Document Sample

                        BOOK XV

                 The psychoanalYtic act

                        I 967-l968

                                           French manuscnpts
Translatedby Cormac Gallagher from unedited

                FOR PRIVATE USE ONLY
     .                                                                       l!

     S e m r n a r1 . l V e d n e s d a vl 5 N o v e m b e r 1 9 6 7

     Thrs year I choseas sub;ectthe psvchoanalyttc                       coupleof
                                                      act. It ts a srrange
     words, whrch, to tell the truth. has not been corrlmonup to now. Assurediy'.
     thosewho have foliowed:for a certaln trme what I am staung here.may not be
     astonrshed what I am introducrngunder theset'rvoterms.

     What my discourse last vear closedon wrthrntlus logrc of phantasy. of
                           of                                                   all
     whose lineamentsI tned to brrng here.those who heard me speaktneIn a cenam
     tone and m two regrsters  about what the equally coupled term of the sexualact
     can and ought to mean. thesepeople may feel themselvesln some way already
    mtroducedto thrs dimenstonthat the psychoanalylrc represents.
    Nevertheless. have to behaveas if a part of thrs assemblyknew nothtns about
    rt and rntroducetoday what rs rnvolved rn this usagethat I am proposlng.
    Psychoanaly" understoodas least rn pnnctple. lt ls supposed, leastby
    the t-actthat you are here to listen to me, that psy-choanalysts does some*ung. It
    does.that rs not enough.thrs rs the essenttal, rs at the central polnt. lt ls
    properiy spealong poetrcvrew polnt of the tlung, poetry also does somethmg.
    I remarkedmoreoverln passlng,havrng rnterested        myself a little recentll tn thts
    field of poetry. that people have pard verv little afienttonto what tt does and to
    rvhom, and more especralll'.   why not. to the poets.

    Perhaps ask oneselfthat would be a krnd of introductron what ts mr olved
             to                                                 to
                                                     today smce rvhat ts at stakets
    rn the act rn poetry, But thrs rs not our busrness
    ps.v-choanai.vsrs. doessomethrng. certarnlybut       not at the level. on the
    plane.rn the sense poetr.r'.

    110)If we have to rntroduce    and ren necessarilr the level of psychoanali'srs
    the hrnctronof the act. rt ls rn as much as thrsps1'choanalyttc
    rrnplicates Sublect. That to tell the truth.and thanksto thrs dimensron the
              the                                                           of
    sub;ectwhrch completell'    renervs us w'hatcan be statedaboutthe sub;Fct
                                        tbr                                    as
    suchand whrch rs cailedthe unconscrous. sublect. psy' I
                                                 thrs      tn              ts
    alreadyformulated.  actrvated   lmts en dcre)rn rt.

   I recailthat I alreadyput fonvard thrs tbrmula rn connectlonwtth transference.
   savingat a tlme alreadrlong past.and at a level of formulatronthat *,vas
   approxrmate. transference nothlngothe: than the acttvation the
                  that              lvas                               of
   unconsclous. repeat                                and w'hatwe will hai'eto put
                          that ihrs rs onll an approach
t5.n.67                                                                         I2                                                                                     I3

     forrvardthtsyearaboutthts functronof rhe act of psychoanalysrs
                                                                 will allorv us to
     bnng to rt a specificrry
                            ',vorthy the numeroussreps somedecrsrve
                                   of                   -                                                                                                           them by
                                                                      I hope -                  Thesediscourses knorvn to all. I haveno needto illustrate
     that rve havebeenable to take srncethen,                                                                                    wants to look more closelyat rvhatI am leavtng
                                                                                                quotatlons. if someone
                                                                                                understood. would evoke notlust a t'amous
                                                                                                              I                                   antcle.but a rvholevolume wTlmen
     Let us approach  srmpl-varonsthe path oia cenaln obvrousness. rve keepto
                                                                       if                       on thrs by VIr  Rappaport,a psychoanalvst the Nerv York Socrery. What rs
    thrs sense rharrhe word acr haswhrch can be consrrtuted   rvrthrespect rvhat -                                                                            lvtthout preludicernto
                                                                              ro                strilung, ts that assuredlyfor someone,,vhors rntroduced
    let us leavethat to one srde- can constrr*te brerkrhrough.-
                                                a                  It rs sure that w-e          thrs dimenSton acUon,the reference thts casedoesnot appealanv clearerto
                                                                                                                  of                        tn
    encounter acr on entennganallsrs. It rs all the same
               the                                                                                                                                      thrnkrngby acttonmreht pre'
                                                            somethrng     tharments             me rhanwhat ts refenedto. And that to illumrnate
    the nameof act to decrde.  wrth ever,vthrns thrs rnvojves. decrde do
                                              that                                                                                                                     rdeathan the
                                                                  to           to               suppose.   perhaps.   that first ofall one shouidhare a lessconfused
   what rs calleda psychoanalysrs.   Thrs decrsron rnvolves certarn
                                                            a           coinmrlment.            onesrvhrchare manit'ested theseoccaslons
                                                                                                                                 on                aboutivhatconstltutes actron.
   we encounterthere all the dimensronsthat ordinariry.
                                                          are accepted.. comrnon
                                                                           ln                   m as much as an actlon seemstndeed.if we meditatefor an lnstant,to
   usage.rn the common use of thrs word act. There rs also an
                                                                 aci r,vhrch  can be            presuppose lts centrethe notronofact.
   described, act bv whrch the psychoanalyst hrmself
              the                                 sers         up as such.herers
   somethrngwhrch merits..the   name of acr. up to and rncluding the fact that thrs acr
   can be rnscribedsomewhere:lylr So_and_so,                                                    I know lvell that there ts a fashron.wluch ts moreoverthe one to wluch those
                                                                                                who try to formulate thrngs m the regtsterthat I have;ust spokenof cling onto, I
                                                                                                ,1,.*                 suppon themselveswrth. whrch rs to rdentify actlon to rnotor
   In truth. rt doesnor appearfoolish. mordinate. our place.                                            "n.rg"trcally
                                                       of        to speakabout the              (12) actrvrty Here tndeedwe have to carry out at the begrnnrng what lve are
  psychoanarylcact ln the sameway thar one spealis
  thrs sensewhat rs the psychoanalytrc
                                                        about the meaical act. In               ntroducrng an op€ratlon.cail rt what 1'ouwili. of srmpleeluctdattonor of
                                        act? onL courd say that rt could be
  rnscribed                                                                                     clarificatron.but it 1svery essenttal.In effect, tt ls well known and. after all. my
              underthrsrubnc rn the regrster SocralSecunry.
                                             of                   Is the                        God. why not, acceptable,     that people want here to apply m a way that s
  psychoanalync the sessron. e,xample?
                   act            for           I can ask what rt conslstsot-. ,Mhat            admrssible,   qulre routine, to obey or eYensrmply pretendto obey the rule of not
  son of interv'entlon rnvolved? Becauseafter all
                       rs                             one does not wnte out a                   explamrng    wlat peoplecontmueto call, not aSvays       moreoverwith.a lot of
  prescnptlon. what rs the act properly speakrng?
                                                     Is lt rnterpretatron? ls rt
                                                                          or                    iuititicatron.  the supenor and the tnfenor. Of not I am saytng,explarnrngthe
  silence? Or anlthrng  that ,.ou want to desrgnate the rnsrrurnents
                                                                 n                              inf.nor by the superlor but. as rt rs sard- people nolv no longer know very well
  of the functron.
                                                                                                why.- that dunkrng ls supenor. To start from thts mfenor whrch ts supposedto
  But rn truth.theseare iilumrna[ons r,vhrch                                                    be ihe most elementaryform of response the organrsm.namelv,thrs famous
                                              scarcery.make advance
                                                              us           and to go            crrclewhose model I have slven you underthe name of the reflex arc' Namely'
  to the other end of the supportlngpornt that lve
                                                    can                    the crrcuttthat ts called.accordingto the case.sttmulus-response.      when you are
 (11) rntroduce anarytrc we r.vil.rpornt
                 the          act               out rhatrn psychoanalytrc   theory,             prudent and    when you rdenti|l to the sensory-excltatlon    couple.whateverlt may
 precrsely. peoplespeakabout rt. we aremoreovernor
 specif, thrs act rn such a rvay that we are able rn
                                                           y-et a posrtron
                                                               rn            ro                 te. and the motor releaservhtch here plays the role of response.Bestdesthe fact
                                                     *,, ,uuuto establishrts                    that rn thrs famous arc lt ls not too surethat the response ar all necessarily
                                                                                                                                                               rs                and
 boundarvwrth rvhat rs calied rn a generarterm.
                                                   nor current.farth. rn thrs                   obligatorilymolor. But that when. for example.if it rs excretory.     mdeedeven
 ps,v"choanalytrctheory.actlon.                                                                                                                                           to
                                                                                                ,".r.tory, th. ,.tpont. rs rhat rt becomeswet, well then the reference thts
                                                                                                model, to srtuareln lt. to rake as a stanln,s polnt ln rt the foundattonof the
   Peoplespeaka lot aboutactronand rt pral'sa
                                                   roreas a refbrence. rarher
                                                                          A                     funcrronwe can call actron.assuredllappears       much more precarlous'Bestdes
  cunousreference    role take the case,rt rs madeuseof rvrth
  grearemphasrs.                                                                                one canremark that the motor Iesponse. we only'ptnpornttt from the link
                   namell'.vlhen rt rs a mafterof accountrng.
  and tbr a rarherIargefierd of theorerrcrans
                                                                 rn,.* theorerrcallv.           definedby the reflex arc. has truiy onlr very linle nght to glve us the model of
                                               r.vho e\pfessthemsehes       ;;;il,;             ',vhar can be calledaction. Because    rrhat ts motor' onceyou lnsertlt tnto rhe explarn  thrnrrn-s.Througha son of neec'ofsecunn,
                                                                         ,;;;;;. ;i;;"          reflex arc, appeers   qulte simplv as a Passlve a pureand srmple
 thrnkng. whrch for reasonsthar r,vi wiil have                        ",
                                                  to dearwrilr- ;;;il';"      nor wanr ro                  to          a
                                                                                                response Sttrnuii. response        whrch lnvolvesnothlngotherthan a passlvlw-
 make rnto an enrlrywhrch appears meraphysrcal.
                                      too                 p.ople try to accountfor              offe,'t
 thrs thrn-l'ngon a foundarronthat on thrs o..u'on
                                                            hope ls more rear. And
thrnkrn-g be explarned us as representlng
                             ro                     somerhrng   thatrs motrvared.    that       The dimensron   whtch ts erpressed a concelvlng response
                                                                                                                                   ln               of            the
ts.Justified lts relatlonto actlon.for example
                                                    rn the tbrm that rt rs a more               as a dischargeof tenston- a terrn whtch ts also current rn ps1'choanalyttc
          actr.n. an rnhibrtedactlon.un ,n.,p,"n, acrlon.a tinle moderof actron.
Indeedthat tn thrnkrngtherers somethns                                                          energetrcs wiil then presentactlon to us here as nothlng other than a
                                             iik. ron of rasteof ,,vhat acilon
                                                                             rhe                .onriqu.n.., rndeeda flight. followrngon a more or lesstntolerable   sensatton,
thar itsupposes. rhir ,r, ,-rnunr"irn"."
                   or                                 u..                                       tet us iay m the broadestsense sttmulustn as much as we bnng tnto tt
                                                                                                   t 5 . 1 16 7                                                                                                           Ii

      elementsother rhan those that psychoanarync
                                                 theory rntroducesunder the name
      of intermrttentstrmulailon.                                                                         the questronof the act of the brrth (l'acte de natssance,btrth certirtcate)of
                                                                                                          psychoanaly*srs,            rn
                                                                                                                            Because the dimensron the act. there rmmediately
                                                                                                                                                         of                         comes
      Here we are thef
       3 *,,         il.lT:            '?":                                                               ro light thrs somerhrng  thar a term like the one thar I have.;usr

             "inilii:1l:,n::il?::lHff TT,.li
      the contrary ask ourservesr,v'hy      ;:j"
                                     the theory stiil has.and ma-nirbsts.such a srong
                                                                                                          rmplies. Namelv.the rnscnptron      somervhere. conelacrve
                                                                                                                                                            the                   whch- rn
                                                                                                          truth. rs never iackrng rn what constlrures act. if I walk up and down here

     penchanttbr mak:ng use of rhem                                                                       while spea.krng you. that doesnot constrtute act. bur if oneday u rs to cross
                                                                                                                           t0                                an
                                        as support and tinding rn rhem rhe ongrnal
     order rn whrch therers supposed                                                                      a cenarnthreshold rvhrchI put myselfoutsrdethe law'.thatdav m\/ moror
                                       to be estabrished. from whrch rherers supposed
     to beqrn'rn whrch there rs iupposed                                                                  actrvrrywill haverhe valueof an act.
                                           to be rnsralled a linrne.rhatof rhrnkmg.
     It rs clearthat I am onr.u.'
                                grv'rngthrs remrnderbeceuse aregolns to                                  I put forward here.rn thrs verv room. thar rt rs srmply to have recourse an   ro
                                                                we               har.eto
     makeuse of it' Nothrngproducedrn                                                                    admrnedorderof obvlousness. properlyspeakrng
                                                                                                                                          of                        language dimensrons   about
                                               the rhese
                                                        of       eraborltrons,  horr.ever
     paradoxtcalths appearslvhen seen                                                                    what rs rnvolved rn an act. Thrs allows there to be gatheredroqether a     rn
                                             from a cenaln polnt, can fail to leave
    nevenheress,   wrth the idea that there lr-ro,n.                                us.
                                                       motlvatlon for sustanrng ttus                     satlslvrn-gfashronall the ambrgurw thar thrs term may present.gorng trom one
    paradox,and that from thrs very                                                                      to the other end of the'seale that I first evoked.rncludingln tt not srmpi-"-'.
                                        motl!.atron, thrs rs the method that
                      never faiis ro use, from rhrs very
                                                         morrvarronlve can drau.cenarn                   beyond what I cailed on thts occasrona notansedact, I mentionedtlus term; the
    ;;1;noanatrsls                                                                                       act of the brrth of psychoanalysrs.V/hy not? Thrs rs how rr emergedar a
                                                                                                        partrcularRrnrns pornt of my discourse. But, rn fbct, if we drvell a little on rt.
      That the rheory                       rupp:rt then from sometlungthat, precrselv,                 we are gomg to seethere berngeasiiy openedup the dimensronof the act wrth
     analytrctheory r".:r:,:::l?_,1:r
                        n a befterposrtronio t ro* to                                                   respectto the very statusofpsychoanaiysrs. Becauseafter all. ifi spokeabour
                                                           be only a short clrcult as
     comparedto what lt must mdeed                                                                      mscnptron,what does that mean? Let us not remaln too closeto thrs metaphor.
                                          estabrishas the stafus of the psychrc
     thar nor onry the texts of Freud but                                           apparatus.
                                            a'psychoanalyrlc thrnkrngcan onry                           Nevertheless, one whose existencers recordedrn an act when he comeslnto
     sustarned  rsoratrng, the rnrerval ben .een
                          rn                                                           be
                                                    the afierent elemeiiof the retrex                   the vlorld rs there before the act. Psychoanaiysls not a nurseling. when one
     and rts efferent element.thrs f'amous                                                   arc        speaksabout the act of the brrth of psy'choanalysrs,
                                              psr-systemof rhe first Freudian                                                                                      whrch rndeedhas a sense,
    But that nevertheless feels the                                                wnnngs.
                            rt         neeito rira,ntarnthe emphasrs these                              slnce,preclsel;-.rt appeared  one day, rr rs the questronthat rs evoked. Did thrs
    elements,                                                                on        nvo
                assuredrvheretestifiesto ,or.ih,ng whrch                                               field that lt orgailses. over whrch lt relgns rn more or less sovernlngthem. did
    (I mean for anaryrc theory), *ttr,                           urg'es  urlo ,n*t rrsplace.
                                         ,.rp..ito  .,,uhatrve cail, ln a more                         thrs field exrst before? It rs a questronthat rt rs r,vell',vorthw'hileevokrngwhen
   comprehensr way the physrologlrng
                  ve                                                                                   such an act ls ar stake. It ls a quesrlonthat rs essentral poseat thrs turnrng
                                                theory of rf,. pry.tri. upf *utur.
   ciear that we seethere berngrun]r.r,                                        it ,,            pornt. of course.
                                                      a cenaln number of mentareditices                                     therers evervchance     rhat thrs t-ieldexrstedbefore. we are
   founded rn pnncrple_on      recourse the expenmenr. These                                           cenanly not golng to contestthat the unconsclous
                                       to                              trv to make                                                                        made rts effectsfelt before
   useof thrs first modersrvenas the                                                                   (15) the act of the brrth of psychoanalvsrs. all rhe sameif we pay very
                                ;;;;.         ;ffi;;;        consrder ar
  the level of the rotaiitvof a mrcro-orgunr;;,                                         rt             careful attentron.we can seethat the questronof rvho knew rt. rs perhapsnot
                                                    the srrmurus-response      process the
  level of the amoeba, example
                         fbr                                                              ar           wrthouttmport here.
                                        *i ro *ut of it rn *.),;l;;otogue.
 specificatlon an system,vhrch
                  for                                                                    the
                                        rs ruppor"a to concentrate. lea$
 certarnporverfully or_sanlslng                                          at       on a
                                   potnt. lts realirv on rh. o.gan,r*"no_afu.                          Ln effect, does thrs questlonhave any ocherrmporr than the epocht!, rdealist
 level of thrs refrex arc once rt                                                   u, tlr"            suspensron. one founded on the rdea.taken as radical, ofrepresentauon
                                   has beendifferentraredrnlhe nervous                                                                                                        as
                                                                                s.v-srem.              foundingall h:owledge and whrch then demandswhere reariry outsldeof rhrs
 Here ts what we
              have                                                                                     representatlon.
 speakrng, reast
         the   appropnate have                                                                        It rs absolurely'certarn the questron
                                                                                                                                         that                          that I am rarsrng the form of. rvho
                        to               recourseto lt, glven uhat rt rmpries
 termsof a complerelv                                                         rn                      knervthrs field of psychoanalysrs. rbsolurely.
                        differentdimensron.,n,.ff..i.'rial.iir'rpprr.d                                                                                         has                      nothrngro do wtth the
 (14) reference iu.hrch.esults                                           ro rhrs                      fallacrous    antlnomyon whrch rdealismrs founded. It rs clearthattherers no
                              from an obvrousrvlameconceptron
 rnvolvedrn rhe acr' nor sarlsfactor!'rn                           of whar rs                         questron conrestrng realiw is pnor to knowledge. Realiry,
                                        an r"i.i"1 rashron.                                                       of                     that                                                                       yesl But
 effecrto what r,r'e                                         compretely opposed   rn
          to thrs posltlon of the                                                 knorvledse.'Krowledge (le savorl rs not knourng(la connatssance).                                                     And to
evokedat first ln lts pureh                           functronorthe act thatI
                             ob.,rous*'*a    rr.hrch, rs                         touchthe mrndsthat are leastpreparec suspecr                    to                thrs dilferencei haveonly ro
one that rnrerests tn ptj'.ho*uiyrril                     rt                  the
                   ut                                                                                                                                                rav
                                                                                                      m a k e a n a l l u s t o n t o s c n ' o t r - r , N / . a . os t o o t r - f a t r ea r t o f l i r r n g , k n o w - h o w J .
rvherher rs that of the anarysand  -or ilp.r.. earlierabourcommrrmenr.
         rt                                                                                           There.lhe quesrton what rs therebelbre takeson all rts sense.Savou'-vryre
                                                                                                                                    of                                                                                               or
                                      of the anarrsr. But, afterat, why nor
                                                                            Dose                      savor-farre can emergear a glven mcment, And then.provrdedthe accent                                                        that I
t5.11.67                                                                        IO           15.1t.67                                                                     I7

    have aiwaysput on languagehas endedup bv takrng on rts rmport for a certarn                  disttnctron           set
                                                                                                             berw*een and class,the functron the oblect rnsofar the o takes
                                                                                                                                                  of                  as
    numberof you. tt ts clear thatherethe questrontakeson ail rts werght. That                   on rts whole valueof subjectrve
                                                                               of                                                  opposrrron. Thrs rs what rvervillhave to do at
    klorvrngprecrsehwhat rvasrnvolvedrn somethrng    that \.ve call the
                                                              can                                the rrght ilme. I am only markrngrt hereas a boundarystonewhoserndicatron
    mantpulatton the lener.accordinsto a formalisatron
                 of                                     described logrcal.for
                                                                    as                           and at the sametlme lvhoseessence r,villrediscover
                                                                                                                                       you                  when we shallhave to
    exampie.beforelr was rackled, The field of algebrabeforethe rnvenlron                        start from rt agarn. For todal'. havrngmarked then what ts at srake.I rvaritto
    algebrats a questlonthat takeson all rts lmpon,                                              stan agarnfrom the ph.vsrologrsrng   ref'erence order t0 show rhrssomedrng
                                                                                                 whrch. perhaps golng to iliumrnatern the most efficacrous
                                                                                                                  rs                                            rvaypossible. whar
     Betbrepeopleknew ho'"v manrpulate
                               to             somethrnsrhat must be calledb1.rts                 ( l7) I mean bv the term of psychoanallrrc  act. .\nd srncerve haveso easily
    name.figures (chffies). and not srmpiy numbers.I am savlngfigures - wrrhout                 cntrcrzedthe asstmilatton the term actlonto motor actrvrf.v. wiJl perhaps
                                                                                                                             of                                  rt              be
    berngablero go lnto rt here.I appealto the fer,vthar I suppose  .x,r, *one yo,.,..          easler.  more comtbrtable us, to graspwhat rs rnvolvedrn thrs fallacrous
    rvho havesufficrently   readsomewhere aJournalor rn lk
                                            ln                                                  model. For to supportlt wlth somethrng     whrch comesfrom everydav
    Cantor proceeded order to demonstrate you rhat the transijnrtedimensron
                        tn                     to                                               expenence. examplethe tnggenneof a tendonret-lex. believethathom
                                                                                                              fbr                                            i
    rn numbers absolutely reducibleto that of the rnfinrt,v the senesof
                 rs           not                                of                             now on. rt will perhapsbe easrerfor you to seethat rt constltutesa functrorung
    whoie numbers,namelv,that one can always fabncate a new number wluch
                                                                                    had         whrch, I do not seewhy; is calledautomatlc,    slnceautomatron weli and truly
    not beenrncluded pnncrplern thrs senesof whole numbers.
                        rn                                          horvever                                               to
                                                                                                ln lts essence reference chance.      while what rs rmplied rn the dimensron  of
   astonrshngthrs may appearto you. and thrs, r,vrthnothng more than a certaln
                                                                                                the reflex, rs precrselythe contrary. But let us leave that.
   way of operatlngon the senesof figures rn accordance     with the method that rs
   calJeddiagonal. In short, the openrngto this undoubtedlytestable    order rvhch              Is rt not obvrousthat we camot concelvern a railonal fashronof what rs
   has a nght, qurtesrmplyJustas much as any other tenn to the quarificauon
                                                                                  of            mvolved m the ref'lexarc. exceptas somerhng m whrch the motor elementrs
   truthful. was tfus order.there,awaltlng Mr cantor s operatrondom all eternlry?               nothng other than what rs srruated the little tnstnment. the hammerwrth
  Here rs a questlonthat has rts varueand whrch has nothrngto do wrth                           whrch one tnggers lt. And that what rs prcked up rs nothrng other than a slgn. a
                                                                            thar of the
  (16) pnorrty of reality wrth respectto lts representatlon. questron
                                                             A           wilch has              srgn m tfus caseof what we can call the mtegnry of a cenarn level of the
  all rts welghr. It rs a combrnarorraland the d.imenslon truih that rs deployed
                                                          of                                    meduilar system. And rn thrs sensea srgn of whrch it must ndeed be sardthat
  ln lt ls whar a]lows there to emergern the most authentrcway what
                                                                        is m'orved              what rs most rndicahveabout lt ls preclselywhen rt rs absent,namely.when rt
  rn the truth that rt determnes before klowledge (savor) rs btrn from
                                                                           rt.                  condemnsthe non-tntesnr,v.--tlus system. For on the sublect of what rs
                                                                                                rnvolved rn thls lntegnry. rt doesnot glve us very much. On the conuan'. rts
   Thrs rndeedrs why an elementof thrs combrnato'a.l can come to play
                                                                               the role of      valueas a srgnof lack. of lesron, whrchhasa posltlvevalue.ves,therers takes
   representatrve  ofrepresentatron    andjustifiesthe rnslstence i iut on the fact
                                                                  that                          on rts whole vaiue.
  that thrsrs how thereoughtto be translated Germanterm ln Freud
                                                   the                         of
   L'orstellungreprcisentani.   That rr rs not becauseof a srmplepersonalsensltrvltv           To make of thrs somethrng      whrch hasonly the entrryand the meanrn_s berngoi
  thar everv trme that I seeemergrngrn one or other margrnarnote
                                                                        the ,,*;;rr;;          somethrng            rn
                                                                                                           rsolated the functronrng the organlsm.rsolared functron a
                                                                                                                                        of                         rn           of
  rdeatronal-representatrve,   I only'denounce rt. I only Jesrgnate lr. ln a qulte
                                                 rn                    ln                      cenaln questlonlng   that we can call clinrcalquestronlns.        knows.'"!'e
                                                                                                                                                             r.vho             ca{l
  vdid way,an lrtenuon.precrsely         thrsconfusrngrntentron.And rt rs a marterof                                                                                      ',vhrch
                                                                                               push rt further.rndeed.   eventhe desrre the clinrctan. somethmg
                                                                                                                                          of               rs                    does
  knorvmgw'hysuchand suchbecomethe holdersof it rn a cerraln            piacern the            not glve to thrs totality that we call the reflex arc. any specrairrtie to sene as a
 anah'trcfield. In thrs order. formal quanels are not varn because
                                                                        iheu bnng              conceptualmodel for anlthrng rvhatsoever       that can be consideredas
 alons rvrrhthem a whole subjectrl'e       presumptron  rvhrchrs properlyspealirng    rn       fundarnental. eiementarv,an ongrnal reductronof a responseof the livrns
 questton.We will subsequently        havero bnne rn one or oth., p,npo,nrrng     whrch        organlsm.
 ivill allow us to orrentate ourselves thrspornt. It rs nor mv eb;Lcttodau
 when. as I told you, rt rs a rnafteronl1. introducrngthe funitron
                                             of                         that I have to         But let us go further.let us go to somerhrng
                                                                                                                                          whrch rs rnfinrtelymore subdethan
 de_velop  beforevou. But already. rndicate
                                       I         that rn simpll.markrng  r.uthrhree.           thrs elementary model. namel-v-. conceptronof reflex at the levelof what
                                                                                                                                the           the
reference   polntssomethrng     that hasthe functronof a rerm like thai of ser.rn              you will rndeed  allorvme to call. because rs rvhatI am gorngto nterest
marhemattcal    theory,to show rn rt the distance. distrnctron
                                                     the            fiom tharof class          myself in: Pavlovran  rdeology
rn use for a much longerrrme.and to hook onto lr rn a relatron
                                                                    of artrculatron
rvhch showsthatwhat I am gorngro say ls rnserted          thereby a certarn anrculated         Ths rs to say that I rntendhereto quesrton. at all cenarnlyfrom rhepornr of
difference.  and rvhch rmplicates rn rhe sarneorder.thrsoider of the
                                      rr                                    sublectrve         vrervof any'absolute  cnlloue. bur for rv'hat. you are _golng see,it bnn_ss
                                                                                                                                           as               to             us
posrtrons berngwhrchr'as the true sublect.the
           of                                          secrettrrleof the second   year         as a susgestlon aboutrvhatrs rnvolvedrn the analytrc  posltlon. I not
of teachrns  that I gavehereunderthe nameof Crtrcnl problems,to
                                                                          refe; to the         (18) dreamof deprecraung totalitl of rhe works rhat havebeenrnscrjbed
                                                                                                                          the                                              rn
t5.11 7
                                                                                  I8          l 5 . l1 . 6 7                                                               I9

