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					Environmental Science

  Agriscience Applications
              Forestry

• Competency
  – Analyze the conservation practices for
    utilizing forest, wildlife, fisheries and
    environmental resources
    Forest Management

• 1/3 of the United States is covered
  by forest land
               Trees

• Trees
  – Woody perennial plants
  – Single stem
• Shrubs
  – Bushy
  – Multiple stems
               Trees

• Softwood
  – Needle type
  – Evergreens
    • Coniferous
• Trees
  – Southern Pine
  – Douglas fir
  – Frazier fir
                  Trees

• Southern Pine
    •   Loblolly pine
    •   Longleaf pine
    •   Shortleaf pine
    •   Slash pine
  – Most common for pulpwood or plywood
                Trees

• Douglas fir
  – Most important species of tree in the
    US
  – Used for construction lumber and
    plywood
  – 20% of the timber harvested each year
    in the US
                Trees

• Frazier fir
  – Used for
    commercial
    Christmas tree
    production
  – Grown in the
    mountain of North
    Carolina
            Hardwoods

• Hardwoods
  – Broad-leaf
  – Loses leaves every year
     • Deciduous
• Trees
  – Ash
  – Birch
  – Oak (white and red)
                 Trees

• Ash
  – Handles and baseball bats
  – High resistance to shock
• Birch
  – Furniture, plywood and paneling
  – Veneer
     • thin sheet of wood glued to a cheaper
       species of wood
                  Trees

• Oak
  – White and Red
  – Very strong
    • Flooring
    • Furniture
    • Fencing
     Forest Management

• Silviculture – scientific forest
  management techniques.
• Replacing Trees that have been
  harvested
  – Necessary in all but virgin forest or forest that
    have never been harvested by humans.
  – “Natural seeding” least expensive way to
    replace forest
  – Planting trees is a surer method
    Forest Management

• Managing growing timber
  – Prescribed burn
    • Reduce the risk of wildfires
    • Reduce litter
  – Prescribed thinning
    • remove competing trees
    Forest Management

• Harvesting Timber
  – Selection cutting
    • Recommended in a mixed forest consisting
      of trees of different ages and size
    • Reduces erosion
  – Clear Cutting
    • All trees are removed
    • Can cause erosion problems
           Harvesting

• Seed-tree Harvesting
  – Cut all the trees except a few large
    trees to bear seeds to replenish the
    forest.
        Goals of Forest
         Management
• 1. Use forest resources without
  depletion of forest lands.
• 2. Profit for the woodlot owner while
  preserving and making wise use of
  resources.
    Forestry Equipment

• Increment borer
  – Determines the age of trees
• Planting Bar
• Tree scale stick (Biltmore Stick)
  – Estimates tree volume
• Tree tape
  – Most accurate in determining
    circumference
   Estimating Saw Timber
           Volume
• DBH
  – diameter breast height
  – measure at 4.5 feet
  – 25 inches from the dominant eye
• Tree height
  – measured at 66 feet
    • one chain
  – determine the number of 16’ logs
Diameter Breast Height
       (DBH)
Diameter Breast Height
       (DBH)
Tree Height
      Calculating Board Feet

• Measurement of volume
• Formula


bf=   # pieces X   t (inches) X w (inches) X l (feet)
                             12
      Calculating Board Feet

  • Problem:
      – calculate board feet if you have 5
        pieces of lumber that are 2 inches
        thick, 4 inches wide, and all are 8 feet
        long

             5 X 2” X 4” X 8’
bf=
                      12
      Calculating Board Feet

  • Answer:
           5 X 2” X 4” X 8’
bf=
                 12

bf= 26.6
      Forestry Careers

• Foresters
  – Assistance in managing forest
    • Recommend harvesting methods
    • Recommend seeding methods
    • Monitor disease and insects
  – Average yearly salary in North Carolina
    • $41,184


    Source: Bridges Career Explorer
      Forestry Careers

• Timber cruiser
  – Estimate timber volume
    • Outdoor work requiring physical stamina
    • High School diploma
    • Training in estimating tree volume
         Assignment

• Complete the Annual Ring Activity
  Worksheet!
   Wildlife Management

• Objective
  – Interpret wildlife management practices
    as related to good environmental
    management
   Wildlife Management

• Usually a by-product of the family
  operation
• Sustainable habitat and food are
  essential in increasing the number of
  wildlife on a farm
  – Leaving brush piles when harvesting
  – Leave crop residue standing
   Wildlife Management

