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					Fundamentals of Project
     Management


   Dr. George F. Jergeas
   Project Management
       Specialization
   University of Calgary
Schedule
Day 1                      Day 2
 Game                            Cost estimate
 Introduction                Step 3 - Organize
    PMI stuff
                               phase
                                  Select team and PM
 Step 1 - Define phase
                              Step 4 - Control phase
 Step 2 - Plan phase
                              Step 5 - Close out
    Sequence activities
                               phase
    Time estimate




                                                        2
References

   This section is based on:
       The 5-Phased Project Management- A Practical
        Planning and Implementation Guide by Joseph
        Weiss and Robert K. Wysocki
       Construction Project Administration by Edward
        R. Fisk
       Project Management Institute: PMBOK Guide,
        http://www.pmi.org
       Instructors’ notes
       Note: Some material is presented in several
        different formats to exemplify ways of
        approaching the tools and techniques
                                                        3
Game
   Your company is to build a single span
    bridge using Lego bricks. The span of the
    bridge is 90 cm and the centre point must
    be at least 10 cm higher than the base
   Bridge must be self-standing and stable
    enough to be measured
   Time is of the essence to the client and to
    your company


                                                  4
5
The Blind Men/Women and
the Elephant
   Strong opinions
   Each is partly right
   All were wrong
   Not one of them saw the elephant
   The moral of the story from a project
    management perspective…
       Many experience or read about an aspect or
        element of project management and think they
        know it ALL
       Accidental Project Managers are out there in
        great numbers
                                                       6
    Learning Objectives
   Project Management Basics
   9 Knowledge areas
       Tools and technique
       When and why you use them
       Business and social aspects of project management
   Avoid becoming an Accidental Project Manager
       The session will not turn you into instant project
        managers
   Begin to see more of the PM “elephant”

                                                             7
Agenda
   PART 1: Basic concepts
       What is project and project management
       Key terms and concepts
       Reasons for project failure/success


   PART 2: Technical aspects
       9 project management knowledge areas
            Inputs, processes, outputs
            Sample tools and techniques


                                                 8
What is a project?
   A specific, finite task to be
    accomplished
   Can be of a long or short term
    duration
   Can be large or small task




                                     9
Projects Vary in Size and
Scope
   NASA shuttle launch
   Building a boat
   Building a hospital
   Building renovation and & space
    modification
   Planning a party or wedding
   Organizing the Olympic games
   Developing a new software program
   Getting a university degree
   Company mergers
                                        10
Project Characteristics
   Constant                   Multiple priorities
    communication across       Complex and
    organizational              numerous activities
    boundaries                 Unique, one-time set
   Many people involved,       of events
    across several             Deadlines
    functional areas
                               Start and end dates
   Sequenced events
                               Identifiable
   Goal oriented               stakeholders
   Has an end product or      Limited resources and
    service                     budget

                                                        11
When is a Project a Project?
   A task or set of work assignments may be
    done by one or more persons using a
    simple “to do” list

   A task become a project when the
    characteristics of a project begin to
    dominate and overwhelm individuals
       Unable to meet deadlines, budgets and
        corporate expectations

                                                12
Project Management
   Project management is a method
    and/or set of techniques based on the
    accepted principles of management
    used for planning, estimating and
    controlling work activities to reach a
    desired result on time, within budget,
    and according to the project
    specifications

                                         13
14
What is Project Management?

   Tools/techniques
   Processes and methodology
   More than time, cost and scope
   Hard and soft skills
   A discipline evolving towards a
    profession

                                      15
Business and Social Aspects of
Project Management
   Hard and soft skills
       Technical aspects of project
        management
       Interpersonal skills
            Influence
            Politicking
            Negotiation



                                       16
Project Management
   Projects and project management
    are about people and teamwork
     Who does what?
     Who takes what risk?

     Who else is involved or

      interested/affected?


                                  17
Project Management
Challenges
   Lack of a common understanding on
    the question “What is project
    management???”
       Managing stakeholders, expectations,
        teams, projects, uncertainty
       Measuring project management results
       Methodology issues


                                               18
Value of Project Management
(Why are we doing this?)
   Improve project/program/firm
    performance as measured by
    efficiency, effectiveness
   Competitive advantage through
    competency
   Be more “Successful”


                                    19
Value of Project Management
(Why are we doing this?)
   Proactive vs. reactive
   Root out ill-conceived, directionless
    projects
   Increase visibility by providing
    roadmaps




                                            20
Project Management Team
   Project Sponsor(s)
       Decision maker, funder, champion
   Project Manager
       Manages the big picture
   Project Leads
       Manage parts of a project



                                           21
Project Management Team
   Project Team
       Work on specific tasks
   Stakeholders
       Vested interests
       Many of them
       Keep them happy



                                 22
Major Causes of Project
Failure
   Projects fail for the following reasons:
       The project is a solution in search of a
        problem
       Only the project team is interested in the
        result
       No one is in charge
       There is no project structure
       The plan lacks detail

                                                 23
Major Causes of Project
Failure
   Projects fail for the following reasons:
       The project has insufficient budget
        and/or resources
       Lack of team communication
       Straying from original goal
       The project is not tracked against the
        plan