      thrs rdeology I am not saylnganythrng  ertherwhrch goestoo far. rn sayng thar                  srgnifier,nameh'. that the stgnifier rs what represents sub.;ect another
                                                                                                                                                           a        for
     rt proceeds  from a proJect materrarist
                                of           deveropment*- rt avowsrt - hom
                                                              and                                    srgnifier.
     somethrng   rvhrchrs a functronrn rvhrchlt rs a maner precrseh
                                                                     of reducrng the
     referencervhrch mrght be made - as if rvhat was
                                                      rr staie here agarnls a rerrarn               Here rn effect rs how to illustrater,vhat havejust put forlvard. The soundof the
     rvhere woujd be necessary fight _
             rt                    to      ro some enrrrvof ,t. orJ., of rhesprnt.                  trumpetrepresents    nothrngother herethan the sub;ectof scrence.   namely'.
                                                                                                    Pavlov hrmselt. it represents for whom? For rvhat? Obvrouslvfor norhrng
      The perspecrrve pavlovranrdeoiog)'. thls
                        of                       ln      sense. much befter
                                                                 rs                                 otherthan fbr somethrng    whrch rs not a srgn.but a srgnifier.namely.thrssrgn of
      accommodated' lts part. than thrs tirst
                        for               ret-erence I rndicared
                                                          of             thac          wrth         gastncsecretlon.   lvhrch only takeson rts value.very precrsely. from the fact that
     the reflex arc and rhat we could ca,llthe or_eano_dvnamlc
                                                                     reference.Thrs                 It ts not producedby the oblect that one would expectto producett. thal tt ls an
     perspectrve much befteraccommodated
                  rs                                rn effecrbecause ls organlsed
                                                                        rt           hom            effectofdeceptron.that the needrn questlon adulterated that the
                                                                                                                                                  rs             and
     the grrp of a srgn on a functron that. for lts part.
                                                          rs alwavs organrsed  arounda              dimensron rvhrchthere rs rnstalled
                                                                                                                 rn                       rvhatrs produced the level of the
     need' I have no need.I thrnk, you ha"'eal.ldone
                                                          enough ,..Jndury studiesto       what rs rnvolved.namely,the organtsmtn thts casets
     knor'vthat the usuarmoder bv whrch rt rs rntroduced
                                                               rnto the manuars. and whrch           Aono,,,aA
    \ve can also malie use of now to support
                                                 what we are golng to say. of the
    assoclatlonof the fact of the sound of a rrumpet.
                                                          tbr eiamlte. ro the presentarlon          There rs rndeedan effect then, a demonstratron somethrngrvhrch,if you look
    of a preceof meat beforean anrmal.a camrvorous
                                                            one of course. supposed.
                                                                            rs         to           more closelyat lt. ls not of coursethat you are gorngto make a completely
    obtan after a cenarnnumberof repehrrons
                                                    the tnegerrngof a gastrlcsecretron.             different fype of anrrnalfrom a dog. Ail Pavlovranexperlmentatron       would
    provrded that the arumal tn qu.rtron
                                          has rn effecr u-rto,ni.rr, uid ,hrr, even,after                                                                            the
                                                                                                    really be of no rnterestif it were not a matter of constructrng essenilal
   the unqvrng. freerngof the assocratron.
                 the                              whch rs of coursecamed our rn the                 possibiiity of the grasp of somethrngrvhrchrs weli and truly. and not to be
   senseof marntarnrngonry the sound of the
                                                   trumpet. The effect berng easiiy                 detined otherwrse,than as the effect of the srgnifier on a field whrch rs the livrng
   demonstrated the finrng of a stomach
                   b,"-                         irstula. I mean that one colrectsrn rt              field. Thrs has no other repercusslon. mean theorehcalrepercussron.
                                                                                                                                             I                                than to
   thelurce emrfted-after a certarnnumber
                                               of repetrtrons,  from ttr. srmpte                    allo"v tt to be concetvedhow. where there rs language,    there rs no need to search
   productronof the sound of the trumpet.
                                                                                                    for a referencern a sprntual entrqv. But who dreamsof it nowr And who could
                                                                                                    be rnterested lt? It must ail the samebe hrghlightedthat what rs demonstrated
   I would dare to qualify thrs pavlovran ente{p'se
                                                         as extraordinarirycorrectas                by the Pavlovranexperlment, namely. that there ls no operatlontnvolvrng
   regardsrts perspectrve.For rn effect ,vhat
                                                ri ,r u *un., oi-'*"*i;rr,      whenrt rs           srgnifiersas such whch does not rmply the presence the subject,ls not
   a marterof accountrngfor rhe possibiliry
                                              of hrgher forms of such and sucha                     enfrely the first thrng that tbolish peoplemay thrnk about.
  functtorungof rhe mrnd. tt,, obu,ourlv
                                            from ths grasp on the livrng orgarusm
  somethrng,whrch here. onry rakeson its                                                 of
                                             ilrustrarr'e valrre,from the facr of not               (20) lt rs ln no rvav the dog who grvesthrs proof and not even for lv[r Pavlov
  berngan adequate    strmulus for the needthat rs m'olved rn the
                                                                       affarr; and el.en            because Pal'iov constrlrctsthrs expenmentprectselyto show that one can do
  properly speakrngto be only connoted
                                           rn rhe field of,on ui ue,ng                      ven well wrthout a hvpothesrsabout rvhatthe dog thrnks. The subjectw'hose
  detached  from any ob;ectof eventualirurtron.frurtron,.*,ng-*Jorr.n, r.attu
                                                                                                    exrstence demonstrated. ratherthe demonstratron hrs exrstence. rs not
                                                                                                                rs                 or                           of              rt
  Uotttssance). did not meanto sa)-enjo,vment. srnce  fbr       I uii.iay pu, a cenaln              at ail the dog w'ho glves lt. but. as evervoneknorvs.lvlr Pavlov hrmself. because
 stress  on_the v'ord enJoyment. do nor want to
                                   I                 rnrroduce herer.vrth rvhole
                                                                rr           rts                    he rs the one uho bio'"vs   rnto the rrumpet. or one of hrs helpers. doesnot
                                                                                                                                                  he                        rt
 conre'\t:fru:t rs rhe conrrarvof useful. Ir
                                             rs not a useable   obiectthat rs ar stake.             maner. I made a remark rncrdentally.     sa)-tng that. of course. what rs rmpliedrn
 It rs the ob3ect the appetrre
                  crf             fbundedon the eiemen,ory      n..d, oitt. ti'ng                   thrsexpenment.what rs rmplied rs the possibili4'of somethrng        rvhrch
( l9) berng. It rs rn so far as the sound
                                         of rhe trumperhas norhrng do u.rth
                                                                         to                                           the
                                                                                                   demonstrates functronof the srsnrrjer         and rts relatronto the subJect. And I
anFhrng that mrght rnteresr dog. for exampre.
                               a                      ui -y ,ur, ," irJ rn whrch              addedthat. of one had rhe lntentron obtarnrng thrs way anytiung
                                                                                                                                                       of           rn
hrs appetrte arvakened
              rs            b1'thesight of a prere of meat.rhatpavlov
                                                                            legrrrmarell.          rvhatsoever the order ol a change rn the natureof the anrmal. Whar i mean b1'
rntroduces rnrolhe field of the ..rp.r,rn.nt.
                                                                                                   that rs somethrng      whrch has rndeedlts lnterest.Ir rs that one doesnot even
                                                                                                   obtarna modii'icatron the order of rhosethat rr,emust rndeed
                                                                                                                             of                                                 to
                                                                                                                                                                        suppose have
 Onll if I sav that thrs war,.ofoperatrng
                                           rs exfaordinaril.v-
                                                             correct. ls very
                                                                     lt                   the time when thrs ammaiwho rs caileda dog was madepass
 precrsely rhe measure
           rn               rhatpavrov reuears t mrghi ,ri. ," u. .               over !o the domestrc     state.
structuralistat rhe start. Ar the start
                                        of hrs expermenr. he rs a structuralist
of ume, a structuralist rhe strrctest
                         of              observance. namelr.. the Lacanran
                                                              of                                  It must be admrrted that the dog has not beendomestrcatedsrncethe ttme of rhe
obse rvance.rn so far as precrsery  rvharhe demonstrates
rva' to be rmplicatedthere. !'ery
                                                           there.what he hordsrn a                eanhlvparadise.So then.therewas a moment,'rhenpeoplewere ableto make
                              ls     precrsery  somethrng rhatmeansthat rhe                                                                           wtth language an
                                                                                                  of thrs anrmalnot at all. certarnll an anrmalendorved             but
1 5t I . 6 7
  .                                                                            I I0          |5.1l.67

      arumal as regardsr.vhrch.perhaps,rt seemsto me that lt would be rnteresrrngto                                     one mrghtsay.of the
                                                                                                 beenleft out of the demonstratlve                            "vhole
      examrnewhether ths questron.the one whrch rs fbrmulated as follows. nameiy,                operatron.
      whether the dog. perhaps,can be sard rn a r,vayto knorv (savor that we are
                                                                   I rs apparentlythe case. what sensers to be grven here to the word               in connectron                                    described screntificat a
                                                                                                                rvith the rvholefield of actrvtttes        as
      savovn Thrs appears be.,1ust lnterestlng questtonat leastas the onerarsed
                           to        as            a                                             ceftarnhstoncal penod. thts atm of a reductton    described "matenalist"
      by the montage of the conditronedor conditronal ret'lex.                                   deserves be takenas suchfor what tt ts. namely.svmPtomattc,
                                                                                                          tO                                                     Shouldthey
                                                                                                 havebelievedrn God. someone gotngto shoutat me. But tn truth. lt ls so tme
     What strikesme. rather,rs rhew'ayrn rvhrchrn the courseof theseexpenmenB                    (12) thatthrs r,vhole constmctlondescribed matertalist organlclst. we
                                                                                                                                              as          or           as
     lve neverrecel!'efrom the experlmenrers leasttestlmonyof what rs rnvolved
                                                the                                              mrght sayagatn.ln verv rvell accepted sprrrtual
                                                                                                                                                     by        authortttes.
     and whrch. nevertheless,   must exrst,rn rhe personalrelatrons. I mrghrsay.
     betrveenthe anrmal and the expenmenrer. I do nor want to play the tune of the              In the tlnal count. all of ths leadsus to ecumenlsm. There ts a certaln rvay of
     Socrelyfor the Protectron Anrmals.but you musr admrt thar rt would all the
                                 of                                                             carrying out the reducttonof the field of the divrne whrch. tn tts t-tnaltenn. ln tts
    same be very rnterestrng,   and that perhapsthere, one would learn a linie more             finai source,ls qutte favourable rn ensunngthat all the liAle fish are finally
    about what can be called newosts at the level of anrmais,than what rs resrstered            gatheredinto the samebrg net. Thts, whrch rs even manifestlymore tangible. rs
    ln practlce. For one arms,ln the practrce theseexpenmental
                                               of                     strmularrins,             spreadout - as I mrght say - before us. tlus tangiblefact whrch rs manifestly
    when they arepushed to the pomt of producrngthesesorts of diversedisorders                  spreadout beforeyour eyes.ought all the samemsplre ln uSa certaln wtrhdrawal
    wtuch go from rnhibrtron to disorgarused   barkrng. and that are quaiified as               as regardswhat ts tnvolved - as I mrght say - m the relattonsto tmth ln a certaln
    (2 I ) neurosrson the sole pretext of somethrng,whrch firstly rs provoked.                  context.
    secondly.   hasbecomecomplete,ly    rnadequate wrth respect extemalcondiuons
    as if tbr a long ttme the anrmalhasnot beenoutsrde of thesecondirrons,
                                                          all                                                                                                     as
                                                                                                if the iucubratrons logctans at a ttme now ended,constdered relegatedtn
    whrch rn no case.of course.has the nght under any heading to be assrmilated                 the order of the valuesof thtnkrng, whch ts called the Middle Ages, if the
    what precrselvanalysrsallows or to qiutity as constrtutlngneurosrs                          srmple lucubratrons logtctanswere able to draw down malor condemnattons,
                                                                          rn a berng
    who speaks.                                                                                 and if on one or other pomt of doctnne rn the field on whtch we operate-  and
                                                                                                whrch were called heresres.  people vew qurckly cameto the potnt of strangling
    In short, we seert not alone here,lvlr pavlov shorvshrmself in the fundamental              one another.of massacnngone another.why tlunk that theseare the effects,as
    rnstauratron hrs I sard,to be a structuralistand one of rhe
                   of                                                                           they say.the effects of t-anattctsm?W}y the tnvocattonof such a regtster.when
    stnctest observance.But one could savthat. even what he recerves response,
                                                                            as                  perhapsrt would be enoughto concludefrom rt that one or other statementabout
    has really all the charactenstlcs what we have defined as fi.rndamental the
                                       of                                         rn            the relationsof knowledgecould communlcate,      q'ere tnfinttely more Sensltlveat
    relatron of the speakrngberngto language,     namel-"-,. he recerves own
                                                           that            hrs                  that nme rn the the effectsof truth.
    messageln an rnverted form. My tbrmula produced a long trme ago applies
    qulte appropnately.for what happens? lvhat he hooked onto. put rn second                    We no longer retaln anythlng from all thesedebates  that are nghtly or wron-ely
    place: the soundof the trumpet as one mrght say. first. to illustiate wrth                  called theologrcal- we will have to come back to thrs. to what ts mvolved m
   to the physrologrcal   sequence up b'hrm at the level of the organ,a sromach
                                     set                                                        theology- excepttexts that lve knorv how to read more or lesswell. and whrch.
   fisrula, r.vhat does he get nor.vt what he gets rs an lnverse sequence rr,fu6h
                                                                           rn                   rn many casesln no way deserv'e rttle of dust-covered.\!'hat we. perhaps,do
   anrmal's reactronpresentsrtselfas attached thrs sound of rhe rrumpet.
                                                   to                                           noi suspect. that thrshad,perhaps.
                                                                                                            for                                    rmmediate' direct
                                                                                  For us
   rn all of thrs therers very lirtle m)'sren.whrch moreovertakesnothrng                        consequences the the schooldoor.and if necessary
                                                                                                              rn                                                       tn
                                                                              tiom the
   lmport of the benefitswhrch w'ereableto be producedrn thrssort of                            householdiife. rn sexual relatrons. \llrv should sucha thrng not be
  experlmentatton. the lerel of one Orotherpoint of cerebralfunctronrng.
                       at                                                                       concervable'? wouid be enoughto tntroduce differentdimensron thatof
                                                                                                              It                               a                     to
  rvhatrnterest are rts arms. That rts f,rmsare oniy obtarned
                   us                                              at the cosrof a              fanatrcrsm. of senousness. example.
                                                                                                           that                for
  cenaln mlscognrtlon w-hat
                          of       constrtures structure the experrment the
                                               the          of                 at desrgned alert us to rvhatthrsexpe.ment srgnifies
                      to                                           qua act,fortfus                                                            rvhatts statedtn the framervorkof
                                                                                                Hori doesrt come about that.that as resards
  sublect- Pavlor here - who rn thrs casedoesnothrngmor" thun verv
                                                                           exactly.             our teachlng  functtonS and of rvhatrs calledthe untverstf,u", doeslt happen
  and rvrthour  berngawareof it. prck up rn the most conect form the benefits
                                                                                   of a         rhat.on the whole.thtngsare rn sucha statethat tt ls not absoiutely  scandalous
  consructlonwhrch can be ve.v-       exacti\ assrmilated the one rmposed us.
                                                         to                  on                 ro formulate that everyrhingthat ts sen'edup to us bv the Uruversttas
  oncelr 1sa manerof the relatronof the speal]ng berngto languale.
                                                                           Thrs rs              Lfireranm, the .Ms Faculiry. rvhrch siill has the upperhand on w'hatare nobiy
  somethrng. any case.rhardeserves:o hrghiighteJ,if onl! be"cause
               rn                             be                                                                                                  (savor,ltltrated sucha way
                                                                              rr has            (23) cal.led Human Scrences. a knowledge
                                                                                                            the                   rs
                                                                                                rhat rn no casedoes tt have tn t'actanl ktnd of consequence. ts true that there
15.1.67                                                                     I12          t5fi67                                                                    I 13

    rs the othersrde.the unwersrtasno longerholds rtsplaceverv weil because                  I highlighted earlier,namelv. whether the things that one revealsare already
    there rs somethrngelse whrch rs rntroduied rnto rt and whch rs called the                there beforehand
    Scrence  Faculry.
                                                                                            What is at staker.vhen  what we are dealing with is the divine dimensionand
   I would polnr our to you that rn the screnceFaculn'.because rhe mode of
                                                              of                            generallythat of the spirit. nrms entirely aroundthe following: rvhatdo
   lnscnptlonof the development scrence such.rhrnqs
                                   0f        as            cannotbe so distant,             supposeto be alreadythere before we discover it If in a whole freld it proves
   Beccuse herett hasproved that the conditronof the progress scrence. that
                                                              of         rs                 that it would not be futile. but frivolous. to think that this knorvledge(savoir) is
   peoplewant to know nothrngabout the consequences lvharrhrsknorvledgeof
                                                        of                                  alreadythere.rvaiting fbr us before we make it emer-ee, could be of a nature
   screncernvolvesat the level of truth. Theseconsequences allorvedto
                                                            are                             to make us carT' out a so much more profound questioning
   developall by themselves.
                                                                                                                                                  with rhepsychoanalytic
                                                                                            This indeedis going to be rvhatis at stakein connection
    For a constderable  ttme rn the htsiorrcalfield, people who alreadyweli and truly       act
    deserved trtie of savant looked rwlce before they put rnto crrculatroncertarn
    sysrems.certaln srvlesof knowledge that they had perfectlywell glimpsed.                The time forces me to stciphere the remarksthat I am makin-ebeforeyou today
   There was a certalnMr Gauss,for example,who rs rather well knov'n. u.ho had              You lvill seethe next time in geaing closer to what is involved in the
   rather advancedrdeason thrs. He allorvedother mathematlclans put them rn
                                                                      to                    psychoanalytic    act, in this ideological model, whoseparadoxicalconstirutionas
   crrculatuon thrrry years later while rt rvasalreadyrn h:s own papers. It appeared        I told you consistsin the fact that someonecan ground an experience,       can
   to hrm that, perhaps.the consequences the level oftruth deserved be taken
                                             at                          to                 ground an experienceon presuppositions that are profoundly unknown to
   rnto conslderatron.                                                                      himself And what does it mean that they are unknown to him? This is not the
                                                                                            only dimensionto bring into play, that of ignorance,I mean,concemingthe
    Ajl of thrs to tell you that the complarsance,mdeed,the consrderafionthe                properiy structuralpresuppositions the instaurationof the experience There
   Paviovrantheory enjoys rn the screnceFaculty. where rt has the greatest                  is anothermuch more originai dimension, to which I have been alluding for a
   prestrge,  dependsperhapson the fact rvhrchI emphasrse. which rs properly
                                                             and                            long time, it is the one that next time I will venhue to introduce in its tum
   speakingrts futile dimensron. Futile. 1-ou not know perhapsrvhat that me€uls.
   rn fact. Nerther do I, I did not know up to a certarnmoment,up to the moment
   when I found mvselt, found mvself stumbling by chanceon the use of the
  fittilis ln a corner of ovrd. where that meansproperly speakmg, vase that leaks
  11uu) .
  Leakage   (lafure),1 hope I ha'e sufficrenrry    cucumscribed finds rtselfat the
  baseof the Pa'lovran edifice. Nameh'. that tvhat lt ls a maner of demonstratrng
  has not been demonstrated.   srncert rs alreadysad at the begrnnmg. That srmplv
  N{r Paviov demonstrates    here that he rs a strucfuralist,.x.ept that he does not
  knorv rt hrmselt'. But this obvrously takesar.vay   any rmpofi from whar may
  clalm to be hereanv proof r.vhatsoever. that moreoverall that rs to be
 demonstrated really onll'a very reducedlnterest,grven that the questron
                 has                                                               of
 vvhatGod rs hrdden somervhere        qurre different. And. rn a word.
 eventhrngthat rs concealed termsof foundatrons belief.of hope for
                                rn                         for
 (34) knowledge. an rdeology' progress fhe pavlovran
                   of               of           rn                functronrng. .,..ou
 iook closell at tt. restdesonlv rn the t'acr that the possibiiitres the pavlovran
 expenmentatron    demonstrates. supposed be already
                                   are            to            therern the brarn.

 Thar oneshouldobrarnfrom the manrpulatron rhedog rn the conrext
                                             of                       of
                                      whrch suggests possibiliryof a h:gher
 degree complicauonof rhesereactlons nothrngasronrshrng
        of                              has                     ubou, ,t
 because rntroduce    thrs complicarron.But what ls rmpliedrs entrrelyrn what
22.t1.67                                                                   III

    S e m r n a r2 : W e d n e s d a v 2 N o v e m b e r 1 9 6 7 .

    I cannotsa).. that the crowd of you,,vho are here thrs year does not pose me a
    problem. !trhat does lhat mean tbr a discoursewhrch. if there ',vere  any doubt
   aboutrt. I repeated often enoughfor rt to be klorvn. whrch.essenhall,"-
                         rt                                                    rs
   addressed ps;"choeqalysts. rs true that my place here. the one from irhrch I
               to                   It
   am speakrngto you. alreadl' bearssutficrent wltnessto somethrngthat happened
   rvhrchputs me ln an eccentnc posltron wrth respectto them. The very place that
   tbr years,rn short.I have done nothrns but questron.what I took thrs year as
   sublect:the ps-vchoanalytrc It rs clear that what I sard the last trme, could
   not but encounterthrs murmur of satrst-actron   whrch came to me about the
   generalopmlon of the audience,if I can expressmyself in thrs way. whrch rn
   truth. f,ora part (ftose necessarilywho are there,grven ths number. who are
   comrnghere for the first trme) for a part then, who came to see because   they had
   beentold that they rvouid comprehendnothrng. And rn fact they had a pleasant

   In truth as I porntedout rn passrng,to speakabout Pavlov rn thts caseas I did.
   rvasrndeedro lend a helprnghand to the feeling of comprehenston I
   sard.nothng ls more respected      than the Pavlovranenterpnse.espectallyrn the
    {rts Facult_r But rt rs all the same frorn that quarterthat on the rvhole you come
   to rne. Does that mean that thrs sort of approvalpleasesme tn any waye You
   haveno doubt; cenarni.v" slnceafter ail. moreover,
                              not.                           thrs ts not what you come
   lookrngfor erther.

