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					Engagement

        Chapter 5
            LEARNING OBJECTIVES

1.   Understand the meaning of engagement

2.   Understand the difference between conversation and building
     a professional relationship

3.   Develop skills in listening and for identification of problems,
     needs, emotions, reactions, and strengths and resources and
     goals as expressed by client systems

4.   Acquire awareness of how the professional relationship is
     progressing

5.   Understand how engagement may take place at micro,
     mezzo, and macro levels of practice
         Engagement

      Time and processes used in
establishing a professional relationship
  with a client or action system that is
 directed toward goal-oriented change
             Engagement Phases
 Establish
                     Identify
Professiona                          Recognize
                    problems,
      l                             feelings and
                      needs,
relationship                          reactions
                    strengths
boundaries




  Increase
                    Determine        Make initial
    client
                      goals            plans
investment



               Monitor engagement
                     phase
The Relationship Boundary
According to the NASW Code
        of Ethics…



  …Social workers--not their clients, their
 clients' relatives, or other individuals with
   whom the client maintains a personal
  relationship--assume the full burden for
  setting clear, appropriate, and culturally
             sensitive boundaries.
  Boundaries…
• Our sense of how we are
  different from others
• Exist for our protection
• Ensure appropriate
  behavior and keep us from
  offending others
• Enable us to get close to
  others without becoming
  overwhelmed
        As a social worker…
You have your our own personal boundary
 issues as well as professional boundary
 concerns.

You will see people who have no
 boundaries, rigid boundaries, partial
 boundaries, and healthy boundaries.
          Boundary Sensor

 Personally assessing the following list of situations
  can help alert you to the kinds of boundary issues
  that might risk interfering with your ability to work
 most effectively—and ethically--with your clients. If
   your answer to any of these brief statements is
―yes,‖ it is highly likely you are in jeopardy of abusing
                 professional boundaries.
                      YES or NO
• The client feels more like a friend than a client, or you want to be
  friends with the client when their therapy ends.
• You feel sexually aroused in response to a client.
• You would like to be lovers with the client when their therapy
  ends.
• You have sexual contact with a client.
• You often choose your clothing with a particular client in mind.
• The client’s sessions frequently run overtime.
• You reveal a lot about yourself with a particular client, perhaps
  telling stories or engaging in friend-like conversation.
• You share personal problems with a client.
• You allow a client to comfort you.
                         Yes or No
• Without discussing it with the client ahead of time, you attend a
  social event at which you knew the client would be present.
• You accept gifts or favors from a client without reviewing why the
  gift was given or why the client chose that particular time in their
  therapy.
• The client owes you a lot of money and you are unsure how to
  handle it.
• You find it difficult to refrain from talking about a particular client
  with people close to you.
• You accept valuable gifts from a client.
• You do so much on behalf of one particular client, you feel
  exhausted.
• You invite a client to a public or social event.
• You sometimes feel like punishing or controlling a particular client.
What are Some Examples of
       Boundaries?
Clear Boundary Areas:
• Planning social activities with clients
• Having sex with clients
• Having family members or friends as
  clients
    A Client Should Not Be Your:

•   Lover
•   Relative
•   Employee or Employer
•   Instructor
•   Business Partner
•   Friend

Strictly prohibited by the Social Work Code of Ethics
Areas Where Boundaries May Blur:

 •   Self disclosure
 •   Giving or receiving significant gifts
 •   Dual or overlapping relationships
 •   Becoming friends
 •   Physical contact
What Are Some Other Areas
Where Boundaries May Be
         Blurred?
           Danger Zones
• Over-identification with client’s issues
• Strong attraction to client’s personality
• Strong physical attraction to client
• Clients who can potentially reward you
  with their influence
• Transference and counter transference
       Something to think about…
People new to the helping
    field try to cross
  boundaries in a safe
         manner.