                                                 24
Major Causes of Project
Success
   Stakeholders are identified
   Stakeholders expectations are known
    and met
   Senior Management support
   There is a clearly stated purpose and
    a sound plan
       Goal and objectives are understood and
        communicated

                                                 25
Major Causes of Project
Success
   A constructive goal-oriented culture
   Technically competent team
   Effective (and committed) team
   Excellent communication
   Trust



                                           26
Introduction
   PART 1: Basic concepts
       What is project management
       Key terms and concepts
       Reasons for project failure/success


   PART 2: Technical aspects
       9 project management knowledge areas
            Inputs, processes, outputs
            Sample tools and techniques



                                               27
Project Management
Knowledge Areas
   Scope                Procurement
   Time                 Quality
   Cost                 Risk Management
   Human Resources      Integration
   Communication



                                      28
Knowledge Areas and Key
Terms
   A project manager juggles 9 + balls
    (knowledge areas) and many tools
    and techniques




                                          29
Scope Management
   Initiate the project
       Feasibility, market, customer or business
        need
       Environmental analysis, business case
       Project selection practices and
        management decision practices
       Project link to the firm’s strategy or
        corporate goals


                                                30
Scope Management
   Initiate the project
       Identify the project manager
       Develop a charter
            Formally recognize the existence of the
             project
            Include the business need and product
             description, constraints and assumptions
            Approval to proceed
                 Funding, authority, sponsor

                                                        31
Charter links
   http://web.mit.edu/pm/devcharter.ht
    ml
   http://www.cio-
    dpi.gc.ca/emf/solutions/ProjectCharte
    rGuide/CharterGuide e.html
   http://csintranet.csd.sc.edu/smartstre
    ampro/sschartr.html

                                         32
Charter links
   http://www.pmi.org/standards/wbsch
    arter.htm
   http://www.virginia.edu/~iscat/PROJE
    CT%20CHARTER.html
   http://www.stanford.edu/group/AIS-
    proj/projectcharter.html


                                       33
Scope Management
   Plan and define the scope in detail
       Conduct a cost/benefit analysis, consider
        alternatives, get expert opinion and
        review historical databases, brainstorm
       What is in scope? What is out of scope?
        What are the criteria for completing
        phases?



                                                34
Scope Management
   Plan and define the scope in detail
       Develop a work breakdown structure
        (WBS)
       Create a scope statement with
        assumptions and constraints
            Project justification, product description,
             deliverables, success criteria, scope
             management plan
            Use for future project decisions

                                                           35
Scope Management
   Verify the scope
       What is the process and criteria for accepting
        the scope of work delivered?
            Work results and documents
            Inspection
            Acceptance form
   Control the scope
       Performance reports, change requests, issues
        management form, scope management plan,
        corrective action, lessons learned

                                                         36
Scope Tips
   Be inclusive – involve stakeholders
       Work on securing and maintaining their
        commitment to the project
       Commitment: funding, approvals
   Spend more time planning the
    project…then follow it (with updates
    of course)


                                                 37
Scope Tips
   Define project success and
    communicate it
   Steering committee with authority
    and decision making power
       Supportive and decisive sponsor




                                          38
Time Management
   Purpose: Create a realistic schedule with
    the team
   Identify the activities (tasks)
       Activities are action steps (HOW) and different
        from deliverables that are tangible results
        (WHAT)
       Use the WBS and scope statement
       Develop activity lists and revise the WBS
   Sequence activities
       Consider dependencies

                                                          39
Time Management
   Estimate durations (time)
       Top down, bottom up estimates, Monte Carlo
        simulations
       Estimating formulae (PERT estimates)
       Expert opinion
       Consider resource capabilities
       Look at similar projects
   Develop the schedule (Gantt chart)
       Document assumptions and decisions
       Use project management scheduling software
        e.g. MS Project
                                                     40
Estimating formulae
   PERT Estimate (weighted average)
       [Pessimistic + (4 x Likely) + Optimistic]/6

       Pessimistic time to get to work = 30 min
       Optimistic time to get to work = 10 min
       Likely time to get to work = 15 minutes
       PERT Estimate = 30 + (4x15) + 10/6
       100/6=16.6 = 17 min
                                                   41
MS Project HELP
   Http://www.officeupdate.microsoft.co
    m/welcome/project.asp
   Http://support.microsoft.com/director
    y/
   Http://www.woodyswatch.com
   Http://www.msproject.com


                                        42
Planning & Scheduling
Software
   http://www.sea.net.au/project_mana
    gement/scheduling_tools/
   http://www.projectkickstart.com/html
    /psoftware.htm
   http://www.comp.glam.ac.uk/pages/s
    taff/dwfarthi/projman.htm


                                       43
Time Management
   Control the schedule
       Performance reports, change requests,
        time management plan, corrective
        action, lessons learned
            E.g. baseline Gantt chart and then update
       Frequency
       Roles and responsibilities
       Control techniques e.g. meetings, 1:1

                                                         44
Cost Management
   Plan resources (people, equipment,
    materials)
       Consider WBS, scope statement,
        organizational policies, staff pool
       Identify resource requirements
   Cost centers at Your company?
       Time is money


                                              45
Cost Management
   Cost budgeting
       Resource leveling
       Cost baseline
   Control costs
       Performance reports, change requests,
        cost management plan, corrective action,
        lessons learned
            e.g. budgeted, actual, variance (with
             explanation)

                                                     46
Time and Cost Tips
   Its OK to ask. Talk to subject matter
    experts
   Avoid single point estimates, use
    validated range estimates
   Factor in the learning curve, resource
    productivity, experience level etc.