  To get to the nub. lt seemsto me that rf somethrn_e decentlyexplan tlus
  (16) crorvd.rt rs somethmgthat rn an)'casewould not dependon thls
  mrsapprehenslon I do not lend m1'self Hence.the rypeof expectatron
                     that                     to.                               to
  u'hrchI all the samesomethrn-q   rvhrchfor rtspart rs not a
  mrsapprehensron. lt encourages to do m,vbestto faceup to what I called
                      and              me
  ths crorvd. The fact ls a greater lesser
                                           or       degree. thosewho come.on
  rhe w'hole. rs because
             rt                                                     rs
                           thev have the feelingthat heresomethrng berngstated
  u'hrchmrght rndeed.   who hrorvs. be of importance.

  ir rs obvroustharif thrs hori thrngsare.thrsq19wdlsJustifledstncethe pnncrple
  of the teachrngthat rve rrill describe. a lvav of crudely'sltuatrng
                                         as                          thtngs.
  unlverslt]'teachrng. precrsely
                       rs                                   tn
                                   that anlrhrngwhatsoever everythtne    that
  touches the most burnrnqsub.,;ects.
           on                             rndeed                             all
                                                curent politrcs.for example. of
  thrs shouldbe presented. rnto crrculation.
                            put                 precrsely sucha way that lt ls of
L Z . L L . O/
                                                                                  lI 2         1)   tt   41                                                                      II 3

        no tmportance.Thrs ts at the verv leastthe functronthat unlversltyteachrng
                                                                                   has                 communrty what rs desrredas regardsthe statusthat thosewho make an actlve
        satrsi'ied a long trme rn developed
                  for                        countnes. Thrs rndeed the reason
                                                                     rs                               prot'essron thrsact can grve themselves.
                                                                                                                   of                                  And thrs rs how the approach    that we
        moreoverwhy.the unlverslrvrs at home rn them,because    rvhere doesnot
        satrs! rt. n underdeveloped                                                                    flnd ourselvestakrngthrs 1'earrn tackling rt. as lve rvereable the last tlme to put
                                   countnes.therers a tenslon.So then rr fultlls rts
        frrncttonproperl;- developed                                                                   tbnvardaboutrvhatmust preclsely distrngurshed first. as one can. rn
                                                                                                                                            be                    at
                         ln           countnes. The fact rs that rt rs rolerable that
        whaleverrs prot'essed lt doesnot rnvolveany disorder.                                         tlickrng throughpages    seelt sometlmes    presented. act lrom motor actrvrw.
                                                                                                      .Andanemptrngrmmediatelvto -sothroughsome stages.                whch are rn no way
                                                                                                      presenred an apodictrcapproach.whrch camot. which aboveall doesnot.
       Nacurally. ls not on the planeof disorderthat rvewiil consrder
                   lt                                                   the                           clam to proceed lvay of a sort of introductron
                                                                                                                          by                                  rvhrchrs supposed be on the
       consequences   ofwhat i am sayrnghere.but the pubticsuspecrs at a certarn
                                                                       that                           psychologrcal    scaleof gre3ter lesser
                                                                                                                                       or       depth. It rs.on the contrary. them
       level.whrch rs precrselv that of thosero whom I am addressrng   myself.namely.                 presentatlon accrdents
                                                                                                                     of          regardingwhat ts statedabout ths act. that rve are
       the psychoanalysts. therels a certalntenslon. Thrs.rn what rs aI stake               gorngto seekthe diversell'srtuated    flashes light that ailorvus to grasplvhere
       as regardsthe psvchoanaiytrc  act. Becausetodav',veare solng to advancea tirtle
                                                                                                      the probiemreallyrs. So that rn havng spokenaboutPavlov'. was not lookrng
       brt further. We are golng to see what rs rnvolved. thosewho practrserhrs act.
                                                        tbr                                           for any classrcal  referencetn thts connectton. rather potnttngout what ts tn
       Namely, thrs rs what defines them. those who are capableof such an act. and
                                                                                                      (28) effect rn the corner of not a few memones. Namely. the convergence           noted
       capableln a wa,v- they can sltuate themseivesrn lt, as the.v.' among rhe
                        that                                         say                              rn a ciasstcwork. that of Dalbrez. betrveen     Pavlovranexperlmentatton     and
       other acts,sportrngor techncai, as professronals.
                                                                                                      Freud'smechanrsms. course.
                                                                                                                              Of                                                    grven
                                                                                                                                          thrs still has tts lirtle effect.especrally
                                                                                                     the epoch. You cannot lmagrne,gtven the back,eround the psychoanalytrc
      Assuredly,from ths act. ln so far as one makes a professronof it, there
                                                                                results a   precanous felt, whatloy somepeopleexpenenced the tlme.
                                                                                                                                 rt                                             at
      posltronas regardswhrch lt ls nafural that one feelsassured what
                                                                   rn       one knows,               as they say, namely,tn the years 1928or 30, that psychoanalysls          was spoken
      rn what onepossesses   from one's expenence.Nevertheless. rs one of the
                                                                    thrs                             about rn the Sorbonne. Whatevermay be the rnterestof thrs rvork. camed out, I
      ways. one of the rnterestsof what I am advancrngthrs year.
                                                                   There results from                must say. wrth greatcare, and full of relevantremarks,the sort of comfort that
      the proper natureof ths act a field whrch. lt ls nor urumportantto
                                                                         say it. I did               can be drawn from the fact that Mr Dalbrezanrculates, God, relevantlythat
      not even skrm the surfaceof the last trme. on the naturi of ttus
                                                                       act there depend              there rs rn a senseno derogailonbetweenthe psychology,the physrologyof
      mo,resenousconsequences regards'"vhatresultsfrom the posltlon
                                  as                                        that must                Pavlov and the mecharusms the unconscrous. extremelyweak, extrernely
                                                                                                                                    of                     ts
      (27)be held.if one rs skilled rn exerclsrngrt.                                                 rveali.why? For the reasonsthat i noted for you the last ttme. namely.that the
                                                                                                     link h'om srgnifier to srgnitier tn so far as we knorv rt to be sub;ectifyrngrn rts
      It rs here that there can,besruated. cunously, as you are golns
                                                                      to see.the fact                narurels mtroducedby Pavlov rn the very settlngup of the expenment. And,
      that I can allow othersbesrdeanal.u'.sts.
                                              non-analysts, concelveof rvhat lt rs ln
                                                            to                                       theretbre.there rs nothrng astorushngrn the fact that what rs constructed        from rt
      thls act whrch.all the same.concemsthem.
                                                                                                     reJolns analoercal
                                                                                                              the            strucrures that we find rn analy-ttc    expenence as much
                                                                                                     as you have seenthat I was able to formulatethe determlnatlonof the sublecttn
     The psvchoanallrrcact concemsver_v.        directl.v- rn the first place, i would say,
                                                         and                                         rt as tbundedon thrs link of srenifier to stsnifier.
     thosewho do not make a professron it. It wilr
                                               of           be enoughhereto rndicate   that.
     if it rs true as I teachthat *'hat rs at stakehere rs somethrne
                                                                       like a converslonin           ft ner ertheless  remalns,no, .*-..0, fo, ,fr.-iu., that they find themselves  closer
     the posrtron   whrchresultsfbr the sublectas regards     what rs rn'olved m hrs                 to one another    thanettherto the conceptron Piene Janet,
                                                                                                                                                     of                thts tndeedts what
    relatron knorvledge.
                to              ho'"r'can not rmmediatelv
                                         w'e                   admrtthattherecannotbut               Dalbrezemphasrses. will not havegatned
                                                                                                                             we                        verl'much from sucha
    be esrablished really dangerousgap if onry somepeople
                       a                                             rakean adequare  vrew           rapprochementtbundedprecrselyon the faiiure to recognlservhatgroundstt.
    of thrssubversron.     srncethar*us iuh"r I cailedrt. oithi sublect. Is rr
                                                                                 even                                                                                     the
                                                                                                     But l'hat rnteresls still rnorels Pavlov'sfailureto recognlse rmplicatron
    concervable the subl'ersron the sub.1ect.
                    thar                 of              andnot of one or other electrve             that I called, more or lesshumorousl,v.   structuralist,not at all humorousll'rn the
    momentrn a partrcular       life. shouldbe somethrns   that rs er.enlmaglnable as                fact that rt rs structuralist,humorously rn as much as i called htm a Lacantan
    berngproduced        only hereand there.rndeed a partrcurar
                                                     ar              garhenig pornrat               strucruralist. rt happens. Thrs ts rvhereI stopped.suspended
                                                                                                                     as                                                   around the
    r'vhrch of thosewho hare not undergone
             all                                     thrsturnabout.   comfort one another,          questlon:what rs rnvolved rn rvhat one can call here, from aceflaln perspectlie,
                                                                                                    *'hatl A fonn of ignoranceTIs that sufficrent?No. We are not golng,ali the
    The tact thatthe sublectrs onry rearisabie eachone.ofcourse.
                                              rn                   leavesno less                    sarne.  from the t'actthat an ixpenmenterdoesnot questlon         hrmselfaboutthe
    lntactlts stalusas structure
                               precrselr'. put tbn'ard rn the structure.
                                          and                                                       narureof what he ts tntroducrngtnto the fietd of expenmentatton. ts       (it
    Henceforth. alreadyappesrs
                 rt               that to maki understood oursrde, ln a
                                                         nor          but                           legrtrmate hrm to do so. but let hrm go no furthertnto what mrghtbe calied
    certarn relarron the anallrc communrw r,vhat
                    to                            therers rn thrsact whrch                          thrs pnor questron!)we are not. all the same.golng to mtroduce           herethese
    lntersstse!eryone,cannotbut allow rhereto be seenmore clearlywrthrn
                                                                           thrs                     functrons the unconscrous.
)) 1l A1                                                                       II 4         22.11.67                                                                    I]5

                                                                                                                                       able to obtan from a reflex rvhtchwas
                                                                                               glves a glortous account of what he v!'as
     (29) Somethng else rs necessary    rvhrch.rn truth. we are lackrne. Perhaps
                                                                               thrs            also condittoned.  constructed a sub3ect. ttme a humanone. ln sucha way
                                                                                                                              tn          thts
     other thrng will be grven to us rn a wav that ls more manageable see.
                                                                         to                    that the contracuon the pupil was regularly
                                                                                                                    of                        producedby pronouncrng    the
                qurtedifferent. Name[y. ler us go at rt rmmediatelv a crudewav                       ''contract'' The tu'o pagesof irony that i developed.because was
     somethlng                                                         rn                      word
     .4,psychoanalyst  ,,vho.                    -
                            beforean audience rr rs alrvavs               to
                                                               necessar.v takernto             necessary do so at the ttme to be even heard.namely. whether the link
     accountthe earsthat any'formula rvhatsoever addressed - a psychoanalyst
                                                     rs           to                           supposedlydererminedln thls wa)' betrveen sound and what he believesto
     who puts fonvard thrs remark whrch ',vasrecently reportedto me: "l do not                 be language.  appeared hrm to be alsosustalned
                                                                                                                       to                         ifone subsntuted for
     admlt any ps.v-choanalytlc concept thar I have not verified on a rat!"                    ''COn[raCt" "marTlage   Contract"Or"C6ntfact                   Of
                                                                                                                                             brtdge"Or "bfeaCh ContraCt"    Or
                                                                                               even if one concentrated word until lt ts reduced tts first sy"llable.
                                                                                                                          the                        to                rs
    Even to ears that were prepared,and rt was the caseat the trme of thrs statement.          obvrously  the srgnthat therels somethlng  heretn the breachof whrch lt ls not
    they were earsas one mrght sav. and ar the tlme. because    thrs remark rvasmade           valn to malntatn oneself.stnceotherschooseit as a key polnt ln the
                                          tifteen years ago. lt '"vas a commurust
    at an alreadydistant epoch. let us sa-v"                         to                        comprehensron what ts a stake.
    frrend srncert was he who reported rt to me fifteen yearslater.he ',vas one
    addressed the psychoanalystln questlon,even to earswhrch mght have seen
               by                                                                              Perhapsafter all thls personagewiil tell me that I cannot but see here a
    rn tt somethrngor other.iike a remrruscence, remark appeared little crude.
                                                  the                   a                      contributronto fils domlnance that i accordto languagetn analyttcdetermmtsm.
                                                                                               Thrs rndeedsholvstn effect the degreeof confustonthat one can come to from a
    Thrs then w'asreportedto me recently and thr from expressrne doubt. I began
                                                                  a                            certaln perspectlve.
    to dreamout loud. and addressrng  myself to someone  who was on my neht
    dunng thrs meetrng,I sard: So and so lr qulte capableof havrngmade thrs                    The psychoanalyltc    act, you seethen. can conslstm questlonng first of all. and
    remark. I named hrm, I will not name hrm here. he rs the one that rn my Ecrrrs I                                                   -
                                                                                               starttng- of course.thts ts necessary hom what one constdersmust be set
    call the "benet"                                                                           asrde.the act as lt rs effectrvely concetvedof in the psychoanalyttcctrcle wrth
                                                                                               the cntrque of what thrs may rnvoive. But tils may, all the samealso, thrs
    "BenAt" saysthe excellent dictlonary that I often speakto you about,that of                c6n1gnctt6n nvo w6rds, "the psychOanalyttc-act"
                                                                                                            of                                        evOkefor us somethrng
    Bloch et von l'l/arrburg,rs a iate form of benoit, whrch comes from benedictus,                                                          psychoanalyttcaiiy,
                                                                                               qurte different, namely. the act as lI operates                   what the
    and tts modem sensels a subtle illusron. whrch resultsfrom thrs remark lvntten             psychoanalyst   directs ofhrs actton tnto psychoanalytrc operancy. In thts case
    rn chapter5, paragraph3 of Matthew "Blessed (bents)are the poor ln splnt"                  then. of course.w'eare at a completelvdifferently'level.

    in truth, thrs rs rvhat makes me pln the name ben7t on the personm questlon.               Is tt rnterpretatron? Is lt to transferencethat we are thus brou-eht? What rs the
    And. as lt rnterlocutorrmmediately sardro me: "But yes. he was                  essence the act of the ps1'choanalyst operatng? What Is hls part m the
                                                                                                         of                              qua
    the one who sard lt to me" Up to a certaln pornt. he lvas the only one who                 (31) game? Thrs rs somethrngwhrch psychoanalysrs not fail, rn effect. to
    could have sardrt.                                                                         questlonamon-s    themselves. Here ts somethtngabout whtch. thank God. they
                                                                                               put tbrw'ardmore relevantproposinons.even though they are far from berng
     I do not necessarily lack respectfor the personwho could ln a rheoretrcai                 unrvocalor even progresslveas the yearsgo by'.
    statementabout ps.""choanal.v-srs such an astontshrng
                                       make                         remark. I consrderthe
    fact to be rather a fact of structurethat. rn truth. does not properly-speakrne            There rs somethlng     else. Namely.the act.I would lt ls read In
    rnvolvethe qualificatron povery of sprnt. For me lt was rarhera chanrable
                                of                                                             psychoanal,vsrs.  What ls an act for the psychoanall'st?It will be enough.I think.
    gesture lmpute to hrm the happrness
             to                               reseryed the aforesard
                                                         for              poor ln sprnt.       to make myself understood thrs level.tbr me to artculate,for me to recail,
    i am almostcertarnthar to take up sucha poslrtonls not any krnd of chance,                 w'hateachand er erv one of vou knorv. that no one ls lgnorant of in our ttme,
    erthergood or bad that rs mvolved. erthersub.;ectrve ob.;ectrve. that.rn
                                                             or           but                  namely.rvhatts calledthe s\ panrcularlvcharactensed the       b.u-
   truth. he must feel hrmself rather beyondchanceto come ro suchextremes. And                 slip of the tongue.or moreo\er by'thrslevel'"vhrch generalcan be classified
                                                                                                                                                   rn                             as
   (30) also moreoveryou can seethat hrs case,far from berngunrque,          ifyou             belongrngto the one Sa)-s. daily actlon, hencethe arvkwardterm of
   consulta cenatnpageof ml Ecrts. that of the Rome discourse           rvhere grvean
                                                                               I                " Psychopathology   oJ'every'day ", of what properly speakrnghas tts centrern
   accountof what rs put forw'ardby' a cenarn ivlasserman       who rn the Unrted States       the fact that rvhat ts always at stake.and even rvhentt Is a matter Of a slip of the
   has the positlonof what rn \larn ls cailedan ImportanrPerson.Thrs Important        lts aspect act.
   Personrn the samesearch doubt tbr comfort. stves a glonousaccount the
                                 no                                               of
   researches a -\JrHudgrns.on w'hrchI dr.velt rhe rs already long
                oi                                    at                       a               lt rs here rndeedthat we seethe value oi the remtnderthat I gave about the
   tlme ago. rt rs the sametime as the remarksthat I reported 1ou earlier. He
                                                                   to                          ambrgurry- at the conceptualbasrsof psychoanalysts
                                                                                                           left                                       berweenmotor actlvlr.v
22. t 1. 67                                                                     tl o                                                                    rl/

     and act. It ts assuredlyby reasonof theserheoretrcalstarrtng     pornts that Freud             context. called that of the psychoanalysts the romancelanguages,
                                                                                                                                               of                         had to glve
     favoursthrs displacement   preclselyat the moment that.rn a chaprer whrch I
                                                                             to                     a report,an accountof what rs envrsaged    from the pornt of vrew of the
     will perhaps  havetrme to come later.concemrng       rvhatrs rnvolvedrn mlstakes.              authonsed   psychoanalyst    aboutthe passage l'acte. or agalnactrngout. Here
     lt'ergreiJung, rt rs called. he recalls that rt rs qurrenaturalthar one shouid
                   as                                                                               after all. wh;- not. rs a very good exampleto take.rvhrchI did moreover.  slnce lt
    come to thrsafter sevenor erghtchapters the treldof the act. srncelike
                                                 on                                                              to
                                                                                                    rs available us. I openedthe repon by one of themcalledOiivrer Floumo.u-        a
    language. say-s. will be remarnrng
                he      we                     here on rhemotor plane. On the                       celebrated  name.the thtrd generatron greatps.u-chratnsts. tirst berng
                                                                                                                                            of                    the
    contralv,rt rs qutteclear that eleryhrng rn thls chapter    and rn the one lvhrch              Theodore, secondHenn. And you know the celebrated
                                                                                                                the                                               caseby whrch
    follo,.vs. one aboutaccrdental agalnsvmptomatlc
              the                      or                       actlons. therervill never          Theodoreremarnsrmmortai rn the analv-trc      traditron:thrs deludedclarrvol'ant
    !s anrlhrngeiseat stakethan thrsdimensronthatrve haveposrted constltutrve
                                                                           as                      r.vrth marvellousname on whom he produceda whole work, And you will
    of erer,v act. namely.rts srgnilvrngdimensron,Therers nothrngrntroduced          n             greatlvprofit from rt if the work comesrntoyour hands. I believethat tt rs not
    thesechapters    aboutthe acr exceptthe t'actthat lt LS  posrted srgnif,rng.
                                                                    as                             r.vrdely availableat the moment. So then,rn the thrrdgeneratlon.    thts voung man
                                                                                                   (33) purs tbr',vardsomethrn-e us whrch conslstsrn takrng at leasta part of the
     Nevertheless, ls not so stmple. for if it takeson rts value. lts artlculatlon as a
                     lt                                                                            field. the one that the other rapporreur who spokeabout acttng out did not take.
     srgnilvrngact wrth regard,towhat Freud then rntroduces unconsclous, ts
                                                                    as                 rt          He rs gorngto deal wth llagrr [achng],and srnce. doubt,peoplebelievenot
     certalnly not that rt shows rtself off, that rt posrts rrselfas act. It ts qulte the          wrthout foundatronthat there rs an actrngrn what concernstransference, putshe
     contrary It rs more than effacedhere as an actlvlw, as the personrnvolved says.               forward some questronsabout transference      whrch, moreover,have the value of
    an acrlvlty to fill a gap. whrch only occurs if one rs not thrnkrng about rt. rn the           pr0posltrons.
    measurethat one does not concem oneself wrth rt. whrch rs only there where tt ls
    expressed, a whole part ofhrs actrvltles,to occupy handsthat are supposedly
                 for                                                                              I am not of coursegolng to read rt for you, because    there rs nothrng more
    distacted from any mental relatron. or agarn,thrs act rs golng to put lts sense               difficult to put up wrth than reading betbresuch a large audience. Nevertheiess,
    (32) precrselyon what lt rs a mafter of attackrng,of shakmg,lts senseunder the                m order to glve you the tone of it, I will take the hrst paragraphwhrch goes
    protectlonof atvkwardness     and failure. Here then rs what analytrcmterventlon              more or less as follows:
    rs. The act then. a reversaisrmilar to the one that we carned out the last trme
    aboutthat of the very motor aspectof the reflex that Pavlov calls absolute. Thrs              "Frorn thrs revrew of the recentevolutronof ideasfrom whch one always
    motor aspectrs not rn the fact that the leg stretches because
                                                              out          you have tapped        gathersthe rmpressron somethrngobscureand unsatrsfymg.... Why should a
    a tendon. The motor aspecrrs where one holds the hammer to provoke thrs. But                  regressron rmpil'transference,narnely.the absence memory and an actmg rn
   if the act rs rn the reading of the act, does that mean that thrs reading rs srmply            the form of a transformatronof the analyst,by pro.,;ectton rntroJectton.
                                                                                                                                                           and               and
   addedon and that rt rs from the act reducedNachraglich (subsequently)             that rt      why doeslt not slmpiy rmply regressn,e   behavrour?Namely. lts own structure.
   takeson rts value? You kno,,vthe stressthat I have lard for a long trme on thrs                In other words, rvhy does rt evoke transttrence? \Vhy does an rnfantilisrng
   term rvhrchwould not figure rn the Freudianvocabuiary,if I had not extractedlt                 sltuatlon rmply transference. and not an mfantile behavrourbasedon the model
   from Freud's test. I was the frrst and, moreover.rn truth, for a long while the                of child-parentbehavrour,alludin-eto anotherreglsterwhrch puts the accenton
   onl-v"one.                                                                                     developmentand on the antecedenrc development
                                                                                                                                       ol              and no Jongeron the proper
                                                                                                  categoryof regressron  w'hrchalludes to the phaseslocatedm analysts. Indeed.
   Thrs term has rrsvalue. it rs not srmpl' Freudian.Herdegger        useslt. wlth a              he adds.repeaunga conflicrual srtuatron  and even drawrng rts force from lt."
   different perspectlvelt rs true, lvhen rt rs a mafter tbr lrrm of questronrne the
  reiatronshrps  benveen  berngand Rede. The sympromatlc must already
                                                                 act                              Is thrsenough to confer on thls behal'rourthe eprthetof transference?WJratdo I
  contarnrn rtself somethrngrvhrchat leastpreparesrt for thrs *.av rn, for that                   mean.rn alreadl'announcrng yoll the questron
                                                                                                                                 to                  rntroduced thts tone. It rs
  whrchfor us. ln our perspectlve.    w'ill realiserts plenrtude act, but
                                                                 as                               asswedll'.and everythrngthat follolvs nill demonstrate a certaln tone. a
  subsequentlv.I rnsrston rt. and rt rs lmportant from no',von to mark rt. what rs                certatnsryle of interrogatrngtransference.I take thrngsrn a rather
  the ststusof the act? It must be sardto be nerv. and even unieard of if one grves               liveli rvay,and rn punrng rts very concept questron radicallyas possible.
                                                                                                                                              ln          as
  tts full sense. one rve srartedfrom. the one rvhrchhas from all trme been
                 the                                                                              Thrs rs somethrng                   ver exactli nlneyearsago or more exactly
                                                                                                                     that I did m,vself
  valid aboutthe sratus the act.
                        of                                                                        almost nrne and a half yearsago. tn w hat I entitled "The direcuon of the
                                                                                                  treatnrcntand theprtnuple of irspower
  Ald thenwhat? After rhese  threeacceptatrons. psychoanalyst hrs actsof
                                                the               rn
  affirmatron' namely.what he utters when he has to glve an accountverv                           In trurh!'ou can find there rn chapter3. page 102."Where havewe got to wrth
  espectally u'hatrs rnvoi'ed for hrm aboutthrs srarus the act. And herea
            of                                                                                    transterence" questrons
                                                                                                                 the            w'hrchare oosedhere. Posedand developed   wrth
  luclq'rurn of e'ents meansrhatqurterecently.precrsely.           ln
                                                         someone, a certaln                                 greaterbreadthand n a ,,vav
                                                                                                  rnfinrrel.u"                 , the tlme. was absolutelywtthout
22.1L67                                                                      IIs            22.1t,67                                                                    II 9

     an equlvalent. i mean that ,,vhat   slnce then has made rts lvav. I am certarnlynot        estabiished therrbase,one can also saythat the conceptofuansference
                                                                                                            on                                                                rs
     (34) sayrngthanks to my openrngthrngs up. but tfuough a krnd of convergence                worth damn all. That does not affect anythrng. Thrs rndeedrs what ls ar stake.
     of trmeswhrch meant.for example,that someone            calledSachs [szasz?]posed          Very prectsel.u".rs also rndeedhere that. by takrnga different tone. our lecturer
     the most radical questtonsabout the starusof transference.So radical. I would              ls gomg to be engulfed and that hencetbrthwe are gorng to seethe conceptof
     even say,that. rn truth. transference consrdered so much at the mercy of the
                                             1s             as                                  transfbrence remrned fo the discretronof a retbrence, what one can. all the
     verv statusof the analltlc slrLlatlon  that rt rs posrtedas berngproperly the verv         same.caii a linle story.the one from rvhrchno doubt.apparentiy. emersed.
     conceptwhrch rvouldmake psychoanalvsrs           worthl' of oblectron.Because thrngs       namely. the hrstoryof Breuer. of Freud and ,{nna O, whrch. betr,veen   ourselves.
     have got to the porntthat a psychoanallst the srnctesr
                                                    of                        -
                                                                   observance and one          shows much more rnterestmgthrngs than what rs made of it rn thrs case.and
    verv well placed rn the Amencan herarchy - can find nothrngbefterto say to                 whai rs made of it rn thrs casegoes very t-ar. I meanthat lve are golns to see
    define transference  than that rt ts a mode of defenceof the analyst. That lt is to        berng hrghlightedthe thrrd relatron. of course.the fact that Freud first of all
    keep at a distance reactrons.
                       the             whateverthey ma1. obtarned the srfuatron
                                                              be.         rn                   protected.det-ended  hrmselt, as lt ls put. and by meansof transf'erence. b1'
    and rvhrchmrghrseemto rnvolvehrm too directly.concern            hrm. be hrs               shelterrnghrmseif from the fact that, as he saysto hrs francde- for there rs also
    responsibiliqv.properly speakrng,    that analysrsforges. lnventsthe conceprof             the fianceenaturally rn the explanatlonwe are dealing wrth, because    there rs
   transference.Thanks to whrch he decrdes,          heludges n such a way that he says,       gorng to be a questron-ofnotlung less than what I called the other da.v- act of
   rn short,essentrally, the radical foundatronofthrs concept.rhat he has not for
                          in                                                                                               -
                                                                                               the brrth of psychoanalysrs he will say'to hts fianceethat theseare thmgs.of
   hrs part any sharem the aforesard     reactron. And specificalrynot by berngthere           course,that could only happen to someonelike Breuer.
   as an analyst. But srmply berngable to hrghlighr rn them what they contarnln
   terms of a revrval, a reproductron, prevrousbehavrour,of livrng stagesof the
                                          of                                                   A certarnrype of relevance.even cheapdanng, whtch rs gong to make
   sublect.who finds hrmself reproducrngthem, actrngthem rnsread           of                  transference         to
                                                                                                            appeax us as berng entrrely linked to accrdental   conJunctlons.
   remembenngthem.                                                                             lndeed later, as one of them announces. specraiist hypnotrsm.that later
                                                                                                                                         a          rn
                                                                                               when the rncrdentreoccurswrth Freud hrmsell at that very moment the mad
  Here then rs what rs at stakeand what Flournoy confronts.wrth some splnt no                  came rn. Who klows, if the mard had not come rn. what mrght have happened?
  doubt, but grvne rts whole place to the concephonto wluch, at the extreme                    So rn that caseFreud was able to re-establish thrrd parry sltuauon. The
  posltlon, there seemto be reducedwrtfun psychoanalysrs rtself,thosewho                       madiy superego    played rts role and allorvedhrm to re-establishwhat has been
  believethemselves be m the way of theonsrng
                     to                           rt.                                          smce then the naruraidefence. It rs wltten rn thrs report that when a woman
                                                                                               comrng out of hypnosrsthrows her arms aroundyou should say to yourself: "I
  If ths extremeposltlon.rvhrch.   once lt rs rntroduced. golng to haverts
                                                        ls                                     welcome her as a daughter"
  consequences. mean that tbr Szasze.l-erythrng
                  I                                 depends,rn the final analysrs,on
  the capacrry stnct oblecuvrry rn the analyst. And srncetlus can be rn any
               tbr                                                                             Thrs sort of mtilrcnof tnvraliues rs obr rously what rnore and more rs the larv of
  caseoniy a posnliate,the u'hole of analysrsfrom thrs pomt of vrew rs               what I called earlier the act of affrrmarronof the analyst. The more one affirms
  a radical nterrogatron. to a fundamentalpuftrng ln questronof everypornt where               (36) oneselffrom tnvraljnes,the more one engenders     respect.
  rt lntervenes.
                                                                                               It rs all the samecunous that this repon whrch. no doubt. thrs can be seenby
  God knows I have never gone that t-ar.and wrth good reason.rn the questrorung                man),srgns,and rt rs m tlus sensethar I am askmgyou on thrs occasionto get to
  of analysrs.And rt rs, rn effect, remarkableas well as strange.  that rn the crrclei        knorv rt - that uill lncreaserhe sale of rhe next Revttede Psychanalyse, organ
  where people are most anachedto marntalnlng lts statussocrally.the questrons                of the Socrerti   Psychanalynquede Par:s - to seeif there ls not some relatron
  can rn short wrthrn thrs crrcle be pushedso far thar what rs ar stakers nothrng             berrveen    ths audacrous  meditatron anciwhat I was staung nlne yearsprevrously
  lessthanwhetheranalvsrs rtself is well tbundedor iliusory
                              rn                                                              In truth the questron,  will remarneternalll'undecrded.  slncethe authorrn these
                                                                                              lines bearsno $ rtness rt. But some lines.somepages
                                                                                                                       to                                furtheron, somethlng
 (35) Thrswould be a verl' disturbrng   phenomenon rve did not find rn rhe same
                                                      if                                      happens hrm. Namely,rhat at the momentrvhenhe rs speakrng. God. of
                                                                                                          to                                                      my one mrght sa-v. foundatron what rs calledrnformatron,
                              rhe          of                              vl.hrch                                  -
                                                                                              lvharrs in questron because ls a personal
                                                                                                                              lt                     -
                                                                                                                                             advance the tone that he haslust
 established rhe basrs rotal libertr only. ler us not forger.weare rn the
               on          of                                                                 -slven thrngs.
                                                                                                      to         conslsts hrghlighttnsln lt what he nobly calls''the rnter-
 Amencan conte\t. And er eryoneklorvs that hor.r.ever    broad ma,", the liberry
                                                                     be                       sub.lecilve   reiauon"
 to thtnk, a corrrmonsense  libeqv and ttom all the rvavsrn whrch rt rs expressed.,
 we knorv very *'ell what rt rnvolves. \amely thar. rn short. one can say anythrn_s           Evervonekno,'rs that if you read the Rome Drscourse qurckll' you may thrnk that
 at all. that whar countsls qfu41 alreadyuueilund truly established.
                                  rs                                                          thrs rs what I am talkrngabout. You can discoverthe dimensron the rnter-
 consequentJv    from the moment thar the psychoanalytlcsoclerres firmly
                                                                   are                        sublecuve  relatron throughrntermedianes otherthanme, slncethls error.thls
22.1L67                                                                            II IO       22.rL67                                                                     II II

    mlsconstructlon.whlch conslstsrn beIievrng  that thrsrs what I re-mtroduced                               for
                                                                                                  I apologrse havrngdeveloped      beforeyou sucha iong stor.r'.But lt ls ro make
    rnto a psychoanalysrs that rgnoredlt roo much. was made by many people                        the tink bet',veen',vhar          perv rhe psychoanalyst hrsacrsof
                                                                                                                        I called.lust                     rn
    aroundme at that trme. And if you are formed bi' themyou could rndeed.  rn                    affirmatronand rhesymptomatlc whrch I stressed momenrbefore. For
                                                                                                                                   act                the
    effect.put fonvard the rnter-sublectlve           as             to
                                           expenence a reference be recalled                            doesFreudbnng us rn the ps.v"chopathology'of everydav life rn connecrlon
    in thrscontext.                                                                               "vhat
                                                                                                  precrsely wrth enors and. properly.of rhrskrnd?

