Energy by shuifanglj




BP is one of the world's largest energy companies, providing its customers with fuel for
transportation, energy for heat and light, retail services and petrochemicals products for
everyday items

BP supports precautionary action to limit greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and works to
combat climate change in several ways, even though aspects of the science are still the subject
of expert debate
There are many potential contributors to the goal of stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions and
we support an inclusive approach that recognizes the existence of different starting points,
perspectives, priorities and solutions, from increasing the fuel economy of motor vehicles to
increasing wind and solar capacity.
Our position on climate change is well defined:
We believe that climate change is a long-term issue, which needs to be tackled over the next
50 years or more. We support urgent but informed action to stabilize GHG concentrations
through sustainable long-term emissions reductions at the lowest possible cost. Large-scale
reductions in emissions will require the use of both existing and emerging technologies.

Governments and businesses need to work together to create a policy framework or ‘space’
that drives economic progress and provides energy security while delivering significant
emissions reductions. Such a ‘space’ can be defined by appropriate policy and regulation,
while activity within it will be driven by market mechanisms.
We believe that the policy and regulatory interventions must support the development
and implementation of appropriate technological solutions and also enable the
amendment of market mechanisms as new knowledge around climate change
We advocate the introduction of emission caps and that market mechanisms, such as
emissions trading, be used to enable economies to adjust to a carbon-constrained world. In a
cap-and-trade system, a cap is set on the total emissions from a group of emitters – whether
companies, plants, countries or regions – and participants can trade emissions permits within
that limit. Our major European assets already operate within the EU’s Emissions Trading
Scheme, currently the world’s largest cap and trade system, and we support its extension and
We also argue that wherever possible policy should create a level playing field to
encourage different means of achieving emissions reductions, such as renewables and
carbon capture. BP participates in several groups to help provide a strong business
voice for policy development.
Incentivizing renewable energy. Incentives can include quotas or price support for
low-carbon energy. Germany and Spain have implemented feed-in tariffs, providing
set prices for renewable power over a long period. BP and others have invested in and
experienced growth opportunities created by these initiatives.

With fossil fuels currently the source of 80% of the world’s primary energy and likely to
remain vital to global energy supply for at least 20 to 30 years, innovation to reduce carbon
emissions from fossil fuels can make a major contribution to stabilization. Consequently,
energy companies like ours have an important role to play in contributing to policy and
education, enabling market mechanisms, developing and deploying new technological and
commercial solutions based on both fossil fuel and new energy sources at large scale


We are the world's largest publicly traded international oil and gas company,
providing energy that helps underpin growing economies and improve living
standards around the world.

Policymakers are considering a variety of proposed regulatory options to mitigate
GHG emissions. In our view, assessing these options requires an understanding of
their likely effectiveness, scale and cost, as well as their implications for economic
growth and quality of life. Within ExxonMobil, we analyze and compare the various
policy options by evaluating the degree to which they:

      Ensure any cost of carbon is uniform across the economy and predictable
      Maximize use of markets
      Promote global participation
       - Consider priorities of developing world
       - Recognize impacts of imbalances among national policies
      Minimize complexity to reduce administrative costs
      Maximize transparency to companies and consumers
      Adjust in the future to developments in climate science and the economic
       impacts of climate policies

The following is taken from The Outlook for Energy: A View to 2030 by ExxonMobil


Greenpeace stands for positive change through action. We defend the natural world and promote peace.
We investigate, expose and confront environmental abuse by governments and corporations around the
world. We champion environmentally responsible and socially just solutions, including scientific and
technical innovation.

While our government promotes the fallacy that we need coal and nuclear to keep the lights on,
innovative councils, businesses and individuals are taking the leap into a cleaner, greener future with
decentralised energy.

What is decentralised energy? Well, it's pretty much the opposite of our present, outrageously
inefficient energy system, which was designed to meet the needs of a society that hadn't even heard of
climate change. This centralised system is a shambles - in fact, it would be impossible to invent a less
efficient way of generating energy.

The typical power plant in the UK is only 38 per cent efficient. By the time we use electricity in our
homes and offices, we've lost nearly 80 per cent of the usable energy inside the fossil fuels we burn.
This is mostly because we have two separate energy systems: one for electricity, and another to heat
water and buildings. It's news to some, but heat is a far bigger culprit than electricity when it comes to
global warming.