                                             47
Time and Cost Tips
   Use the appropriate tools, techniques,
    rules of thumb
   Document assumptions for estimates
   Negotiate




                                         48
Quality Management
   Plan for quality
       Quality product and quality project
        management practices
       Quality standards
            Conform to specifications (project produces what it
             said it would)
            Fitness for use (satisfy needs)
            Prevention vs. inspection
            Plan, do, check, act
            Benchmark, checklists, flow charts, cause/effect
             diagrams


                                                                   49
Quality Management
   Quality management plan
       Organizational structure, processes,
        resources, procedures, responsibilities to
        ensure quality plan is implemented
       Quality metrics
            Checklists
   Quality Assurance
       Follow the quality management plan,
        audits, improvements

                                                 50
Quality Management
   Quality control
       Process and product results
       Control charts, Pareto diagrams, trend
        analysis




                                                 51
Quality Tips
   Start with a clear view of quality in
    mind
   What is quality?
   Implications for ALL knowledge areas




                                            52
Human Resources
Management
   Organizational plan
       Organizational chart, roles and responsibilities
       Linkages between project and functional areas,
        and other business units.
       Staffing needs
          Unions, human resources

           department/practices, constraints
          RACI+

          Staffing plan (training, orientation, job

           descriptions, performance evaluations,
           redeployment), project organizational chart
                                                           53
    RACI Chart

Task   Responsible Accountable Coordinate Inform
       party       to          with

1

2




                                                   54
Human Resources
Management
   Get staff
       Assess experience, interests, personal
        characteristics, availability
       Negotiate
       Beg and borrow but don’t steal
   Develop the team
       Team building, reward and recognition
        program, support practices
   Don’t “control” people
       Managerial control is different from
        micromanaging
                                                 55
Human Resources
Management Tips
   Listen to understand
   Be responsive
       Provide positive feedback
       Act on problems in a timely manner
   Deal with problems
       They won’t go away, but will get BIGGER
   Provide constructive criticism
   Document appropriately
   Take time to have FUN

                                                  56
Communications Management
   Develop the project communication plan
       Stakeholder analysis
       Information to be shared (to who, what, how,
        when, why)
       Technology
   Distribute information
       Project databases, filing system, software /
        hardware
       Report up, down and across the firm

                                                       57
Communications Management
   Report performance
       Project plan, work results
       Project performance reports
            Variance reports, trend analysis, change requests
       Report the Good, Bad & Ugly
   Administrative closure
       Knowledge management
            Archives
            Acceptance forms
            Lessons learned


                                                                 58
Sample communication
formats
   Status reports      Posters
   Team meetings       Coffee room chats
                        Milestone celebrations
   Project files
                        Kickoff meeting
   PR initiatives      Close out meeting
   Newsletters         Lessons learned
   E-mail               sessions
   Databases           Paraphrase & Validate
                        Drawings
   Website
                        Schedule update
   RACI
                                            59
Communications Management
Tips
   If you think you have communicated
    enough…go back and do it again
   Use different formats
   Frequently use modes of
    communication that allow you to “see
    the whites of their eyes”


                                           60
Risk Management
   Identify risks
       What could go wrong (harm, loss,
        opportunities and threats)
       Consider ALL knowledge areas
            Internal and external risks
            Sources of risk: product technology, people
             (misunderstandings, skills), project
             management etc.


                                                           61
Risk Management
   Quantify risks
       Risk interactions, risk tolerance
       High, Medium, Low (HML) - qualitative
       Expected Monetary Value (EMV) -
        quantitative




                                                62
Risk Quantification Technique:
High, Medium, Low (HML)

   Probability of occurrence and impact
   High, Medium, Low grid
   Focus on HHs and less on LLs
   Keep it simple



                                           63
Risk Quantification Technique:
Expected Monetary Value (EMV)
   EMV=risk event probability X risk
    event value
   25% chance of rain X $1,000 impact
    of damage to convertible car interior
    = EMV of $250
   75% chance of rain X $1,000 impact
    of damage to convertible car interior
    = EMV of $750

                                            64
Risk Management
   Develop risk response plan
       Opportunities and threats to respond to and
        opportunities and threats to accept
            Avoid – eliminate cause
            Mitigate – reduce risk occurrence
            Accept – contingency plans, accept losses
       Its OK to do any of these
       Insurance, contingency plans, procurement,
        alternative strategies, contracts
       Risk management template

