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					                                                                        Indian Cult Brands

           INDIAN CULT BRANDS –LESSONS TO LEARN
1.0 PROLOGUE:

A Brand may be defined as a name, term, sign, symbol, or design or a combination of
them, intended to identify the goods or services of one seller or group of sellers and to
differentiate them from those of competitors. Thus a brand identifies the seller or maker1.
A cult in general notion is a sect or a religious group or a faction.
The brand community is a totally different concept from customers' clubs.
These are carefully designed; planned and orchestrated contexts / opportunities for
customers to interact and socialize in manners that simultaneously deliver the brand's
promised       benefit   promise    and     reinforce    anticipation   of    the   benefit2.
Such community structures and activities subtly encourage the emergence of authentic
brand evangelists, and the formation of a cult-like following for the brand
Like religious cults that attract thousands of devoted disciples, certain brands have
magnetic characteristics: They attract die-hard customers who become walking, talking
and viral marketers. A Brand Cult may be defined as a phenomenon where customers
display an unusually strong emotional involvement with a particular brand. Thus,
lending the brand an exceptionally high degree of consumer loyalty, along with an
amplified sense of owning the brand3. Some of the remarkably successful and powerful
cult brands are:
- Star Trek
- Harley-Davidson
- Vans shoes
- Volkswagen Beetle
- Oprah Winfrey Show
- Linux/Open Source
- World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE)
- Jimmy Buffett
- Apple Computer
As seen from the above list,the cult brands are not essentially the biggest and most well
known brands, but they are companies with the most fanatical and most loyal customer


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base. These are the brands that consistently communicate with the customers at the very
highest levels of Maslow‘s Hierarchy of Needs and form the base of their self
actualisation. According to James Best, chief strategic officer of DDB Needham
Worldwide, ―cult brands break the rules‘‘4.


2.0 VARIOUS FRAMEWORKS FOR CULT BRANDS: Let us look at the various
frameworks for cult brands from different perspectives which would enable us to
understand the strategies and guidelines necessary for brands to amass hordes of loyal
supporters.
2.1 Framework 13:
Mathew Ragas in his book ―The power of cult banding‖ has suggested the following
framework, which he termed as the ‗Seven Golden Rules‘ of cult branding.
       Micro-Targeting Brands.
       Smart brands are inclusive.
       Cult brands are universal.
       Cult brands are `sharing' and `collaborative'.
       Cult brands abolish `command-and-control' thinking.
       Use advertising to convey openness and inclusiveness.
       Cult brand create customers communities.

2.2 The Not‟s:
A cult brand could be destroyed by the company bringing it into the mass-market. When
Ford redesigned the Mustang to have a broader market appeal, it lost many loyal Mustang
fans. Also it is not advisable to alter the the emotional and sensory experiences as well as
the relative differentiation of the cult brand.

2.3 Framework 25:
Mark Di Somma has suggested about 10 guidelines for cult branding. The essence of his
work is based on the premise that –‗small is precious, unknown is uncorrupted‘. When a
small segment of customers is identified, targeted and essentially prevented form outside
disturbance or in marketing parlance the niche status of the cult is maintained. A cult
could be built for the brand. He suggests 10 ideas for starters.


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       Understanding is everything
       Plan to be spontaneous
       Stuck for an approach? Option 1: battle the mainstream.
       Option 2: make an old idea new-Human loves idiosyncrasy BYO attitude
       Nothing to do with size, everything to do with mindset.
       Limit your ambitions
       Get the right media play
       Consider all the media possibilities
       Don‘t try to be popular
        Building a following in lieu of a mainstream, highly profiled brand is risk-return
        marketing.
2.4 Empirical Studies by HBS Conference6:
The student-run Harvard Business School Marketing Conference held in November,
suggested some guidelines for building ‗cult brands‘. The following is a listing of the
same.
   To master cult branding, it is important to know what the brand is and what isn't, A
    cult brand distinguishes itself from other brands by forging a human connection with
    the customer in a way that a normal(the brands that are not cults) toothpaste or cereal
    can't.
   Customers should find a sense of belonging within that product category and consider
    it as a badge of honor.
   Cult brand companies should keep evolving in a way that doesn't intimidate core
    followers
   Cult brands trigger great passion in their followers, which can lead marketers into a
    non-stop balancing act.
   Companies which regard their cult brands to be assets never stop evolving
   A cult brand cuts across demographics and psychographics
   A cult brand cannot be created overnight
   Word of mouth plays a key role in the creation of cult brands.




