes

impacted on the way company identified competencies, trained large number of people quickly

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and supported the dissemination of information to workers. Furthermore, the way company

determined training business needs relied on defining core competencies grouped in three

clusters through an analysis of strategies and goals needed to execute the competencies. After

identifying potential areas on which to focus training, team conducted interviews with key senior

managers to validate and set priorities among the training-focus areas which were grouped under

appropriate clusters. As long as the reinvention progressed, the team planned training that

developed core competencies required to implement business plans and strategies. The method

of delivering training counted on “extended classroom” by using videoconference capabilities.

By providing that type of training, it met two utmost requirements as discussed earlier: train a

large number of people and keep workers updated the new technology changes in market.

Besides, “library at the desktop” enabled employees to access CD-ROM-based information on

customer profiles, technologies and products and moreover aligned to the cost-effective

strategies of the company.

Smith, Andrew, et all, “Organization change and the management of training in Australian
enterprises”, International Journal of Training and Development, Vol. 7, Issue 1360-3736,

       The study focuses on the impact of new management practices on the organization of

training in Australian enterprises that results in the integration of training with business strategy.

The new set of management practices stems from the search for higher levels of international

competitiveness that requires a various approaches to organizational changes such as TQM

and/or JIT method. The study involved a survey of 3241 enterprises employing human resources

managers and got a response rate of 18%. Independent variables include five practices: total

quality management, team working, lean production, business process reengineering and the

learning organization. The aim of the research was to establish whether the implementation of

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these new management practices and a range of other human resource and environmental factors

had any impact on the nature of organization of training in enterprises. Dependent variables

encompassed eight measures of the organization of training and the training function in the

enterprise: engagement with VET (vocational education and training) sector, formalisation of

training activities, workplace delivery, decentralization, a written training plan, a specialist

training department, training manager and workplace instructor. The analysis of the survey data

involved modeling the training measures against each of the independent variables to determine

how the implementation of new management practices had influenced the organization of


        The result finds that the implementation of new management practices impact

significantly on the organization of training at the enterprise. However, the impact is not

consistent with different management practices revealing different implications for the way

training was organized and delivered. The management practice with the most effect on training

organization is TQM that is strongly associated with decentralization of responsibility for

training to line managers, the absence of a specialist training department and the engagement of

vocational educational and training. The learning organization is also associated with the

decentralization of responsibility for training. The business process reengineering had

relationship with workplace delivery and VET. Teamwork is associated with greater

decentralization of training and with the delivery of training in the workplace in the case that

team with greater autonomy in decision-making will require more formalisation training.

Otherwise, workplace delivery and off the job training are provided to maximize efficiencies in

the work process. Lean production had the most negative association with training and is

associated with less formalization of training, less likelihood of the existence of a training plan, a

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training manager and workplace instructors. The strongest relationship in the data is the

integration of training with business strategy and the integration of human resources strategy

with business strategy. The integration of human resources policy with business strategy is

strongly associated with the engagement with VET and workplace delivery of training and less

strongly associated with decentralization of training to line mangers. The integration of training

with business strategy is strongly associated with the formalisation of training and the use of

workplace delivery together with the existence of written training plans, a specialist training

department, a training manager and workplace instructor. These two factors form part of

strategic process in the enterprises and are strongly associated with eight measures of training

organization. So, the integration of training and HR policy with business strategy leads to a

greater formalisation of training involving the engagement of VET, greater level of investment in

infrastructure of training through a training department and a training manger together with

workplace delivery and the use of workplace instructor. Thus, the existence of significant

training infrastructure and an emphasis on formal training are not necessarily inconsistent with

the decentralization of responsibility for training and the delivery of training in the workplace.

Valle, Ramon et all, “Business Strategy, Work Processes And Human Resources Training:
Are They Congruent”, Journal of Organization Behavior, Vol. 21, 2002, p. 283-297

       The article refers to a study on the relationship between HR training and business

strategy. The study concentrates on determining the orientation given to the training in

conjunction with company‟s philosophy and strategic focus. Based on a variety of theoretical

frameworks, a series of hypotheses regarding the relationship between training, business

strategy, work processes are proposed as follows:

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Hypothesis 1: a training model encompasses mechanic model characterized by emphasis on

individually specialized training, planning and search for performance improvement, and organic

model characterized by focus on multi-skills, group-work and satisfaction of long-term needs.

Hypothesis 2: the strategic orientation of training relates to the characteristics of the work

process, which means routine work process inclines to adopt a mechanistic model and a non-

routine one prefers organic model

Hypothesis 3: the strategic orientation of training is related to business strategy formulated by the

organization. Specifically, defender strategy will tend to adopt a mechanic model of training;

prospector will observe organic model and analyzer will take a mixed model.

       The survey is conducted on 65 Spanish companies with more than 500 employees. Two

separate questionnaires were mailed to each company, one sent to senior management with an

objective to identify the type of business strategy adopted by the company and the other to HR

senior officer aiming at finding the orientation of the training process and characterized features.

       The findings reveal partial confirmation for the hypothesis concerning training work

processes and business strategy. However, the results indicate that companies focusing on multi-

skills labor forces tend to emphasize on group performance; by the same token, firms in favor of

specialized skills prefer individual performance. With respect to work process and training, it is

also concluded that firms with enriched work process adopt training strategies emphasizing on

enhancement of individual specialized skills; by contrast, organizations stressing on routine-tasks

neglect this type of training. These empirical findings affirm specific relationships between work

processes and training models but the nature of these relationships contradicts to the hypothesis.

The results pertaining to the relationship between business strategy and training appear partially

support third hypothesis. Training content factor doesn‟t discriminate business strategy whereas

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training context seems to suggest that defenders are significantly different from both prospectors

and analyzers. The result shows that defenders adopt an undefined context training strategy and

both prospectors and analyzers adopt a more mechanistics training model, which are contrary to

the proposed hypothesis. The possible explanation for this contradiction is that contingency

approach applied for explaining the relationship between business strategy and training policy

will be much clearer if time perspective (the three timeframes: present, pass, future) is

considered to add to the analysis.

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                            E. PRACTITIONER INTERVIEWS

Giannis Charalambous: Manager of Exploration and Production Systems- Occidental
Petroleum Ltd.

   1. Q: How could you characterize your competitive strategy? How do you position yourself
      in the market?

      A: Occidental Petroleum Corporation is a large mature petroleum company which
      focuses on large mature oil fields and it positions itself in the market as Cost Leader. Its
      main goal is to be the low-cost provider in the industry. Its success depends on its pricing
      competitiveness and having a product that is acceptable to the market.

   2. Q: How Does Company link training with business strategy?

      A: By being able to employ staff worldwide, having small groups inside company, or
      communities of practice, or outside consultants who train employs on knowledge and
      skills required for the company. The main strategy of the business for being Cost Leader
      is called Enhance Oil Recover (EOR) (because mature fields required certain skills).
      Hence every employee gets to train on these skills for 2-weeks.

   3. Q: How do you coordinate the different department‟s manager?

      A: Doesn‟t matter what department each employee is, he has to take the skill test which
      is called Petroskill test, and then report results which show his overall performance.
      Even the managers have to take the skill test and report performance to the CEO. With
      this way CEO is able to compare results on different departments and evaluate different

   4. Q: How do you carry out your training project?

      A: Once a year the organization goes into the process of Training and Development.
      Training Needs Analysis (TNA) is a standard process in the organization, before moving
      to the next step of Planning and Designing a Training session. This analysis covers the
      organizational and operational aspect of the organization. Based on the TNA we build up
      a Development Plan, which then continues with the Design and Implementation phase,
      and finally Evaluation.

   5. Q: What level of employees from the organization are selected for training?

      A: Every level of employee is going trough the training process. Managers of each
      department they have to be trained for any new technological advances or new projects.
      They also contact a Leadership Training, which focuses on employees with a lot of
      potential of improvement based on their performance, ambitions, and in general
      knowledge and skill capabilities.