        ts thts rnter-sub.;ectlve
                               conrext" he i.lrrtes.
                                                   "whrch appears   orrgrnalto me ln              It rs. he tells us. and he sayslt knowrngly.ln connectron wlth dtee mrsralces  that
   analvsrs.It explodes strartlacket the diagnosrs
                           the                                           'mental                  he made ln the lnterpretatron dreams. He links rhem explicrtly to rhe t'actrhat
                                          of              described  as
   afTecuon Not that psychopathology a useless
                                           rs         w'ord. It rs undoubtedlv                    at the ume he was analy-stne dreamsln questronthere was somethrng
                                                                                                                                 the                                          that he
   rndispensable an exchangebefweenrndivrduals
                    for                                          the
                                                        outsrde experrence.      But             held back.put ln suspense the prosress his lnrerpretatlon.
                                                                                                                               rn            of                    Somerhrns    rvas
   rts meanlngevaporates     dunng the treatment.'' You seethe tone except that                  held back at tlus precrsepolnt, as y-ourvill see rn chapterten. rvhrchrs tharon
   betrveen   "not that psychopathologyrs a useless  word" and ''it rs of course                 mrstakes, connectlonwrth three of thesernrstalies,
                                                                                                              rn                                        specifically that of rhe
   rndispensable" parenthesrs
                     a            explodesand I ask y'ouwhat.yusrifies here.
                                                                          rt                     famous statron'vlarburg, whrch should have been.llarbach, Hannibal rvhom he
                                                                                                 transformedrnto Hasdrubaland some one of the Nledicrsthar he anributedro the
   "ln thrsconnectlon re-reading Ecrrtof Lacan.I rvasastonrshed seethat
                     tn            an                                to                          hstory of Venrce. What rs cunous rn effect, rs that rt rs alway'stn comectton
   he speaksabout the srck person (du malade), he rvho rs onented above all                      wrth somethmgrvhenrn short he held back some rruth that he',vaslead nto
   towards language"                                                                             (38) commrnrngtheseerrors.

  Thrs relatesto me as you arc golng to see, I must saythat I do not know rn                      The fact that rt rs
                                                                                                                               after havmg made thrs referenceto the butcher s
  whrch of my rwltmgs I speak about the srck person. It rs not, rn effect, qurte my               beautiful wife whrch was difficuit to al'ord grven that there follows a liule prece
  style. I am not gorng to object to rt. In any casebut the rdea ofpagrng through                 wluch rs wrrtten as foliows. "The desrreto have w'hatthe other has rn order to
  the nrne hundredand fifty pagesof my Ecrits ro seer.vhere speakabout the srck
                                                              I                                   be what one ls not. The desrreto be w-hatthe other rs rn order to have what one
  personts not one that would have come to me.                                                    doesnot have. Indeedthe desrrenot to have rvhat one has. etc." Namely. a very
                                                                                                  direct extract - and i must say a little brt amplified. bur amplified m a w-a;-that
  (37) On page70 on the contra{v,I find 'desrre' .,Desrre what one rs nor,
                                                              of                                 doesnot lmprove lt - from what I wrore preclsely about thrs directronof the
  desrrewhrch cafflot be satrsfied.or even a desrrero be unsatrsfied Lacan,
                                                                         as                      treatment,as regardswhat rs at stakern the phaliic functron. Do rve not seehere
  Lacan rn the sameEcrils quoted" ... (ah! rvhat a relief. we are gorng to be able               berngtouchedthe fact rhat rr rs cunous that someoneshould be grateful tbr rt. by
  to see)... "in the sameEcrrts quoted.unceremonlously       presents wrth respect
                                                                      rt                         thts mtstakeobvtou5ly.if not by the rrrepressible     referenceto my name.even if
  to the butcher s wife" .A.nd  there rs a linle note on r.vhat sa* about the
                                                              I                                  lt ls put under the headingof some mcomprehensible         stumbling or other on rhe
  butchers w'ife. rvhtch ts farrt-"-
                                   well knorvn. because ls a ratherbrilliant prece.
                                                          lt                                    part of someonewho aboveall speaksabout ianguage. he puts rt. Is rherenot
  You mrght expectthat thrs rs .,vhatrs referredto. \ot at all. you are ret-erred               somethlng    therewhrch makesus quesrlon        ourselves?About rvhat? About w.hat
  back to the butcher s rvife rn Freud. Good for me. I can use that. I can go                   rs rnvolvedrn the fact that rvrthrespecr a certarn
                                                                                                                                            to                     a
                                                                                                                                                         analysrs. certalnfield of
  searchrng for the passaee
            not                  about the butcher s rvife that you rvill find on page          analrsrs.peopie.evenrvhilesupportrng         themselves   explicrtll by what I pur
  620. but what rs at stake:                                                                    forrr ard. can only do so on conditron that they repudiatert. J rvould say. Does
                                                                                                not thtsJustby rtselfposea problem.w'hrchrs none other than the problem.on
           theor.r.(I am takrng the secondtheory of transference)       rvhateverpornt of       the w'hole,of the statusthat the ps.v"choanalytlc recervesfrom a certarn
  desradatron hascome to recentlvrn France"- rt rs oblectrelatrons
                    rt                                                           that rs at     coherentorganrsatron rvhrchrs. for the moment, the one rvhch rerensn rhe
  srake.   and as I explaln.I am dealingwrrh llaunce Bouvet- ,.has.           like              communlty whrch rs concernedwrth rt.
 senerrcrsm noble ongln. It rs Abraham r.vhoopenedup rts the regrster.the
 nottonof partralobject rs hrs ongrnal contributron.Thrs rs nor rheplaceto                      To make thrs remark. to manifest the emergence. a ler,'elw'hrchrs cenarnll not
 demonstrate value. lVe are more rnterested rndicatrngrts link to the
                    rts                                   rn                                    that of the unconsclous. a mechanrsm
                                                                                                                         of                whrch rs precrsely one that Freud
 partralir.v the aspectthat -{braharndetaches
               of                                        from transference order ro
                                                                            ln                  hrghlights  wrth regardro the act. I rvouldnot say rhe most specific.but rhenew
 promotelt rn rts opaclr_v the capacrn'tolove. as if thrs r,vere.
                                        as                                (thrscapacr-r.)-to    dimensron the act that anall'srs
                                                                                                            of                      rnrroduces. Thrs rtself.I meanto maketh:s
 love).a constrrurlonai             _erven the srckpefsonrn .rhrch therecan be readthe
                                                rn                                              rapprochmenr. to posea quesrlon
                                                                                                                 and                    aboutrt. thrs rtselfis an act, mrne.I ask
 d e g r e e f h r sc u r a b i l i t y . . . "
           o                                                                                    your pardononlv because order to brrng rt to a closeI took what ma)-appear
                                                                                                to )'ou to be an rnordinateamountof rrme. But what I w'anted rnuoduce
                                                                                                                                                                  to          here
 I will sparevou the resr.thrs "in the srckperson" ls thusattributed Abraham.
     ./.-a.. L ,O /
                                                                                            II I2        22.1r.67                                                                      TI   IJ

     ls somethlngthat rs difficult for me to rntroduceprecrselvbefore
                                                                         sucha                                to deal rvrth, For if you look closeiy at rt and specifically rn rhesechapters that
    numerousassemblyrn whrch thrngscan reverberate a thousand
                                                           rn             displaced                           Freud grves us under the headingof mrsnkes and under that of accrdenral      and
    wa's' I would not however*ont ih.r. ro be dispraced       the notronthatI am                             symprornatlcacts.each and every one of theseacrsls distrngurshed great   by
    trylng to lntroduce. I rviil no doubt ha'e to take lr up agaln.                                          punq'. But not r,vhen ls a questlontbr exampleof the celebrated
                                                                    It has rts                                                                                                       storyof
    lmportance.  as.!'ouwilr see. It rs not thatrn usrngrt for a rongtrme rn                                 takrngout one s keys beforea partrcuiar     door whrch are precrsely wrong
                                                                               rts kev
    forms i have not announcedlt coming one flne da."_.                                                      ones. Let us takethe casethatJonesspeaks                                       the
                                                                                                                                                             abour.because    Freudshorveci
                                                                                                             meanlngand the value that thrslittle acr may have. Jonesrs gorngto tell us a
    (39) In prarse sruprdiqr
                  of       (E/ogec{e connerrc).
                                    la                                                                                     gnd5rvtth."i rvqulalhave
                                                                                                             story ',vhrch                            liked to be at home here" Ten lineslarer
                                                                                                             we uueat the end of anotherstory lvhrch rnterpretsthe samesesturebv saung,
   It rs a long tme now srnceI producedthe pro..;ect. eventual,,vork,
                                                      the                                                    ',vouldhave beenbetter otT at home" -\ll the same rt rs not the samethmg{
                                                                           ret us sav
   that after all. rn our epochrt ,,vourd sometrrrng merlt the truly
                                        be           ro                proaig,our'
   success   that one cannot be surprrsedar. whrch ensuresthat therestill                                                                                                          rn
                                                                                                            From the relevance the notrngof thrs functronof slip. of mrstake the use of
   the tibrary of e'ery doctor. pharmacrstand dentrst. the "In pratse
                                                                      offoill;, b.v                         the key, to rts floatrng,equrvocallnterpretatlonrs rhere not an rndicatron that
   Erasmuswhtch. God knows, no longer touchesus.                                                            you rvill easilyrediscover.ln  consldenng thousand      other factscollected thrs
                                                                                                            regrster?And specificdllythe first tw'enry-fiveor thrrry that Freud collectsibr
   The prase of stuprdity wouid undoubtedlybe a more subtle operatlon                                       us. It ts, rn a way, what the act transmitsto us. It rs undoubtedlysomettung   that
                                                                                to carF.
   out tbr, rn truth. what rs stuprdityr If I rntroducert at the moment                                     tt mages assuredlytn a srgnifurngway-and for whch the surtableadjectrre
                                                                           or tutrng i[.
   true essentral step concernrngrvhat rs rnvolvedrn the analytlc act. lt rs rn                             wouid be to say that rt rs not so stuprd(pas sr conne).
  to polnt out that lt ls not a notlon. To saywhat rt rs, rs difficult.
                                                                         It rs sometlung
  like a knot. a knot around whrch manl'rhrngs are constructed..
                                                                     and delegateto                         Here rndeedrs the fascrnatrng  rnterestof thesetwo chapters. But that everythrng
  themselvesall sorts of porverswhrch rs undoubtedlysornethng
                                                                        stratified,and                      that tnes to adaptrtselfto them as lnterpretatlvedescnptronalreadyrepresents
  that one cannot consrderas srmple. At a certamdegree
                                                               of matlrty, as I mrght                       ttus certarn form of dd-connatssance, fall and of evocatlonln wh:ch rt must
  say, rt rs more than respectable.It rs perhapsnot rvhat
                                                              ments the greatest   respecr                  be sard,rn more than one casehere,qurte radical as regardswhat cannotbut be
  but rt rs assurediywhat recervesrt.
                                                                                                            sensedas stuprdiry. Even if the act. whrch we have no doubt about,for at thrs
                                                                                                            pornt of the emergence what rs ongrnai m ths svmptomatrcact, therers no
  I would say that thrs respecrcomes from a partrcurar
                                                        functron. whrch rs                                  doubr that there rs here an operung,a tlash of tight. somethrngflooding rn rvhrch
 altogetherlinked wrth what we have to hrgiriighthere.
                                                            A functlon of ,,dd-                             will not be closedoff for a lone ume.
 connLtrssance if I may expressmyself in thrs wav.
                                                        And if you will allorv me to
 arnusemyself a liftle,.to reca[ that peoplesay ,.i/ crdconnaft;
                                                                  th. *^ tarkrns                           What rs the natureof tius message  whrch Freud underlinesfor us that at the
 rubbrsh]. Do w'enot have here a crypt,r-morpheme?
                                                         Is it notty tJ,ng * , ,rr.                        sametlme, he doesnot know that he ls glvmg rt to hrmself and that,
 present that rherewould emergethe soiidlvestablished
                                                           statusoistuprdin.r                              nevertheless. does not want lt to be known. \Lhat lies at the final term rn thrs
                                                                                                                  regrsterlvhch. lt seems.cannotbe taken up agaln m the psychoanaiyrrc
 Peopleaiways thrnk that tt ts the rmpertbct. "He rvas
                                                         talking rubbrshat a mile a                        act exceptbv failing belorvrts properlevel?
 mlnure" for example. But. rn truth. the fact
     ''l                                      rs. thrs rs a term rvhlsh,Iike rhe
 term am l1.rng" alwaysdifficult to use
                 rs                         tn the present.                                                That rs wh.u- would like to rntroduce
                                                                                                                         I                        today.beforeleavrngvou. thrs slippery
                                                                                                           term. thrs nsky term whrch. rn truth, rs not easily manageable sucha large
 In an'case' lt ls very difficurt not to se.
                                                                   thatthe srarus the sruprdis rn
                                                                                 of                        (-11) socralcontext,whrch ls grventhe noteof curse.of insultand disparagement
quesrron.         qaa estabrished the "ir ddccnnart" does
                                           on                                   not lnvestirrnprythe       rvhrchrs anached the Frenchtongueto thls strange
                                                                                                                               rn                                 word "le con" Tlus rs.let
sub-;ect the aforesadverb rncludes.
             that                                                  Therers rn thrs approach  somethrng     rt be sad rn parenthesrs.findable nerthern Littre nor n Roberr Only the Bloch
l n l r a n s l t r v e a n d n e u t e r r n t h e s r vor e" i /
                                                                   pleut" whrchgrvesrtswholermportro                          whrch deserves be honouredtbr rt, glves us trs erymoloe.v
                                                                                                           et von ll/ortblrr-9:.             to
the atbresild morpheme.
                                                                                                           attnnnt   fi   zttn\

The rmportantthrngrs whar stuprdirres   rvashe talkrng? werr rhen.thrsrs ho*-                     developr.vhat rnvolved rn French as regardsthe functlon of thrs
there rs distrngurshed what I would calr rhetrue dimisron of sruprdir,v,
                                                                         The fact                          word. "/e con" vvhtch nevertheiess fundamental ourtongueand tnour
                                                                                                                                  rs               so             tn
ts thts "she was talkrng stuprd" rs somerhrng
                                              whrch. rn truth. rs what deserves
                                                                              to                           exchanges. ts tndeed casethat rt rvouldbe the task of srrucruraiism
                                                                                                                      lt.         the                                              to
be afttcted wrth rhrs term. be caried
                                                stuprdiry. The true dimensronof                            artrculatewhat links one to the other, the word and the thrng. But how can tt be
(40) sruprdir.v rndispensabre grasp as
               rs              to          berngw-hatrhe psychoanaryuc has
                                                                         act                               done? Holv can tt be done.exceprb;- rntroducrng                    or
                                                                                                                                                             here.somethtng other
                                                                                          a^     | |  /4
22.1L67                                                                         II I4     z/..   L L,O I

    whrch rvouldbe the prohibrtronfor undererghteen orperhapsrt shouldbe the
                                                   s.                                               thrnk that the con lacks wtt, even if it rs from a referenceto the Other that thrs
    over fortres.                                                                                   dimenstonrs added.

    Thrs nevertheless what rs at stake. .{,ndsomeonervhosewords we have rn a
                     rs                                                                             Jn a r,vord.what ts tnvolved tn our posltlon vts-d-vtsths amusmglinle story rs
    book whrch rs distrnsurshed the ven specral I do not thrnk anvonehasever
                               by                -                                                  still exactly what lve have to deal wrth everv tlme that tt ts a questlonof puftrng
    madethrsremark - absence stuprdirv.
                              of           namelv.rhegospels.hassard.,.Render                       rn form what we $asp as a dimensron.not at the level of all the regtsters rvhat
    to caesar the thrngs that are caesar s and to God rhe rhrngsthar are God,s"                     happensrn the unconscious. very properly speakrngtn rvhatbelongsto the
    Obsene that naturallyno one has ever notrcethat rt rs absolutel-v extraordinar-v                psychoanaiYrcact.
    to sa)'."renderto God'' whar he hascontributed rhe operatron.It doesnot
    maner. For the psychoanal.u-st. larv rs different. It rs. .-Renderto rn:th what
                                    the                                                             I wanted srmpl.u- tntroducetoday thrs reglster',vhtchyou mav guessls
    belongsto the truth, and to stuprditv w-hatbelongsto stuprdiru',                                undoubtedly nsky. But you will seethat rt rs useful.

   wellthen,lt ls not so srmple, Because   they overlap. And because therers a
   dimensron whrch rs here proper to psychoanalysrs ls nor so much the truth of
   sruprdiryas the sruprdiry of the truth.

   I mean that apart from the casesln whrch we can aseptlcrse,     vl'hrchcomesdor,vn
   to savlngde-sex, the truth, namely. to no longer make of it as rn rogrc,only a
   value wrth a caprtal T whrch functrons rn opposrtlonto a caprraiF, everywhere
   that ruth rs engagedwrth sometlungelse,specifically wrth our functron of
   speakrng  berng, the truth finds rtself in difficulty because the rncrdence
                                                                of               by
   whrch somethrngwhrch rs the centrem what I am desrgnatrng, thrs occasron,
   by the term of sruprdity, and whrch meansthe followrng - I will show you the
   next tlme that Freud also saysrt m thrs samechapter,€ven though everyonelets
  lt pass- and whrch means that the organwhrch I mrght say. Irs caregory
  to the anribute rn precrselr-   marked b;- what I would call a partrculai
  lnappropnateness enjoy'ment. It rs from thrs that rvhat rs at stake takeson rts
  reliet. Namely. the rrreduciblecharacrer the sexual act for any truthful
  142)productron. Ttus rs rvhat rs at staliern the pslchoanalytrcact, for the
  psychoanalytlcact. artrcuiatedat anotherlevel w.hrchconesponds
  at thrs other level to the det-rcrency truth expenencesrn approachrng
                                       that                                    the
  sexualfield. Thrs rs somethng whose statuslve musr questton.

 To suggest you what rs ar stake.I will takean example. one day I prckedup
 from the mouth of a charmrngyoung man who had er.en.rrght to be calleda con
 the tbllorvrng anecdote. He had had a mrsadvenrure.He had had.a rendezvous
 wtth a y-oung      grrl who had let hrm drop like a pancake.''I understood
 he told me that once agaln she rvasaJbmmec{enon recevor'' That rvaslvhat he
 c a l l e dr t .

 what rs thrs charmrngstuprdiry.     because sardrr Iike that, rvrth all hrs hean.
 He had heardthree rvordslellqrvrngone anotherand he appiiedthem, But
 supposrng   that he had done rt deliberarely thrs would have beena wrrrrcrsm.       In
 truth. the srmple fact that I. i am reporrrnsrt to you. that I am ralslnq rt to the
 field of the other. effectrvelymakesof it a wrrrrcrsm.It rs very funny, for
 ever'oneexceprfor hrm and for      recerves face to face wrth hrm. But
 oncelt rs told, rt rs thar one vrouldbe qurtewrong to
29.11.67                                                                           III I

    S e m r n a r3 : W e d n e s d a v 9 N o v e m b e r1 9 6 7

    ("13) the begrnnrng an arficleon counter-[ansference
        .\I                 of                                 published 1960.a
    good psychoanalyst whom we will -stvea certalnplace today.Dr Winnrcort.
   wntes that the rvord counter-fansference   ought to be refened back to rts ongrnal
   use.^\nd, rn thrs opposert, he takesnto accorllrtthe word self. A
   rvord like self, he i am gorng to have to use English: "naturalh'knows
   more than we do'' en sat nqrurellement    plus que nousnepotwonfatre, ltt qtte
   nous nefatsozu. It rs a word whrch he says,"uses us and commandsus" nozrJ
   prenc{ en charge. peul nous commander,as I mrght say.

   It rs a remark, by'God, whrch rs lnterestrng seetiorn the pen of someonewho
   rs not distrngurshed a specralreferenceto language, you are gorng ro see.
                       b.""                              as

   Thrs t'eature appeared  rarherprquanrto me and wiil appearsdll more from what
   I will have to evoke beibre ."-outoday about thrs author. But rnoreover.fbr you,
   rt takeson rts value from the fact that. whetheryou suspectlt or not. you are
   rntegratedrnto a discourserhat obvrouslymany of you cannot seern lrs totaliry.

   I meanthat whar I am advancrngthrs vear only has rts effect tiom what has gone
   betbre.and rt rs not because           you are only approachrng no'"v- if such rs rhe case
   for someof you - that you are any lesssublectto rrseffect. cunously, because
   of thrs.the thct rs rn shorr that thrs discourse you find perhapsthat I am
   rnslsrrng much on thrs - ls not. rn short.directlyaddressed you. It rs
                  too                                                     to
  addressed whom? NIy God. I repearlt every rlme: ro psychoanarysrs. rn
                    to                                                              and
  ('{4) conditronssuchthat rr has to be sardthat rt rs addressed them from a
  certslnatopra. Ln atoprarrhrch rs m)'own and whrch therefore to gl\,elts  has
  reasons. rs precrsely
                  It                 thesereasons rhatare golngto be here.I meantoda.v.  a
  l i t t l em o r ee m p h a s r s e d .

  Therers a I mrghrsay.aboutthe oblecrof psychoanalysrs. Ithar
  claim rs linled ro a cenaln sqvleof reachrng ps'choanalys:s
                                              of              r.vhrch that'of
  the exrstrng socletles.Thls relatlonmay not appear be rmmediate. rn
                                                    to              and
  elfect- whv shouldrt be - onll'provrdedat the pnce of a cenatnlnvestlsatlon
  one may feel to be necessary'.