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3.0 CULT BRANDS IN INDIA:
The brands and the branding principles that have worked in other countries may not
strictly work in India, as India has some perceptible differences from the western
countries. The chief among these differences is the fact that India has still very much an
aural culture. The prevalence and power of rumours is further evidence to the existence
of aural communication. But then the distinct Indian brand Amitabh Bachchan might
have more followers in India than Oprah Winfrey. Among the Indian brands that could be
said to have acquired a cult status are religion, the caste system, the family unit and the
language system in India. Bullet, Ambassador, AMUL, Khadi are some of the commonly
referred cult brands in India7. The following section illustrates how and to what extent,
these brands fit the frame work for cultism and what they did not do as suggested.

4.0 AMUL-The Taste of India: The name AMUL has transcended the physical form of
the product and has entrenched itself into the lives of the people of India, through the
length and breadth of the country. A child even in the remotest village of India would be
able to tell one, what AMUL stands for. Such is the success of brand AMUL, which was
launched in 1946 and positioned as "The Taste of India". The word AMUL, derived from
the Sanskrit word "Amoolya" means "priceless". Today, the brand is one of the most
successful brands in the history of India with an annual turnover of Rs. 2500 crore8. The
brand today gives sleepless nights to its MNC competitors‘ like Nestlé and Britannia.

4.1 Key Attributes of „Cultism‟ in AMUL

4.1.1 GCMMF History: This is one of the primary evidence of cultism in ‗AMUL‘ .The
way the ‗AMUL‘ brand was created is one of the main reasons for the existing emotional
attachment of its users with the brand .The following story would illustrate the same.

In 1946, inspired by Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, a local farmer, freedom fighter and social
worker, named Tribhuvandas Patel, organised the farmers of the district of Kaira in the
State of Gujarat into co-operatives, which would procure milk from the farmers, process
the milk and sell it in Bombay to customers including the Bombay Milk Scheme with the
idea of saving the farmers from the monopoly of Polson dairy company. Purely by
chance, in 1949, a mechanical engineer named Verghese Kurien, was posted by the




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Government of India to a job at the Dairy Research Institute at Anand met Tribhuvandas
Patel, that changed his life and changed India's dairy industry.
The most important feature of these co-operatives is that they are run purely as farmers'
co-operatives, with all the major decisions being taken by the farmers themselves. The
co-operatives are not 'run' by a separate bureaucracy with vested interests of its own; the
farmers are truly in charge of their own decisions. Any farmer can become a member by
committing to supply a certain quantity of milk for a certain number of days in a year and
shall continue to be a member only if he keeps up this commitment. The quality of milk
was checked openly and cash paid for on the same day for the milk received. This
experiment of organising farmers into co-operatives was one of the most successful
interventions in India. A very loyal clientele was built up who experienced prosperity on
a scale they could not have dreamt of 10 years earlier. AMUL went on to manufacture
milk powder, butter, cheese, baby food over the years. Starting from a daily procurement
of 250 litres in 1946, AMUL had become a milk giant with a large procurement base and
a product mix that had evolved by challenging the conventional technology.
With the punch line of "Utterly, butterly, delicious," the AMUL little girl, the moppet, the
icon, stands for all that is a "Taste of India." She's a girl who symbolizes India's white
revolution, all about milk and its products. Thus what started as a social cult of AMUL
began to transform itself into a brand cult9.

4.1.2 AMUL‟ girl The round-eyed, chubby-cheeked AMUL "moppet" has for 30 years
been a wildly popular advertising fixture, with its punchy one-liners amusing Indian
viewers from bus stands, lamp kiosks and billboards. Created in 1966 by an advertising
team headed by Sylvester daCunha, the topical, news-event-oriented ads are reportedly
ready to enter the Guinness Book of World Records as the longest running advertising
campaign ever. Most of these cult billboards are also published on the AMUL Website.
There are stories about the butter that people like to relate over cups of tea. "For over 10
years I have been collecting AMUL ads. I especially like the ads on the backs of the
butter packets," says Sumona Varma. What does she do with these ads? "I have made an
album of them to amuse my grandchildren," she laughs. "They are almost part of our
culture, aren't they? My grandchildren are already beginning to realize that these ads are
not just a source of amusement. They make them aware of what is happening around


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them." (Asian Age, March 3, 1996)8. Over the decades, themes for the AMUL topicals
have ranged from the Hare Rama Hare Krishna craze of the late 1960s and the Naxalite
movement in Calcutta to the Ganpati festivals in Maharashtra and the frequent Indian
Airlines strikes. Reaching a global audience means that AMUL has also had to come up
with international themes for its topical ads: hence the smarting one-liners about Britain's
mad cow disease, the Hong Kong handover, and Mike Tyson big bite ("Union Jacked by
Mad Cows"; "Hong Gone"; "Ear Today, Gone Tomorrow").