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  6. Q: What method do you usually use for instructional Training? Why?

         a.   Lectures-Lecture Discussions
         b.   Computer based Training-CBT
         c.   Documents from others
         d.   On the Job Training-OJB
         e.   E-learning

     A: According to the needs of the training we decide what the best method is. Sometimes
     we use external consultants if inside the organization we are unfamiliar with the new area
     that we need to be focusing on. We often use On the Job Training because is much more
     inexpensive and the transfer of training occurs naturally with a lot of potential on
     developing more positive relationships among older and new employees. E-learning is
     also a method being used a lot.

  7. Q: What kind of evaluation methods are you using?

     A: Mostly we measure the performance of the Petroskill test after every training session
     (usually OJT or E-learning) which every level of employee needs to take once a year.
     This is based on different levels/scales. Supposedly, every employee needs to show
     improvement and score in a higher level. However if this is not the case, he has two
     months to retake the test and show better results, otherwise he is in danger of loosing his

  8. Q: Do you find the training effective most of the times?

     A: Yes, very effective.

  9. Q: How much do you spent approximately annually on Training and Development
     purposes? What proportion of your budget this represents?

     A: It is about 1% of the Total Revenue which are around 7.6 million.

  10. Q: What value does training activities bring to the bottom line of your company (or to
      your department)?

     A: Bottom line is to increase production, run the business better and be more effective
     and efficient. People are the key for the success of the organization.

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Lee: Human Resources Manager - Grand Hi-Lai Hotel (a five-star hotel located in
Kaohsiung, Taiwan)

   1. Q: How could you characterize your company‟s competitive strategy? How do you
      position yourself in the market?

      A: Grand Hi-Lai Hotel is a famous hotel for professional services at the highest
      international standard. It‟s positioning itself as Market Leader given its professional
      service and differentiation.

   2. Q: How Does Company link training with business strategy?

      A: Since the business strategy is Market Leader, the training strategy focuses on
      enhancing employees‟ knowledge and skills.

   3. Q: Do you develop any TNA (Training Needs Analysis) before Design and
      Implementation phases for the Training session? If yes, how often?

      A: Of course the company does TNA. It examines three components: organizational
      analysis, operation analysis and person analysis. Organizational analysis has been
      conducted before decision on annual budget. Since the company‟s operation runs in a
      stable environment, there is no need to do operational analysis unless operational
      environment changes. Person analysis will be based on periodical performance evaluation

   4. Q: How do you coordinate the different department‟s manager?

      A: Coordination process usually happens in meeting, conferences. It is also important to
      maintain and use the informal relationship.

   5. Q: What do you deal with some ones who intentionally exerted bad influences on your
      employees‟ training desire?

      A: There are three ways. (1) To meet them in private and get to understand their motive.
      (2) To use the legitimate power. (3) To encourage employees‟ desire to get training.

   6. Q: How do you carry out your training project?

      A: The training project is planned according to the TNA. The training project can be
      divided into two parts. (1) Scheduled training: training session held every half-year in
      cooperation with some schools. And every new employee is required to get training so as
      to increase professional knowledge and ensure good service quality. (2) Flexible training:
      training is held irregularly, depending on emerging needs. Training could be On the Job
      Training, Off the Job Training, cross training, management Skills etc.

   7. Q: How do you promote your training project?

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     A: Every department in the company would bring up their training needs in the annual
     proposal. HR department develops training projects basing on their needs. Since training
     is organized regularly and considered important in the company, there is no need for
     encouragement or promotion to attend.

  8. Q: Besides the formal training activities, do you try to establish or improve the
     relationship constantly with your employees? Does it help?

     A: To keep good relationship with the employees is very important because it facilitates
     the implementation of the project. Some ways to establish informal relationship includes
     get-together, demonstrated personal care, developing friendly bond etc.

  9. Q: How do you decide that which level of employees from the organization is selected
     for training?

     A: HR department decides to select the level of employees for training in the routine
     training sessions. However, each department can bring up their specific training demands
     to the Training & Development department; and joint decision will be made on the level
     of employees who are eligible to receive that specific training

  10. Q: What kind of evaluation methods are you using?

     A: There will be some tests. Trainee is also observed by their daily performance. Since
     the company is in service industry, it also evaluates the outcome of the training by
     customer‟s reactions. If the employees do well in the training session, there will be some
     rewards (promotion, raise…). If there is no improvement, employees may undergo
     retraining or down grading

  11. Q: Does your organization use external consultant?

     A: Yes, but not often. When the company has particular need and can not be handled by
     the department, the external consultant is brought in. Basically, the external consultant
     can help the organization and bring some new ideas to the organization. But internal
     trainer is better since he/she understands the organization more (culture,

  12. Q: How do you let your department‟s effort be seen?

     A: There are some ways. (1) To demonstrate through training content and design and to
     show the outcome of training. (2) To establish data files and some documentary films. (3)
     To compare the performance before and after the training. (4) To respond the
     organization‟s comments as soon as possible.

  13. Q: What value does training activities bring to the bottom line of your company (or to
      your department)?

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     A: In conclusion, it helps company a lot. Employees get chances to learn and improve.
     Quality of service will be increased if company knows how to unleash employees‟
     potential. As such, employees will be proud of their work and feel more attached to

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Michelle Rose: Sr. Training Specialist- Baylor College of Medicine.

   1. How could you characterize your competitive strategy? How do you position
      yourself in the market?

       The organization tries to benchmark its training and development with other universities.
       And all of these are standardized.

   2. How Does Company link training with business strategy?

       The organization is going through a big change with the new CEO. But training is
       organized as needed. And there is a small staff of two people for this department.

   3. Do you develop any TNA (Training Needs Analysis) before Design and
      Implementation phases for the Training session? If yes, how often?

       There is a TNA for every training which is HR driven. All the HR managers meet once a
       week and they decide upon whether there is a need for training in their specific section.
       With the new President, new initiatives have been taken this year and it is done as and
       when needed. For example in the employment division, new methods of recruitment
       process were adopted after several months of need analysis.

   4. What method do you usually use for instructional Training?

       Lectures-Lecture Discussions and Computer based Training are the tools for training. But
       different department provides different training. For instance Occupational Health and
       Safety Office give Safety training. SAP training is given by both Human Resources and
       IT department.

       It usually depends on the job requirement for any training. Hence the training is optional.
       Only administrative staff is taken care of by the HR training and development

   5. Does the company employ any electronic (e-learning) training in the company?
      Please give specific example. How does the company measure the effectiveness of e-

       EEOC, HIPAA are some of the trainings that are web based. They have several modules
       in it and a staff person can take it anytime.

   6. What level of employees from the organization is selected for training?

       There is different level of employees involved in training. Baylor has a total strength of
       5000 staff employees. But there is as such no managerial or supervisory training. But if
       the department feels that training is needed for a particular person then it depends on the
       department to authorize for the same.

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  7. What kind of evaluation methods are you using?

     Survey is one of the methods for evaluation. The class attendees are asked to fill out a
     feedback form or questionnaire after the training session, which is analyzed. The
     company has a strong database of these evaluations and it helps them to determine the
     factors important for training.

  8. Do you find the training effective most of the times?

     The most difficult part of training is the lack of attendance. People sign for it and do not
     show up. But the database is again used to determine if the training is effective or not. If
     it is not, then the person is asked to repeat the training.

  9. How much do you spent approximately annually on Training and Development
     purposes? What proportion of your budget this represents?

     The budget for training and development is part of the total human resource budget. The
     specific details were not clear.