  People who have more
   experience set firmer
   boundaries because
they know there is no safe
 way to cross boundaries.
On the NASW Top Ten Ethical
        Violations List
1997
  2003 Study:
New York Social
   Workers

Many reported
engaging in
nonsexual
multiple role
relationships

Many confused
regarding what
constitutes an
ethical violation
when it comes to
multiple role
relationships
Keep professional boundaries between you
   and your client and/or systems by…
 Apprising clients of rights
 Serving clients with professional skill, loyalty and
  determination
 Not practicing, condoning or collaborating with
  any form of discrimination towards clients
 Seeking advice and consultation from colleagues
  and supervisors when in the best interest of
  clients
 Withdrawing services promptly and make service
  referrals appropriately and cautiously only under
  unusual circumstances, giving careful
  consideration and minimizing possible adverse
  effects to me
Keep professional boundaries between you
   and your client and/or systems by…

  Terminating service to clients when such
   services and relationship are no longer required
   or no longer serve my needs. Making referrals
  Not exploiting clients for your personal
   advantage; i.e. don’t use my valuable time to
   share my own frustrations, grief or loss
  Not engaging in sexual activity with clients
  Avoiding relationships that conflict with the
   interests of clients, i.e. don’t ask me to take care
   of your pet while on vacation
Identifying Problems, Needs,
        and Strengths
• UP TO HERE FOR THURS. OCT.
  11/07
   What are some of the most
common problems/issues people
  seek mental health services?
 Common problems/issues for which
 people seek mental health services
• Significant or chronic emotional and/or
  physical pain
• Relationship problems
• Skill acquisition
• Recent Loss
• Victim of trauma or abuse
• A clinical disorder or condition
• Personal Growth
• Major Life transitions (i.e. new job, marriage)
• Gender Identity
How do you get at the heart of the
  issues or problems for which
 services are being requested or
             sought?
Know how problems are operationally defined
           and what they entail
Problems arise out of disequilibrium between
persons in their environments.
Problems relate to and include:
          Needs
          Issues
          Concerns, desires, feelings
          Contextual environmental factors
          Risk factors
          Protective factors, resiliencies
          Resources
          Assets
           Identifying Problems
• Good morning, Mrs. B.       • Good morning. I am
  I am Mary Costello, the       Mary Costello, the
  school social worker. I       school social worker. I
  would like to talk to you     understand you wanted
  about your son Johnnie        to talk with me.
  and how he’s doing at       • Yes, I’m Johnnie’s
  school.                       mother. His teacher
                                said that maybe I could
                                talk to you about the
                                problems I’ve been
                                having at home with
                                my son lately.

Concern in Service            Concern in Client
           Getting to the Problem

Generalist Social Worker listens to the client
system:
  a. Present the breath and depth of the problem
  b. Express verbal and nonverbal reactions and
     feelings about the problem
  c. Discuss what has been tried and with what
     success to resolve this problem
  d. Consider hopes and wishes for solving the
     problem
             KEEP IN MIND

                        How the client THINKS
                              about a problem

                 significantly



influences what the client DOES
about the problem
The engagement process should
 answer these basic questions.
• For what problems is the client seeking
  or being referred help?
• How have these problems affected the
  client’s life?
• What is maintaining these problems?
• What does the client hope to gain?
    In Practice…Identifying
    Feelings and Reactions

Is a process that requires:
1. Purposeful expression of feeling
2. Controlled emotional involvement
Purposeful Expression of Feelings

 • Recognition of clients need to express
   feelings freely
 • Purposeful listening without
   discouraging or condemning expressed
   feeling
 • Where beneficial – stimulate and
   encourage free expression of feelings.
               abandoned       absent-minded      abused    accepted    accused      admired     adored    adrift
               affectionate    afraid     aggravated   aggressive    agitated    alarmed     alert   alienated    alive
               alone     aloof    alluring   amazed     ambushed     amused      angry     antagonistic    anxious
               apathetic     appalled     apologetic  appreciated    appreciative     apprehensive     aroused
               ashamed       astonished     attacked   attractive  aware      awestruck    awkward

               bad    baffled       bashful       beaten down          belittled     benevolent   berated  betrayed    bewildered