4.1.3 Evolving without Detours: A focused group discussion conducted by Jamnalal
Bajaj Institute of Management Studies10 gave an insightful picture of how the relationship
with the brand is perceived. The following statements are the result of the discussion
which tells the exceptionally emotional bonding the brand evokes among the users. Not
surprisingly, almost every respondent stressed on a long-term relationship with AMUL.
evolving in a way that doesn't alienate core followers.

      ‗AMUL is like a guardian who asks met to stay healthy‘.

      AMUL is ‗committed‘ to me

      AMUL is a part of my family

      ‗I have a long-term relationship with AMUL (like with a pen or an old watch)‘

      ‗AMUL is fatherly figure I trust, and he‘s always been good to me‘

4.1.4 Cooperative and Collaborating: Price may be AMUL's most obvious
differentiator - but the fountainhead of its strategy is its commitment to the cooperative
movement and the anti-MNC feeling that fuels its management 11.

4.2 Does AMUL follow the frameworks suggested?-the contradictions
4.2.1 Micro-targeting is absent
From the above description of the ‗AMUL‘ brand, it is evident that the brand belongs to
the masses across age, demographics etc. AMUL is thus ‗open‘,‘ inclusive‘,‘ universal‘
but the fact the remains that ‗AMUL‘ does not belong to an exclusive group. This




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exclusivity is exhibited with the other ‗cult‘ brands world over and this form as an
important part of all frameworks suggested so far.
4.2.2 AMUL does not sell life style but fulfills the contract of quality12
AMUL does not sell a life style as suggested by framework-1 but only fulfills its contract
of quality, value for money and service. It is a mass market product and gives only the
basic product with quality but still it stands in the minds of the consumers because of the
relationship it has built with the consumers.
4.2.3 Lack of Customer Communities: AMUL did not create any customer
communities to interact with each other which is the most important feature of cultism.
There are no customer culbs (AMUL Clubs) or get-togethers. It has to evolve over time
by word of mouth on the `experience' created by the brand. However, AMUL did not do
anything that would facilitate sharing the customer experience with the brand.
4.2.4 Popular: AMUL defies Mark Di Somma‘s advice of trying not to be popular and
happens to be a popular brand. Brand popularity may be due to its phenomenal bill-board
advertising or due to its product superiority.
5.0 BULLET- Let the boys have their toys- The Indian road experience has been
typified by no other motorbike than the ‗Bullet‘. Ever since the time it roared into the
market, it has remained a cult symbol. It was originally intended for the defence and
police forces but its appeal went beyond them. Today, the Bullet has shifted gears and
has entered a market that is driven by the young and the enthusiastic generation of India.
It is now positioned as a 'rider's bike' rather than as a mere utility vehicle. Yet, the Bullet
legend is perpetuated by a diehard tribe of loyalists who would swear by it, any day13.

5.1 Key Attributes of „cultism‟ in Bullet

5.1.1 Bullet club : A market survey held in 1995 revealed that both the brand loyalty
and brand equity for the Bullet to be high. However, the type of customers varied. The
survey revealed that some customers looked at the Bullet as a heavy utility two wheeler
and some just indulged in a passion for it. This information was enough for Bullet Guys
to kickstart the first ‗Bullet Club‘ on December 29, 1995 in Bangalore. It seemed a good
platform to bring together all those who shared a similar passion for the Bullet. Any
aspiration for membership into this club would mean that one owns a Bullet. Most of the