  10. What value does training activities bring to the bottom line of your company (or to
      your department)?

     It is hard in Baylor to value the training because of its extremely diverse cultural

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Evelyn J. Parker: Temporary Assistant to Director of Continuing Education (former
Coordinator of Richmond state school program assigned to T&D Department) – Wharton
County Junior College

The same questions are used for interview. The school actually focuses its strategy on four


  Retraining (continuing education) offering new set of skills for reemployment

  Contractor trainers to companies having no training department

  Initial training for the first citizenship in need of learning constitutional laws and languages

  Pleasures training such as flower arrangement, cake decorating etc

Compared to other schools in Wharton, it is locally considered as number 1 and has reputation

for low cost and decent to high quality. In terms of competition, Houston Community College,

Distant Learning (ITT, computer classes), Language School, and Nursing Home (nurse aide) are

its competitors. School has approximately 500 employees including full / part time teachers and

support staff who have got training on sexual harassment, disability acts, new software system

and performance evaluation. The first three are provided to all staff level while the last one is for

supervisory level. The courses are offered owing to some incidents happened in the past and

complaints from customers about disability accommodation. Notably, there is only one who

takes care of coordinating training activities and orientation session for new employees since

school has no training department. The method of training depends on the size of groups and

nature of courses. A group more than 20 people will receive lecture and group discussion. If

training is about learning new operating software, it will involve presenter and computer-based

class. Also electronic learning is employed including web-based training and video training. To

measure the effectiveness of these learning tools, school uses evaluation form basing on number

of complaints, level of safety and accountability. The value derived from training brings about

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the avoidance of lost productivity and minimized degree of negative behavior. Diversity training

and leadership training are not offered to employees and do not seemingly consider as part of the

overall business strategy. That may be attributed to the lack of diverse policies in school.

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                                F. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

   Additional research:

    While the topic assigned to our team focuses on training and business strategy, the additional

resources refer to a whole spectrum of training practices without rigorous focus on the link

between training and business strategy. Even if the additional resources do not explicitly address

the linkage, they point out that the bottom line on training is to sustain competitive advantage in

market through change, growth and innovation, which can be achieved only by means of

learning and investing in people.

       We believe that with the current trend to globalization, merger and acquisition and so on,

an understanding of training practices and method of training in organizations operating in other

countries may help us to better incorporating our training strategies into organization

environment with due consideration to cultural diversity issues. As such, training will find a fit

with business strategy and at the same time fulfill its role in satisfying business needs.

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                                             CITATION LIST

  1.     Kao, Raymond W.Y; Chiang, Leong Choon, “Training And Development Of Women
         Entrepreneurs in China: A Conceptual Model”, Journal of Enterprising Culture, Vol. 8,
         Issue 1, March 2000, pp. 85 - 102
  2.     Ng, Catherine W; Chiu, Warren, “Women-friendly HRM good for QWL? The case of
         Hong Kong Based Companies”, International Journal of Human Resources
         Management, Vol. 8, Issue 5, Oct 97, p644, 16p
  3.     Wong, May M.L., “An Evaluation On The Employees‟ Retraining Programs in Hong Kong”,
         Employee Relations, Vol. 20, Issue 3, 1998, pp. 404, 11p

  4.     ., “HRD In Japan”, Journal of European Industrial Training, Vol. 12, Issues 5, 1988,
         pp.42, 7p
  5.     Duncan, Bob, “Japan: Training Comparison”, Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 87, Issues
         5, 1979, pp.1086
  6.     Robinson, Alan G.; Schroeder, Dean M., “Training, Continuous Improvement, And
         Human Relations: The U.S. TWI Programs And The Japanese Management Style”,
         California Management Review, Vol. 35, Issue 2, winter 93, pp.35, 23p

  6. Tung-Chun, Huang, “Gender Differences In Company Training: The Case Of Taiwanese
        Hignh-Tech Firms ”, Employee Relations, Vol. 21, Issue 5, 1999, pp. 500-508

  6.     Yeh,Quey-Jen; Lai, Meng Kuan, “Advancement Intentions And Job Attitudes-A Study
         On The Career Setting Of High-Tech Engineers In Taiwan”, R&D Management, Vol.
         31, Issue 1, Jan 2001.

____________________________________________________________________62 of 99
Kao, Raymond W.Y; Chiang, Leong Choon, “Training And Development Of Women
Entrepreneurs in China: A Conceptual Model”, Journal of Enterprising Culture, Vol. 8,
Issue 1, March 2000, pp. 85 – 102

   With an aim to promote women‟s participation in the modernization process of China, the

program initiated by United National Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) in

association with the All China Women‟s Federal and its training institutions, was designed for

women entrepreneurs training and development in rural China. Given the low educational

background and inadequate management knowledge as the main constraints that Chinese women

face, especially women entrepreneur of town ship and village enterprises (TVEs), six strategic

areas were considered to determine how to undertake a project that involved a massive programs

for million of entrepreneurs in a country as big as China:

1. The training needs of TVE women entrepreneur/managers: four majors of interest were

   identified through a training need assessment workshop: marketing, finance/accounting,

   human resources development and strategic business management.

2. Training experts committed on a continuing basis: international experts able to speak

   Mandarin from Nanyang University (Singapore) drafted a comprehensive “Model Training


3. The availability of infrastructure in China: the All China Women‟s Federation (ACWF) and

   its training institutions throughout China was an excellent and well-established infrastructure

   able to deliver any program

4. Government support: ACWF and its network and training institution, and the Department of

   Township Enterprises made the project a practical undertaking.

5. Financing: project was financially supported by UNIDO

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6. Delivery: the program consisted of two stages of action: Program Planning & Design, and

   Implementation. The model program involved three phases in its implementation:

    Phase 1, the training of Chinese national experts by international experts focused on the

      development of the Model Training Package on the basis of training needs recommended

      by the need assessment workshop. The international experts conducted a three-week

      training program entitled “Training of Trainers” (TOT), which involved 30 Chinese

      national experts in the training. At the end of phase 1, a survey questionnaire for each

      subject module was distributed to each participant for the purpose of assessing the

      effectiveness of implementing the learning process of each training module

    Phase 2, the trained national experts trained township and village enterprises women

      entrepreneurs/managers in a pilot test by conducting four training courses in Beijing and

      provinces for a duration of three weeks in each location with 100 women

      entrepreneurs/managers from TVEs. The objectives were to test the “Model Training

      Package” and to assess the ability and skill levels of the Chinese national training experts

      in providing training programs. The draft “Model Training Package” was finalized and


    Phase 3, the national experts trained national trainers. The objectives of this phase

      focused on strengthening the capacity of national training institution and gathering

      qualified trainers for further dissemination of the training program. Thirty selected

      candidates went through their training under the supervision of the international training

      experts, conducted a study tour in Beijing, and concluded their formal training in

      Singapore. At the same time, the “Model Training Package” was refined.

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    In conclusion, the “Model Training Package” for each of the four subjects had shown

successful. With the implementation of the three phases that trickle-down from one phase to

another, the model program had achieved its objectives to enhance the ACWF‟s training

institution so that women‟s college throughout China could be organize and conduct training

programs and other support activities for women entrepreneurs.

Ng, Catherine W; Chiu, Warren, “Women-friendly HRM good for QWL? The case of
Hong Kong based companies”, International Journal of Human Resources Management,
Vol. 8, Issue 5, Oct 97, p644, 16p
    The article focuses on the issues of to what extent organizations in Hong Kong implement

women-friendly policies and how human resources views the effect of this policy on employees‟

quality of work life. The research conducted on the assumption that women cope with at least 6

barriers preventing them from their entry into labor market as well as from their career

development. Various studies have found that the hindrance to women‟s advancement springs

from negative attitudes toward women‟s capabilities, unfavorable sex stereotypes, human

resources practices favoring men over women in terms of training and development or

performance appraisal, women-hostile work environment, sexual harassment, and work-family

interface. To promote equal opportunity, women-friendly organizational policies aim at assisting

working women to eradicate the unfair practices, removing the hurdles placed in their entry into

and progression within organization, relieving intra- and inter-role stress. Although the policies

seemingly gain acceptance, research so far has failed to provide empirical data to conclude that

the policies are truly effective in enhancing employee‟s quality work life and eliminating sex

discriminatory practices. Furthermore, given the Hong Kong‟s unique socio-economic, what is

good for women in US or UK may not be beneficial to their counterparts in Hong Kong. The

research has to identify the gap in women-friendly organization policies by questioning

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    1)   What are the most and least practiced policies in Hong Kong?

    2)   How do HR mangers perceive the importance of the policy?