                                                         65
Risk Management
   Control risk responses
       Workarounds (defined as – when it hits
        the fan unexpectedly and you need to
        deal with it then and there)
       Ongoing process of risk management
            Corrective action
            Update risk management plan



                                                 66
Risk Management Tips
   Start Risk Management at the
    beginning of the project
   Review risks throughout the project
    (e.g. weekly, monthly)
   Update and project schedules,
    budget, staffing etc. as risk
    management plans are changed

                                          67
Procurement Management
   Plan procurement needs (goods and
    services external to the firm that you need
    to deliver the product)
       Make or buy decisions
       Contract type options (risk sharing)
   Solicitation
       Procurement management plan
       Vendor selection process and criteria
            Proposals, contracts, legal issues


                                                  68
Procurement Management
   Select and manage sources (vendors,
    partners)
       Negotiations
       Manage contracts
   Close contracts
       Formal acceptance and closure



                                          69
Procurement Tips
   Develop charters with vendors and
    partners
       Rules of the game, conflict management
        guidelines, escalation process
   Take lead times into account
   Do risk management on procurement
    (and all other knowledge areas)

                                                 70
Integration Management
   Pulling all the knowledge areas together
   As you go through the various project
    phases, consider the links between
    knowledge areas
       Plan the plan
       Execute the plan
            Project deliverables and project management outputs
       Control the plan



                                                               71
5-Step Project
 Management
5 Step Project Management
          PLANNING                                 IMPLEMENTATION

  DEFINE                PLAN         ORGANIZE               CONTROL               CLOSE
                       Identify        Determine            Define              Obtain
   State the                           Personnel            Management          Client
                       project
   Problem                             Needs                Style               Acceptance
                       activities
   Identify            Estimate        Recruit
   Project                                                  Establish           Install
                       time and        Project              Control Tools
   Goals                                                                        Deliverables
                       cost            Manger
   List the            Sequence        Recruit              Prepare
                                       Project Team         Status Reports      Document the
   Objectives          Project                                                  Project
                       Activities
                                                            Review
   Determine           Identify                                                 Issue Final
                                       Organize             Project
   Preliminary         Critical                                                 Report
                                       Project Team         Schedule
   Resources           Activities
                                                            Issue Change        Conduct Post-
   Identify            Write           Assign Work                              Implementation
   Assumptions         Project         Packages             Orders
                                                                                Audit
   and Risks           Proposal
Project overview   WBS               Recruit Criteria        Variance Reports        Final Report
                   Project network   Define Work packages    Status Reports          Audit Reports
                   Critical Path     Assign Work Packages    Staff Allocation Reports

                                                                                                     73
Step 1- Define the Project
Agenda
   State the problem
   Develop project goal
   Develop project objectives
   Identify assumptions and risks
   Identify stakeholders
   Criteria for project success
   Project Charter/overview document
                                        75
5 Step Project Management
          PLANNING                                 IMPLEMENTATION

  DEFINE                PLAN         ORGANIZE               CONTROL               CLOSE
                       Identify        Determine            Define              Obtain
   State the                           Personnel            Management          Client
                       project
   Problem                             Needs                Style               Acceptance
                       activities
   Identify            Estimate        Recruit
   Project                                                  Establish           Install
                       time and        Project              Control Tools
   Goals                                                                        Deliverables
                       cost            Manger
   List the            Sequence        Recruit              Prepare
                                       Project Team         Status Reports      Document the
   Objectives          Project                                                  Project
                       Activities
                                                            Review
   Determine           Identify                                                 Issue Final
                                       Organize             Project
   Preliminary         Critical                                                 Report
                                       Project Team         Schedule
   Resources           Activities
                                                            Issue Change        Conduct Post-
   Identify            Write           Assign Work                              Implementation
   Assumptions         Project         Packages             Orders
                                                                                Audit
   and Risks           Proposal
Project overview   WBS               Recruit Criteria        Variance Reports        Final Report
                   Project network   Define Work packages    Status Reports          Audit Reports
                   Critical Path     Assign Work Packages    Staff Allocation Reports

                                                                                                     76
State the Problem/Opportunity
   Specific questions must be asked before a
    project begins:
       What is the problem and what are the
        opportunities?
       Do we really need the project?

   If these questions can not be answered,
    then:
       Pick the wrong project
       The project will probably not succeed

                                                77
State the Problem/Opportunity
   Document the need and the benefits to the
    organization for undertaking the project
       Short, crisp and to the point
       Descriptor for those who although not directly
        involved on the project team are indirectly
        involved in supporting the project
       A need that must be addressed
            New product, service, process, facility, or system
            It may involve opening a new market



                                                                  78
Example
   “Membership in PM Association has
    declined in the past four years and
    attendance at conference has
    declined in the past three years. The
    viability and financial stability of the
    Association depends on maintaining
    membership and successful annual
    conference.”