  To sian from there.namelr'.from an erampie of rvhatI u'ill call a normatlve
  ftlerrledge abourwhat rs useful behavrourwrth ail that thrs can rnvorveas
  extenslonto the generalgood. and the partrculargood. I ,,villuke an example
29.11.67                                                                      TII z        zv.It.o/                                                                     III I

    whtch ts worth'"vhattt ts worth. But whrch rs worthwhile from the fact that rt rs          I do not know what such an enchanttng    ptcture tnsplresln you or whetheryou
    t)?lcal. and thar comlng from the pen of a well known author.srmply, however               frnd rt aiiunne. I do not believe that anyone- analystor not - provrdedhe has a
    linle .v"oumav be rnrtratedlnto what rs rnvolvedrn rhe analyrrcmethodto the                little brt of expenenceof othersand of hrmself.can for a momenttake senously
   extent to knowtng, rn general.that rvharrs rnvolved rs to spealifor weeksand for            thrs snangelullaby. The thrng rs properlyspeakrng    wrong,completely  contrar)'
   months at the rate of severalsesslons week. and ro speakln a cenatn
                                          a                                                    to reaiity and to ivhat expenenceteaches  us.
   partrcularly  loosewav. rn condiuonsrvhrch.   precrsely.absractitom anl
   perspectrve   concerrung reference the the useful.precrselv
                            thrs          to                                                                                                                           -
                                                                                               I aiso allorvedmyself, rn my text. ln a text that I evoked the otherda,u"that on
   perhaps. come back to rt. but aboveall to freeoneselftiom rt rn sucha wav'
              to                                                                               the directronof the ueatment - somedertstveremarksabout rvhatrvaspui
   that the ctrcutt.beforeretumtngto lr, ls rhe srmplest possible.                             fonvard about tt. tn anothercontext,and tn a form that ts evenliteralll" much
                                                                                               more vulgar - the tone tn rvhtchpeoplewere ableto speakat a cenatndaie'
   I believe that the lines that I have chosen.taken r.vherethey are found. namel-v-  at       precrsely  that oimy text. around1958- aboutthe pnmacy of oblectrelattons
   the begrnnrng an artrcleverv explicrrly from the pen of an author who
                   of                                                                          and the pertbcttonsrn whtch rhey reached effi.rsrons internal;oy wiuch
                                                                                                                                           the          of
   publishedrt rn 1955.   put rn questron conceptof the gerutal
                                          the                       character.   Here rs       came from havtng reachedthrs hrghestpotnt, whrch rs properly speakrng
   more or lesswhere he startsfrom rn order. effectrvely,to contributea cnrlque                ndiculous, and rn truth ls.-noleven wonh while takrng up agalnhere' no maner
   that I do not ha'e to develop. Today rt rs the sgie that rs at snke. It rs a prece          who wrote aboutthem at the trme.
   from the classrcal Fenrchei,rn as much as the author admrts.I meanthe
   author specifiesrt carefully. Fenrcheltbrms part of the basrsof thrs teachrngof             (46) The ctrnousthrng rs to ask oneselfhow such statements preserv'e I
                                                                                                                                                           can            -
   psychoanalysrs the rnstltures.
                    rn                                                                         will not say the appearance ofsenousness,tn fact they do not have that for
                                                                                               anyone- but appearto respondto a cenarnnecessrly    concemlng,as was satd at
  A normal, genrtalcharacterrs an rdealconcept,he sayshrmself. Nevertheless,      rt           the begrnnrngof what rs statedhere,a sort of ideal pornt whrch would have at
  ls certaln that the achtevement genrui pnmacy rnvolvesa decrsrve
                                  of                                     advancern             leastthrs vrrn:e of representmg a negatlveform the absence
                                                                                                                              m                              then of all the
  the formatronof character.The fact of berng capabre obtarnrngfull
                                                         of                                    lnconvenrences   wluch would accompany,   whrch would be the ordinaryth:ng, m
  satrsfactron from genrtalorsasm makesthe regulatronof sexualiry.a                            other states. I cannotthrnk ofany other reason.
  physrologrcal  reeulatron. possibleand thrsputs an end to the dammtngzrp.  that rs
  to the barner. to the stemmlng of instrnctualener_eres therrunhappu:
                                                        wrth               effects                                                                                      ln
                                                                                               Thrs rs natura.ll]to be taken up ln so t'aras we can grasp the mechantsm tts
  (45) on the behavrour the person. "h also doessomethrng the full
                          of                                    tbr                            essence. namelr'.  notrcethe measure whrch the psychoanalvst ln a lvay
                                                                                                                                     rn                          ts
  developmenrof love. of lo'e and hate" he adds rn parenthesrs.   namely, the                  called.even constrarned, what are rvronglycalled didacttcends,to speakrn a
  surmountrns ambrvalence.
                of                        the
                                 Besrdes. capacrry dischar_ee quantrtres
                                                      to            large                      wav whrch. rn could say.hasnothrngto do wrth the problems      that hrs
  of excrtatronsrsnifiesthe end of "reacrronformatrons"and a growth rn the                     expenenceputs up to hrm rn the sharpest     and tn the most everydayfashron.
  capacrlv sublimate.
                                                                                               The matter. rn truth. has a certarnrmport rn so far as rt mtght ailow rt to be seen
  The oedipus complexand the unconsclous    feelingsof guilt *hrch havean                      that a discourse.rn the measure- and thrs saysnofilng about tt - from wluch
  rnfantilesourcecan no'v be really o!,ercome. As regardsemotlons,the.r, nq
                                                                       4rg                     there comes a certalnnurnberof clichesfinds rtself, nonetheless, to a cenaln
  longerkept rn reserve can be developed the eeo. Ther form a
                       bur                  bv                                                 pornt lncapableof reducrngthem rn an analytrccontext, and rndeedmuch more
  harmonrous  pan of the total personaliq.                                                     as regardswhat rs rnvoived rn the organrsatron teachrng. \aturally, no one
                                                                                               believes  an! more ln a cenaln numberof thrngs. rs complelely ease
                                                                                                                                                 or                at       wtth a
  Therers no iongerany necessrr.v keepthe stiil demanding
                                      to                           pre-genrtal
                                                                             rmpulses          certarn classrcalstvle.  But fundamentally. many polnls,of levelsof
  tn the unconsclous.                                            -
                         Therr rnclusron the total personaliry I am expressrng
                                          rn                                      lt           applicatron.rt nevertheless  remarnsthat thrs changesnothlng. I mean.
  as ll rs tn the texr- rn the form of rrartsoradvances sublimatron.
                                                          rn             becomes               moreover,  that onecan srmplv seem) discourse     takenup. I meanln someof rts
  possible.Nevenheless. neurotrc
                             ln          characters. pre-eenrtal
                                                    the             rmpulsesretarn                                      of
                                                                                               forms. of its sentehces. its statemenls,  rndeedrIStums of piuase,takenup lnto
 thetr sexuaicharacter     and disturbratlonalrelatrons  wrth ob.1ects.        rt
                                                                       Hower,er rs             a context that rn rts fundamentals has hardly changed.
 rvlth neurotrcs. the normalcharacter
                    rn                       they sen' partralrmpulses. goai
 of fore-pleasure of prelimrnary,pleasure.
                     or                          underthe pnmac) of the genral                 I asked, ratherlong trme ago.someone
                                                                                                       a                               rvho could be seentn more recent trrnes
 zone But rn as much as thev come ln a greater
        .                                            proportron they are sublimated            assrduousl.u-anendingto w'hatI was tn'tng to bnng order tnto here.I asked:
 and subordinared the ego and to reasonableness, ratsonctbilit|, I believe
                      ro                                 la                                                     vour general
                                                                                               "After all, -erven          posltlons. what advantage 1ou find rn comlng
 that one camor translate otherwlse.
                              rt                                                               to my lectures?"tvly God. wrth a smileof someone the know, I meanof
                                                                                               someonew'ho knows what he means:"No one", he answeredme, "speaksabout
2 9. r I . 6 7                                                                     IU ,l         29.11.67                                                                     III 5

       psychoanalysrs that." Thanksto whtch. of course.
                          like                                       that grveshrm matenal           the analys - thrs rs even horv certaln analysts,I put forward the last trme. and by
       and chotceto add to hrs discourse cenatnnumberof ornarnents.
                                              a                                 flounshes.           God. horv varnly.believethemselves       obligedto Justifythe concept of
       Thrs does not prevenrhrm on occaslon.from refernng back radically to the                      transf'erence the name of what, by God. somethlngwhrch appears them to
                                                                                                                    rn                                                       to
       tendency    that ls supposed hrm to be constltutlve
                                   by                            ofa cenarnpsychrc   tnertla.        be very threatened.   very fragile. namely. fiom a sort of supenontv ln the
       (47) refemng back radicallv rhe status.rhe organrsatlon the analytrcsessron
                                                                      0f                    rn       possibiliryof ob;ectifyrng. oblectificatlon. from the qualiryof outstanding
                                                                                                                                   of                or
       rtself - I mean ln lts nature.rn rts finaliry also - to a return whrch occuned along          ob.;ecttvrry whtch ts supposedto be 'uvhat analysthas acqurred
                                                                                                                                                 the                     and whrch
       a sort of slide. of slippage.everythlngthat rs most natural.towardsthrs hrsron                rvouldallow hrm tn a srtuatlon    that rs apparentlyPresent be tn a posltlonto
       r.vhere somethrng    whrch wasessentlatll.of naftre. thrs so-called
                                                       its                       fusron              refer rt to other sltuatlonswhrch explarn rt and that rt onlv reproduces them wtth
       presupposed the ongrn between child and the maternalbody,and rt rs
                      at                      the                                                    thrs illusoryaccentor the illusronsthal thrs rnvolves.
       wlthrn thts sort of figure,of tirndamentai    schema.                         ro
                                                               that therers supposed be
       producedwhat'l iVIy famous"it speaks"                                                        I alread,vsardthat. far from thts questtonwhrch appears lmposeltselt. rvhrch
                                                                                                    appears  evento tnvolvea certalndimenstonof ngour tn the one who puts
       You seeclearlythe usethat can be madeof a discourse broadcastlng cut off
                                                                 by              tt                 tbrward ln a \vay lts rnterrogatlon,lts crltlque. rt rs purelv superfluousand varn
       from rts context whrch was that rn saytng"it speaks"ln connectlonwrth the                    for the srmple reasonthat transference. mantpulattonas such.the dimenston
      unconsclous. absolutely      nevermeantrhe discourse   ofthe anaiysed person as-              of transference. first stnctly coherentaspectof what I am tn the process
                                                                                                                     the                                                            of
      he rs rmproperly called rt w'ould be bener to say the analysand we will come                  tryrng to produce thrsyear beforeyou under the nameof psychoanalyttc         act,
      back to thrs subsequently. assuredly
                                   but            whrch, even. unlessone wants to abuse             outsrdewhat I called the manlpulatlon of transference.     there ts no analyttcact.
      my discoruse,may suppose      that there rs anythlng whatsoeverm the appiicatlon
      of the rule whrch cornesm rtself from the "it speaks",whtch suggests whrch
                                                                             rt.                                                                                      tn
                                                                                                    What must be not the legrtrmrsrng transference a reference
      calis for rt. In no way. at see,would I have had thrs pnvilege of                   whrch would ground rts ls to graspthat there ts no analyficact
      repeatlngafter Freud,after Breuer,the mracle of a phantom pregnancy.if tlus                   without thrs reference.Aad of courseto statert rn ths way doesnot dissrpate
      way of evoklng the concavtqv the matemal womb can represent
                                      of                                  what happens                                                precrsely,to statert m tlus way ls not,
                                                                                                    every objectron. But rt rs because,
      n the analyst's offrce. Weli rndeed.rn effect, what rs found to be.1ustified  at                                 to
                                                                                                    properiy speaiclng, desrgnate  what constrrutes essence transference,
                                                                                                                                                    the           of              thts
      anotherlevel. i am supposed have repeatedthrs mrracle but on
                                     to                                                             rs wh;- we have to advancefurther rn rt.
      psychoanaiysts.Does that mean that I analysethe analysts?
                                                                                                    That rve should be forced to do so, that I should be requrredto do tt beforeyou,
      Becauseafter all one could saythat. It rs even temptlng. There are alwayslirtle               at ieastsuggests that this analytrcact ls preclselywhat has beenleastelucrdated
      sman-aleckswho find elegantformulaelike that to sumrnanse srtuatron.
                                                                         the                        by the psychoanalyst  hrmself Much more. that rt ts rvhat has beencompl'etely
      Thank God. I put up a bamer to thls aspectalso. aheadof trme, by r.vr::trng   I               more or lesseluded. And rvhy not. why not ln an]' casequestlononeselfas to
      believesomewhere I do not know if ir hasappeared - ln connectlon
                                                                yet                wrth a           whetherthe srtuatronrs not so. because    thrs act cannot but be eludedafter all.
      recalling, lt lvas a mafter of a little accountthat I gave of my semrnarlast year,            (a9) Wh."- not? Why not up to Freud and hrs rntenogatton the  of
     of a remrnder of thesetwo tbrmulaethat there rs not rn my languagean other of                  psychopathology" everydaylife. what we norv call. what ts current.w'hatts
     the Other. The Other ln tlus caseberng',wrttenwrth a caprtalO. There ts no. to                 wrthrn the rangeof our modest undersanding underthe name of symptomattc
     respondto an old murmunng at my semlnarat Sarnte-Alne. alas,I am very                          act. of parapruros(acte manqu\, Who would havedreamed.and even who stiil
     som' to have to tell you. true about the true. [n the sameway there rs no reason               dreamsof givrne to them the full senseof the word act.
     to consrder dimensron the transference transference.
                   the             of                  of               Thrs meansof an1'
     possibletransferentral    reductron.of anv analyttc taklng up of the statusof                  Desprteeverr4hrng, rdeaof mtssrng out (ratage)
                                                                                                                       the                                Freudsaysls only a
     transt'erence   rtself.                                                                        shelrer                                what areproperlycalledacts.does
                                                                                                           behrndirhrch therers disstmulated
                                                                                                    not count. Peoplecontrnue thrnk of them tn functronof mrsstng
                                                                                                                              to                                 out, wtthout
    I am still a linle embarrassed.  grventhe numberof thosewho occupythrsroom                      grvlnga fuller sense the term act.
    thrs 1'ear.when I put forw'ardsuch formulae,becausethere may be some of .vou
    ('{8) rvho have not the slighrest  rdeaof rvhatffansference afterall. it rs even
                                                              rs,                                   Wh1'then shouldrt not be the sameaboutwhat rs tnrolved tn the analyttc        act?
    the most usualcase.   especrall.r-you haveheardaboutrt. You are gornqto see
                                      if                                                            Assuredlywhat can enlighten ts whetherwe. for our part. can saysomethtng
    that rn the rest of what I hare to sa_v-
                                           today.                                                   aboutrt that goesa little further. In an1'case. may'w'ell that lt camot but be
                                                                                                                                                    rt         be
                                                                                                    eluded.if for examplewhat happens      when rt ls a mafterof an act.ts lhat tt ts tn
    Let us hrghlight here, I alreadyput rt forward all the samethe last trme, that the              panrcular, completely   tntoierable.rntolerable rvhatregard?It rs not a matter
    essence thrs postttonof the concept transference thatthrsconcept
            of                               of             rs                  allows              of somethrng                    sub.lectrvely, leastI am not suggestlng
                                                                                                                  that rs rntolerable              at                           thls.
29.1t.67                                                                    III 6       29 | .67
                                                                                          .r                                                                        IIIr

    Why not rntolerable the w'avof actsrn general.
                         rn                                    rn
                                                   tntolerable one of its                   Since.after all. I have here an audience.or lt seemsso - even though for the past
    consequences. am approachrng, y-ou
                     I              as    can linle touches.I cannotsay                                                        -
                                                                                            two or threetrmesI cannot locateclearly- rn whrchtherets a cenalnpropomon
    thesethrngsln terrnsthat are rmmediarelynotrced- as one mrght say - not at all          of philosophers. hope thev will not thrnk too badly of me. I rvasable.evenrt
    that I do not do so on someoccaslons. because
                                        but         here tn thls matterwhtchrs              Sante-Anne. obtarnperrnrsslon go thls far. I managed speakfor a whole
                                                                                                         to                     to                      to
    deiicare. what mustaboveall be avorded mrsunderstandins.
                                          rs                                                tnmesterand er en a linle more. aboutPlaio'sSymposrum,     precrsely
                                                                                            connectlonwrth transference.
    Ths consequence the analytrc
                      of             act.]'ou will reli me. ought to be well known.
    ought to be well knorvn through the trarnrnganalvsrs. Onl.".' tbr my pan. am
                                                                L                           Well'l would ask at leastsomepeople.if thrs rs of interest them.
    spealung aboutthe act of the psychoanalyst. the tralnrnsanalvsrs.
                                                  In                      the               to open a dialogue called -\Ieno. I once spoke for a whole semesterabout
    psychoanalytlc ls not on the part of the sub;ecrwho. as lI rs put. submltsto lt.
                   act                                                                                         ln
                                                                                            Plato s Symposrum connectronwrth transference.        Today I am askng ) ou to
    Thrs doesnot meanthat he mrght not havea susplclon what the resuitrs for
                                                            of                              open.V[eno.
    the analystof what rs happenrng the trarmnganalysrs.
                                                                                            It even happened    formerly that my dear fnend AlexandreKolre did us the
   Onl.""look. thrngsare sueh up to the presentthat ever;vthrng done to hide from
                                                                 rs                         honour and had rhe generosrtyto spealito us about:lleno. Thrs did not last iong.
   hrm. rn a qulte radical wav. what rs rnvolved at the end of the trarrunganaiysrs         The psychologrsts    who were there sard''All nght for thrs year.bur that s the end
   on the srdeofthe psychoanalyst.                                                          (51) of it, that s enoughnorvl No, no, no, no. Among senouspeople.ths rs not
                                                                                            the sort of lvater that rs gorng to warm us up"
   Thrs maskrng,'.vhrchrs fundamentall-v-   linked to rvhat I was calling earlierthe
   organlsatron psychoanalytlc
                 of                 socletles. thrs mrght, rn short. be a subtle            Nevertheless. assureyou that you would lose nothrngby engagrng
                                                                                                             I                                              wrth rt a
   modesfy,a delicateway of leavrngsomethmgrn lts place, the supreme                        Iittle brt, qurtesrmply by operungtt. I ibund rn paragraph accordingto the
   refinement of Far Easternpoliteness. It rs nothrng of the ktnd. I meanthat rt rs         numeratlonof Henrr Estrenne:
   (50) not qurte from ths angle that thrngsought to be consrdered. ratheron
   what resultsfrom rt for the tralrunganalysrs   rtself. Namely, that by very reason       "He lvill know then wrthout havrng had a master,thanksto stmple questtons.
   of thts reiatton.thrs separatronthat I have.;ustartlculated.the result ts that the       havrngfound of hrs own accord hts scrence hmseif'
   satneblackout exlsts on what rs rnvolr'edrn the end of t}le trunrng analysrs.
                                                                                            And the followrng reply'
   A certarnnumber of unsatrsffrng.rncompletethlngs have all the samebeen
   wnnen about the tralnlng psychoanail'srs.
                                           Thrnes have also beenwnnen that                  "But to rediscorer   scrence oneseifof one s orlll accordrs thatnot precrsel-"-
                                                                                                                        rn                                              to
   are very rnstructrvebecause therrmrstakesabout the end of analysrs.But
                               of                                                                                           that he shouldhat'e recerved a cenarnmornent
                                                                                            recollect rt? Is rt not necessary                           at
   stnclly no one hasever yer succeeded formularrng I meanblack on rvhrte- I
                                        rn                                                  the scrence  that he now has.or tndeedrhat he ahvayshad rt"t
   am not saylnganythrng  valid. anythrnswhatsoever, or no .. . nothrng
                                                   ves                 about
   whar mrght be rheend. ln everysense the word. of the tralnng analysrs.
                                        of                                                 All the same.for analysrs. posethe questlon these
                                                                                                                       to                   rn      terms.doesonenot have
                                                                                                      that iherers heresomethlng
                                                                                           the t'eeling                                                       I
                                                                                                                                    thatone ls not sureapplies. meanrn the
   I am srmply learrng open here the porntof whethertherers a relarron.   therers          !va)-ln whch rt rs sard rn the text. But anyr.l,ay thrs rs desrgned remtnd us
                                                                                                                                            that               to
   the strlctestrelatronbetrveenthrs lacr and the facr rhat nothrng has been               of somethrng.
   artrculated ertherabout what rs rnvolvedrn the ps1  choanalytrc act.
                                                                                           In fact. rt rs a dialogueon !.lfiue. To call thatvrrnre,ts no worsethan somethrng
  I repeat,If the psychoanalrtrc ls \.eryprecrseh'that r,rhrch
                                act                      to        the                     else. For manl people.thts word and rvordslike rt havesrnce       resonated
  pS.u-choanaiyst to opposethe most frenzred
                 seems                             mrscogrltron,  thrs rs linked not       differently through the centunes, It rs cenam that the word vrnue has norv an
  so much to a sort of sublecrrve
                                tncomDatibiliry, sub.;ectr','ely
                                                the               untenable   aspecr       openlng,a resonance,    whrch ts not qurrethat of the arete that rs at stakern
  ofthe posrttonofthe psychoanalyst. uhrch. tt can assuredly suggested.
                                                              be              Freud        -\,leno.slnce moreoverarete goes ratherln the directronof the searchfor the
  did not mrss out on. and much more I rvould say. ttom lvhat ,.vouldresultonce            good. One rs srruck to grasp rt. m the sense the profitableand useful sood. as
  the perspectrve the act ls accepted regardsthe assessment anal-v-st
                  of                  as                         the          may          rt rs called. Thrs rs desrgned make us seethat *'e also. for our part, that u-e
  make of w'hathe for hrs pan prcksup. subsequent rhe anai\srs. the order
                                                    to              rn                     have retumedthere.that lt ls not completelyunrelatedto ,'vhat.     after thrs long
  properlyspeakrng kno',.r
                     of     ledge.                                                         detour.hascometo be formulatedfor us rn the discourse a Bentham.I
                                                                                           already                    to                                          m
                                                                                                    madea reference Utilitananlsm. a tlme that rs aiready the distant
29.u.67                                                                      III 8                                                                      UIe

    past.when I took on the task of stattngthroughouta year somethtngrvhrchwas
    called The ethtcs of psychoanalysts.                                                       You know what rs rnvolved.but I will take rt up agarn.It ls tlme to developrt.
                                                                                               to show what that means.rvhat that can mear for us. whv thrs deserv'es be
    (i2) It was.if I remember  correctl)-. year 1958-i9 Unlesslt was not qulte
                                          the                                                  taken up bv us aqan.
    that: then the followrng year lt was transference.
                                                                                               That rt rs sad. that rt rs expressedthat the soul - as lt ls expressed. rs the
    As tbr the four vearsslnce I have been speaktnghere.a cenaln conespondence                 language   usedrn anl"casern thrs dialogue- doesnothrng        more when lt ls taught
    could be madeberweeneachone of theseyearswtth trvo. And tn the order of                    thanremember.     rnvolvesrn thls text as tn ours.the rdeaof an endless   extensron
    the vearsof m1'prevtousteachng, we would arnve then at the levei of thrs                   or rathera durarron   wrthout limrt as regards what rs rnvolvedrn thrs soul. It rs a
    founh year at somethtngwhrch would corresponds the 7thand It year of my
                                                        to                                     little what rve also say w'henwe find ourselvesout of argumentsto rettr to,
    precedingsemrnar.     echomg ln a way the year on can be clearly read tn         Since we do not seevery clearly how thrs can happenrn ontogenesrs thrngs lbr
    my verv statement the psychoanalyttc and from the fact that thrs
                         of                   act                                                               the
                                                                                               that are alwa,vs sameand so ryprcal to be reproduced,         phylogenesrs ls
    psychoanalytlc ls somethrngthat ls qute essenuallylinked to the fi.rnctronrng
                    act                                                                                  to.
                                                                                               appealed I do not see much difference.
    of transference.  Thts should allow somepeople at leastto t-rnd thetr wav along a
    certaln path that I am takng.                                                              Then. what more. where ls thrs soul _qolng be soughtout to demonstrate
                                                                                                                                         to                            that rt
                                                                                               rs only remembrance resardseverythingthat rt can learn? It rs rndeedthe
   So then. fi s aretdthat ts at stakeand an arett! whrch at the start puts lts                                  made b.v-
                                                                                               srgnificant_sesture        Socratesat hrs epoch. Look lvleno,I will show you.
   questlonin a reglsterwhrch should not at all disonent an analystslncemoreover               You see.there-u"ouhave your slave. he of courseneverleamt anythmgln your
   what rs at stakers a first model grven of what thrs word meanstn the Socralc                house,a completelycretrnousslave.
   text about good polittcai admrnrstratron, namely. of the crtv. As regardsman. lt
   rs cunous that from the first moment there appears reference the woman,
                                                        the                                   He rs questroned   and by meansof a certarnstyle of questtonlng, effect, you
   saylngthat, my God, the vrrn:e of the woman rs the proper ordenng of the                   manageto make hrm say God. that are rathersensible,wfuch do not
   house. As a resultof whrch. here are the trvo of them on the samefootrng, on               go very far rn the domam of mathemarrcs.It rs a mafterof what happensor of
   the sameplane. There ls no essentral   differenceand. rn effect, if that rs how rt rs      what has to be done to make a surfacerhe doubie of rhe one that you started
   taken up, why not?                                                                         from. if it ls a square
                                                                                                                    that rs rnvolved. The slaveprcksup. like that.out of the
                                                                                              blue. that rt rs enoughfor the srde of the squareto be fwrce as long. It rs easy ro
   I am only recallingthrs because  among the thousandnches that wiil be                      qurckiy make hrm seethat wlth a srde rharrs rwlce as long the surfacewiil be
   suggestlve you ln thls text, if you are r.viilingto read rt from begrnnrng end.
               to                                                              to             four timesbrgger.
   you will be ableto put yotrr finger thereon the fact that the charactenstrc a
   certalnmoraiig'. traditronalmoralitv properly speakrng, alwaysbeento
                                                             has                              As a resultof u.hrch. proceeding rhe sameway rvrthquestrons will
                                                                                                                    by            rn                             we
   elude.but rt rs admrrablydone. ln a wav. to conJure   arva]- the start ln the first
                                                                at                            qurckly find the rrght way to operate.*'hrch rs to operate rhe take
   exchanges, that one no longer has to speakaboutrt. nor even to posethe
                so                                                                            a square whosesrders the diagonalof rhe preceding    one.
   questlon that rs precrsely rnterestrng us analysts. so far aswe are
                            so             for              rn
   analvsts. course. to $hether therers not perhaps pornt wherethe moraliry'
            of         as                                 a                                   What do we -qelfrom all these amusements.  thesepnmrtrverecreatlons     do
   of the man andof the woman mrght perhaps distrngurshed. the moment
                                                 be                at                         (54) not even-qo tar as peoplehad alreadygoneal tharepochas regards
                                                                                                              so                                                   rhe
   rv'henthey t-rndthemselves a bed, togetheror separately.
                              rn                                                              rrratronaicharacter the root of nvot It rs because,,ve takenan
                                                                                                                of                                have
                                                                                              exceptronal sub_tect.slave.a sublectrvho doesnot count.
   But thrs rs promptlyeludedrn rvhatconcemsa vlrtue that we can already     srtuate
   on a more public.more envlrounentalterrarn.And because thrsfact.the
                                                                of                            There ts somethlngmore lngenlousand bener that comesafterwardsas regards
   questrons   posedcan proceed a wav that rs the oneby whrch Socrates
                                ln                                                            what must be rarsed.   namely.whethervtnue ts a sclence.All rn all, rt rs
   proceeds. shrch qurcklycomesto posethe questron rvhether,
               and                                          of          horvone               certarnlv bestpart,the bestpreceofthe dialogue.Therers no scrence
                                                                                                       the                                                              of
   can evercometo know'fconnaitrelby'defimuonr.vhat doesnot know srnce
                                                         one                                  vrrtue. Thrs rs easil.v"
                                                                                                                     demonstrated  bi'expenence. sho"vrne
                                                                                                                                                   by        thatthosewho
            conditron knourng lsavor). of know'ledge. to know what one ls
   the t-rrst         of                                 rs                                   makea profession teachrng are masters
                                                                                                                  of         lt              who canbe ver.vmuch cntrcrzed- rt
   talkrng about. If one does not knorv at the begrnnrnewhat one rs talkrns about.            rs the Sophrststhat are ln questlon - and that as regardsthosewho could teach rt.
   as ts provedaftera lons senesof exchanges    wrth hrspaflnerwho ts the Meno tn             namely.thoseriho themselvesare vlmlous. I meanvtrtuousn the sensethat the
   questron,  thereemerges what 1'ouknorv and what appears the two or three
                                                             rn                               word vrrn:ers usedrn thrs text. namelr. the vrrtueof rhecrtrzen.and that of
   senlences i readfor you earlier,namely,the theoryof remrnrscence.                          good politrcs.lI ls very manifestthat thrs rs developed morethan one
29.t1.6',7                                                                     III ro       29.11.67                                                                      III ro

    example.they do not even know how to transmtt tt to thelr children. They teach              example.theydo not even know how to transmltrt to therrchildren. Thevteach
    somethrngdifferentto thetrchildren.                                                         somethmgdifferent to therr children.

    So that what we arrlve at. at the end of thrs. rs that vrrtue rs much closerto true         So that what we arnve at. at the end of thrs. rs that vrrtue rs much closerIo true lt ls put, than to sclence.Now true oplnlon.            doeslt come to us        oprnron. rt rs put. than to sclence.Norv true oplnlon.wheredoeStt cometo us
    from? Well. from the heavens.Here rs the thrrd charactensttc somethtne                      tiom? Well. from the heavens.Here rs the thrrd charactenstrc somethrng
    '"vhrchhas thts ln common. tt ts that what we refer ourselvesto. ts namelv what             whrch hasthrs rn comrnon.ll ls that what '"r'e                  to.
                                                                                                                                               refer ourseives ls nameil what
    can be learned.                                                                             can be learned.