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members aged between 22 to 35 years, although everyone with a Bullet and a license is
welcome. The initial membership fee happened to be Rs. 500/-. But the most needed
qualification to be a member of the club is the true spirit of adventure. The Bullet Club
started as a ‗riders club‘ and it still continues to nurture the same passion for Bullet bikes.
It is meant for those who seek adventure from their Bullets. Members undertake various
adventure and pleasure rides that are organised by the club exclusively for its members.
Apart from this, the club, it works towards social causes that relate to road safety rules
and other road regulations. The club also helps members who wish to travel in clarifying
their enquires about the route and making other enroute arrangements. Each member here
has his own role to play like the club, to help highlight the Bullet not only as a functional
bike but as a two wheeler that is way ahead of the other available models. A contingent of
40 bikes headed towards Khardungla called ‗The Khardungla Trip‘ in 1997, which was
an adventure ride to the highest motorable road in India. It was a record and has been
featured in the Limca Book of Records. The major event of this year is a trip planned out
from Chennai to Kargil. The bullet riders are doing the Trans-Himalaya route and coming
back to Chennai. The Club and Eicher Group are pitching in to make this event happen.
The management of ‗Bullet‘ strongly feels that the integrity and the purpose of the club
will be lost if they begin to organise events for the non-members.

5.1.2 Parking Space14: This is the primary interaction facility through which the vibrant
Royal Enfield online community interacts. Apart from informing about the latest Royal
Enfield news, product launches and offers, members of the community share their the
most exciting ride stories .The members debate on ‗Technical Stuff‘, ‘Model Matters‘
‗Used     Bikes‘,‘     Riding      Clubs/Groups‘,‘      Accessories/Spares/Modifications‘,‘
Miscellaneous‘

5.1.3 Difference in product – Microtargeting: Royal Enfield today is the oldest
motorcycle company in the world. It has been around as a brand since 1930 and it has
been in India since 1955. The company‘s products are well differentiated through their
distinctive styles, power and riding comfort. The range of new products is increasingly
more relevant to the upgraders from the economy segment. After years of riding
economical and relatively boring motorcycles these consumers are now earning more and



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want a more holistic and involving motorcycling experience. The unique features in the
Bullet makes micro targeting possible for instance Bullet gear shift on the right.
5.1.4 Royal Enfield Branded Store15: The Royal Enfield branded store serves any
biking enthusiast's ultimate dream destination. The concept, is new in India and has been
set up as a part of Royal Enfield's efforts to enhance the riding experience of biking
enthusiasts in the country. The Brand store's ambience transcends the visitors to a biking
world. The store has on display all the models from Royal Enfield including the latest
model "the 2004 Bullet Electra". The store is a one-stop store for sales, service, and
spares. It also serves as the information centre for future rides planned, REDS (Royal
Enfield Discoverers), and other options which excide to a biker. The thumpers are
displayed under never-seen-before spotlights in the Royal Enfield Store in Bandra16.
5.1.5 Unique Combination & Power: Royal Enfield has the unique combination of
gears on the right side of the bike and brake on the left side unlike the conventional bikes.
Also all the extensions of Royal Enfield are in the heavy power range of 346cc to 500 cc.
5.1.6 Customer Preferences: An active in-house Research & Development wing is
constantly at work to meet changing customer preferences and the challenges of Indian
and International environment standards. When introducing a new product, this team
undertakes all related planning which includes a rigorous customer contact program,
design, concurrent engineering and testing processes17.


5.2 Does Bullet follow the frameworks suggested?-the contradictions: Bullet follows
the guidelines suggested for a cult brand. It depends on word-of-mouth for its
advertisement mostly like most other cult brands do. As these guidelines warn, it has
struck to its ‗cult‘ image and has failed to evolve with the consumer needs. This has led
to the fall in sales. The company of-late has realized this and taking steps to get in-tune
with the consumer. For instance, in the Bullet Electra has a feature which makes the
starting much easier. The bike is now made available in several colours to make it look
interesting and relatable to new users. The new look also draws people into the
showroom and they also get to sample the other new products on offer. Earlier, this kind
of product sampling was simply not happening. Since the bike was coming only in black,
there was no reason for them to go to the showroom. Now, since there is a change in the



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product design and it pulls them into the showroom, where they are able to check out
the price, the maneuverability of the product, and thus forced to change the perception
about the company. The second big area that the company is working to streamline
distributors and financing schemes. This is done to free people from the hassles of
buying. The company has figured that the youth today want different and interesting
looks, bikes that look powerful and cool, but are easy to handle and maintain18.The muted
thump of a long-stroke engine, the raw power and ruggedness to take on any terrain,
effortless cruising at three-digit speeds and above all, the macho feel of riding a brawny
iron horse- these are the attributes that have endeared Royal Enfield bikes to many a two-
wheeler buffs.