                                               79
State Project Goal
   A statement of purpose and direction
    helps to direct the course of the
    project effort
       Initiates the project
       Serves as a point of reference for
        settling disputes and misunderstandings
       Clarifies expectations
       Helps in justifying requests for resources

                                                 80
Goal Statements
   Action oriented
   Short and simple
   Understandable
       Prepare and launch the International Space
        Station on April 21, 2000, from Cape Canaveral,
        Florida
       Connect France and England via a covered
        tunnel and railway under the English Channel,
        facility to be opened to traffic no later than
        September, 1996


                                                      81
Goal Statements
   Design and complete pilot testing by
    March 2002, a product accounting
    software package that performs basic
    financial analyses for the company

   Obtain a BSc degree in engineering
    from U of C by spring, 2004

                                           82
Example

   Reverse the downward trend in
    membership and annual
    conference attendance by
    organizing a highly successful
    conference


                                     83
Develop Project Objectives
   Objectives represent major
    components or milestones
       Objectives are sub-goals
   Roadmap to aid decision makers
    understand the purpose of the project
   Basis for determining project time line
    and resource requirements
   To achieve the goal all objectives
    must be realized
                                          84
Example
   Develop the Program

   Set the Conference Site and Date

   Design and Implement the Marketing
    Plan


                                         85
Criteria for Evaluating Project
Success
Project expectations:
 Project on time

 Within budget

 According to specifications

 Happy client




                                86
Example
   At least 200 of 450 PM Association
    membership will register to attend
   At least 50 of previous years conferences
    attendees will attend
   At least 1.5% of the non-members
    receiving conference brochure will attend
   At least 5% of the non-member attendees
    will join PM Association

                                                87
Identifying Assumptions and
Risks
   Each objective will have its own risks and
    assumptions
   Helps think through the project process
    and issues associated with execution
   Identifies resource needs and issues
    involving resource availability
   Identifies potential delays and the impact
    of these delays
   Potential cost overruns can be predicted
    and resolved
                                                 88
    Example
   Interest in PM Association can be renewed
    through the annual conference

   A quality professional program will attract
    members and non-members

   Key speaker(s) fail to show up or submit
    written paper

                                                  89
  Risk Management Template

Risk   Probability   Impact   Owner   Response   Monitoring
                                        Plan      Schedule




                                                         90
Stakeholders
   Individual or organisations actively involved
    in the project or directly or indirectly
    affected by its execution or results
       Roles must be identified at the start of the
        project
       Needs and expectations must be communicated
        and influenced in a positive and constructive
        manner so that the project will be success for
        all


                                                     91
Who are the People Involved?
   Owner, Contractor, Consultant (in-house
    and outside)
   Sub-consultants, Subcontractors
   Suppliers (Vendors)
   Trade unions
   End users
   Operators


                                              92
    External Issues

   Factors within a Project Manager’s sphere
    of responsibility, but which he or she has
    no formal control or authority over:
        Corporate interests
        Operating priorities
        Financial interests
        Government interests and actions
        Public interests
        Economic conditions
        Social priorities

                                                 93
Stakeholders
   How to find them?
       Ask who will decide on the success of
        your project
   How to involve them?
       Ask for (appropriate) advice
       Get their buy-in to project plans



                                                94
Stakeholders
   How to work with them?
       Active listening
       Understand their interests and needs
       Keep everyone informed
   How to keep them on side?
       Respond to concerns
       Manage expectations and make
        adjustments

                                               95
Common Concerns
   Political fallout
   Social, cultural, economic impacts
   Benefits:
       Training
       Employment
       Business opportunity
   “Way of life” Just go away!

                                         96
Common Concerns
   Public Involvement - Right to know
   Environmental protection and
    conservation
   Loss of control
   Fear of change
   Power and influence
   Native land claims

                                         97
Stakeholder Management
Process
1.       Monitoring
2.       Analysis
3.       Assessment
4.       Applications
          Educate and communicate
          Mitigate
          Compensate
5.       Appraisal and feedback
                                     98
                 Stakeholder Analysis
                           STAKEHOLDER




Their Objective/Purpose

          Their Strategy

Their Potential Impact on
               the project




     How They Operate

Where they gain Support



  How to Manage them
     and your plan for
            mitigation




                                         99
Summary
   Understand the role of the various
    stakeholders
   Identify the real nature of each
    stakeholder and their interest in the
    project
   Understand their motivation and
    behaviour

                                            100
Summary
   Issues external to the project that can
    impact the outcome of a project
   Project manager should:
       Understand what they are
       Consider them early
       Analyze their potential impact
       Decide which to mitigate and have a
        plan

                                              101
Summary
   Assess how they will react to various
    approaches
   Remember that projects managed in
    ignorance of External Influences:
       Never get off the ground
       Mid-flight crash
       Technical success but commercial failure


                                               102
Charter/Overview Document
   The “define” phase focuses on producing a
    project Charter/Overview document which
    is used as:
       A tool in the initial “go/no go” decision by
        management
       A general information document for other
        managers
       An early statement of the project goal and
        direction
       A statement of the problems and opportunities
        to be addressed by the project

                                                    103
Charter/Overview Document
   Once the project is approved for go ahead,
    the Project Charter/Overview becomes the
    foundation for the detailed planning
    activities which follow and:
       Provides a control point for reporting project
        progress and an audit point
       Reference base for addressing questions and
        conflicts
       Tool for building the team


                                                         104
Project overview              Project Name - PM Conference                 Project Manager

Problem/Opportunity
                  Membership in PM Association has declined in the past four years and attendance at
                  conference has declined in past three years. The viability and financial stability of the
                  organization depends on maintaining membership and successful annual conference.