    3)   Is there any relationship between the policy and HR manager‟s perception of its

         importance to QWL?

    4)   What is the manager‟s way of categorizing the policies?

    5)   Do different national origins differ in their degree of women friendliness?

    To answer those questions, survey had been conducted on sample composed of mix

members of the Hong Kong Institute of Human Resource Management. Among 148 respondents

coming from large to small size firms, Hong Kong constituted the largest group, followed by

American and European firms. The questionnaire comprising twenty HRM policies broke down

into 2 parts: first, respondent was to indicate whether his/her organization currently had the

policy; second, to indicate the importance of policy on a scale point. Results indicated that

women-friendly not widely adopted in the organizations surveyed. Half of the policies

mentioned in the survey were practiced by less than 10 per cent of the organization, including

quota system to ensure minimum proportion of women in middle/upper managerial grades,

childcare support, training programs on issues of sex discrimination and sexual harassment.

However, items such as mentor relationship, detailed job description, maternity benefits were the

most practiced. None of the policies was perceived by the HR managers to be very contributory

to employee‟s QWL. The overall result indicated that the more a policy was perceived as

contributory to QWL, the more likely this particular policy was to be implemented in

organization. Also, by running a series of analyses of variance to examine the effects of the

organization origin on the seven Women Friendly Dimensions, it was found that the significant

differences in development in organization of different national origins was that female

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employees working for an American firm would enjoy better career advancement opportunity

than those working in a Hong Kong or Asia Pacific based firm.

    Overall, this research has made a start in comparing the degree of woman-friendliness

among organization of different national origins based on their women friendliness scores and

eventually found that both US and European firms are more women-friendly than Hong Kong


Wong, May M.L., “An Evaluation On The Employees‟ Retraining Programs in Hong Kong”,
Employee Relations, Vol. 20, Issue 3, 1998, pp. 404, 11p

   Hong Kong has encountered problems of high unemployment among manual workers who

used to work in the manufacturing sector after the economic transformation. Re-channeling these

unemployed human resources to the non-manufacturing sector is one of the important issues to

be implemented by the present self-administrative region government. The article focuses on

assessing programs for retraining employees, evaluating the effectiveness of the training

providers in conducting Employment Retraining Programs (ERP) as policy implementers. The

study collects and analyses evaluation data from the training bodies that are made up of ten with

27 training centers covering various geographic territories of Hong Kong. Full time courses are

chosen for examination in this study because most of re-trainees who take up the course are

unemployed, which enables the research to identify the extent that ERP helps them to re-enter

the labor market. Qualitative approach was employed to collect descriptive data from managers

or directors of the training bodies through semi-structured open-ended interviews. The evaluation

was based on five criteria, including training objectives, assessment of training needs, course

design, course evaluation, and follow-up services. Secondary data such as annual reports,

newsletters, and newspapers were also used.

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   With respect to training objectives aiming to equip re-trainees with the necessary skills and

knowledge that help them improve their adaptability and flexibility in the labor market, ERP

offer five types of core courses – job search skills, job-specific skills, general skills, skill

upgrading, tailor-made course. Findings reveal that the first one is not sufficient due to two

reasons. Job search skills can only provide interview skills, but can‟t alleviate psychological

barriers of the re-trainees to re-enter the labor market and failed to either upgrade or equip them

with new knowledge and skills. The second type of course can only provide elementary job-

specific skills that hardly match the skill level required by the employers. The general skill

course focusing on language skill, office practice and computer literacy takes up a large portion

of the training bodies‟ budget because of the high rate of employability. Although the tailor-

made courses can ensure re-trainee‟s employment, they tend to exclude many less-skilled

unemployed manual workers.

   In terms of assessment of training needs which are identified on the basis of market-demand,

the training bodies have difficulty in improving the assessment of training needs for ERP course

as a result of the lack of measures to prevent non-needy applicant to attend the course and to

shorten the lead time between application and attendance at courses. ERP course design faces the

problem of low education level of the unemployed manual workers, and of physiological and

psychological barriers.

   As regards course evaluation, it is found that participation rate used as evaluation criteria

reveals two major shortcomings, namely double counting and high repetition rate because the

policy doesn‟t limit the re-trainees to enroll more than one course in the same year. Moreover,

the quality of courses has been jeopardized since most of the courses are short and insufficient to

provide skills and knowledge required by the employers. Another criteria for evaluation is the

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examination of the follow-up services which include job placement rate and government support.

The former uses “per job” as the basis for calculating job placement rate and includes part-time

and temporary job in the calculation of job placement rate, creating a false high rate of

employment. The latter doesn‟t appear very supportive to ERP by keeping the same qualification

requirement for recruitment and neglecting to set the standards and formalize their

technical/education qualifications for ERP courses.

   As a result of these findings, the effectiveness of the ERP is low. Thus, some

recommendations are made. Also, it is admitted that the study serves as useful information for

policy makers to implement the training policy more effectively.

., “HRD In Japan”, Journal of European Industrial Training, Vol. 12, Issues 5, 1988, pp.42,
   The article relates to the various types and levels of training provided by Japanese firms.

There are three types of training: initial training for new recruits, upgrading training for workers

who have attained certain level of occupational skills, and occupational capability redevelopment

training to acquire new skills for job change. In line with lifetime employment practice, Japanese

firms are very concerned with developing a workforce responsive to the needs of their

businesses. Thus, training programs have taken many forms, including basic training, off-the-job

training, management training, job rotation, small group activities.

   With respect to basic training, young school-leavers are more favored with training

opportunities because they do not possess the skills required for the job. Commonly, short

induction training lasting up to a week are followed by on or off job training. Depending on the

trainees‟ educational background and the nature of job they will be assigned to, the duration and

contents of off-job training will vary. In the late 1950s and 60s, demand for production workers

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were high, some firms tried to attract workers by opening training schools within factory

premises. Craftsman, for example, took a three-year training course of which the first year was

for off-the-job training in the firm‟s training center, and the second and third year for practical


    Given the insufficiency of on the job training, employers provide off-the-job training

programs to employees who strive to self-development. Employees are selected for off-the-job

training according to firm‟s personnel policy, which takes into account the candidate‟s

experience, performance, personal attributes and firm‟s business needs. The training sessions

utilize all principles of learning – lectures, conferences, discussions, role playing, practice on

models, learning by doing. Japanese employees receive a considerable amount of instruction in

theoretical subjects that help them cope with task modifications. In-house off-the job training

programs designed for experienced workers are mostly short in duration and aim for general

upgrading and for specific purpose. External off-the-job training may take the form of short

training course such as study tour, seminars organized by agencies or vocational institution, or of

long course in academic institution such as universities, research laboratories at home or abroad.

Employers may facilitate off-the-job learning by means of financial assistance. Large firms have

their own technical institute to support in-plant training whereas small, medium firms seek the

aid of government or alternatively utilize the facilities of large firms if they belong to the same

company grouping. Overall, off-the-job training is considered an important part of human

resource development in enterprises, especially in the field of new technology.

    With regard to supervisory training, supervisors promoted from among blue-collar workers

undergo training session covering a variety of topics. They learn how to arrive at the best method

of doing job, tackle problems, plan and coordinate work, motivate workers, ensure safety, and

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become acquainted with the principles of teaching as training junior worker as a major part of his

responsibilities. Professionals and managerial staff have to spend a year or more working in

different departments to experience the process which emphasizes on learning by doing. By the

time of first major promotion, they are already acquainted with all aspect of business. All along

their career path, they continue to learn through various correspondence course as well as

company training programs.

   The practice of transferring employees from one job to another is primarily intended to make

optimum use of manpower resources for higher productivity, and at the same time to provide

opportunities for employees to learn various job. Experience in different jobs is a pre-condition

for promotion. Small group activities, which are not intended for the purpose of training,

including Quality control Circles, Zero Defect Groups, Jishu Kanri contribute to the development

of communication skills, better teamwork, and improved productivity.