6.0 AMBASSADOR - The first among Indian cars: Ever since its inception in 1948,
the Ambassador - the first car to be manufactured in India, has been ruling the Indian
roads. Originally based on Morris Oxford (United Kingdom, 1948), the Ambassador has
of late been evolving with a series of changes in its ‗make-up‘ to match the customer
expectations. Ambassador, the only automobile to ply Indian roads for more than five
decades now, has carved a special niche for itself in the passenger car segment.
Dependability, spaciousness and comfort are some of the reasons for it being the most
preferred car for generations of Indians. The Amby‘s time-tested, tough, accommodating
and practical characteristics make it a truly Indianised car19.

6.1 Key Attributes of „cultism‟ in Ambassador:

6.1.1 The car of the Bureaucrats and eminent personalities: The Ambassador, termed
the Raaja Gaadi, especially since it has such liberal seating room, was especially chosen
for its reliability and comfort. The delightfully retro-looking sedan, based on the British-
built Morris Oxford of the 19505, is the prime minister's official car-as it has been for
virtually every prime minister since independence in 1947. The Prime Ministerial
motorcade consists of a string of cream Ambassadors. Dr. Abdul Kalam, President of
India, prefers to travel in old ambassador car without a beacon light and VIP cap. One of
India's best-known cartoonist RK. Laxman, has driven an Ambassador for years. Oscar-
winning Indian director Satyajit Ray immortalised the car in many of his films. "It's a car
identified with the masses and the rulling class. It gained access into parliament because


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of its symbolic value and the power it connotes." says Soni Shrivastav, a spokeswoman
for the group that makes the Ambassador.The government has a fleet of more than 5,000
Ambassadors. whose rounded contours, big bonnet and bulging headlights have remained
virtually unchanged since it first rolled off the production line in 1957.In some ways, the
Ambassador is to India what the Chevrolet is to the United States. In many ways, the
clatter and bang of the simple Ambassador, which is built by one of the country's oldest
carmakers, Hindustan Motors, is the heartbeat of India. For years, you could buy any car
in India-as long as it was an Ambassador. While khadi-clad politicos rush in and out of
government offices, it is this modest emissary who lies in wait. While the old, stodgy but
hardy vehicle has changed shapes over the years, it continues to retain much of its
original appeal. It largely remains the "official" car of India, ferrying babus and netas
alike20. The next time you come across a minister's cavalcade, count the number of
Ambassadors crossing the yellow line with impunity.

6.1.2 Landmarks Achieved: This would also give us a picture on the cult status of the
‗Amby‘.

 1957: The first Ambassador, modelled on the Morris Oxford, takes to the roads.

 1963: Buoyed by popularity, the second version - Mark II - appears.

 1975: First exports: seven cars to South America and Mauritius. And the Mark III is
 launched.

 1993:Hindustan Motors fires up the Old Lady with a powerful 1800cc Isuzu engine

 1999: Hindustan Motors pumps in Rs 70 crore to give a facelift to the dowdy old lady.
 Result: Ambassador Classic.

 2002: London businessman Tobias Moss runs a fleet of customised ‗Ambys‘ at Euro 40
 an hour, the most expensive cabs in UK21.

6.1.3 Mechanics delight: Every neighborhood mechanic knows how to repair it and most
problems can be fixed with a hammer and wrench. Spare parts are widely available, even
in the remotest village22.


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6.1.4 Exhibitions for the “Well-rounded lady”: The iconic Ambassador car is now on
show at Washington's Smithsonian gallery - for six months. A Retro Ambassador
prototype is showcased at the Auto Expo, and 20,000 visitors are asked about car's
greatest attribute. 90 percent say : "the emotional connect 21.

6.1.5 Waiting time: The Ambassador, even today is sold at a premium price than any
other foreign in that segment could demand and that too with a waiting list time of ….3
months!23.

6.2 Does the Ambassador follow the frameworks suggested?-the contradictions

6.2.1 Not universal or inclusive: The ‗cult‘ followers of the ‗Amby‘ are mainly the
‗VIP‘s. The frameworks suggest that the brand should not restrict to one set of
people.The differentiation should have been in the ‗attitude‘. The ‗amby‘ even today
belongs to the ‗ruling‘ class and not to the people who have a passion for ‗victory‘ and
‗power‘(in their own sense).A business man would not come under ‗Amby‘ cult though
his attitude would be the same as that of any other ‗Neta‘ in the country. Hence ‗Amby‘
deviates from the major ‗rule‘ that cult brand should be inclusive an universal.