Goal
                     Reverse the downward trend in membership and annual conference attendance

Objectives
          1.         Develop the Program
          2.         Set the Conference Site and Date
          3.         Design and Implement the Marketing Plan


Success Criteria
          1.      At least 50 of previous years conferences attendees will attend
          2.      At least 150 of 450 members will attend
          3.      At least 1.5% of the non-members receiving conference brochure will attend
          4.      At least 5% of the non-member attendees will join PM
Assumptions and Risks
          1.      Interest in PM can be renewed through the annual conference
          2.      A quality professional program will attract members and non-members
          3.      Key speaker(s) fail to show up or submit written paper.
Prepared by          Date                       Approved by                      Date

                                                                                                     105
Summary
   When defining a project you should
    be able to:
       Describe what is expected
       Define the project characteristics
       Develop a project Charter/overview
            Problem statement
            Project goal and objectives
            State the risks and assumptions
            State success criteria

                                               106
Exercise
   In groups develop a Project
    Charter/Overview document” for a
    project you currently involved with
   Please use “Tool Kit” attached at the
    conclusion of this book




                                            107
Step 2 - Plan the Project
Agenda
   Work Breakdown Structures (WBS)

   Estimate Time and Cost




                                      109
5 Step Project Management
         PLANNING                                          IMPLEMENTATION

 DEFINE                     PLAN             ORGANIZE              CONTROL                   CLOSE
                           Identify            Determine           Define                  Obtain
   State the               project             Personnel           Management              Client
   Problem                 activities          Needs               Style                   Acceptance
   Identify                Estimate            Recruit             Establish               Install
   Project                 time and            Project Manger                              Deliverables
                                                                   Control Tools
   Goals                   cost
   List the               Sequence             Recruit               Prepare               Document
   Objectives             Project              Project Team          Status Reports        the Project
                          Activities
                                                                     Review                Issue Final
   Determine               Identify           Organise               Project               Report
   Preliminary             Critical           Project Team           Schedule
   Resources               activities                                                      Conduct Post-
                                                                     Issue Change          Implementation
    Identify               Write               Assign Work           Orders                Audit
    Assumptions            Project             Packages
    and Risks              Proposal

 Project overview    WBS                 Recruit Criteria       Variance Reports         Final Report
                    Project network      Define Work packages   Status Reports           Audit Reports
                    Critical Path       Assign Work Packages    Staff Allocation Reports              110
Work Breakdown Structure
(WBS)
   Reduces complex projects to a series of
    tasks that can be planned

   WBS represents the project in the form of a
    hierarchy of goal, objectives and activities
       Identifies activities to be done from beginning
        to completion of the project


   Foundation for the definition, planning,
    organising and controlling of the project
                                                          111
   Composition of a Project WBS

             Overall goal


 Objective                   Objective
              Objective


                             Activities
Activities      Activities
                                          112
WBS
   Activities in the WBS are broken-down
    until the entire project is displayed as
    a network of separately identified
    activities
   The breakdown of activities continues
    until there are no overlapping
    activities

                                          113
WBS
   Each activity should be:
       Status and completion are easily measured
       Of a specific time duration with defined
        beginning and end
       Easy to derive time and cost estimates
       Of a single purpose and have clearly
        understood deliverables
       Responsibility for completion clearly assigned



                                                         114
The 5-step procedure:
Example
   1. Partition the project into its major
       objectives
       1.1   Develop the Program
       1.2   Set the Conference Site and Date
       1.3   Design and Implement the
              Marketing Plan



                                              115
        The 5-step procedure:
        Example
   2. Partition the objectives into activities
       1.1 Develop the Program
            1.1.1 Establish Theme and Topics
            1.1.2 Obtain Speakers
            1.1.3 Prepare Handout Materials
       1.2 Set the Conference Site and Date
            1.2.1 Set Conference Date
            1.2.2 Select and Commit Conference Site
            1.2.3 Confirm Arrangements
       1.3 Design and Implement the Marketing Plan
            1.3.1   Develop and Print Conference Brochure
            1.3.2   Obtain Label Sets for Direct Mail
            1.3.3   Mail Conference Brochures
            1.3.4   Receive and Acknowledge Registrations   116
The 5-step procedure:
Example
   3. Check each activity for compliance
    with activity characteristics and
    further partition any that do not
    comply
          1.1.3 Prepare Handouts
               1.1.3.1   Obtain Handout Materials from
                          Speakers
               1.1.3.2   Prepare and Print Conference Notebook



                                                             117
WBS Worksheet -PM Conference




                               118
                Hierarchical Representation
                        CONFERENCE PLANNING




        PROGRAM                   SITE                MARKETING


THEME   MATERIALS   SPEAKERS   DATE   PLACE   LISTS    BROCHURE   REGISTER




 OBTAIN       PREPARE                         DESIGN        MAIL
 MATERIALS    KITS                            BROCHURE      BROCHURE