Here is a      bitter  blamed
               burned-out
                                     blue        bold   bored          bothered       brave   broken    bummed    burdened




listing of     calm
               challenged
               close
                       capable


               competent
                        closed
                                   carefree
                              charmed
                                  clueless
                             competitive
                                               careless
                                          cheated
                                              clumsy
                                            complacent
                                                           caring
                                                      cheerful
                                                        cold
                                                                     cautious
                                                                  cherished
                                                                 comfortable
                                                           complete      concerned
                                                                                  censored
                                                                               childish
                                                                                committed
                                                                                           clean
                                                                                                centered


                                                                                        condemned
                                                                                                     clear
                                                                                                            certain

                                                                                                compassionate
                                                                                                              clever

                                                                                                        confident

words A-L      confused
               courageous
                            considerate
                               cowardly
                                           contemplative
                                           cranky    crazy
                                                             contempt
                                                               cross
                                                                          content
                                                                        crushed
                                                                                      controlled
                                                                                    curious
                                                                                                    convicted     cornered


               daring     dashed      dazed     dead     deceived     dedicated     defeated     defenseless     defensive
   that        defiant
               deprived
               devastated
                          degraded
                            deserted
                              devious
                                        dejected
                                         desired
                                           devoted
                                                     delicate
                                                     despair
                                                       different
                                                                 delighted
                                                                 desperate
                                                                   difficult
                                                                              demoralized
                                                                              destroyed
                                                                              dirty
                                                                                               dependent
                                                                                            detached
                                                                                      disappointed
                                                                                                             depressed
                                                                                                          determined
                                                                                                       disbelieving

describe       discarded
               dishonest
               distracted
                             disconnected
                             disillusioned
                             distressed
                                               discontent
                                              dismal
                                            disturbed
                                                              discouraged
                                                         dismayed
                                                          doubtful
                                                                              disgraced
                                                                       disobedient
                                                                      drained
                                                                                            disgusted
                                                                                      disorganized
                                                                                  dropped     dull
                                                                                                       disposable
                                                                                                     dumb
                                                                                                          disheartened
                                                                                                                      distant



 feelings.     eager
               encouraged
                         ecstatic

               enthusiastic
                                    edgy
                               energetic
                               envious
                                           effective
                                          energized
                                         evasive     evil
                                                         embarrassed
                                                          elated   enlightened
                                                              exasperated
                                                                          empathetic   empty
                                                                                  enraged
                                                                            excited    excluded
                                                                                                 enchanted
                                                                                             enriched    entertained
                                                                                                   exhausted
               exhilarated    expectant   exploited    exposed       exuberant

               faithful   fake        fantastic    fatigued     fearful    fearless    feisty    fine     flustered     foolish
               forgiven     forgiving       forgotten    fortunate      framed     frantic    free    friendly     frightened        frisky

  This list    frustrated

               generous
                              fulfilled

                               gentle
                                            full

                                          giving
                                                   funny

                                                  grieving
                                                             furious

                                                                      glorious     good       grateful   great   glad      gloomy
               grouchy        grumpy      guarded    guilty           gullible
 may help      handicapped
               hesitant
                              happy
                          honored
                                       hateful
                                    hopeful
                                                 haunted
                                               hopeless
                                                                          healthy
                                                                         horrible
                                                                                       heard
                                                                                      horrified
                                                                                                   heartbroken
                                                                                                    hospitable
                                                                                                                 helpful
                                                                                                                 hostile
                                                                                                                             helpless
                                                                                                                            humble

 you build     humiliated

               idealistic
                            hurt  hysterical

                            idiotic    ignorant      ignored       imaginative      immune         impatient      impelled     imperfect
               impertinent      important      impressed       impulsive       inadequate       inattentive      incensed
your feeling   incompetent
               industrious
               inquisitive
                                 incomplete
                               inept
                              insane
                                         inferior
                                          insecure
                                                  incredulous
                                                     inflated
                                                        insensitive
                                                                    indebted
                                                                   informed
                                                                                  indecisive
                                                                                 infuriated
                                                                         insignificant
                                                                                                   independent
                                                                                                 inhibited
                                                                                           isolated      insulted
                                                                                                                     indifferent
                                                                                                               innocent
                                                                                                                      intense
                                                                                                                             innovative