    You sense   how closett ts - I am berngprudent- to the notatlonthat I grveunder            You sense   how closert rs - I am berngprudent- to rhe notatlonthat I erveunder
    the term of sub;ect. What can teachrtself.ts a sub.lectwho alreadyhas tlus tirst           the term of sub.1ect.What can teachrtself. ts a sub.;ectwho alreadyhas thrs frrst
    charactensuc bernguntversal. On thrs all sublectsare at the samestanlng
                  of                                                                           charactenstlc berngunrversal. On thrs all sub.lects at the samestantng
                                                                                                             of                                       are
    pornt. Therrextenslonts   ofsuch a nanre to them that thrssupposes    they have            pornt. Thelr extensron of such a nanue to them rhat thrs supposes
                                                                                                                       rs                                            they have
    an rnt'irutepast,and thereforeprobabl,v fufure that ts no lessso, even though
                                           a                                                   an rnt'irutepast.and thereforeprobably a future that ls no lessso, even though
    the questron aboutwhat rs mvolved rn the afterlife rs not settledrn thrs dialogue.         the questlonaboutwhat rs mvolved rn the afteriife rs not seftledrn thrs dialogue.

    We are not puttrngforward the myth of the of Er the Armentan.but assurediv                 We are not puttrngforward the myth of the of Er the Armenran.but assuredly
    that the soul has from all trme, and rn a properly speakrng  rmmemonalfashron,             that the soul has from all trme, and rn a properly speakrngrmmemonal fashon,
    storedup what has formed rt to the pornt of rendenng rt capableof knowrng, thts            storedup what hasformed lt to the pornt of rendenng lt capableof knowrng,thrs
    rs somethrnsthat rs not srmply contested   here but rs at the verv pnnclpal of the         rs somethmgthat rs not srmply contestedhere but ls at the very pnnctpal of the
    rdeaof remrnlscence.                                                                       rdeaof remrnlscence.

    That thrs subjectrs exceptronal(hors classe),rs anotherterm. That he rs                    That thrs sub.;ect exceptlonal
                                                                                                                ls               (hors classe),rs       term. That he rs
    absolutern the sense   that he ls not. rt rs expressedrn the text. as sclencemarks         absolutern the sense  that he rs not. lt rs expressed the text. as sctence
                                                                                                                                                    n                    marks
    ruth rvhatrs called thereb1'a term that really echoesever,vthrng are able to               wrth what rs called there by'a term that really echoeseverythtngwe Eue   able to
    (54) sayhere.that he rs not marked b,vlogrcal concatenatron.      artrculattonm the        (54) say here.that he ts not marked by'logrcal concatenatlon.              rn
                                                                                                                                                              artrculatron the
    \.ery style of our scrence.Thrs 'true optnlon', ls lI somethrngthat ensures   that lt      very stvleof our scrence,  Thrs 'true oprnlon',ls lI somethrng  that ensuresthat lt
    rs much more,andrt rs sardagarn. the order ofpolesrs.of poetr.vtThrs rs
                                         of                                                    rs much more. and rt rs sardagarn.of the order of porcsrs.of poetryt Ths rs
    lvhat we are leadto by the Socratrcquestlonlng.                                            what we are lead to by the Socratrcquesttonrng.

   If I took so muchcarervrththrs remrnder. ls to note foryou what ls
                                               lt                                              if i took so much carewrth thrsremrnder. ts to note tbr vou what rs meant,rn
   thts archatcpornt lvhtch has remarnedpresentrn the questronrng knorvledee.
                                                                     of                       thrsarcharc   porntwhtch hasremarned     presentln the questlonrng knorviedge.
   lvhar rs meantbv the fact w'hrchhad nor been rsolatedbefore I did so, properl-""rn         ',vharrs meant b\ the fact whrch had not been rsolatedbefore I did so, properly rn
   comectronruth transference. functron,not evenrn the anrculatron. the
                                  the                                       rn                connectlon   wrth transference, functron.
                                                                                                                              the                                     rn
                                                                                                                                           not e!en rn the artrculatron, the
   presupposrtrons   ofevery questron what I call the sub;ect              presupposltlons every questronabout k-nowledge. w'hatI call the sub.yect
                                                                                                                 of                                  by
   supposedto klorv. Questrons posedstartrngfiom the fact that there rs
                                   are                                                        supposedto knorv. Questrons posedstarttng hom the fact that therers
   somewhere functron.       call rt what rou rvill. herelt appears all rts aspects.
                                                                  rn                          somervhere rt what vou lvill. herelr appears ail rts aspects.
                                                                                                            thrs                                              rn
   obvtousbecause    mythrcal.that therers somew^here   somethrng whrch plal'sthrs            obvrouJbecause     m!'thcal. that therers somewhere  somethrng  whrchpla."-sthrs
   fi.rncrron the sub;ect
             of           supposed knorv,
                                     to                                                                                          to
                                                                                              filncuon of the sub;ectsupposed klo"v.

   I alread,u- thrsforward a questlonmark rn connecllonwtth one or
             put                                                                               I alreadyput thls a questton mark rn connectlon  wrth oneor
   other advance.  breakthrough.  progressofa certarnsectorofour scrence.Is the               other adv"ance. breakthrou*eh. progressof a certarnsectorof our scrence.Is the
   queslron posed wheretherervas. horv lve can concelve. example.
             not       of                  of                      ibr                        questron posed wheretherervas.of how we can concerve, example.
                                                                                                        not        of                                          for
   beforeone or othernervdimensron a mathematrcal
                                       rn                           of
                                                        conceptron tt             beforeone or othernetvdimensron a mathematrcal
                                                                                                                                   rn               conceptton infiruty,rs rt
   a fact that beforethrs rnfiruw w'asforged,we can concelvelt as havlng been                 a fact that beforethrs mfirurv w'asfor-eed, can concelvelt as havlng been
   knorrn somewhere.Can n'e alreadyreport tt as known from all trme? Thrs rs                  known somewhere.Can we alreadyrepon tt as knolrn from all trme? Thrs rs
   the questron.It rs not a manerof knorvrng."vhether soul exlsted
                                                      the              beforeberng            the questlon. It rs not a mafterof knowrng whetherthe soul exrsted   beforeberng                                                                    IiI r r      29.11.6"7                                                                   III rz

    rncamated.It rs srmplyof rvhetherthrsdimenston the sublectgua suppon of
                                                   of                                        It onto the srgniforngorganlsatlon the unconscrous
                                                                                                                               of                 strucfured like a language
    knolvledge somethrng
              rs           that must be pre-established a way to questlons
                                                      rn                                     that our lnterpretatron applied? Or. on the contrary, ls our lnterpretatlon a
                                                                                                                    rs                                                  tn
    aboutknowiedge.                                                                          (57) wav an operatronof a qurtedifferent order. one that revealsa drawrng
                                                                                             hrddenup to then?
    Note. when Socrates    questrons slave.what doeshe do? He uses.
                                      the                                   evenif he
                                                                    one can savthat he                                                                   rvhatperhaps
                                                                                             It rs very obvrouslynot that.neltherone nor the other.desprte          thrs
    doesnot do lt on the board.slncelt ls a very srmpledrarvtnq,
                                                                                  -          opposrtron  mrght havesuggested iermsof a firsr response. somepeoplethat
                                                                                                                              ln                        Io
    usesthe drarvtnqof thrs square. And the r,vay    that he reasons
                                                                                             I teach.
    namely.ln the tlrst mode of a metnc geometry. decomposltlon       lnto
    tnanglesand countrng tnanglesof equalsurf'ace. thts ',vaylt ls easyto
                            the                            In
                                                                                            What rs at stakels somethrng    that mal.esthe taskmuch moredifficult for us.
   shorvthat the tnangleconstructed the diagonalwill tnclude
                                         on                          lust the number
   of linle squares  that are necessary comparedto the first number. And that if the        Namely.that. rn etfect.thrngshaveto do wrth the operatron     oithe srgnifier.
   first number had four squ.uesthere rvould be erght if we proceedtn thts fashron.         rvhch rendershrghly possiblethe t'irstreference. first model to gtve of what
   All the samert rs rndeeda drarvtngthat ts tn questlon   and.quesuontng slave.
                                                                              the           a decrphenng Only, look. the sub;ect. us say'theanalysand not
                                                                                                           rs.                         let                     ts
   rt ls not rve who rnventthe questlon. It has beenremarkedtbr a iong ttme that            somelhlng flat. as suggested the rmageof the drawtng. Insrde.he ts hrmself
   (54) tlus procedurehas nothng very demonstratlve     about rt, tn as much as far         the subject as such alreadydetermrned    and rnscribedrn the world as caused a
   from Socrates    berng able to find an argumenttn the fact that the slavenever did       certaln effect ofthe srenifier.
   geometry,and that though he has not beengtven lessons,..yust way of
   organrsrng drawrng by Socratesrs alreadyto gtve to the ls very
                the                                                                         Whar results fiom rt rs the fact that not a lot rs necessary rt to be reducibleto
   tangible.a lessonm geometry. But that ts not where the queshonts for us.                 one of the precedingsrtuatlons.AIi that ls necessary the followrng: that
                                                                                            know'ledge, certalnporntsthat may. of course,be still unknown,fails, And rt
    It rs. as I mrght be consrdered theseterms. Socrates
                                           rn                       usesa drawrng. If       rs precrselytheseponts wiuch, for us. slve nse to questlonstn the nameof
    we say that n the mrnd of hrs partner,therers alreadveverythrngnecessary        to      truth.
    respondto what Socratesbnngs along. that can mean two thtngsthat I would
    express follorvs. Either rt rs a drawrng, would not say a double.or. to use a
              as                                I                                           In thrs respect,the sub..;ect determmedln a way that makestt unsuttable. our
                                                                                                                        ts                                               as
   modern term whrch conespondsto what rs called a fi.inctron,     namely.the               expenencedemonstrates, restorew'hatrs rnscribedby the srgnifylngeffect. by
   possibilitvof the applicatron Socratesdrarung onto hs owTr rnverselv.[t
                                   of                                 or                    rts relatronto the world, tn makrngrt rncapable clostngrn on rtself.of
   rs, ofcourse.not at all necessary   forthe squares be conect.erthertn one case
                                                       to                                   completrngrtself at certalnpoints ln a ivav that ls sailsrylng,as regardsrts status
   or rn the other. But. let us say. tn one casert ts a squareaccordingto a lvlercator      as a sub.;ect.And they are the polnts that concem hm tn so t'aras he hasto postt
   proJectlon.   namely.a squ€ue  square. and rn the othercasesomethtng    twrstedrn        hrmselfas a sexedsub.;ect.
   different wavs. It r.vill nevenhelessremarnthat the pornt by pornt
   conespondence what gl\'es to the relatronof what Socrates
                      rs                                           contributes. that
                                                                                  to        Before thrs srtuanon,do you not seevrhatresultstiom what rs gorng to be
   through whrch hrs tnteriocutor anslvershrm, a verv parlrcularvaluew'hrchrs that          established  ifthe transference set up. as rt rs rn effect set up. because
                                                                                                                          rs                                          tius has
   of decrphenne.     Thrs lnterests us anallsts. Because a certarn
                                    us.                      ln          way thrs rs        alwa-v-sbeen the movement.the movementreally established        tiom what ts
   what our analysrs transference
                        of             meansrn the rnterpretatlve dimensron. rs rn
                                                                                It          tradirronallyrnherent. The transference set up rn functton of the sub;ect
  the measurethat our lnterpretatlonIinhs rn a different rvav a charnwhrch rs               supposed klorv, exactly tn the samer.vav
                                                                                                      to                                that was ahvaysrnherent everJ'
  nevertheless charnand alreadya srgni!'rngcharnthat lt works. And thenthere
                  a                                                                         questronlngabout knowledge. I w'ouldeven say more, that from the facl that he
  rs another    possible way of imaelnlnglr. Instead our seerng
                                                      of           thatthereare two         goes lnto anaiysrs, refersto a sub;ectsupposedto know benerthan the others.
  dranrnss r.vhrch not. ar tirst approach.the transfer(ddcalquelone of the
  other.we can suppose metaphor.
                            a            namell'.that nothrngts seen.I meanfrom the         That doesnot mean,moreover.    contrarvto what rs believed.                  rt
                                                                                                                                                         thathe rdentifies
  srdeofthe slare.but rn the rvar that one can say tn certatn   cases; thrsrs a            to hrs analyst. But thrs tndeedts the core of what I want to destgnatebeforeyou
  dra*1ng. You seenothrng.but lt musrbe exposed fire. You know that there
                                                         to                                todal It rs that lmmanentto the ..'en startof the movement of analytrcresearch.
  are tnks that are called sympathetrcand the drarvrngappears.Therers then. as             therers thrs sublectsupposed knorr. And as I rvassaytng-lust
                                                                                                                         to                                 no!v,supposed
  lve say*'hen we are dealingw'rtha sensltlve     plate.a revelatron.                                              so
                                                                                           to krow betteragatn. thatlhe anall-rtsubmrts     hrmselfto the rulesof the
                                                                                           (58) game. .{nd that I can posethe questron w'hether.
                                                                                                                                         of          whenhe responds atn
  Is tt betrveen                                                                           rval that he oughtto respond. whethertt ls a maner of Socraresslaveandthat
                thesetwo terms rhat the suspenseoccursof rvhat rs at stakefor us
  tn analysrs. termsof a savlng''re" because thrscase
              ln                                                  rn                       the slavers told to flounderaroundas he wrshes. Whrch ls not done,of course.
  alreadythe firsi srgnifyrnglnscnprlonrs already translatron somethrng.Is
                                                                of                         at the level of the e.xpenence the '\leno.
29.t1.67                                                                    III 13       29.11.67                                                                    III Ic

                                                                                             psychoanalytlc technique conslsts a certalnlatsser-fatre.But rs that enoueh
    The questronof fie mterventlonof the analystts posedtn effect tn the suspense            to charactense posrtronof the analvstwhen thrs larsser-farrernvolves.up to
    I mentlonedearlier. The rwo mapsconesponding    potnt by polnt or on the                 a cenalnpornt.the malntalntng   lntactln hrmselfof ths sublectsupposed     to
                                                                                             klow rn so far as he knorvs from expenence  what rt rs to t'ali away and be
    ContralyOnemap that thanks to some mantpulatlonor other one revealstts
    natureas map. Thrs rndeedrs horv everythng ls concelvedot'. through, rn a                excludedfrom thrs sub.;ect.and what resultstiom the anaiyst s slde ?.
    wav. the datagrvenat the beglnnrng the operatlon.
                                                                                             What resultsfrom rt. I am not puttlng tbrward rmmediatelytodav stncert rs
    The anamneSts carned out ln so far as what one remembers. not so much
                     ts                                           lS                        precrseiywhat rve have to fuither artrculate what tbllows. But I will end by
                                                                                                                                        rn the constlrutron the amnesta the relum of the repressed
                               of            or                            rvhtchts         rndicatrngthe analogyencountered    from the fact that rn order to advancethrs
    exactly the samethng. Namely. the way the chrpsare distributedat every                  new angleof interrogauonabout the act. i have to addressmlself to thls thrrd
    moment rn the squaresof the game.i mean tn the squareswhere one has to bet.             that you constrtute reason
                                                                                                               by        ofthe regrster that I alreadyrntroduced  underthe
    In the samewav the effects of interpreutlon are recetvedat the level of rvhat?          funcilonof number. Number rs not multrtude.    because much ls necessan'to
    Of rheencouragement tt lendsto the tnventlveness the sublect. I meanof
                            that                           of                               rntroducethe dimensronof number. If it rs by such a referencethat I rntroduce
    thrs poetry that I spoke about earlier.                                                 the questronof rvhatcan be rnvoh'edln the starusof the psychoanalyst. so far
                                                                                            as hrsact puts hrm radicailyout of synchwrth respect theseprelimrnanes. rs
                                                                                                                                                   to                    rt
   Norv. what does the analystsof transference    mean? If it meansanythtng,tt can          to remrndyou that lt ls a common dimensron the act, not to rnclude ln lts
   only be the follorvrne:the elimtnatton ths sublectsupposed know. For
                                           of                                               agency presence the sublect.
                                                                                                   the          of
   analysrs,and still less for the analysttherets nowhere- and thrs rs the novellv - a
   sublectwho rs supposedto know. There rs only what reslststhe operatlonof the             The passage the act rs that beyondrvhuch sublectwill rediscoverhrs
                                                                                                       of                          the
   knowledge makrng the sub.;ect,    namell'.thts restduethat one can cail the truth.       presence renewed.but nothrngother.

   But precrsely.rt ls here that PonttusPilate's questloncan anse: what is truth?           I wili grve you the next tlme, because did not have the ttme lhrs tlme,
   Whar rs truth, rs oroperiy the quesuonthat I am postngto tnlroducewhat ts                somerhng whrch rs an iilustratronof it. The Winnrcon by whom I mtroducedm
   rnvolvedln the properlypslchoanalytrc    act,                                            connectlonwrth thrs word                 exampleof a sort of nghr touch wrth regard
                                                                                            to a certarneffect of the srgnifier. Thrs Winnrcon will grve us the illustratronof
    What constrtutes psychoanalytlc as such ts very cunously thrs fernt by
                   the                  act                                                 what happens the psychoanalyst the very measrueof the rnterestthar he
                                                                                                            to                     ln
   whrch the anailst forgetsthat. rn hrs expenence a psychoanalysand. was
                                                   as                        he             takesrn hrs ob.;ect.He will make us touchthat. precrsely.rn lhe measurerhar he
   able ro seethereberngreduced whar rt rs.thrs hrnctronof the sub;ect
                                    to                                                      ls someone   lvho rs distrngurshed the technlque outstanding havrng
                                                                                                                                ln              as              for
   supposed knorv. everylnstant. theseambrgutttes.
                                               all                     whrch                (60) chosen ob;ectthat rs prrvileged hrm. the one that he qualifiesmore or
                                                                                                          an                            for
   moreovertransfer. example.
                      for                   the                         to
                                     towards functronof adaptatton realiqv                  lessas thts latentpsychosrs   whrch exrsts certalncases. tinds hrmselt'very
                                                                                                                                         ln              he
   The questron rvhatrs rnr olved rn the truth. ls to felgn also that the posttron
                of                                                                of        cunouslydisavorvrng w'holeana.lyrrc
                                                                                                                    the                  technlque rtsell-,
   the sublectsupposed know rs tenable
                        to                                                to
                                            because rs the only access a truth
   from whrch the sub.;ect golng to be re.;ected berngreducedto hts func[on
                           rs                    b.""                                       Norv. thrs ls not at all a panrcularcasebut an exemplarycase. If the posrrronof
   of cause a process
            of          that rs rn an rmpasse.                                              the analystrs determmedb1'nothrngbut by an act. the only effect that lt can
                                                                                            enregrster hrm ts the frutt of an act. And srnceI employedthrs word n'urr.I
   The essentral ps.u"choanalltc of the ps-"-choanalyst
                                 act                   rnvolvesthrs somethmg                recalledalready'the tlme rts echoof frurtron. What the analystrecords
                                                                                                                  last                                                as
   (59) that I am not namlng.that I outiinedunderthe nameof fernt.and whrch                 ma;or expenencecannot go bevond thrsturrungpolnt thal I have rndicatedof hrs
   becomes   serrous thrs becomes
                    if               forgenrng. fergnto forgetthat one s act ls to
                                              to                                            orvnpresence.
   be the causeof thrs process.That whar rs rnvolvedtherers an'actrs accentuated
   by a distrnctlonthat rt rs essentral makehere.
                                      to                                                   What mrght be the meansfor there to be collectedwhat, through thrs process
                                                                                           trregeredb1'theanalytlcact. ls recordable termsof knowledge.
                                                                                                                                   ln                        thrs rs what
   The analyst. not wrthonta need.I would evensa),to Jtlstifyto
               of                                                                          posesthe questlon w'hatrs rnvoh'edrn analltrcteachrng.In the whole
   hrmselflvhat ls done rn analvsrs.Somethrng done.and what rs at stakets
                                               rs                                          measure that the ps,u-choanal,wlc ls mls-recognlsed. thrs measure
                                                                                                                           act                   rn               thereare
   rndeedthrs difference betu'eendongQatre) and actrng. it rs to thrsbenchthat             recorded negative effectsas regards progress
                                                                                                                               the        ofw'hat analysts   can add up rn
   one hamesses. one purs the benchof a dorng. He
                  that                              rt                                     termsof the knowledge.  that we havenoted, that u'e can put our finger on. Thrs
   doessomethrng.Call that rvhatyou u'i11.                   rn.
                                            poetryor breakrng he does                      rs manifested and expressed many otherpassages across whole
                                                                                                                       rn                     and        the
   somethtnq. And tt rs qulte clearthat precrsely part of the rnstructrons
                                                one                      of
29.1t.67                                                                 III Is       6.12.67                                                                        tvt

    breadthof the productronof analytlc literature.a defictt wtth regardto what can
    be addedup. what rt can store up rn terms of knorvledge.

                                                                                          S e m r n a r{ : W e d n e s d a v6 D e c e m b e r1 9 6 7

                                                                                          " IWtats the                         '
                                                                                                        Jirstthtngyou remember''
                                                                                          "Thefrst thtng that comesmto m))head,you mean?"
                                                                                          " No - thefrst thmg yolt remember
                                                                                          (Pause)"No tt's no good it's gone"
                                                                                          " You don't get my mearung. Wat rc rhef rst thtng aJier all the thtngsvou ve
                                                                                          " I've forgotten the questton"

                                                                                         Thesefew exchanges      that I extractedfor you (l will grve you my sources)  from a
                                                                                         very skilful and even penetrattnglittle play, whrch had aftractedme by rts trtle
                                                                                         whrch contarnsnvo characters     ratherfull of meanrngfor me; Rosencrantz     and
                                                                                         Guildenstem.Both one and the other.the trtle tells us. are dead. Would to
                                                                                         heavenlt were true! They are nothrngof the krnd. Rosencrantz         and
                                                                                         Guildensternare still there. Theseexchanges ,,velldesrgned evoke the
                                                                                                                                          are                 to
                                                                                         separatlon, distancethat exrstsbenveen
                                                                                                     the                               three levels ofmathesrs,oflearned
                                                                                        understanding.The first, that the theoryof remrnlscence       that I representedto
                                                                                        you fie last trme by the evocatlonof .\[eno,glves an exampleof, I will centrert
                                                                                        on an "I read" as a revelatorytest. The second.different. w'hrchrs madepresent
                                                                                        rn the tone - rt rs the correctword - of the progressof our sclencers an "l rvrrte"
                                                                                        I wnte even rvhen lt ls rn order to follorv the trace of a w'ntrng alread.vmarked
                                                                                        out. The bnngrngout of srgnifurng      rnctdence such.srgnities
                                                                                                                                          as                 our progressln
                                                                                        thrs graspof rvhatknowledgers.

                                                                                        161)What I w'anted recallto vou. not by thrsanecdote. by'these
                                                                                                                                                   but         very w'ell
                                                                                        tbrgederchanges     whrch. rn a rva!. desrgnatrne1[911ewrl srtualrng
                                                                                        themselves a nelv wav of handlingrhese
                                                                                                      rn                            puppets  essentlal the traged-v-'
                                                                                        rvhrchrs realh'our own. that of Hamlet.the one I spenta long trme on. mapplng
                                                                                        out the placeof desrreas such.desrenatrng that somethrng
                                                                                                                                    b,""               whrchmrghthave
                                                                                        appeared    strange to then:that.ven'exactly.e!'eryone
                                                                                                           up                                    was ableto readhs
                                                                                        0\\I in lt.