For electricity, we burn fossil fuels in a few large power plants, miles away from the homes and offices
they supply. Two thirds of the energy available in fossil fuels is lost in the power plant as waste heat (a
by-product of electricity generation) and during transmission. Another 13 per cent is lost through
inefficient use in our buildings.

For heat, we burn more fossil fuels (mostly natural gas) in boilers in our homes, offices and factories.
It's a little bit like putting radiators on the outside of your house instead of inside it; we're burning one
lot of fossil fuels for electricity, and another lot for heat, but waste heat is a by-product of electricity
generation. Can't we just burn one lot of fuel to generate electricity, and capture the 'waste' heat at the
same time? We can. Combined heat and power or CHP does exactly that.

Combined heat and power

CHP is the heart of an efficient, decentralised energy system. It's the most efficient way possible to
burn fuel because so little energy is lost as waste heat. Because the heat needs to be captured and piped
around the local district, CHP plants are usually sited in the towns and cities where the electricity and
heat will be used. This makes it more efficient for electricity generation as well as heat; very little
energy is lost in transmission.

If we combined the efficiencies of CHP with improved efficiencies in the home (proper insulation say,
and minimum efficiency standards for appliances), we'd practically eliminate the profligate wastage of
our current system.

Local renewable energy sources

But decentralised energy isn't all about CHP. There's an abundance of energy out there in our natural
world, ready to be harnessed. We could be harvesting energy from the wind, the sun's rays, the ocean,
underground springs and even the earth itself. According to the government, just the wind, wave and
tidal resources of our windswept island could meet 40 per cent of our energy needs by 2020. In the
longer term, the sky's the limit.

Friends of the Earth

Friends of the Earth wants a healthy planet and a good life for everyone on it. In fact,
we believe you don't get one without the other. We are trusted and determined and
have been making life better for people and the planet since 1971.

Energy is much cleaner that it used to be. But nuclear and burning fossil fuels cause problems
of their own.

Carbon dinosaurs

The UK's biggest source of carbon dioxide (CO2) is burning fossil fuels - like coal, gas and
oil - in power stations. Old coal fired power stations produce more dangerous C02 than gas
ones. In the 1990s, our emissions fell as electricity companies switched from coal to gas.
This trend has reversed as gas prices have risen making coal more economic. Why aren't big
energy companies - like Shell - doing more?

Nuclear power - the end? Some argue nuclear power is a solution to climate
change. Nuclear Power is dangerous and expensive because:

       Security threats
        Power stations could be terrorist targets.
       Toxic waste
        Pollutes environment. Waste needs careful management for generations.
       Global proliferation
        Availability of deadly materials increased.

Friends of the Earth research has shown we don't need nuclear reactors to stop climate
change. There is a safer, cheaper and cleaner solution to the problem of climate change -
green energy. Natural forms of energy surround us - and they can be used to power our
vehicles, homes and business.

Renewable energy:
Examples of renewable energy sources include:
Solar Converting the Sun's energy into electricity and heat.
Wind Electricity from wind energy
Hydroelectric Energy in flowing water is harnessed
Biomass Natural materials, like wood, are burnt or turned into gas to provide energy.
They are:
clean and won't cause climate change
safe - unlike nuclear power
won't run out - unlike oil, gas and coal
- and there's a vast resource that's largely untapped.

Energy efficiency - more from less
Using less energy will also help stop climate change. It's also very cost effective. But
it's not the complete answer.
Friends of the Earth says: Energy companies should change to make money from
selling us less energy not more.

The National Energy Foundation

Our Aim

At NEF, our aim and values are to help people and businesses throughout the UK to reduce
their carbon emissions through the use of energy efficiency measures and renewable energy
sources to help combat climate change.

Our Values

NEF is encouraging a better use of energy through energy efficiency measures and the use of
alternative sources of energy such as renewable energy which are not damaging our

Our energy consumption keeps on increasing steadily. This has various detrimental effects on
the environment. Today the biggest threat to us is the impact this has on the climate mainly
due to the level of carbon emissions we release in the atmosphere through our energy use.

NEF work closely with businesses, local authorities and other partners to develop services
that will empower people to reduce their carbon emissions. We inform, provide tools and
bespoke services to our clients that will have the most impact in terms of CO2 savings. In all
our work we ensure there is real action to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.