Duncan, Bob, “Japan: Training Comparison”, Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 87, Issues
5, 1979, pp.1086

   The article offers an overview of the training in steel industry when the author made a short

visit to Japan. When observing the general training provision, the author describes that based on

the training manuals provided, managers are expected to use 50 per cent of his time for training

their staff or to make necessary arrangement in their department so that staff can receive proper

training. Most of the training programs seemingly follow a well structured preplanned program.

   With regard to management training, developing human relationship is considered important

training in modern management. Off-the-job courses on these subjects are not sufficient,

experiencing on the shop floor provides developing mangers plenty opportunity to link theory

with practice. Generally, new recruits into technological and managerial grades must be

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university graduates, who receive induction and indoctrination courses for several months. After

that, they must spend up to a year doing jobs as technician in two or three production

department. Unlikely, the graduate entrant can reach the position of assistant to manager before a

period of 8 to 10 years counting from the date of employment. Most of the training for

management focuses on on-the-job experience with shorter in house off-the-job seminars or

courses arranged to meet specific needs. Some courses outside the firm are also provided to staff

for skills improvement.

   As far as production and maintenance training concerns, technical workers graduated form

high schools are recruited at the age of 18. The training programs for these workers follow

clearly well defined promotion routes and indicate the range of training required before the

position of foreman is reached. In order to reach that position, it usually takes them 15-20 years

to go through various work grades and complete a wide variety of training techniques, ranging

from correspondence course to off-the-job training. The practice is mainly to concentrate on

initial off-the-job basic training and then to continue with on-the-job training to obtain required

standards for the specific job on which they are working. As for craft training, off-the-job course

doesn‟t last more than a year and is followed by experience on-the-job. Training is task related

and the period required to achieve full craft status is normally about five years after recruitment.

During this period, off-the-job courses are provided at intervals to expand the basic skill already


   Jishu Kanri sponsored by the Japan Iron and Steel Federation is designed to help groups

toward self-development and discussion about improving their group performance. The desire

for improvement and the loyalty to the firm have been clearly seen through the fact that young

workers are sent to technical college by their companies who pay the fees for the residential

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course. During the two years at college, the students are fully in residence and spend time back

to work during short vacation. The previous jobs are still kept open for them on their return.

   Referring to training for commercial and administrative staff, emphasis is put on commercial

practice and on marketing. Such courses are also given to other categories of staff to give them a

better understanding of the market and its demand. After observing these practices, the author

points out three different employment practice in Japan on which the training are set. First,

recruiting young workers of 18 implies that organization believes in a good standard of

education. Recruitment and selection procedures indeed rely on reports from high school,

educational qualifications and their performance in various test conducted at work. Graduate

selection is based on qualifications plus interviews. Second, trade union structure is very much

like the company union, having the feeling of the belonging to a large family and taking pride in

the achievement of the company to which everyone contribute. Trade union is informed of new

training program and generally accepts them. Lastly, Japanese practice of employment for life

assures workers employment for the rest of their working life.

   Sub-contract labor for which the company has no responsibility, taking up 50 percent of the

total workforce provides a very flexible arrangement in case that other employee are on training.

Robinson, Alan G.; Schroeder, Dean M., “Training, Continuous Improvement, And Human
Relations: The U.S. TWI Programs And The Japanese Management Style”, California
Management Review, Vol. 35, Issue 2, Winter 93, pp.35, 23p

   While the Training Within Industries (TWI) rooted in the US after World War II has had a

strong influence on Japanese management though and practice and has been widely applied to

Japanese management circles, it dies out and is hardly known in the United States until now. With

the widespread present-day usage in Japan, the Japanese government is planning to export the

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TWI courses back to the United States and other Asian/ European countries. The article

represents the results of more than 3 years of research in both the US and Japan. Besides archival

research, the study involved interviewing managers, government officials and personnel with past

and present responsibility for TWI. The TWI programs have proven successful because of several

reasons. First, they are effective and their contents relevant; many companies could benefit

greatly from them. Second, they provide a successful example for governments to follow in order

to raise national levels of productivity and quality. Finally, the principles of good management

are not as dependent on culture as many might think.

   The TWI provides three standardized training programs for supervisor and foremen, namely

Job Instruction Training, Job Methods Training, and Job Relations Training. All three courses are

structured in the same way: five two-hour sessions. The first session known as “Famous First”

engages a real world problem with a bad solution. Then the instructor presents the TWI “4-step

method” and demonstrates how it enables a much better supervisory action to be found. The first

two sessions focus on learning methods while the remaining courses emphasize on learning by

doing, e.g. problems brought in by each supervisor for analysis and solution using the TWI

method. In order to convince top management the programs meeting their business needs and to

neutralize the “our business is different”, TWI points out that supervisors have Five Basic Needs:

knowledge of the work, of responsibilities, skills in instructing, in improving methods, and in

leading. The “J” courses directly address the need for the last 3 skills. Job Instruction Training

(JIT) teaches supervisor the importance of proper training of their workforce and how to provide

this training by identifying the importance of “key points” of a job since all production problems

are attributable to poor training. Job Method Training (JMT) focuses on how to generate and

implement ideas for methods improvement. Its aim is to “help supervisors to produce greater

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quantities of quality products with less time by making the best use of the manpower, machines

and materials available.” Job Relations Training (JRT) is a course in supervisor-worker relations

and in leadership.

   Obviously, the TWI programs spread rapidly throughout Japanese industry and perpetuate

themselves. With the participation of government, the approximate figures for the total number of

Japanese supervisor who have received the TWI training is unobtainable because of the extent to

which the programs are diffused throughout Japanese government and industry. Many companies

send employees to TWI courses to become instructors, after which these people return to their

own firms to set up and run their own TWI courses, often slightly modified and under a different

name, eg. the Management Training Program, the Jinji-in Supervisor Training, the Tokyo

Supervisor Training course.

   Each of the “J” programs has influenced Japanese management in its own way. JI offers a

new pattern of how to teach and produces a large number of instructed trainers for factories. JM is

credited for its role in the development of kaizen (continuous improvement), a distinctive part of

the Japanese management style. JR is credited with introducing more progressive human relations

in Japan, “the concept of humanism in industry.” JR is one of the most appreciated ideas

transmitted into Japan with primary emphasis on solving human relations problems rather than

preventing them in the first place. TWI helps to introduce more meritocratic promotion schemes

into Japan. It also teaches managers and supervisors to appreciate the scientific and rational

approach to management and to look at good human relations as good business practice, helping

to break up the tradition of autocratic management prevalent in Japan.

Tung-Chun, Huang, “Gender Differences In Company Training: The Case Of Taiwanese
Hignh-Tech Firms ”, Employee Relations, Vol. 21, Issue 5, 1999, pp. 500-508

____________________________________________________________________75 of 99
   Given the wide divergence of findings on the issues of gender discrimination in company

training, the objective of the author‟ research is to determine whether, and to what extent, gender

differences in training exist in Taiwanese organization, specifically in high-tech firm. The study

focuses on three different types of training used as dependent variables to estimate the

determinants of training:

   1. Unstructured on the-job training (OJT) defined as informal learning of training activities,

       such as coaching or mentoring, which take place as part of day-to-day task

   2. Structured in-house off-the-job training (IOFF-JT) consisted of formal training courses

       organized by company and taught either by staff or training consultants

   3. Structured external off-the-job training (EOFF-JT) composed of formal training courses

       organized and conducted by training or educational agencies, and institution outside the


   Certain characteristics of workers, such as gender, education, tenure in the current job, and

the possession of specific skills may influence training opportunities and are therefore designated

as explanatory variables. Gender differences in training are affected by the perception of

employer if they think that resources invested in training for women generate lower returns than

those invested in training for men. Also, according to human capital theory, it is believed that

educational attainment has a positive impact on the acquisition of training as highly educated

workers is expected to learn more quickly than less well-educated ones, thus the cost of training

will be relatively low. Following this line of thinking, recruiting workers who already possessed

specific job skills may receive fewer training opportunity than less-skilled employees recruited

from within the firm. Job tenure is also one of the factors for being selected; workers employed

for a long period may be viewed as more stable and valuable.