                                                                                        Thesethreeexchanges      desrsnate thenthrspropermode of knorvtng
                                                                                        apprehensron    *hrch rs thatof analy'srs whrch begrns
                                                                                                                                and                wrth "i lose" I losethe
                                                                                        thread. Here rs where what lnterests begrns.\amely. - whoeverrs
                                                                                        astonrshed open eyedat lt on thls occaslon
                                                                                                    or                                 will clearlyshow thathe rs
                                                                                        foreeftrng what the comlns rnto the rrorld of the first stepsof analysrswas - the
                                                                                        field of the slip. of stumbling.of parapra.\rs.
6.t2.67                                                                          N 2        6.12.67                                                                         TV3

                                                                                                If we start from the referencethat I gaveearlier.namely.that the first form of act
    I remrnded  you of its presencefrom my first         thrsyear. You will seethat             that analysrsrnauqurared us. rs thrs svmptomatrc of ,,vhrch
                                                                                                                          tbr                       act          one can say
    we lvill haveto come back to rt and tharlt ts essentral malntalnthrsreference
                                                            to                                  that rt rs never SOsuccessfulas when lt rs a parapraxls.
    alwal"sat the centreof our perspectrve rve do not lvant to loseour advantage
    as regards most essentral
               the               tbrm of what I am callingthts yearthe                          when the parapra\lsrs supposed. tesred. reveals
                                                                                                                                    rs     rr      rtselfibr what rt rs. Let us
    psychoanalyrrc But vou have alsoseenme on almoste!'en'occasron.
                    act.                                                        and             prn to rt thrs word that I alreadyrnsrsted
                                                                                                                                         enoughshouldbe revrved. trurh.
    from the beginnrng, somekrnd of embarrassmenr I apologrse the
                         rn                               that            tbr.
    reason was nothrngother than vour sracrous   anendance. posedtbr myselfin a
                                                               I                                Obsene that rt rs tiom thrs foundatron   that lve analvsts  stafi ln order to adr.ance.
    tbrm that rs berngcentredtoday.the problemarrc mv teachrns.What ls meant
                                                      of                                        Without anal1,srs rvouldevenbe possible,       because everyacr evenwhrch
    bv what i have beenproducrnghere. tbr rhe pasr tbur yearsnowt It rs                         doesnot carrv thrslinle rndexof failure.rn otherw'ords,      whrch -erves  rtselfhrgh
    worthwhile postngthe questron, tt a psvchoanailrlc
                                     ls                     act'l Thts teachlnsls               marks as regardslts rntentlon nevertheless    falls exactly under rhe same
    produced  befbreyou, namely,rn a pubiic way. as suchrt couldnot be a                       .;unsdictron. Namely. that rherecan be posedthe questlonof a difTerenrrrurh ro
    psychoanalytrc act.                                                                        that of thrs lntenuon. Whencert results     thatthrs rs properlyto sketchout a
                                                                                               topology that can be expressed follorvs. That by srmply skerchng lts way
    What rs meant by the fact then that I am tackling rrs rhematrc. Does rt mean rhar          (64) out. one enrerstnto lt w'ithouteventhrnkrng. .{:rd that after all the best way
    I am submrttrng here to a cntrcal agency?it rs a posrtron
                    rt                                          whrch,afterall.                to enrerlt, ln a certaln way. ls to get out of it for good and all.
    could be assumed   and, moreover.has beenassumed      many trmes.even if
   properly speakrng was not thrs term act that was used. It rs ratherstrihng that
                       lt                                                                       The psychoanalylrc des:gnates shape,an envelope.a structuresuch that. rn
                                                                                                                     act            a
   the attempt.every tlme rt rvasmade b.v- someonetiom outsrde.only gaverather                  a wal-, rt makes everythrngthat up to then has beenestablished,      formuiated,
   poor resuits. Now I am a psychoanalyst.   and I am myself caughtup rn the                   producedas a statusof the act, dependon lts own law. It rs, moreover,what
   psychoanalytlc  act. Could there be ln my casea different plan than that of                 from the pornt of the one who under someheadingor other engages thrs act, m
   graspng the psychoanaiytrc from outsrde? Yes. And herers how thrs plan rs
                                act                                                            rn a positronwhere rt rs difficult to find an approachfrom any angle, henceforth
   set up. A teachrngrs not an act. It hasnever beenone. A teachrngrs a              suggests    that some mode of discemmentought to be rntroduced. It rs easyto
   was ahvaysverv well formulated at the tlme when people knervwhat a teacfung       ' takrng thrngs up again from the start.rhat if there ls nothlng so
   (63) rn the unrversrtywas. In the good old daysrvhenthrs u'ord hao a sense,lr               successful failure wrth respectto the act. rhrs doesnot mean for all that. that a
   meantthesls.                                                                                reclproclfy rs esrablished.and that every failure rs. rn rtself, the srgn of some
                                                                                               success, meanthe success
                                                                                                          I                 ofan act.
   Thesrs   supposes  antr-thesrs.   with the antr-thesls act can begrn. Doesthrs
   mern that i expect rt from psychoanalvsts?       The maEerls not so srmplewrthrn           It rs qurteobvrousthat not all slip-upsaremterpretable  slip-ups. And ths
   the psychoanalytrc srncemy theses
                         act.                   sometrmes  rmply consequences. ts It          lmposesat the start a srmple remark *'hch rs. moreo!'er.rndeedthe only'
   strikrng that theseconsequences      encounterthere.I mean rnsrde.    ob.lectrons          ob.;ecuon  whrch was everyproduced the:ruse. It rs enoughto begrn.wrth
   whrch belong nettherto the thesrsnor to any other tbrmularedantrthesrs        than the                                                             -
                                                                                              some'common sense thel' rntroduce if he rs new, if hg l-rs5
   wavsand customsrergnrng         amongthosewho makea professron the     of                                                                          -
                                                                                              still not beenrmmunrsed, he haskepi sometieshaess the dimensron
                                                                                                                       if                                               of
   ps'choanalytrc    act. It rs cunousthenthat a discourse   that ls not up to now            analytrc  cogltarlons. peopleto respond ,y-ou:
                                                                                                                   for                   to     "But whar areyou at. rellng
   w'rthrn thoservho are rn the pslchoanalltrcact eas! to contradict.      encountersrn       me so much about thesesruprditres   that we klovv all about. and that are srmplv
   certalncases obstacle
                  an            lvhrch rs nor a contradictron.The hypothesrs   rvhrchrn       ruthout an1 graspablesuppon. that are oniy negarrve"l
  mv casesutdesthe pursuttof thrs discourse the tbllorvrng.Certarnlrnot thar
  therers rn rt the rndicatron cntrclsethe ps.n-choanal;trc and I am golng to
                                  to                            act.                          It rs surethat ar thrs level.therers no cenarnrule tbr discernrnent.  And thrs
  say w'hy. but on the contrary to demonstrate. mean rn the asencyof thrs act,
                                                    I                                                 rs
                                                                                              tndeed how )ou seethat b.u-      remalnrng etfecrat the level of theseexemplan
  vrhat rt fails to recognise.   whrch rs that by not genrngout ol it one w'ould. go          phenomena. debateremalnsln suspense. rs not rnconcervable
                                                                                                           the                                 It                    that.where
  much further. We haveto believethen tirattherers somethrng thrsact that rs
                                                                       rn                     the psychoanalfrcact takesrts lmponance,       namely.where for the first rrme rn
  tntolerable.  unsustarnable    enoushfor whoeverrs ensaged lt for hrm to dread
                                                                 rn                           the rvorldthereare sublects    rvhose lt ls to be psychoanalvsts.
                                                                                                                                   acr                           namelv.. who rn must be sard.rts limrts. Since.moreover.        rvhatI want to                ths areaorgaruse.   group together.pursuean expenence.     take therr
  tntroduce thrspanlculanryof its srructure
             rs                                    thatrs afterall well enough  known         responsibilitres somethrng
                                                                                                               rn             rvhrchis of a dilferentregrster that of the act.
  for anyoneto grasprt but rs aimostnerer formulated.                                                          (un
                                                                                              namely a dorn_g farel . But pay anentton:thrsdorng rs not therr owrl.
                                                                                  rv4       o .t 2 . b l

    The functronof psychoanaiysrs clearr,v
                                  rs          charactensed rhe folowrng: serung
    up a dorng throughwhrch rhe psychoanalysand     obrans a'cefiarngoal that no one                 the questlon rhese
                                                                                                                   rn will rmmediately  appear you thattherers no
    hasyet clearlytlxed. One can say that. if one ls to trust                                        doubt that lt ls ln the tnsuffictency,l would say.ottanalyti.productron
                                                              tt. t*t,u disordered                                                                                            tharrhere
    oscillatlon the needlethat occursrvhenone quesnons
               of                                                                                    ought ro be read somerhrng     rvhrch corresponds thrsdimensronof obsraclE.
                                                              rhe aurirors aboutrt.
                                                                                                     Beyond an act that rs supposedto bnng ro an end (Jarre
                                                                                                                                                             fins,bur whose
    (65) Thrsts not the tlme to stve vou the range                                                  magrsrenal   pornr rve must supposeif we want to be able to speakabour
                                                      of thrsoscillation. you can believe                                                                                      any-thrne
    me and test rt ln the riterafure. The raw. the rule as they                                     at all concemrng lvloreover.
                                                                                                                        rr.            thereis nothrngexcessrve erokrng rt. w.hen
                                                                 sav. whrch
    crrcumscribes operatroncailed psychoanalysrs
                    the                                                                             the analysrsrhemse.lves. rhose',vhomay mosr tall under the threat
                                                          struct'res and defines .a                                                                                         of rhe
    dotng The patrenr. rt rs still expressed. psichoanall.sand
                           as                                                                       desrgnatron ths obstacle therewherei am proposln,q
                                                                                                                 of                -                           that,,ve
                                                   the                    as I recentlv                                                                                shouldsearch
    rntroduced   the       a plnpolntlngthat spread                                                 for the rncrdence   whrch can completethe support.rndeed    establish - of our
                     "vord.                           raprdly.which provesthar rr rs                                                                                     rt
   not lnopportune    and thar moreover rt rs obvrous. To say the pil.choanaj.v-sed                cnnque. Therers nothrngexcesslve speakrngrn         aboutthrs turnrngpolnr.ln
   personleavesall sorts of equtvocatrons                                                          speakrng   aboutrhepassage rhe psvchoanarysand the psychoanar-v-st.
                                                                                                                                  of                     ro
                                              about the compietronoi th" mafter while                                                                                           srnce
   one rs still rn psrchoanarysrs.The oniy sensethat the word                                      .unon,s  psychoanalvsts    themselves reference rhe very thrngthat I harelust
                                                                                                                                          the         to
                                                                    psychoanarysrs   has
   rs to rndicatea passrvrry.  whrch rs not at all obvrous.rt ,s ratirerthe conrrarv.              evokedls constanr     and grvenas a condiuonofan1'anaiytrc    aon'f,.t.n.a.
   srncethe one who talks the whole trme rs rndeedthe psychoanalysald.
                                                                                 Th:s rs
   alreadva polnter.                                                                              It could be an mfinrte task to put the ps1'choanarync riterafureto tne test.
                                                                                                  lvloreover.I have hrghlightedsome examplesof it on the horrzon.
                                                                                                                                                                         In my t-irst
   The psychoanalysand     whose anarysrs broughrto a term whose lmport
                                          rs                                                      classthrs year I crtedthe arrlcle by Rappaportwhrch could be called
                                                                              as end,                                                                                       rn French
   as I havejust sad- no one has yet stnctly defined rn                                           (it appearedn the Internattonar Journa[) "statut analyttque
                                                        a.lrthe acceptauons thrs
                                                                              of                                                                                 du penser,'
   word, but neverrheress ls supposedthat rt may
                            lt                                                                    Thmhng, the presenr   partrcrpie. rn sucha large garhenng,t *ourd be tedious.
                                                    be a succ.ssfuidorng. pin on rt
  a word like berng,why not. thrs term remarnsrather                                     ta}:esuch an artrcle to seethereL"rng -*If"rted rn
                                                        empt"vfor us and full                                                                                           rt the best of
  enough.nevenheless. rt to be abreto serveus here
                           for                                                                   good I mrght say. A sort of flanenrngof ever,vthrng
                                                          as a referen"epolnt.                                                                                         that can. from
  what could be rhe end of an operatronthat undoubtedry,                                         the Freudianstaremenr    rtself. be orgamsed termiof statrng*t-ut rs mvolved
                                                             at leastat the stan. has
  to do wrth the truth if the word berng could not be                                            for the functron of thrnkrng rn what rs called the anaiytrc..o-non y
                                                      evoked at rts ho'zon.                                                                                               The srikrng
                                                                                                 thrng about rr would be thar rhe tea'ng apartthat rs marked ut .uiry
  Is rt so for the analyst? Namery. the one who rs                                              mpossibiliry of aot, for example. makrng thtsmonrageor ddmontage. you
                                                      supposed have gone through
                                                                 to                                                                                                          as
  sucha.;ourne-u- the p'ncrples that rr presupposes
                    on                                                                          wrsh.of thtnhng. sran from rhe prrman.process the level of w.har
                                                          and whrch are contributed bv
                                                                                  -"'" "t                                                                                        Freud
  the act ofthe ps'choanarysr. rs useress questron
                                   It                                                           deslgnates pnmalv hailucrnatron. Thrs rs linked to the flrst pathetrc
                                               ro           oneserfrvhetrr;;;;.                                                                                              search.
  psychoanalyst the nght. rn the name of some
                   has                                                                          that supposed the srmpleexlstence a motor svstem.
                                                                                                                br                       of                  When rt doesnot
  sense a,e*en tigure rn rhrspoetlc operatron thrs
         of                                                                                     encounter ob;ectofits satrsfactron. rs supposed ar the source
                                                                                                            the                           lt            -
                                                     by     dorn! sublect.It rs                                                                                          ofrhe
  useless ask oneselfwhetherrt rs leeitimate not
          to                                                                                    explanatronof the pnmary process- ro be reslonsiblefor thrs regressrve
                                                   or     to lnterpret  thrs .dorng as                                                                                         process
 confirmmg the fact of transferen.a. I-ntarpr.tatron                                            whrch makesthe phanrasttcal      rmaeeof rvhatrs sought appear.
                                                        and transference rmpiied
 rn the act throughwhch the analyst g,u., to thrs dorng
                                                             support and
 authorrsatron. rs desrgned that. Thrs alr the
                   It             for                                                          The complere  rncompatibiliry rhrsregrster,
                                                                                                                             of              whrchrs nevenheless under
                                                       sam! g,u., ,o*. werghtto the
 presence   ofthe act even ifthe analvstdoesnothrng.Heice thrs                                 the headingof rhrnkrng.wrrh rvharrn rhe secondar!.processestablished
                                                                       separatrng of
                                                                                  out                                                                                     rn
 the dorn-s  and of the act rs essentlalto the statusof the acr rtself.                        (67) rermsof a rhinkrngwluch rs a son of reduced  aitron. a small scaleactron
                                                                         where rs rt
graspable    that the psychoanall-ttc shoq'srr hasrun lnto an
                                       act                                                     rvhch makes rr necessaw pass rnto a complerell different
                                                                    obstacle? Let us                                                                        re$ster than the
not lbrget that the psychoanalyst supposed
                                      rs                                                      one tirst evoked.namely'. rntroducrron the dimensron iealiry
                                                                                                                       rhe               oi                of
                                                  ro have reachedthrs pornt ar rvhrch.                                                                               resrlng.
horreverrestncted maybe therehas b'een
                       rt       .               produced hrm thrsendingwhrch                  doesnor t'a'.l be noredrn passrng rheauthor. In pursurng path
                                                                                                           to                    b1,
                                                           for                                                                                                hrs
rncludes evocatron the tnrth.
           the            of                                                                  rmperrurbably lvill come to see thar not only are rherenot iruo
                                                                                                             he                                                 modesand rrvo
                                                                                              regrs(ers rhrnkrngbut thar there are an rnfinrtv of them whrch are
                                                                                                        of                                                         to be more
From thrspornrof berng,he rs supposed be                                                      or lessecheloned what psycholoersrs prevrously
                                                                                                                rn                    had            notedrn termsof stages
                                     ro  the Archrmedes   capable of
makrngrum e\ ery1hln*g developsrn thrs
                     rhat                                                                     of conscrousness. consequenrlr relief of what
                                                                                                                 And               to
                                        srrucrurefirst evoked.of whrch the                                                                                                  had
ctrcumscribrng an ,.1lose" bv w.hrch
             of                    I be*ean.                                                  beencontributed Freud ro what rs caliedthe reductlon general
                                                                                                               by                                       to         psychology.
                                           *erves ke.u_
                                                                                    rts abolitron. Thrs rs only a rnvralexampie  and eachone of .u-ou  cin,
(66) would rt be rnterestlng see
                           ro                                                                eachone as you wrsh,can go and conr-lrrn If orherpeoplesaw the rnterest
                                thereberngreproduced    herethrseffectof                                                                                                    ln
loss' bey.ond operatronthat the analytrc
            the                                                                              holding a semrnar whrch somerhrng
                                                                                                                rn                  like thrs would be followed rn rts derails-
                                        ur"t,.ntr.r? I thrnk that by posrng
                                                                                             lvh'not - the rrnportantthrng ir s€ems me rs thatrt rs complerely
                                                                                                                                    ro                            eludedrn
                                                                                rv 6       6.12.67                                                                     N7

                                                     fails. What rs strikrng.                 There rvould reallv be nothrng to make of it. especrally  not a rectan-sular
    thts perspecttve reductron
                      of          and consequently
    outstanding,extraordinary.rmplied tn thls dimenstonof pnmar.vprocessls                    tnangle.if. perhaps finally. to allow us a little to posequestlons.
    somethlng  whtch can be expressed    more or lessas follows;not "in the
    begrnnrng dissatrsfactron"
              rs                   whch meansnothrng, It rs not thatthe livrng
    rndivldual chases  after sahst'actronthat ts rmponant. lt rs that therets a starusof
    enjoyment (i o tussance) whrch rs di ssatrsfactton.

   To eludert as rmpliedrn the theoryof the one who rntroduced thtstt. doesnot maner whetheror not he expressed like that.but if he
   constructedrt like that. namely. if he formulated the pleasure pnncrpleas lt had
   never beenformulatedbefore hrm. for pleasurefrom all ttme servedto dei-ine                                                                                        t*^, t )
   the good,rt was sattsfactlon ttself. Exceptfor the fact thatno one was able to
   beliel'ert. becauseevervone  knew from all trme that to be rn the good ts not
   always satrsfurng.Freud tntroducesthls other thlng. It ts a maner of seerng
   what rs the consrstency  betweenthrs potnt and the one first tndicatedrn the
   dimensronof truth.

   I openeda.;ournalby chance. I do not know what tt ts, a weekly, a tn-annual, tn                T
   whch I saw distmgurshed       srgnatures, one from the srdeof the honzon where the
   divrne baftie rs still finng on all cylinders,that for the good preclsely. I saw an
   artrcle whrch beganwtth a sort of incantatlonaround"the symbolic,the
   rmaglnaryand the real" ... To whrch the personreferredthe iilumrnattonthat
   had beenbrought mto the w'orld by ttus tnpartrtronfor whrch I am responsible.
   And he valiantly concludes:to us thrs sayswhat lt says,the Real rs God. Thrs rs                                         Svmbolic
   (68) how people can say that I am a contribuhon to theologrcal     farth.

   Thrs. all the same.encouraged to do somethrngthat I rvill anempt tbr the
                                 me                                                                                                       ! {.*. rl.'"i)
   numerous    peoplew'hoseethat thrs rs mrxed up. That what can be rndicated.
   one takesthese  termsotheruse than rn the absolute. the followrng;


                                                                                                                         \\_ //
                                                                                              You are not golng to go around ruth that on a plece of paper saylng to yourselt-:
                                                                                              what square I rn! AII the same.
   The s1'mbolic, vou wrsh. ''.r'e golng to put like that.
                if               are
                                                                                              (69) If w'eremember what I teachaboutthe sub.lect determtned nvo
                                                                                                                                                as             by
   The rmagtnary. are golng to put rt over hereand the real ... rt ls completelr'
                              we                                                              srgnifiersor more exactly b1 a sr-enitier representlng for anothersrgnifier.
                                                                                                                                      as            tt
   r d i o t r c l.i k e t h a t .                                                            why not put the baned Sub;ectlike a prolectlon onto the other srde? Thts rvill
                                                                                              allow'thereto be askedwhat ts tnvolvedrn the relatron the Sublectbetueen
                                                                                              the Imagrnaq and the Real.
6.12.67                                                                    tv 8       6.t2.67                                                                       tv9

                                                                                          (71) rnscnptron the srgnifier. Namely.the truth rs not therelike that.any
    on the otherhandrhrsI of the unarystroke.rhe one rvestarttrom to seehow.              more than enJo]'rnent fact. rvhrchcertatnlyhas a relatron lnth the Real. but
    effectnely. rn the del'elopmenr rhe mechanrsm. mechanrsm the
                                    of                rhrs          of                    from rvhrchprecrselv pleasure
                                                                                                                the         prrncrplers desrsned separare .A,s
                                                                                                                                                to         us.     for
    tnctdence the srgnifierrn developmenr. produced.
              of                               rs                the
                                                           namelv. first         ls alr lmaglnaF functron. rncontestable
                                                                                                                                 an               rdealisatron. rs
    Identitlcanon.We r.villput rt also as a proJecrlon the othersrde.
                                                     on                                   what renders delicate posrrron rhe anaiystrvho rs rn the mrddle.rvhere
                                                                                                                the        of
                                                                                          therers the vord.the hole.the placeof desrre.
   The thrrdfunctronrvill be srvenme by thrs"o" whrch rs somerhrng a talling
    of the Realonto the vectorstretched  from the Symbolicto the Imagrnary.                                                                        Knowled
   namell'.how the srsnifiercan very well takerts matenal,    who would seern rhrs
   an obstacle. the rmagrnarv
                 rn               functrons. namelv.rn the most fragile.the most
   difficult thrng to graspas far as man rs concerned.\or that thereare nor rn hrm
   pnmltlve rmages    desrrned provrdeus rvrtha surdern nature. precrsell as
                               to                                    but         .
   the srgnifier Iayshold of them. they are alwavs verl ditficu.ltto locatern rherr
   raw state.

   You seethatthe questron    can be posedaboutwhat rhe vectorsunltrngeachone
   of thesemappedout polnts represent.Thrs rs golns to havean rnterest that rs
   why. of course.I am prepanns vou for thrs linle game. The fact rs that, all the
   same.slncewe har.ebeenspeakrng      aboutthe psychoanalytrc all we have
   been able to do rs ro re-evokethe dimensronsrn whrch thereare deployedour
   (70) referencesconcernlngthe functron of the symptom when we have posrtedrt
   as punlng a check on rvhat rs knowable. on knowledge.whrch alwaysrepresenE
   some truth. we rvouldput here what constrrutes tlurd pole. namely.
   enJoymenL                                                                                                             Truth

  Thts rnroducesmore correcrl_v certaln fundamenral
                                a                    aftachment the human
                                                                  of                     But thrs rnvolvesa certalnnumberof taboopolnts.ln a way, of discrpline.
  splnt to the rmagrnary Thls lntroduces somethrng that can help you like                namely.that srnceone has to answerto somethrng,I mean thosewho come to
  cardinalpolnts and rvhch perhapsmay serveas a supporteven trme I evoke                 consult the analystrn order to tind more secunfv (asnrrance).rvell then my God.
  one of these poles.tbr today.I posethe questlon rvhatrs
                                                               of                        lt happensthat a theory ls constructed rhe conditronsof the secunw that ought
  rnvohed m the acrof the analvstwrth respecr the truth.
                                               to                                        ro come to someoner.vho   developsnormally. It rs a very lovely mlth.

   At the startthe questron can end ought to be posed.doesthe anall'trc take
                                                                         acr             There rs an artrcleby Erik Erikson on the dream of Irma s rn,;ectron rsthar
  chargeof rhe trurhl It seemsro do so. bur who',vouiddareto takeresponsibiiir-r.        constructed thrs way. He enumerates'there ought to be edified
                                                                                                      rn                              rn
  for the truth ',r'rthout
                         drarvrngdensron on hrmself? In certarncasesI take ml.seif       the secunr.v" the linle chap rvho first of all has had a surrable\lammy.. one
  for Pontrus  Pilate. Therers a pretty lmase rn claudel. pontruspilarewhose                   has.of course.  learnther lessons rhe books of ps-v-choanalysts. rhere
                                                                                                                                   rn                              Ald
  only mrstake   rvasIo posethrs questron. uas unluckl.. rs the onty one to
                                           he                                            "vho
                                                            he                           ls a senesof stages   whrch goesrrghtto the gtve us (l already   evokedrt
  have posedrt beforethe truth. That knockedhrm a linle off centre,The resulr            at one trme) a perfectlysecureGI. Thrs can be constructed, be can
  rs. (hereI arn sta\tngrn Claudel'sreglster. rs he r."hornvented
                                              rt                    that)that rvhen      constructed termsof ps-vcholog,v. rs a mafter of knowrng how the
                                                                                                      ln                         It
  he was travellingrfterwards.all the rdols(ir rs still claudel who rs speakrng).                         act
                                                                                        ps]'chLlanalytrc rs compatible       wrth suchrubbrsh. It must be believed  that rt
  sarv.therrbelliesopenlnsand clattenngdorvr wrth rheloud norse a slot
                                                                     of                 has somethrngto do and the ivord rubbish (ddchet)rs not to be takenthereas
                                                                                        comtngb1'chance.       Perhaps  b.r'prnporntrng, lve should,certaln
                                                                                                                                         as                   theoretrcal
                                                                                        productrons. can tmmediareh'
                                                                                                       we                     Iocateon thrs map. slncelt ls a
 I am not poslnsthe questron.  ertherrn thrscontextor wrth suchvrgourto obrarn          Socrartc one that lt ls no more than the one i evokedthe otherday rn
 thrs result. But rn anv case.sometlmes. rs closeto rt. The psrchoanalysr
                                          lr                              does          corulectlonwfih ,\leno. That has no more lmport. lmport as an exerctse.     than to
 not takecharge the truh. He doesnor takecharseof the truth because
                 of                                                      none           seethe relatron   that a producrron havewhlch. rn no case,
                                                                                                                             can                         hasa functron wrth
 of the polescan be.;udged functronof rvhatlr represents rermsof our thre:
                            rn                                ln                        respecr the practrce
                                                                                                 to              that e\en the anal-r.stsmost exuberant aboutthese
 startlngvertlces. namely.thar the truth rs at the locusof the Other.the                constructlons, general
                                                                                                         rn         oprrmrsric. respect less, No psychoanalyst.
                                                                                                                                         no                        unless

6.t2.67                                                                        tv i0         o.l/.o/                                                                            N   1l

    throughexcess by wav of exceptron. _sorng believeln lt lvhenhe
                or                   rs     to                                                     (73) ciings onto.rvhtchln a way rs somethlngto seehere.the relatron ths       to
    lnteryenes,                                                                                    first oblectof en;oyment                                           whtch ls neverthere
                                                                                                                                        whrch rs not the mother'sbreast
                                                                                                   pennanently.but one that rs always wlthln reach: the thumb of the child's hand.
    The relatronof theseproductrons rhenaruralhrghpornt of rubbrsh
                                    to                                here.                        How can analysts          distance    themselves thls degree
                                                                                                                                                      to          from therrexpenence of
    namelythe o. mav help us to make progress regards
                                              as        what rs rnvolvedrn the                     what rs broughrto them rn the first place about the functronof the the
    relatronof anah,trc
                      productron another
                                 to        term. For example.thatof the                            pornt that for themhuman(l humatn)ousht to be rmften I'hu-mam(wtth a
    ideaiisatron hrs socralposrrron
                of                  tharwe would pur on the srdeof the I.                          h 1 ' p h e nn t h e m r d d l e ) .