See Attached PDF

British Wind Energy

The British Wind Energy Association is the trade and professional body for the UK
wind and marine renewables industries. Wind has been the world's fastest growing
renewable energy source for the last seven years, and this trend is expected to
continue with falling costs of wind energy and the urgent international need to tackle
CO2 emissions to prevent climate change. In 2004, BWEA expanded its mission to
champion wave and tidal energy and use the Association's experience to guide these
technologies along the same path to commercialisation.

Our primary purpose is to promote the use of wind power in and around the UK, both
onshore and offshore. We act as a central point for information for our membership
and as a lobbying group to promote wind energy and marine renewables to

See Attached PDF
Coal (NGO)

World Coal Institute
The World Coal Institute (WCI) is a non-profit, non-governmental organisation of
coal enterprises and associations - the only international body working on a
worldwide basis on behalf of the coal industry.

The objectives of WCI are to:
        Deepen and broaden understanding amongst policy makers and key
           stakeholders of the positive role of coal in addressing global warming,
           widespread poverty in developing countries, and energy security.
        Assist in the creation of a political climate supportive of action by
           governments to include:
            - Carbon capture & storage (CCS) in climate mitigation strategies and
            - Clean coal technologies (CCT) in environmental strategies;
            - Coal to liquids technologies (CTL), with CCS, in energy security
           considerations; and
            - Coal in national and regional energy portfolios.
        Inform and educate communities of the benefits of coal, the contribution
           that can be made through CCS and CCT, and the constructive role played
           by the coal industry in improving its environmental performance, and
           strengthening social and economic development.
        Support improved performance in mine safety globally.
Electricity generation is a major contributor to economic and social development.

Coal will continue to play a vital role in electricity generation worldwide – while it currently supplies
40% of the world’s electricity, this figure will only drop one percentage point over the next three

With the availability of abundant, affordable and geographically disperse reserves, coal is able to
provide secure and reliable supplies of affordable energy worldwide.

Clean coal technologies have already achieved major advances in environmental performance, and new
technologies are under development towards a 'zero emissions' future.

The technologies employed and being developed to meet coal's environmental challenges are
collectively referred to as clean coal technologies. Different technologies are being developed to suit
different coal types, different environmental issues and different levels of economic development.

Coal's technical response to the environmental challenge is ongoing - with three core elements:
Reducing carbon dioxide emissions with the development of carbon capture and storage

Improving combustion technologies to increase efficiency and to reduce carbon dioxide and other
emissions Eliminating emissions of pollutants such as particulates, oxides of sulphur and nitrogen
Through liquefaction and gasification coal can also provide low cost, secure alternatives to oil and
natural gas for use in electricity generation, transport and domestically.

Coal can also be used to generate hydrogen for completely clean future energy systems.
Fossil Fuels (mainly coal)

UK Carbon Capture and Storage Consortium

The UKCCSC is a consortium of engineering, technological, natural, environmental, social and
economic scientists. The Consortium is a way to rapidly expand UK research capacity in the area of
carbon capture and storage, commensurate with the large potential contributions to national energy
targets. We aim to deliver viable large-scale Carbon Capture & Storage options for the UK.

Fossil fuels will remain the dominant energy source in the UK for a number of decades and methods to
manage the associated carbon emissions are fundamental to the UK's transition towards a sustainable
energy economy. Carbon (dioxide) capture and storage (CCS) in geological structures is fast-emerging
as a promising method for decoupling fossil fuel use and carbon emissions. As noted in the Prime
Minister's recent speech on Climate Change [Blair, 2004] "There is huge scope for improving energy
efficiency and promoting the uptake of existing low carbon technologies like PV, fuel cells and carbon
geological storage."

Blair, A. (2004) Speech by Prime Minister Tony Blair on the 10th anniversary of the Prince of Wales'
Business and Environment Programme, London, 14 September 2004.

                                     UKCCSC Mission statement

To promote an understanding of how options for decoupling fossil fuel use from carbon emissions
through the use of carbon capture and storage could be used to assist the UK in achieving an energy
system which is environmentally sustainable, socially acceptable and meets energy needs securely and

What are the Objectives of UKCCSC?