                                                                   119
Estimating Activity Time
   Time to complete a task is random:
       Skill levels and knowledge of the individuals
       Machine/equipment variations
       Material availability
       Unexpected events
          Illness

          Strikes

          Employee turnover and accidents

          Changed soil/site conditions



                                                        120
Estimating Activity Time
   We know unexpected events and
    occurrences will happen but are
    unable to predict the likelihood with
    any confidence

       We must however account for the
        possibility of the occurrence of these
        events

                                                 121
Estimating Activity Time
   Use a statistical relationship if you can
    estimate
       Optimistic completion
       Pessimistic completion time
       Most likely completion time
   Can acquire this information from
    discussions with individuals that have
    first hand experience in projects

                                           122
Estimating Activity Time
   Optimistic Completion Time - is the time
    the activity will take if everything goes right
   Pessimistic Completion Time - is the time
    the activity will take if everything that can
    go wrong does go wrong but the project is
    still completed
   Most Likely Completion Time - is the time
    required under normal circumstances
   It can also be the completion time that has
    occurred most frequently in similar
    circumstances
                                                 123
Estimating Activity Time
   To compute the expected duration
    time the following formula is used:
   E = (O+4M+P)/6
   E = Expected duration time
   O = Optimistic time
   M = Most likely time
   P = Pessimistic time

                                          124
Estimated times for
conference planning
   ACTIVITY                        TIME IN WEEKS
                                    (O)    (M)    (P) (E)
   A   Set conference date
                                    1.0    2.0    3.0 2.0
   B   Establish theme & program
                                    2.0    5.0    8.0 5.0
   C   Select conference site
                                    4.0    5.0    6.0 5.0
   D   Obtain mailing labels
                                    4.0    6.0    8.0 6.0
   E   Develop brochure
                                    3.0    10.0   11.0 9.0

                                                       125
Estimated times for
conference planning
   ACTIVITY                       TIME IN WEEKS
                                   (O)    (M)    (P) (E)
   F   Obtain mailing labels
                                   3.0    4.5    9.0 5.0
   G   Mail brochure
                                   1.0    2.0    3.0 2.0
   H   Obtain speaker materials
                                   3.0    3.5    7.0 4.0
   I   Receive registrations
                                   4.0    6.0    8.0 6.0
   J   Confirm arrangements
                                   0.5    1.0    1.5 1.0
   K   Prepare conference kits
                                   1.0    2.0    3.0 2.0
                                                      126
Sequencing Activities
   Bar chart
   Produce a Logical Network
   Critical Path Method
       Arrow Diagrams
       Precedence Diagrams
   Identify Critical Activities
   Locate the Critical Path
   Floats

                                   127
           5 Step Project Management
               PLANNING                                IMPLEMENTATION
DEFINE             PLAN            ORGANIZE          CONTROL           CLOSE
                   Identify         Determine        Define          Obtain
State the          project          Personnel        Management      Client
Problem            activities       Needs            Style           Acceptance
Identify           Estimate         Recruit          Establish       Install
Project            time and cost    Project Manger                   Deliverables
                                                     Control Tools
Goals
List the          Sequence          Recruit           Prepare        Document
Objectives        Project           Project Team      Status         the Project
                  Activities                          Reports
                                                                     Issue Final
Determine          Identify        Organize           Review         Report
Preliminary        Critical        Project Team       Project
Resources          activities                         Schedule       Conduct Post-
                                                                     Implementation
 Identify          Write            Assign Work       Issue Change   Audit
 Assumptions       Project          Packages          Orders
 and Risks         Proposal



                                                                               128
Bar Charts/Gantt Chart
   Most projects, however complex, start by
    being depicted on a bar chart. The
    principles are very simple:

       Prepare list of project activities
       Estimate the time and resources needed
       Represent each activity by a bar
       Plot activities on a chart with horizontal time
        scale showing start and end

                                                          129
Project Schedule - Sample
Project: ____________________ Project Manager: ____________________   Date: _____________




                                                                                            130
RACI Charts
   Responsibility - Action - Coordination -
    Information
   Identify the roles of participants in
    each element of a project
   Effective communications road map
   4 to 8 weeks look ahead


                                          131
RACI Charts
   Update weekly to:
       Reset expectations
       Ensure right people involved in detailed
        planning
       Ensure everyone knows what needs to
        be done by whom




                                                   132
RACI Charts                  (F. T. Hartman, 2000)


              2.4.5 Major Element            Amelia Drover             Fred 2-5
 Deliverable:_____________________ Manager:___________________ Project:_________
 ACTION             DATES       AC G C F M J W B                    Budget Actual   Budget Actual
                                DM    H F    W    L     S   W E     W/Hrs. W/Hrs.   Cost Cost
 Activity                       RA    A C    I    I    -    I C     120             400
 Another activity               - R   C I    A    A    I    A -      50              50
 Build something                R -   A C    I    I    -    C -      345            1,500
 Another Item                   - R   C I    A    A    I    A -     127               -
 Yet another                    RA    A C    I    I    -    I C      90             9,000
 Design a bit                   R -   A C     I    I    -   C -      55             1,700
 Design more                    - A R    I   C C       A I    I     455               875
 Sneeze                         RC A    A    I C       I -    -     200             7,785
 Gesundheit                     - R I    I   C -        - -     -    65                 -
 Another thing                  AC R     -   C I       C -     -      20            100,000
 Wait for item                  - I C   A    A R       I A    I     655               -
 More stuff                     R A -   I    C I       A A    A      80               -
 Finish                         A I C   I     I A      AA     R      12              100