vocabulary.    interested
               involved
                              interrogated
                           irrational
                                                interrupted
                                           irresponsible
                                                                  intimidated
                                                             irritated     irked
                                                                                  intimate      intrigued      invigorated      invisible


               jaded     jealous        jinxed    jolly      jovial     joyful     jubilant    judged    judgmental     jumpy       just
               justified

               kidded     kind      knowledgeable

               late    lazy      leery     left out        let down     liable   liberated   lifeless      light-hearted    liked
               listened to      logical     lonely        loose     lost    lousy    lovable    loved        loving   lucky
                mad     manipulated    mean      meditative   melancholy                  merry   mischievous  miserable
                misinterpreted   mistreated     misunderstood   mixed up                   mocked    modest   molested   moody
                motivated    moved     mystified

                naive     nasty    needed   needy           negative          neglected     nervous    neurotic     nonchalant
                nostalgic    noticed   numb

                obeyed      obligated    obvious    odd          offended        old    open     oppressed   optimistic  ornery
                out of control    outraged    overcome           overjoyed        overloaded     overwhelmed    overworked
                owned

                pampered     paralyzed   passionate      passive    patient     peaceful    peeved    pensive     perky

  Here is a     perplexed
                pleased
                productive
                             persecuted
                           poor    possessive
                             protected
                                           pessimistic
                                                 positive
                                         protective
                                                          pestered

                                                        proud
                                                             powerful
                                                                      petrified

                                                                 provoked
                                                                         powerless
                                                                                   petty

                                                                               prudish
                                                                                            phony
                                                                                        practical
                                                                                          punished
                                                                                                     pious
                                                                                                   pressured
                                                                                                      pushy
                                                                                                              playful
                                                                                                                 private
                                                                                                                puzzled

  listing of    questioned      quiet



 words M-Z      rambunctious
                reconciled
                relieved
                                  reassured
                              reflective
                           reluctant
                                                 realistic
                                            refreshed
                                         reminiscent
                                                              rebellious
                                                            regretful
                                                           remorse
                                                                              reborn
                                                                          rejected
                                                                         renewed
                                                                                        receptive
                                                                                     rejuvenated
                                                                                     replaced
                                                                                                      reckless
                                                                                                       relaxed
                                                                                                  replenished
                                                                                                                   recognized
                                                                                                                  released
                                                                                                                    repressed
                rescued    resentful     reserved       resistant     resourceful    respected      responsible      restricted

that describe   revengeful    revitalized     rich    ridiculous      right    rigid  robbed      romantic     rotten      rushed

                sabotaged      sad      safe    sassy       satisfied     saved      scared       scolded       scorned     secure

  feelings.     seductive
                reliant
                sheepish
                              self-assured
                          selfish
                             shocked
                                      sensitive
                                                self-centered

                                           shunned
                                                    sentimental
                                                         shy
                                                                    self-confident

                                                                  sick
                                                                      serene
                                                                                        self-conscious
                                                                                  serious
                                                                           silenced      silly
                                                                                                sexy
                                                                                                  sincere
                                                                                                             self-destructive
                                                                                                         skillful
                                                                                                               sinful
                                                                                                                     shamed
                                                                                                                                  self-
                                                                                                                                 shaken
                                                                                                                         slandered
                sluggish    small      smart     smothered         skeptical     solemn        soothed     sorry      special     spiteful
                splendid    spunky       squashed       stifled     stimulated      stingy      strained      stretched     stressed
                strong    stubborn       stumped      stunned        stupid     submissive        successful      suicidal     suffocated
                sullen    sunk      super     superior      supported       sure     surly      surprised       suspicious