Overall objectives: To assist in the national aim of reducing UK CO2 emissions by 60%, by decoupling
economic growth from energy use and pollution. To assist in maintaining the reliability and cost of UK
energy, such that every home can be adequately and affordably heated. To rapidly expand the UK
research capacity in carbon capture and storage (CCS), making a large contribution to national energy
targets. To assist in enabling the continued use of the UK's coal reserves, both through conventional
mining and underground coal gasification. Investigation of fossil fuel gasification as a bridge to the
hydrogen economy. To assist in bridging the gap between the present day fossil fuel economy and the
future hydrogen economy. Overall assessment of lifecycle costs and emissions of fossil fuel supply

CCS objectives: Assessment of the impact of future energy supply/demand scenarios on the overall
costs and emissions of non-CCS and CCS fossil generation. To explore the role of CCS in the update of
the UK's energy infrastructure. Investigation of CCS synergies with other low-emission energy sources.
To assist in extending the life of the UK North Sea oil industry by 1 or 2 decades by realising the
potential of CCS. Investigation of the potential impacts of CO 2 leakage during capture and storage, and
compare these to the environmental impacts of non-intervention. Establish a Geographical Information
System (GIS) based decision support tool.

British Energy

A FTSE 100 company, British Energy Group plc is the UK’s largest producer of
electricity and the lowest carbon emitter of the major UK electricity generators. With
a dedicated workforce of about 6,000 skilled professionals, we produce around one-
sixth of the nation's electricity. We own and operate eight nuclear power stations. In
addition, we own and run a coal-fired power station.

Our nuclear stations have a combined capacity of almost 10,000 megawatts, whilst
our coal-fired plant adds a further 1,960 megawatts of output.

We operate two types of nuclear reactor: the advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR); and
a pressurised water reactor (PWR). Sizewell B is the only PWR nuclear power station
in our portfolio.

The nuclear power industry plays a crucial role in tackling climate change by generating near-zero
carbon electricity.

The electricity sector's contribution

Fossil fuel power stations are the single largest source of CO 2 emissions both globally and in the UK.
Coal and oil fired stations emit the most, with gas generation emitting around half as much. Nuclear
and renewables are near-zero carbon technologies.

British Energy’s nuclear stations play an important role in minimising CO 2 emissions, since without
them the electricity would have to be generated by fossil fuel stations. In 2006/07 our nuclear stations
prevented the emission of about 33.7 million tonnes of CO2 (MtCO2) – the equivalent to removing
around half of the UK’s cars. Since they were commissioned our stations have avoided a total of

The focus of UK government efforts to reduce emissions from electricity generation is through
efficiency improvements, and by encouraging greater use of renewable generation.

To encourage energy efficiency the Government has established the Climate Change Levy (CCL),
which is a tax on the business use of energy. However, the CCL does not distinguish between
electricity generated by high carbon intensity plants (such as coal generation) and carbon-free plants
(such as nuclear) so it’s not very well suited to tackling climate change.

To encourage renewables the UK Government established the Renewables Obligation to encourage
suppliers to buy renewable energy
Government Agency

Environment Agency

"We are the leading public body for protecting and improving the environment in England
and Wales. It's our job to make sure that air, land and water are looked after by everyone in
today's society, so that tomorrow's generations inherit a cleaner, healthier world."

Sir John Harman, Chairman.

The current Kyoto targets are very small compared to the cuts in emissions that will
eventually be needed.

Some European countries have set themselves informal targets for 60-per-cent emissions
reductions by mid-century, which is a better measure of what is needed. But even if all the
Kyoto nations did likewise, they are only responsible for a minority of today’s emissions. So
more would still be needed by other nations.

Eventually, if the climate regime develops as many hope, every country and every major
energy and manufacturing company will need a licence to emit greenhouse gases. If we are to
stop dangerous climate change, the number of licences available will need to be very limited.
So the question of how they should be shared out becomes critical.

It is political dynamite. In particular, the suggestion sets the industrialised and developing
worlds at loggerheads. This is partly because the industrialised countries of Europe and North
America have already used up something like half of the atmospheric "space" available for
emissions. And partly because developing nations are coming under pressure to reduce their
emissions before they have had a chance to industrialise.

Big developing nations like China and India may rank high in the emissions league table. But
measured per head of population, their emissions remain low. While the US and Australia
emit around 5 tonnes a year for every citizen, and European countries average under 3 tonnes,
China is still below 1 tonne and India below half a tonne. Developing countries feel they are
being asked to forego economic development to help clean up a mess they did not create. On
the other hand, they increasingly see that climate change threatens their prospects for
economic development. The only solution may be to institute a rationing system for pollution
entitlements, based on a shared view of fairness. That might ultimately mean a ration based
on national population.

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