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    Firm size and industry type are selected as control variables. Data for study obtained from the

Survey on the Source of High-Tech Employee’s skill. The respondents were production and R&D

engineers employed by integrated circuits (IC), communications, and electronics firms.

    Of the 1,448 questionnaires mailed out, 344 were returned. After adjustment for missing

values, the data set contains 306 observations, of which 52 percent were from the IC industry, 33

percent from the communication industry and the remainder from the electronics industry.

    The findings reveal that there was little variation by gender in the amount of training

received. Even though a higher percentage of males had been selected for training than females,

this may have attributed to a reflection of differences in the amount and nature of human capital

rather than a conscious policy of discrimination in company training. Furthermore, as the

females sampled by this study were highly educated and skilled core employees, the returns on

investment in their training may be equivalent to that for males. Hence, discriminating against

them with regard to training opportunities would have been irrational from an economic


    Contrast to previous studies on different levels of education associated with the acquisition of

different amounts of training, the study found no educational effect on the training opportunities.

One explanation for this may be that the workers sampled were already highly educated at the

time of hiring, additional training may not stimulate proportionate gains in productivity or cost-


With respect to seniority, there is a strong positive relationship between tenure with the current

employer and the probability of receiving training. However, workers beyond a certain age are

less likely to receive training than younger workers.

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Yeh,Quey-Jen; Lai, Meng Kuan, “Advancement Intentions And Job Attitudes-A Study On The
Career Setting Of High-Tech Engineers In Taiwan”, R&D Management, Vol. 31, Issue 1, Jan
   The study addresses the link of engineers‟ advancement intention to the work setting through

a sample from the private electronic industry in Taiwan. In line with the governmental product-

development policy, Taiwanese high-tech firms seldom adopt a research-based hierarchy, such

as dual ladder system. Instead, they mostly structure the promotion system in various routes,

including engineering, projecting, sales, and administration. With the ladder hierarchy based on

seniority and in the context of lacking research-based careers opportunities, four career routes of

which the first two are categorized as explicit advancement-intended and the rest as non-explicit

advancement-intended are therefore identified:

 Technical management route: leading to higher professional/technical positions with the

   involvement of administrative activities in engineering and project management

 General management route: a preference for transferring out of engineering department into

   higher management positions in other functioning departments such as sales, administration,

   or operations

 Project-only route: engaging only in project-type work irrespective of promotion

 Undecided route: unable to determine any preference of the above

   Based on the above contextual settings, the research focuses on three issues: interrelationship

between demographic background and career preference, age vs career choice, job attitudes

toward different career path. With respect to job attitudes, a number of variables have been taken

into account, including job involvement, work centralization, organization commitment, job

satisfaction, and performance and improvement items. Regarding ideal job characteristics

consideration is given to job attributes and external factors. 450 questionnaires were distributed

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to young technical staff from nine privately-owned high technological firms, of which 206 were

used in the analyses. The method of analysis adopts Analysis of Covariance technique to exclude

the linear differences among groups. The empirical results show that the technical management

prevailed among the four career routes in terms of selected demographics and all age ranges. As

regards job attitudes and ideal job characteristics, figures show that all variables (except

organizational commitment and job satisfaction) are rated low in the project-only and undecided

routes. The findings imply that the prevailing technical management career choice reflects the

aspiration of technical people to move toward success and riches more easily. The lower rate of

general management route may be due to the difficulty of career change as many management

skills not taught in engineering school are required. The project-only route may attribute to the

company‟s product-driven strategies and to the low education level required for research. The

undecided career may spring from the educational capability rather than from youth and

inexperience. In term of career choice vs. age, the two-management ladders go up with ages

while the project-only people are older and less likely to have an advanced degree. With respect

to career ambition vs. job attitudes, the explicit groups have better job attitudes and more

expectation from their jobs than the non-explicit groups. The former is more job involvement,

work-centered, and willing to self-examine work outcome and take on extra responsibility while

the undecided route are found totally to the contrary. The attribution of “undecided” may be due

to one‟s desire to conceal one‟s intention, innocence on the part of young entrant, hopeless

induced by incompetence, low education level, or simply indecision. The project-only routes are

relatively satisfied and committed to their current jobs, but not so job-involved, nor work-

centered, and less concerned with organization-wide activities. This may be due to the high

seniority of this group and higher pay.

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   In short, the findings indicate that there is a connection between engineer‟s advancement

intention and the fulfillment of these desires. Engineers with clear advancement aspiration in

technical or general management ladder have better job attitudes than engineers without clear


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   Additional Interview

Scott Hassett - Computer Engineer (Former Space Flight Instructor) - NASA

    1. Q. How could you characterize your competitive strategy? How do you position yourself
       in the market?

       A. The market is a single-player market, and the owners are the people of the United
       States. The overriding strategy is accomplishment of goals as directed by the owners.

    2. Q. How Does Company link training with business strategy?

       A. Training is performed for major operations, everyday operations, safety, engineering
       and management.

    3. Q. What does your company think of the Training And Development function? And how
       do you think your department‟s role in the company?And what kind of image do you
       choose to have ?(such as facilitator, law executor, good partner)

       A. Training is considered mandatory and indispensable in all areas. At the time I was in
       Training Division, the operations training function was considered the necessary
       foundation for all activities.

       The “image,” or role, that each trainer plays varies with the level and goal of each lesson.
       For new employees, the trainer provides a role model as well as a source of needed
       information. For employees who are starting to be trained for new positions, the trainer
       becomes an instructor who must help the employee reach predefined goals. As the
       employee moves into jobs with greater responsibility, the trainer not only becomes a
       partner in accomplishing the mission, but must also review the performance of the
       employee in order to certify the employee for new positions.

    4. Q. As a company, have you done any research on what best motivates your employees, or
       with what method you get best results from the any training session?

       A. Training philosophies have been a topic of study by this agency for over 40 years,
       from the beginning. There is no single method that provides the best results, but a variety
       of methods must be used for success. The most important aspect of training is to
       remember that not all employees learn in the same ways.

    5. Q. How does your company design the training solutions to meet the needs?

       A. A combination of instructor experience, training specialists and employee involvement
       is used to design training.

    6. Q. What method do you usually use for instructional Training? Why?

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         a.   Lectures-Lecture Discussions
         b.   Computer based Training-CBT
         c.   Games, Simulations
         d.   On the Job Training-OJB

     A. All of these methods are used. Again, not everyone learns in the same way, and a
     variety of methods ensures successful training. In general, lectures can be used for very
     basic instruction, trending to the more complex training methods (simulations, OJT) in
     the more specialized and complex subjects.

  7. Q. Does the company employ any electronic (e-learning) training in the company? Please
     give specific example. How does the company measure the effectiveness of e-learning?

     A. Much of the training in specific systems is done through CBT. Safety training also
     lends itself to CBT. The effectiveness is determined through individual performance in
     later stages of training, i.e., how well prepared the individual is for the next step.

  8. Q. Do your organization use external consultant? If yes, what‟s the criteria and why do
     you want to use? Is there any advantage to the company?

     A. Internal consultants are most often used.

  9. What level of employees from your organization are selected for training?

     A. Training is mandatory for all levels.

  10. Q. What kind of evaluation methods are you using?

     A. A variety of evaluation methods are used, depending on the skill level required. Short
     tests can be used for low-level skills (knowledge) while simulation performance is used
     for the highest levels.

  11. Q. Do you find the training effective most of the times? How?

     A. Training always has some level of effectiveness. However, all training can be
     improved. Post-mission feedback and analysis are used to determine what changes need
     to be made to training design, if any.

  12. Q. What value does training activities bring to the bottom line of your company (or to
      your department)?

     A. The bottom line here is the level of safety in operations. Training is absolutely
     necessary for safe operations.

  13. Q. How does training program improve the quality of service to customer?
      (internal/external customer)?

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     A. The training program is vital to ensuring a successful mission, which is the
     requirement of all internal and external customers.