This list may   sympathetic

                tacky    tactful     talented       talkative      tame    tarnished       tasteful     tearful   teased     tenacious

  help you      tender
                threatened
                          tense

                transformed
                               thrifty
                                      tepid

                                 trapped
                                                 terrible
                                           thrilled     tired
                                                treasured
                                                              terrific

                                                                trembly
                                                                        terrified
                                                                   tormented      torn
                                                                            tremendous
                                                                                      tested
                                                                                          tortured
                                                                                                  testy

                                                                                              tricked
                                                                                                           thankful
                                                                                                        tough    tragic
                                                                                                          troubled
                                                                                                                       thoughtful
                                                                                                                           tranquil
                                                                                                                      trusted


 build your     ugly   unaccepted
                unconcerned
                unreal   unruly
                                     unappreciated
                                uneven
                                  unwise
                                         unfit
                                                       unbalanced
                                                 unfriendly
                                           uplifted    used
                                                              united
                                                                     unburdened

                                                               useless
                                                                       unjust
                                                                                   uncanny
                                                                                unknown
                                                                                             uncomfortable
                                                                                           unneeded    unpleasant


   feeling      vacant
                vivid
                         vague
                       void
                                        vain    valid     valued      vexed       vicious    victimized     victorious     violated


vocabulary.     wacky
                weird
                            warlike
                           whole
                                      warm
                                    wild
                                                warmhearted
                                           willful  wishful
                                                                     warned
                                                                     witty
                                                                               wary
                                                                            worldly
                                                                                             wasted
                                                                                            worse
                                                                                                      weak
                                                                                                    worthy
                                                                                                                   wealthy
                                                                                                                  wounded
                                                                                                                               weary
                                                                                                                               wrong

                yearning      yellow      yielding      young      youthful

                zany     zealous
Controlled Emotional Environment
Controlled Emotional Involvement
• There are three components to a controlled
  emotional response to a client's situation:
  – Sensitivity to expressed or unexpressed
    feelings
  – Understanding based on knowledge of human
    behavior
  – Response guided by knowledge and purpose.
• Careful:
  – Not to respond in a way that conveys coldness or
    lack of interest
  – Not to over identify with the client.
             Goal Recognition
 What    does the client system really want?
 Goal    is an end-point toward which all
    practice efforts are directed……. ―an
    attainable wish‖
   Examples:
     Learn a skill
     Make a decision
     Increase competence
     Resolve conflictual relationship
     Secure and use resources
            Objectives for Goals
 What specific objectives need to be
  completed in order to meet the identified
  goal?
 What specific tasks and activities need to
  take place to meet the objectives?
 Who will carry out which tasks and
  activities?
 What time frame will be used for carrying
  out the tasks and activities?
 What benchmarks or criteria shall be used
  to know that objectives of tasks and
  activities have been met?
         Example of Goal and Objectives
Goal: To improve parent – child relationship

Objective 1: Mother and child will spend more time together
      Task 1: After coming home from school, two-times a week,
              mother will spend about 1-2 hours with child
              listening and talking about child’s day
      Task 2: Every two weeks, mother will take child out for a
              fun activity of child’s choosing

Objective 2: Mother and father will clarify their roles and
           responsibilities for caring for their child
      Task 1: Within next two weeks, mother will approach father
              to set time for discussion
      Task 2: Within next month, mother and father identify time
              and activities they wish to do with child
             Decision Making Process
Setting the tone of the working relationship
 Start with the client system’s problem presentation
 Begin defining this problem in person-in-environment
  context
 Identify client system’s needs in this problem
 Uncovers client system’s strengths and assets
 Prioritize problems based on client system’s
  preference
 Select the problem that has the most chance of
  success
 Identify client system’s goals and objectives in problem
  prioritization
 Assist the client system in considering consequences
  of resolving the problem and/or selecting particular
  goals
 Establish initial agreement for working relationship
Assessment Worksheet
Case Planning Worksheet

				
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