6.2.2 Not being spontaneous: The ‗amby‘ has remained the same for ages together. With
the completion posed by foreign luxury cars, it‘s time for ‗amby‘ to change! For instance,
India's Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee has put aside the white Ambassador
limousine that has been the trademark of Indian leaders since Pandit Nehru's time, and for
the past six months or so has been letting himself be driven around in a black BMW. But
the changes that ‗Ambassador‘ has brought in the recent past are note-worthy. The
Ambassador Grand had 137 improvements brought into it with features such as power
steering, power brakes and remote shift gear. Another new variant of HM's old
workhorse, ‘Retro Ambassador‘ is being positioned as the car for 'people with attitude'
and targeted at the government ‗babus‘, private sector employees and the younger
generation24.




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7.0 Inferences and Guidelines for the Indian „Brand Cults‟:

7.1 The first noteworthy things that could be inferred from these examples that all are
‗first movers‘ in their own category. They have sustained competition for a long time. So
the message is very clear that if you are a first mover in your category and have a set of
dedicated loyals for your brand that will itself carry you for a long time. People will
respect the brand and stay attached to it even if the brand becomes bit slow in catching up
with the latest developments

7.2 All these brands pitch on the ‗Indian‘ sentiment. All these brands are made or
modified to suit conditions and all came into existence around the independence period.
Major influence with a ‗Mega event‘ seems to influence. Also the ‗Swadeshi‘ feeling still
plays a role. Even if the product is not a truly ‗Desi‘ product as in case of ‗Bullet‘- it was
tailored for Indian conditions.

7.3 The cultism is not specific to any product category. Be it an FMCG product or a
luxury car it works out perfectly well in the landmass.

7.4 Similarly ‗premium‘ image also does not play a role as seen from the example of
‗AMUL‘.

7.5 Clubs or a ‗Mass gathering‘ to prove ‗cultism‘ is not essential. The HOGS club of HD
or the gathering of ‗Apple are not essential to prove or bring about ‗cultism‘. People
remain attached to the brands emotionally even without all these clubs, gatherings etc as
seen from ‗Amby‘ and ‘AMUL‘.

7.6 Understanding the customer needs and evolving in a way that the core loyals are not
affected is yet another important factor.

7.7 Advertising and media need not have got a good amount of contribution in building
the cult status.




                                             ***

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REFERENCE:


1
  Philip Kotler, ‗Marketing Management‘, 11th edition, PHI, p.418
2
  http://www.danherman.com/5d.html
3
  Matthew W.Ragas and Bolivar J.Bueno, The Power of Cult Branding, Prima Lifestyles,
1st edition, September 24, 2002.
4
  http://www1.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/cms.dll/articleshow?art_id=9403563
5
  http://www.allaboutbranding.com/click.lasso?article=262
6
  http://hbswk.hbs.edu/pubitem.jhtml?id=3228&t=marketing
7
  http://agencyfaqs.com/news/stories/2003/02/20/5702.html
8
   Dr.Ratnaja Gogula , Brand Biography-Amul‘s, Advertising Express June,2003
9
  B. M. Vyas, ―Institutional structure to sustain smallholder dairy marketing—The Amul
model‖, available at: http://www.ssdairy.org/Programme/html/theme4_2.htm
10
   www.jbims.edu/publications/visristi.htm
11
  Radhika Chadha ―Dance to a different drummer‖ Catalyst, Thursday, Jun 06, 2002
available at: http://www.blonnet.com/catalyst/2002/06/06/stories/2002060600140400.htm
12
   Veghese Kurien, ―AMUL Saga‖, available at
 http://www.india-seminar.com/2001/498/498%20verghese%20kurien.htm
13
   http://www.automeet.com/interface22.html
14
   http://royalenfield.com/login.asp?pageno=78
15
   The Royal Enfield Brand Store, The Times of India, January 8, 2004
16
 http://royalenfield.com/NewsDetails.asp?Newsid=91&Mode=currentnews&rightnav=u
ndefined
17
   www.royalenfield.com
18
   Interview of Siddartha Lal available at
http://www.agencyfaqs.com/news/interviews/lal_2810_2002.html
19
   http://www.hmambassador.com/history.asp
20
   http://www.hindustantimes.com/news/specials/iday2003/10brand.shtml
21
     http://www.hindmotor.com/bharatsamby.asp
22
   http://www.hmambassador.com/reasons.asp
23
   http://www.hindu.org/publications/fgautier/rih9_12.html
24
   http://www.hindmotor.com/retroamby.asp




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