  14. Q. Does your company consider training leadership as part of company‟s business
      strategy? If yes, How to link leadership training to overall business strategy

     A. Leadership training is vital to ensuring that management skills are adequate to the job
     in this agency. Effective management is absolutely necessary to successful strategy.

  15. Q. If yes, in which way, employees demonstrate their leadership skills. ?

     A. Most of the employees are in positions of responsibility with some effect on the lives
     of other employees. All employees are required to demonstrate initiative and effective
     communication skills.

  16. Q. What benefit companies get from leadership skills?

     A. The existence of this agency depends upon effective leadership skills from all

  17. Q. Does company consider diversity training as part of company‟s business strategy?
      What benefits do this training bring to your company?

     A. Diversity (cross-cultural) training is mandatory for all employees. As the agency has a
     broad spectrum of employee cultures, personal interaction has been improved with this

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                                     G. TOPIC SUMMARY

1. Strengths & Weaknesses

    a. Effective, Systems, Strategies, and Practices.

    In my opinion, Effective, Systems, Strategies, and Practices is a very precise book. It does

not simply prescribe what organizations should do to provide effective training, but is providing

a contingency approach, suggesting alternatives and explaining associated weaknesses with each

different approach.

    First of all, the writing style is designed in a way that is easy to understand and friendly

oriented to the reader, since the authors use a very straightforward language. Also, at the

beginning of each chapter the authors identify learning objectives stating what the reader should

be capable of doing after completing the chapter. It is suggesting both conceptual and practical

material for developing training programs that meet strategic and practical needs. What I found

most interesting about this book, however, is the step by step method that the authors use to

present the training process. Training is presented as a waterfall model, starting from initial

needs analysis through the evaluation of training program‟s effectiveness. Thus, each chapter

focuses on one phase, including required inputs and outputs. In addition, throughout the book the

authors address the applicability of various approaches to the small business, instead of just

focusing on large organizations that have access in many resources. Also, a number of applied

examples are presented throughout the book, some highlighted inside the text and others

integrated into the text. In this way, there is an effort from the authors to motivate interest in the


    On the other hand, there is always room for improvement. Some weaknesses that I would

like to refer to from my standpoint are the signs of repetition, and the inability to engage lively

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participation from the reader. The headings and the subheadings are bland and repetitive, as well

as some of the material, which sometimes makes it hard to keep up. Even though there are

examples and cases throughout the book to motivate interest, in my opinion, they are not

interesting enough to engage the reader and make the reading more interesting.

   In overall, Effective, Systems, Strategies, and Practices is a precise book. It includes a lot of

remarkable information, and it uses a very careful approach in the training process, that could be

more motivating if the authors tried to increase the communication with their readers.

   b. Effective Training Strategies

       The book writes about different strategies that can be used to maximize learning in the

organizations with key emphasis on learning theories, current trends in training and relevant

examples from companies all around the world. This book has a very strong grounding in basic

learning theories and its relevant applications to the training arena. It also relates it in a easy to

read approach.

       It has definitely maximized my learning experience. The seven training strategies

mentioned come from a solid analysis of the learning challenges facing adults in organizations.

The second is that substance of the seven strategies comes from solid learning research, which I

feel is very important and provides a strong foundation for any theory to understand.

Authors Davis and Davis draw on their own experiences as educators with their broad-based

conversations with trainers. The language used in the book is simple and lucid. The presentation

of the strategies is systematic and well elaborated to make us understand better. It provides a

detailed description of each strategy-the well-researched learning theory behind it, illustrative

examples of it in practice, its strengths and weaknesses, and side-by-side comparisons showing

its appropriate uses and demonstrate the strategy in action, showing how the facilitator can use it

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effectively to maximize learning. Effective Training Strategies demonstrates how to facilitate the

many types of learning required to ensure that individuals, groups, and teams do their jobs more

effectively, efficiently and, sometimes, even more creatively. It offers a rich set of real-world

examples of how to set new standards of excellence for knowledge-based performance, take the

guesswork out of training, and contribute to increasing the overall effectiveness of organizations.

"Effective Training Strategies" provides a serious examination of the process of learning with

well-elaborated theories and stimulating examples from a variety of for-profit and nonprofit


       This practical, reader-friendly book discusses training and how it relates to business

objectives and strategies. Using a model of the training process to assist readers in understanding

the training process, it emphasizes the value of developing training programs, with examples

provided for both large and small organizations, relating training to the overall strategy of a firm.

This book provides comprehensive coverage of such topics as the role of training in

organizations; training in large and small businesses; strategic planning; human resources

departments and their role in supporting strategy; theories of learning and their application;

needs analysis; training design; training methods; training development and implementation; and

training evaluation. For Human Resources Department managers and staff, trainers, project

managers, business strategists, and team trainers and team developers, the book combines

educational theory with training strategies-essential ingredients to achieve effective designed


       The only weakness I think is that the headings and subheadings are bland and repetitive. I

often feel like I'm rereading a section.

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   c. HRD Survival Skills - Essential Strategies To Promote Training And Development
      Within Organization

          The majority of training and development books talk about “how” to make the training

content right and plan programs well. Many well-planned programs might go awry, because we

may get involved in the ”product” and its design than with meeting the actual needs This book

reminds us of developing essential thinking and techniques for continual customer focus and

presents practical guidelines for identifying, assessing and attracting your market. It's not enough

for training to be of high quality and relevant, the author shows that it must also have high value

perception among its customers -- it must have "marketability." In the spirit of the now-accepted

fact that we all need to market ourselves, this book provides HRD practitioners with the tools

and insights to do just that-market themselves within their organizations.

          The central theme is connecting with your customer and the heart of the book is all

about marketing. This book is intended to be practical. It is full of ideas and ways to generate

more ideas to bring “common sense” to “common practice.” This unique guide shows us how to:

* assess and tune up your department's image * promote HRD's added value to the business *

appeal to diverse company groups * keep awareness high by staying visible * enhance

relationships inside your organization * make sure administration doesn't tarnish your image *

capitalize on work with external consultants * determine if the department should sell to a wider


         This book mentions some aspects that are easily to be overlooked or not even to be

considered. Such as who the real sponsor of your program is, how to choose the external

consultants, how to expand the department to the external market, how to build the long term

marketing focus and some skills to make the performance much more successful. It is really

helpful and practical for me to think about more in these different points of view.

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         Since the main purpose of the book is to provide practical guideline for those whose

job it is to provide or manage the training and performance improvement programs with an

organization. It is a little bit unimaginable and abstract for the students or those who don‟t have

related working experience. It will be better to read this book if you are possessed of certain

training and development knowledge. And I feel that this book is a little bit politicized. Since this

book don‟t tell “how” to do training and development It talks much about how to been seen, how

to maintain the relationships, how to promote etc. Even though telling us how to do training and

development is not its purpose. It gives me a feeling that the book teaches us how to manipulate

politics in the organization. And I wonder whether it loses the true essence of doing the training

and development.

   With respect to similarities, all three books use a systematic approach on the training and

development process, which is used as a backbone on any training session. This process follows

a waterfall model which includes Analysis (TNA), Design, Development, Implementation and

then Evaluation. In addition, the importance of the Facilitator and the Trainer is appealing in all

three books. The success of an effective training session is the role of the trainer, his knowledge,

skills and attitudes and the credibility that he can communicate to his trainees. Another

significant implication that derived from all three books is the importance of a dynamic relation

with the environment when conducting training. Finally, great magnitude is given from all three

books on the evaluation phase and the feedback process that examines how the training was

designed, developed, and carried out, before training, and during training. Outcome evaluation

determines how well training accomplished its objectives.

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   As for differences, each book gives us different perspectives of training as follows:

   Effective Training Strategies talks about role and importance of facilitator. At the same

time it presents a strong research background for the seven sound theories of training. Authors

Davis and Davis has given examples of real world situations of different organizations

worldwide that exemplifies the importance of training and development. These examples also

assess the training needs and how the training catered that need. The book, at the end, also

discusses why and when to use which kind of training strategy.