                                                                                              133
Video: The Power of
Scheduling
   How long it takes to build a house?




                                          134
CPM: Critical Path Method
   Graphic network based scheduling
    technique
       Arrow Diagrams
       Precedence Diagrams
   Use activities created by the WBS process
   Analysis of timing and sequencing logic
       Aids in identifying complex interrelationship of
        activities


                                                           135
CPM: Critical Path Method
   Allows for easy revision of schedule
    and simulation and evaluation of the
    impact of changes
   Also used as a control tool during
    execution of the project




                                           136
Producing a Logical Network
   The sequencing identifies activities that
    must be completed before another activity
    can start and which activities can occur
    simultaneously. Different methods:

   1. “Low-tech” approach: use post-it labels
       Each label has one activity written on it
       Through iterative process the labels can be
        arranged and rearranged

                                                      137
Producing a Logical Network
   2. Ask yourself the following:
       Which activities must be completed
        before this activity starts?
       Which activity cannot start until this
        activity is completed?
       Which activities have no logical
        relationship with this activity and
        therefore take place at the same time
        (concurrent activities)?

                                                 138
Producing a Logical Network
   3. Identify immediate predecessor
    activities, which are activities that
    must be completed before another
    activity can begin




                                            139
Steps in Producing a Networks
   List the activities
   Produce a logical network of activities
   Assess the duration of each activity
   Produce a schedule - determine the
    start and finish times and the float
    available for each activity


                                          140
Steps in Producing a Networks
   Determine the time required to
    complete a project and the the
    longest path on the network
       The longest path is the Critical Path
   Assess the resources required




                                                141
Activity sequencing
   ACTIVITY                   IMMED.         TIME(WEEKS)
                               PRED.                (E)
   A   Set conference date             -           2.0
   B   Establish theme/program         -           5.0
   C   Select conference site          A           5.0
   D   Obtain speakers                 B           6.0
   E   Develop brochure                C,D         9.0
   F   Obtain mailing labels           C,D         5.0
   G   Mail brochure                   E,F         2.0
   H   Obtain speaker materials        D           4.0
   I   Receive registrations           G           6.0
   J   Confirm all arrangements        H,I         1.0
   K   Prepare conference kits         J           2.0
                                                        142
        Sample Network

         a   c   e


start                g   i

                             j   k   end
                 f
         b   d           h



                                      143
        Activity Times/Critical Path
         0    2     2        7    11        20

         a2             c5             e9        20 22   22 28

        4     6 6        11       11    20

Start                                             g2       i6    28 29 29 31
                                  11 16
                                                 20 22 22 28
                                                                  j1    k2     End
         0    5 5        11            f5                11 15   28 29 29 31
             b5         d6        15 20                   h4
         0        5 5        11
                                                         24 28


                                                                                144
Critical Path
   Calculations for precedence diagrams and
    arrow diagrams are essentially the same
   Critical path is where there is zero slack
    time
   If an activity takes longer than estimated
    on the critical path then the project will be
    delayed
   The critical path can change if there is a
    delay that make an alternative path longer

                                                145
Float (Slack)
   Slack or float time is amount of delay that
    could be tolerated in the start or
    completion time without causing a delay in
    completion of the project
   Total float or calculations to determine how
    long each activity could be delayed without
    delaying the project
   Total float = LF - ES - duration


                                               146
Summary
   Critical path identifies the project time
    requirements
   Slack or float time is amount of delay
    that could be tolerated in the start or
    completion time without causing a
    delay in completion of the project
   Zero slack time equals the critical
    path

                                           147
 29 29 31
                                  11 16
                                                 20 22 22 28
                                                                  j1    k2     End
         0    5 5        11            f5                11 15   28 29 29 31
             b5         d6        15 20                   h4
         0        5 5        11
                                                         24 28


                                                                                144
Critical Path
   Calculations for precedence diagrams and
    arrow diagrams are essentially the same
   Critical path is where there is zero slack
    time
   If an activity takes longer than estimated
    on the critical path then the project will be
    delayed
   The critical path can change if there is a
    delay that make an alternative path longer

                                                145
Float (Slack)
   Slack or float time is amount of delay that
    could be tolerated in the start or
    completion time without causing a delay in
    completion of the project
   Total float or calculations to determine how
    long each activity could be delayed without
    delaying the project
   Total float = LF - ES - duration


                                               146
Summary
   Critical path identifies the project time
    requirements
   Slack or float time is amount of delay
    that could be tolerated in the start or
    completion time without causing a
    delay in completion of the project
   Zero slack time equals the critical
    path

                                           147

				
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