• Hunting and fishing as proper
  management
  – Remove excess wildlife
  – Prevents:
     •   Overpopulation
     •   Malnutrition
     •   Disease
     •   Overall decreases in population
   Wildlife Management

• Carrying Capacity
  – Number of wildlife that can be
    supported throughout the year
    • Hunting and fishing help maintain carrying
      capacity
  – Results of overpopulation
    • Water quality of a stream with a carrying
      capacity of 20 fish will decrease if 50 fish
      are in the stream
            Careers in Wildlife

 Game
Warden
                                  Ecologist




Wildlife
Biologist
      Careers in Wildlife

• Ecologist
  – Studies the effect of the environment
    on animal life
• Wildlife Biologist
  – Advises the establishment of fish/game
    laws
  – Explores habitat improvement
    programs
    Careers in Wildlife

• Game Warden
 – Enforces hunting and fishing
   regulations
 – Government employee under the
   Wildlife Commission
   • Controls the harvesting of wildlife
 – Should enjoy working outdoors
            Aquatics

•   The management of aquatic
    environments to increase the
    harvest of usable plants and
    animal products
            Aquatics

• Cage Cultures
  – Production system
  – Aquatic animals and plants are
    contained in a small area
    • Easier to monitor
    • Better growth rates
    • Limited movement which could cause
      stress
             Aquatics

• Recirculating Tanks
  – Production method
  – Processes water through a biological
    filter
              Aquatics

• Roll Over
  – A ponds water quality suddenly
    changes
  – Less oxygenated water is brought to
    the surface and low levels of dissolved
    oxygen cause fish to die
• Difficulty in managing an aquaculture
  system is related to the amount of fish
  in the system
             Aquatics

• Fish adapted to aquaculture
  systems:
  – Trout (cold running water)
  – Catfish
  – Bass
  – Tilapia
          Soil & Water

• Objective
  – Investigate water and its properties as
    it relates to the production of food and
    fiber
      Water Properties

• Universal Solvent
  – It dissolves or changes more other
    materials than anything else-
• Water Cycle (Hydrologic Cycle)
  – The cycling of water between water
    sources, atmosphere, and surface
    water
         Assignment

• Using a clean sheet of paper and
  colored markers, draw the water
  cycle.
• Use all the components necessary
  to complete the cycle.
        Types of Water

• Capillary
  – Water that can be adsorbed by plant
    roots
• Free Water
  – Gravitational
  – Water that drains out of soil after it has
    been wetted
                 Water

• Permeability
  – The rate of movement of air and water
    through the soil
• Saturation
  – Water is added until all the pores are
    filled
     • Two or three inches of rain in a few hours
                 Soil

• Objective
  – Evaluate soil as related to the
    production of food and fiber
                 Soil

• Soil profile
  – A Horizon       Topsoil
  – B Horizon       Subsoil
  – C Horizon       Parent material
Soil Profile
          Soil Texture

Refers to the size of soil particles

Sand – largest soil particle in soil
  – Sandy soils have problems holding
    enough water for good plant growth.
  – Individual particles can be seen with
    naked eye
          Soil Texture

• Silt – Intermediate size soil particles
  but can’t be seen with naked eye.

• Clay – smallest soil particle – clayey
  soils hold lots of water but may be
  airtight, infertile for root growth,
  and associated with wet soils.
        Soil Structure

• The way soil particles cling together
  to form soil units or aggregates,
  while leaving pore space to store air,
  water, nutrients, and allow root
  penetration
             Soil Structure

• Single
  – grain is associated with sandy soils
• Granular
  – particles cling together to form rounded
    aggregates – very desirable for all soil
    uses
• Blocky
  – particles cling together in angular
    aggregates – typical of soils with high
    clay content
      Soil Classification

• Land capability class
  – Based on physical, chemical and
    topographical

• Class I & II- Intensive cultivation
• Class VII- Steeply sloping (trees)
• Class VIII- Wildlife and recreation
            Soil Conservation

• Erosion
  – Sheet
  – Gully
Sheet Erosion
Gully Erosion
Gully Erosion
      Soil Conservation

• Conventional
  – Disturbs soil by plowing
• Conservation
  – Intermediate (Conventional and no-till)
      Soil Enhancement

• Use fertilizer to add nutrients



• Use lime to raise pH
  – Increases the availability of nutrients
   Careers in Soil & Water
       Management
• Four Year Degree
  – Soil scientist
  – Soil conservationist
     • Implements best use practices
  – Wildlife biologist
   Careers in Soil & Water
       Management
• Two year degree or less
  – Soil technician
     • Obtains soil samples
  – Wildlife technician
     • Tags wildlife and gathers information