   HRD Survival Skills shows different phases of training processes. It depicts a dynamic

relation with the environment. The book is more people oriented with a marketing focus. It tells

us how to position oneself in the market and the TNA (Training Need Analysis) is based on

customer needs. It is more about how the customer connection must underline all training and

development efforts throughout the organization for it to stay viable. It talks about he four „P‟s of

marketing and is more oriented towards customer satisfaction.

   Effective Training Systems, Strategies And Practices includes a lot of remarkable

information with a careful approach in the training process both conceptually and practically.

The authors Blanchard and Thacker present training as an open system by using a waterfall

model, starting from initial needs analysis through the evaluation of training program‟s

effectiveness. The orientation of the book focuses mostly on what each phase of the training

model includes and how training needs correlate with the mission and the business strategy that

the organization follows.

2. Contribution of Academic Research:

   Throughout book reviews and literature research, the common point noticeably recognized is

all organizations want to be a learning organization as a result of global market competition,

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emerging technology, organizational change and demographic change that require enhancing

knowledge and skill through informal or formal training depending on company‟s available

resources and culture. In either way, the systematic approach described in the book starts from

need analysis, established objectives, design solution, implementation and evaluation. In the

literature research, companies approach training in the same way but in a more practical and

open approach. Needs analysis is determined differently; it is not coming from internal demand

but rather from external forces such as customer expectation, new competitive products. Then,

objectives are established, aligning with business needs. In addition, clarity in mission of training

is also a key point for training effectiveness that also mentioned in the book review. Next, the

design solutions involve in training content aiming at developing employees‟ skills in a relatively

shorter period of time, for instance, companies design courses to match skills with business

requirements by substituting e-learning for classroom-based training. As for the implementation

of training, web-based training, videoconference training and on the job training increasingly

used in organizations support what is mentioned in the book regarding the type of training.

Lastly, literature review also expands the idea of assessing and measuring training. Qualitative

measures and quantitative measures such as ROI frequently employed by organizations


       Overall, the articles that we have reviewed so far expand what has been said in the books

in a more practical way. Different types of companies embrace more or less the same concept of

training process but apply it in a flexible approach, depending on organization‟s context and

culture. Companies formulate their strategies in a way that is aligned with business needs and

training in response to business strategy is used as tools to satisfy those needs.

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3. Conclusion from the interviews

   Occidental Petroleum

   A lot of information that derived from the book is essentially consistent with real world

implications. Occidental Petroleum Corporation is a precise example of the findings. Training

and Development is a study of great importance which is recognized from every successful and

well-developed organization. The specific organization follows the exact different phases of

Training and it recognizes that it is a long-term process which requires strategic planning and

analytical design. Training is equally important for each level of the organizational structure.

Even managers have to go through the Training process and keep departments upgraded with

new technology or any other unfamiliar aspect that the organization needs to be trained on. The

organization is focusing also on Leadership Training which is intending on building high

interpersonal skills for high potential performers. Occidental Petroleum Corporation is using a

variety of methods of training, according with the nature of the training session. Most often they

use On the Job Training because they feel that building relationships and effective

communication has substantial effect on the organization‟s success. E-learning is also being used

a lot because is faster, and reduces the cost of training.

   Evaluation is a systematic process which shows levels of performance of all level of

employees and measures of improvement. The bottom line of every profitable or non-profitable

organization is to increase production, run the business better and be more effective and efficient.

People are the key for the success of the organization.

   Today‟s competitive environment is more intense than ever before. Significant and rapid

changes are affecting the business environment. Hence, improving and learning new skills is

required for any organization to survive.

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   Baylor College of Medicine

   Baylor College of Medicine has a very different training and development setup because the

business of the organization is research and education. Since there is a clear demarcation

between the administrative functions and the educational system, there is not much thrust upon

training and development of the administration and management level employees. Although the

organization is seeking to be more aggressive towards training but it shall take a long time before

one can see any returns. The reason for not so systematic training and development function is

because of the extremely hierarchical structure of organizational setup with large number of

different departments, which again has small sections each working as an individual entity that

puts it as a hindrance to make the training mandatory to all the employees. Secondly the

enormous strength of diverse cultural employees in Baylor is another factor that adds to this

problem. Thirdly, the top management needs to believe in the importance of training and

development and make it an important element of the budget also.

   Grand Hi-Lai Hotel

   Grand Hi-Lai Hotel is service industry. The employees are the most important assets in the

service industry and the way the employees behave would present what this organization is.

According to the interview, we can see that training and developing department really plays an

important role in the organization. The organization takes training sessions for granted and

stipulate that every department to take part in the planning of the training project. And the

company does a complete TNA before designing the training plan. These all show that how

important the training and development department role is in the organization. And the training

strategy also reflects the business strategy, Market Leader. The company wants to offer the

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professional, well-qualitative and differentiated service. So they put emphasis on the employee‟s

training. The business strategy and training strategy are collocate well in the company.

      We can also find that relationship with the employees is important as well. Good

relationship offers many benefits. In the interview, we can see that the HR department improves

the relationship under the table. According to the book (HRD Survival Skills), it is not enough

just to have good relationship skills. Methods for “connecting” and a system for keeping in touch

are also essential. The point of keeping in touch is that there should be a system, not be left to


      It is bad for the training department not to promote their training project. Even though the

organization put much emphasis on the training, the training department should still do the

promotion. Because training and development is a “long-term” focus, the department should

keep the employees benefits in mind and make benefits clear to the employees. Everything you

do that is aimed at getting the trainee to want what you want to offer.

   Wharton School

   Wharton County Junior College is a public school. That may explain that they are not

exposed to fierce competition as other private schools. Therefore, little interest in incorporating

training into overall business strategy has been seen during the interview. A few training has

been offered to staff due to job related issues, but not due to the pressure of market needs. They

try to compete with other schools by extending their branches within Texas. But nothing is

mentioned about training employees‟ skills such as customer service or marketing skills.

Assumingly, if employees want to enhance those skills, they just enroll in class. As school has no

training department, need analysis does not clearly determined.

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   School‟s strategy has been clearly seen through the expansion of a number of branches

located in Sugar Land, Bay Town and Richmond targeting at diverse customers. But training

doesn‟t appear in a high demand to support school‟s strategy. It is speculated that school doesn‟t

face intensely with competitive environment. The rapid pace of change in market seemingly

doesn‟t affect educational activities; so the need for training in alignment with school‟s strategy

doesn‟t create a sense of urgency at school right now

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       The role of training in the organization is very important. A good training process first

develops an understanding of the employee‟s training needs before designing the training

program. Training is a model of an open system. Open systems have a dynamic relationship

with their environment.

       For management development this is not an easy task. Typically a manager‟s

effectiveness is to determine how well the unit meets its objectives. However, determining

training needs from the performance of the unit is problematic. The key to effective

management is to know the context in which it is operating; know what is required in order to

create the best match with the context, and to have the appropriate KSAs. Thus management

development programs should, in general, provide training programs that address these issues.

The most obvious source of management training is the organization itself which integrates the

organization‟s mission and business strategies.

       The importance of training is generating increased interest in organizational studies. A

great deal of interest in various alternative methods of instruction has been expressed by

scholars, which aimed to articulate ability to influence knowledge, skills, and/or attitudes.

Which one is the best? This depends on the nature and the needs of which the training wants to


       The bottom line on training is organizations can‟t thrive without the contribution of their

most important assets: people. Also, organizations are built and sustained in the market through

many factors such as leadership, reputation, human capital, technologies advances, innovation

and more. Competitive advantage achieved through change, growth and innovation will never

occur in the absence of learning. Hence, organizations must invest in their people and encourage

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them to learn new things, try new approaches and unleash their creativity. However, the

important question arouse is how and when organizations develop skills and abilities of their

employees. The value of investing in training can‟t be only measured by the tangible result such

as return-on-investment, number of hours of training provided, but also intangible indicator of

performance, namely time to competence, number of performance gaps eliminated, ratio of

strategic skills needed to existing skills. In brief, to sustain competitive advantage in any

industry, training investment must be linked to the objectives and strategies of the business.

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