   In short.the rnausuratron a methodof discemment rvhatrs rnvolvedrn the
                              of                           of                                      The readingthatI am recommending vou rs rn numberfive of thrs.;ournal
   (71) productronsof the anallrrc act. of rhe perhapsnecessary    amount of loss.I                whrch passed mlne for a long time. rvhrch rs called,La psl,chanalyse.There
   am not saylns.that rt rnvolves.  mav be ot a naturenot at all srmplyto iliumrnare               rs a translatronof thrs transrtronal  oblect of Winnrcott. Readrt. There rs
   wtth a bnght light what rs rnvolved rn the analltrc acr. of the strtus that rs                  nothtngmore tlnng than readingsomethrng         and lesslikely to hold the anentlon.
   presupposes  and that rt supportsrn the ambrgurryrt deploys. And why stoo at                    But if someonewantsto do rt the next trme. who r.villnot understand       that all oi
   any parficularporntof the extensron thrsambrgurry.
                                         of                 until. as I mrghtsai-. we              thrs rs to say what thrs little o ob.;ect It rs nertherwrthrn. nor wlthout. nerther
   have come back to our polnt of departue. if it ls true that there rs no rvay of                 real nor illusory. It does not enter at all rnto thrs anfui constructlonthat the
   gettlng out of it. we may as r.vellcompletethe crrcurt of it.                                   usual analysrs  edit-res
                                                                                                                          around narclsslsmby seerneln lt somethtng      completely
                                                                                                   different than what lt rs meant for, Namely. not to maketwo moral aspects.
   We are golng to trv ths year to grve a first tnal rmageof it. For thrs,for                      namely.on the one srdeself-iove and on the other that of the ob.;ect. the-u-
                                                                                                                                                                            as      put
   example, I am not. of course.gorng to take the worst examples. There rs                         rt.
   rubbrsh and there rs rubbrsh. There rs urunterpretabie rubbrsh.even thouehyou
   should pay attenuonthat thrs destgnatron untnterpretable not takenhere rn
                                              of                 rs                                It rs very ciear. I aireadydid rt here, rn reading what Freud sardabout the Real
   the propersense.                                                                                Ich andthe Lust lch,thal lt *as to demonstrateto us that the first oblect was the
                                                                                                   Lust Ich, namely.myself the rule of my pleasureand that lt rematnsso.
  Let us take an excelientauthor: lv{r Winnrcott. It rs remarkablethat thrs author
  to whom we owe one the most crucral discovenes.i remember.and i will never                      So thenthrs rvholepreclous     descnptron  whrch rs so closeto the o-ob1ect.onlv
  fail to come to rt rn homageln my memory. the help the transrtronai  ob; he               lacks one thrng,whrch rs that one seesthat ever,r'thrng rs sardabout rt means
  put lt forward. gaveme rvhenI was questromng     my.'selfabout the way to                       nothrngbut the bud. the polnt. the first emergence    hom the earthof what? Of
  dem-n-stify filnctron of the so-calledpartralob;ect. as we seert berng
               the                                                                                rvhat the o-oblecrcommands.     namely. the sub.;ect.The sub;ectas such.whrch
  sustarned supportthe mosr abstruse. most mi'stifyrng, the leastclirucal
              to                         rhe                                                      funcnons at first at the levei of thrs transruonaloblect. Thrs rs certatniynor a
  theoryaboutthe so-called  developmenral  relatrons the pre-genrtal
                                                      of               wrth                                      to
                                                                                                  test desrgned dimrnrshthe sort of productrontharcan be done aroundthe
  respect the genlral.
           to                                                                                     analytrc act. But vou will sesw'hatrs rnvolvedrn rr when Winnrconpushes
                                                                                                  thrngsfurther, Namely,when he rs no longerthe observer the linle babr.(hs
   The simple lntroductron thrslittle ob_rect lvlr. winnrcoft callsthe
                            of                that                                                ts more capable it than many others).
                                                                                                                    u.f                      but mapsout hrsown technrque
              oblecr.thrs linle preceof clorhthat the baby,beforethe drama                        concernlng  what he, for hrs par1.  seeksto knorv. ln an openwav. i rndicated to
  aroundwhrch therehaveaccumulated many confused
                                         so                clouds.beforethrs                      you the last trme at the begrnrune the lecture.namely,The Truth.
  dremaof weanrng.   whrch.r'hen'rveobserve ls not at all necessari)y drama.
                                               lt,                      a
  As someone   rvho doesnot lack penetratlon  porntedout to me. rt can happen
                                                                            that                  Thts self rhat he speaksabout as somethrngthat rs therefrom all trme.behrnd
  the personwho most resents    weanlngrs the mother. The presence, srmple
                                                                     the                          erenthrng that rs happenrng  beforeeventhe subjectrs mapped tn an!'!va\'.
  presencern thrs casewhrch seerns a \\'av to be the support.the fundamental
                                     rn                                                           somethlng capable freezrng. sar'5, sttuarlon lack. When the
                                                                                                              rs         of         he        the          of
  arch thanksto whrchel'ervthrng   would no longerer,erafterbe developed  srmply                                      rs
                                                                                                  (7-l) envrronment not surtablern the first davs. rn the first monthsof rhe baby,
  ln termsof a dual relatron. relatronof the child ro the mother. It rs
                                                                                                  somerhrnsmay functton whrch brrngs about thrsf'eezmg. thrsgelanon.
  tmmediatelyrnterfered  rvrthby the firncrrons thrs trny oblecrwhosestarus
                                               of                                                 L ndoubtedl,u-. rs sometiungwhrch only expenencecan senle. And there
  W'innrcoftanrculates us.
                       for                                                                                                   Io
                                                                                                  agalntherers.wrrh respect theseps1chotrcconsequences,          somethmg that
                                                                                                  Winnrcoftsaw iery clearly. But behrndthtsfreezmg,       therets. Winrucontells us
  I ',villtake up ne\t year (January  l0'h; thesefeatures whosedescnptron can
                                                                            one                   thrssef whch rs warttns. Thrs sef berngfrozen,constltutes falsethe
  say rs exemplary It rs enoushto read -\lr winnrcott to translar€    hrm rn a rvav It
                                                                                                  self that iV{r.Winnrconhas to return to by a process resressron
                                                                                                                                                        of           whoserelatron
  ts clear that thrslittle preceof cloth or of blanket.a dirty precethatthe rnfant
                                                                                                  to the actrng@g:r) of the analystrt rvill be the oblect of my discourse next
6.r2.67                                                                     IV 12

   tlme to show. Behrndthrs false self there ts waltlng what? The true to startup
   agun. Who doesnot see.when we alreadyhave rn analytrctheorythe RealIch.
                                                                                       I (^
   the Irst lch.the ego.the rd. all theseref'erences                  enough
                                                     alreadyartrculated      to        le     Tr... -c-1"   t q6 8
   define our field. thatthe additronof thrssef'represents lr
   rs avorvedrn the rext wthfalse and true. the truthJ But who doesnot also see
   that there ts no other true-selfbehLndthrs sltuatlon than Mr Wimrcon hrmselt-.
   who placeshrmselfhereas the presence the trurh.

   Thrs savsnothrnsto rnvolvetn anv wav a disparagement      olwhat thtsposrtron
   leadshrm too. .{s vou will seethe nexr tlme. extracted  from hrsor!' ts a
   posltlon whrch avows that rt must as such and rn an avowed way emereefrorn
   the analytrcact. to take up the posrtronof dorng, through whrch he assumes.  as
   anotheranalystputs lt, to arswer all the needsof the patrent.

   We are not here to go lnto the details of what thrs leadsto. We are hereto
   rndicatehorv the slightestmlscognltron- and how rvould tt not exrstslncelt ls
   not yet defined - the slightestmlscogrutlonof what rs rnvolved rn the analytrc                                                                           l\rnIL

   act, rmmediatelydraws the one who assumes and all the more so if he rs more
   certaln.more capable- I am quotrng thrs author because consrder
                                                             I        that therers
                                                                                                                  A1,..,.. o,r
   no one who comesnear hrm rn English - that rmmediatelyhe rs brought,biack
   on whrte, to the negailonof the analytrcposltlon.

  Ths lust by rtself appears me to confirm. to glve a begrnrung, not yet a
  support to what I am rntroducrngas the method of a cntrque by theoretrcai
  expresslons what rs rnvolved ln the sratusof the psychoanalytrc
              of                                                    act.

                                                                                                                                        L\n <c,r ! (r c*\

                                                                                                                     wkc*    hch (e
                                                                                                      " {olr*
                                                                                                                       rl-       b(
                                                                                                        6t'15''       w45        (\<x
1 0l.. 6 8                                                                  V1

      S e m r n a r5 : W e d n e s d a y1 0 J a n u a r " v 9 6 8 .

     I offer you my good wrshestbr the Ner.r'
                                   they say.

     Why "nerv"? All the samelt rs like the moon,when rt has tlnrshedrt begrns
     agarn. And thrspornt of finrshrng and of recommencrng could put
     anywhere,where.perhapsas opposedto the moon whtch was every
     kno"vs.and as a familiar sa)-lngrecalls.tbr the rntentlonof a not rndifferent
     person. And therels a moment when the moon disappears.      lvhrch ls a reason
     for decJanng to be new afterwards.

    But for the year. and for many other thrnesand generallyfor what rs called the
    real.therels no asslgnable begtnnrng.  Nevertheless. ls necessary tt
                                                         tt             that
    shouldhave one oncert had beencalled"year" because        ofthe srgnifyrng
    mapplng out of r-vhat found. for one part of thrs real. to be detlned as a

    It rs a cycle that rs not qulte accurate. all the c1'cles the real. But
                                             like            rn
    once one graspsrt as cycle. rherers a srgnifierthat doesnor qulte asree
    wrth rhe reai. It rs corrected speakrng. example.abouta greatyear
                                    by            for
    ln connectlon   wrrh a Ijnle thlng that vanestiom vearto year until rt makes
    up 28.000years. In short.rt rs recycled,

    So then.rvhereshouldone put the besrnnrng the year.for example?Thrs rs
    wherethe act comesrn. Thrs at Ieastrs oneof the rvaysof rackiingwhat rs
                                   aboutvihrch.if you search
    rnlolr ed rn the act.a strucrure                        carefull1 ,vouwill
    seethatpeoplehave.rvhenali rs satdanddone.spokenlittle.

   The \ew Year grvesme the opportunlr to approach from thrsangle.

    (76).{n act rs linked to the determlnatron the begrnnrng. very
                                                df               and
   especrallv  wheretherers needto makeone.because,       precrsely'. does
   not e\lst. That rs why, rn short.',vhat Jid at the begrmrnghasa certaln
   sense.To offer you my wrshesfor a ecod !ear. rs somethtng      thatenters
   rnto rhe field of rhe act. Naturally.a smallact.a !'erv lay resrdue act.
   But do not forgetthat if ive make these   iinle bowrnesand scraprngs -
   whrch are alw'a1's  more or less-eorng of fashron. whrch subsrst.
                                          out            but
   thrs rs what rs remarkable r! rs as an echoof thrngsthat peoplespeak
   abouras if they'\!'ere gone.namely'. ceremonral   acrswhrch.rn a
10.1.68                                                                      v2     r0 . l. 6 8                                                                  V3

    framervorkthat one can call the Emprre.actswhch conslstedrn the fact                  the one hand, that lt rs ln the analytrctield. namely. ln connectlonwlth the
    that on that day the Emperorhandledthe plough wrth hrs o,'rnhands.                    parapra.\rs(acte manque),that lt appeared     precrselythat an act rvhrch
                                                                                          presents rtselfas mlssrngout rs an act.and unrquelytiom the fact that rt rs
   It rs an organrsed that markeda begrnnrng so far as rt was essentral
                      act                         rn                                      slgniryrng.And then.that a psychoanal)-st     presrdes.           (let
                                                                                                                                                  precrsely, us limu
   tbr a certarn orderof emptrethat thrs foundatron   renewedat the begnnlne              ourselves thrsterm for the moment)over an operatlon
                                                                                                    to                                                described  as
   of eachyear shouldbe marked. We seeherethe dimensron whar rsof                         psychoanalysrs  whrch.ln rts pnnclple.commands suspensron every
                                                                                                                                              the              of
   calledthe traditronal  act. the one foundedon a certalnnecessrry of                    2at

   transtentngsomethmg      consrdered essentral the order of the sr-snifier.
                                        as         rn
   That rt shouldbe necessa{v transferlr presupposes
                                 to                      apparently that rt rs            You senSe    that r'vhen are now gotngto engage
                                                                                                                   we                          Ourselves thls pa1h.
                                                                                                                                                        on            of
   not transferred rtself. that begrnnrngrs rvell and truly rene'"val.
                   b.''.                                             Thts                 questlonrng a more precrse.
                                                                                                        ln                  more lnslstentway than we wereable to do rn
   even opensthe door by way of an opposrtlonto the tbct that rt is                                                    of
                                                                                          the rntroductorysesslons the last tnmester,what rs rnvoived rn the
   concervable  that the act constrtutes. onecan express rn thrsway.
                                         if               rt                              psychoanalytrc    act. I r.vant the same.a linle brt more than I w'asable rn
   wrthout quotatlonmarks, a.true begrnnrng.That there should be rn a                     these t-rrstwords. to hrghlight that at our honzon, we know what rt can be a
   word. an act. whch ts creatlveand that ths rs the begrnnrng.                           questlonof in every act. Of thrs act whosernauguralcharacter sholved
                                                                                          eariier. and whose type as one mrght sar'.ts glven to us through thrs vacillatrng
   Now. rt ls enoughto evoke thrs honzon of any funcrronrng the act to
                                                                of                        meditanon that ts camed on around the politrcs of the act describedas that of
   graspthat rt rs obvrously here rndeedthat there resrdesrts true strucnre.              Crossrngthe Rubrcon.for example. Behrndrt othersare profiled. The Night
   whrch rs qulte apparent,obvrous.and showsthe fecundity, moreover,of                    of the -l' ofAugust. theJeu depaume,the Daysof October...
   the myth of creatron.
                                                                                          Where ls here the senseof the act?
   It rs a linle surpnslngthat rt did not emerge a wav that rs now crurenr.
  admrnedlnto commonconsclousness. therers a certatnrelatron
                                            that                                          Certainly we feel. we sense- that the polnt at whrch questrorung first
  betweenthe breakproducedrn the evolutronof sctenceat the begrnnrng           of         (78) suspended. the srrateglc
                                                                                                            rs             sense  ofone or otherbreakthrough.    Thank
   the l7d centuryand the realisatron, adventof rhe rue lmport of thts
                                         rhe                                              God. rt rs not for nothrngthat I t-rrst
                                                                                                                                evokedthe Rubrcon. [t rs a rather
  myth of creatronrvhrchthus took slxteencentunesro come to lts true                      srmplisttc  examplecompletelymarkedby the dimensrons the sacred.
  rncrdence, r.vhat
                to     one can call throughoutthrs epoch, Chnstran                        Crossrng Rubrcondid not havea decrsrve
                                                                                                     the                                  military meanrng Caesar.
  consclousness.cannotcome back too oftento thrsremark whrch.I                            But on the contrary. crossrt was to re-enter motherland.The land of the
                                                                                                                to                        hrs
  underline. ls not mlne but that of AlexandreKo-n-re: the begmnrngrvas                  Republic. whrch to attack. tvas to uolate. Ths rvasa breakthrough      that had
  the acnon" saysGoethe. A linle larer.peoplethrnk that thrs rs a                        been made.rn the senseof theserevolutronary      acts that I find myself -
  (77) contradictton the Johannrne
                       of                formula:"ln the begrnnrng    was the            unlntenuonaill' of course- to have profiled behrndrt. Is the act the moment
  word" Thrs rs ',rhat makeslt necessary look a linle more closelyat lt. If
                                             to                                          when Lenrnglvesone or otherorder.or the momentwhen thereare loosed
  you are rntroduced the quesrron
                       to              alongthe path that I haveJusttned to              upon lhe rvorld the sr_gnifiers grve to one or other precrsesuccess the
                                                                                                                        that                                       rn
  open up for you rn a familiar wa!'. lt ts qurteclear rhat there rs not the             strategy sense a begrnnrns
                                                                                                   rts       of             that rs already
                                                                                                                                          tracedout? Somethrng      rn
  slightest   opposrtronberween   theserwo ibrmulae. In the begrnnlng     was the        whrch the consequence a cenarnstrategv
                                                                                                                   of                   comesto take tts place.andto
  actlonbecause    tvlthoutan act therecan qurtesrmnlr.beno questron a     of            take rn rt lts valueas srgn.
  begrnnrng.A,ctlon rndeed the begtnnrng
                       rs        ai               because  therecouldnot be a
  begrruune    wrthoutactlon.                                                           Atter all. rt rs wonhwhile posrngthe questron a certalnstamngpornt.
                                                                                        Becausern the *'ay that I am solng to advance   onto the terraln of act. there rs
  If rve can grisp from sorneansle w'hatrs ne!'er.or rvhathas never beenup              also a certarn  breakthrough evoktnsthtsdimensron revolutronary and
                                                                                                                     rn                        of                 act
  to nol\'. put foniard qutte as lt ls necessary do. the fact rs that there rs no
                                               to                                       plnnlng on rt somethrng  differentto anv rvarlikeefficacvand rvhrchrs called
  actlonthat ls not presented  first and foremost wrth a srgnifurng pornt.This          strmulatrng nervdestre.
  rs rvhatcharactenses act. rts slgniIrngpornt. and lts efficlencyas act
  has ncrthrng do wrth rts efficacvas a dorng. Something
                to                                            that reaches  thrs        "Un coup de ton clotgt sttr le tambour ddchargetousles sons et commencela
  srgni['rng pornt. One can besrnto speak    aboutacr srmply.wrthoutlosrng              nouvelleharmonte
  srght- rt rs rathercunous that rt shouldbe a osvchoanalyst   who can for the          Ltnpas de tot c'est la leveedes nouveattrhomnes et I'heure en marche.
  first ttme glve to thrsthemeof act thrsu...nt, more exattly what                      Ta t€rese ddtor.u'ite, nouvelamour Ta tetese retourne,le nouyelamour "
  constltutesrts strangeand thereforeproblematrc    and double feature- on
r0 . l . 6 8                                                                 V4         1 0 ..I6 8                                                                    V)

      [Your tinger on the drum loosesall rhe soundsand begrnsthe new harmony                  conjuncttonof a v'eryspecraldisiunctronwhrch rs the one that. more than three
      A steptrom you rs the nsrng of new men and trme on the march.
                                                                                              yearsago, I rntroduced grvrnga new sense the term ofalienatron.
                                                                                                                        by                   to
      Your i'aceturns asrde.the ner.vlove. Your face rurnsback. the nerv love.J               Namely,the one whrch proposes      thrs cunouschorcervhose     consequences  I
                                                                                              artrculatedwhrch rs a forcedchorceand. necessariiy. losrngone. ''your
      I thrnk that none of you can tait ro undersrandthrs rext by fumbaud thar Iam                                  ''liben-u."
                                                       '                                      money or vour lit'e'',         or death" The last one that 'vve rnlroducrng
      not finlshlngand whrch rs called',,4 une  ratson                                       here and that i am brrngrngrn to show rrs relatron',vrthrhe ps1'choanalytrc   act
                                                                                             rs; "ertherI do not think or I am not" If vou add to lt. as I did earlierto the
      it rs the tbrmulaof the act.
                                                                                             soll Ichwerden.the term whtch rs rndeed     what rs rn questron the
                                                                                             psychoanall.trc the term psychoanalrst. rs enoushro maliethrsljnle
                                                                                                             acr:                         rr
     can the act of posrtrng unconscrous concerved othenvrse.And
                           the             be            of                                  (80) machrne  run. obvrousll. there rs ro be no hesrratron. on the onehandt
     especrallyfrom rhe moment rhatI recallthatthe unconsclous a laneuase
                                                                has                          arn nor a psychoanalyst. resultrs thar I do not thrnli.
     structure.when havrngrecalled rt wlthout recordingthe profound tremors
     among thosewho are tnterested that. I take up and speakabout rts
                                    by                                                       Narurally the rnrerest thrs rs nor srmply humorous. It oughr rndeedto lead
     disrupr:veeffectson the Cogtto.
                                                                                             us somewhereand partrcularlyto askrngourselveswhat rs rnvolvedsrmplvm
                                                                                            our expenenceof last year. ln what I will call thrs startrngsupposrtronwhrch
     Here. I take up agam,I underline, rt happens that rn a certarnfieid I can              rs constrtuted fte "erther I do not thrnk or I am not" How doeslt happen
     formulate."l thrnk" That has all sorts of charactenstrcs.  what I dreamt last          that rt has proved to be not srmply efficacrousbut necessar.v what I caled
     (79) night, whar I mrssedthrs mornrng. or indeedwhat I touchedon yesterdav
                                                                                            Iast year a logrc of the phanrasy,
                                                                                                                             namelr'.a logrc of such a knd that rt
     through some uncertarnstumbling, \.vrthout  wantng to. by makrng what rs               preserves rtself the possibility of g[,'lng an accountof what rs rnvolvedm
     called a wlftlclsm. sometlmeswlthout dorng it de[berateiy.
                                                                                            the phantasyand of its relauon to the unconscrous.

     In thrs "l thrnk" am "l there"? It rs qurte certalnthat the revelatronof the ,,1
                                                                                             Becausert rs thereas unconsclous,     agaln i must not thrnk of what rs mvolved
     thrnk" of the unconsclousrmplies - everyoneknorvsthrs whetherone has done               ln mv unconscrous thrnkrng,. Where I ttunk rt. I am no longerat home. I
    psychoanalysrs not, rt rs enough to open a book to seervhat rs at stake-
                       or                                                                    am no longer thcre, "I am no longer there(7en'y surs      plus)" rn terms of
    somelhrngthat. ar the level of whar Descartes Cogtto makesus put our finger
                                                                                             languagern the sameway that I make the personwho ansrvers door sav. the
    on about the rmplicatronof the "thereforeI am" and thrs dimensronthat I                  -'Sir rs                        ''I
                                                                                                      not at home" It rs an am nol rhere"rn so far as lt rs sard. Thrs
    would describeas that of defusrng. Thrs meansthat where I most certarnlv
                                                                                             rndeedrs what slves lt lts tmportance. Thrs meansn partrcular,        thrs means
    thrnk. because am aware of it. I w'asm rt. but exactl.u- they- - you knorv J
                     I                                        as     sa.v-                  that as psvchoanalyst cannotpronouncert. You can seethe effect rt would
    alreadvusedthrsexampie,but expenence         teaches that rt ls not valn to
                                                         me                                 haveon my clienrelel Thrs rs also whar corners rn the posttlonof "l do
   repeatmvself- rt rs rn the samesensern whrch.according rhe example
                                                                  to                        not thrnk" At leastif rvhatI am puthn*u       forward here as logtc ts able to be
   extractedfrom remarksof the lingurst Guillaume.rn the samesense         that rhrs        fbllorved along rrstrue thread. "I do nor rhrnk'' could be - havrngdrarvnthe
   very specific use of the rmperfectrn Frenchwhrch grvesall rts ambrgurqv
                                                                                 ro         two crrcles                                 (cf
                                                                                                          fglerv and thetr rntersectron schema), markedwrth all the
   the erpressron''rtn    mstant prustarcrla bombeeclarlait"           second  and
                                                               [another                    quotarron    marksof prudence.    and to tell ,u"ou i'ou must not get too
   the bomb was sone offl. \\hrch meansthat precrsely did not go off.
                                                            rt                             alarmed- thrs "talse-bengrfatx-6tre)" It rs the berneof all of us. One ts
                                                                                           neverso solid rn one'sberngas when onedoesnot thrnk. Eleryoneknows
   AIlo*'me to stick thrs nuanceonto the Germanlvo Es ruar.,      whrch does        that.
   not tncludert. and by thrs to add to rt the renerved that can be g.en
                                                       use                  of ',w'o
   Es v ar soll Ich *erden " \\-here tt was. rvherert rs no longer anl.rvhere
                                                                            but            Onll all the same.I would like to mark clearlythe disrrnctron
                                                                                                                                                       from what I
   there because know that I thoughtrt. ''so//Ich w.erden" Ich: for a long
        .          I                                                          trme         am puttrng foniard toda)'.
   I har.'e
          underlined  that rt can only be translated the sub;ect.The subl-ct
   musr become.Only can hel That rs the questronl
                                                                                          There are tr.vodistrnctfalsehoods. Er ervonekno,.rsrhat rvhenI came rnto
                                                                                          psychoanaivsrs a linle broom rvhrchrvascalledthe mlrror stage, began    I
  "Where lt was ..." Let us translate: must become.'contlnue.      ,,a
                                                                                          by mapprngout. because    aier all rt was tn Freud.rt rs sard,mapped  our,
  ps-vchoanall'st"only from rhe t'act- rt rs the questlonthat I posed
                                                                       about rhrs         sened. I took the mrrror stageto rnakea portmanreau. rs evenmuch more
  /cft translated the sub.;ect how rs the psychoanalyst
                 br            -                          gorng to be able to find        emphasrsed  rmmediately   rhanI was e'.erableto do rt rn rhecourse   of
  hts placern thrs con;uncture.Thrs .onlunriur. rs rheone rhatlastyear I
                                                                                          statements spared
                                                                                                     that        peoples sensltt\tties. that therers no love whrchdoes
  expressly'artrculatedunderrhe trtle of rhe logrcof phantasy.  by.adis.;unctrve          not derrvefrom thrsnarclsststtc dimensron.That if one knorvshow to read
r 0 .. 6 8
    i                                                                        V6              r0.l.68                                                                    v7

      Freud.what rs opposed narclsslsm.
                               to                                librdo.whar
                                             what rs calledob.;ect
      (8 i ) concernson the bortom left hand corner rhe o,ob1ect. rhat rs oblecr
                                                                for                              We eventouchwrth our fin_eer the only fact thatwe haveto questton
      librdo. It has nothrng do wrth love srncelove ls narctsslsm rhe nvo are
                             to                                     and                          thrs archd-porntabout.namely. rs whether lt ls zero, The fact rs that rn anr
      opposed:              librdo and oblect librdo.
                 narctsslstlc                                                                    casert rs alreadymarked. and that. after ali. thrs works out ratherwell ali the
                                                                                                 sametbr from the effect of the mark. rt appearsven, satrsfurng seethere
     So then whenI speakabout"faise-berng'' rs not a matterof rvhatcomesto
                                                r!                                                                                    ''l
                                                                                                 flowrng the "ertherI do not thrnk" or am not" "Either I am not thrs
     plant rtselfthereupon lt. rn a way. like mussels rhe hull of a shlp.rf 1'ou
                                                     on                                          mark" or am nothlngbut thrs mark" namely.that ''l do not rhrnk" For
     wrsh. It rs not a manerof an rndivrdual  1€tre)puffedup wlth the rmagrnan'                  (83) the psychoanalyst. example.thrsappliesvery well.
     it rs a mafter of somethrngunderneathr,vhrch  grves rt rts place.
                                                                                                He hasthe label.or rndeed rs not rt.
     It ts a matter of the ''l do not thrnk" rn lts structunngnecesslr.v rnscribed
     at ths startlng placewlthout whrch we would not havebeenable.last;-ear.     to              Only onemust not be decerved rt. As i have.;usr
                                                                                                                               by                    markedrt. at the level
     anrculatethe leastthrng about what ls rnvolved rn the loglc of the phantass.               of the mark,we seeonly the necessary    resultprecrsely alienatron.
                                                                                                Namely. that therers no chorcebetrveen mark and the rndiv'rdual,
                                                                                                                                         the                          so
     (83) Narurall]'. ls a convenlent
                     lt                 place.rhrs"I do not thrnk" ft rs notlust the            that if it must be markedsomewhere. rs precrsell' the top left (cf
                                                                                                                                      rt            on
     puffed-up rndivrdualthat I spoke about.,;ust now, rvho finds hrs place there.              schemaof the "l do not thrnk"). The aiienatrngeffect has aireadytaken
     Everythrngcomesrnto rt, medical preludiceas a whole, psychologrcal      or                 place and we are not surpnsedto find there,rn rts ongrnal form. the effect
     psychologrsrng  pre;udiceno less. On the whole, note the fact that rn any case             of the mark. whch rs sufficrently rndicatedrn thrs deductronof narcrssrsm
     the psychoanalyst partrcularlysub;ectto thts "I do not thrnk" because rs
                        rs                                                    he                that I madern a schemathat I know that at ieast some of you know, the
     rnhabrted everythrngthat I havelust stared,
               by                                    pmpornted,as pre3udices  by                one that relatesrn theu dependence rdeal ego and the ego tdeal.
     qualif,rng them b"v therr ongm. He has othersbesrdes, exampleabout
    doctors. The advantage I mrght say. lvhen medical pre.;udice
                              as                                      preoccuples               So then knowrng the natureof the logrcal startrngpornt rematnsm suspense
    lum. and God knows that rt preoccupres     hm a good deal. for take              m so tar as rt still dependson the conJunctron    before the dis;unctton. "I
    only rt. And precrselyrndeedthe doctorsdo not thrnk about lr. even thou_sh     rt           do not thnk" and the "I am not" Assuredly,last year rt was towardsthts.
    still rvonresthem - but not the psychoanalyst. takesrt like that.precrsely
                                                     He                                         slnce lI was our startmgpomt, and as I mrght say the rntual act of our logrcal
    ln the measure  that he has thrs dimensronthat lt rs only a pre.;udice. snce
                                                                          but                   deducrron. would not be able to comeback to rt if we did not havewhat
    lt ls a matterof not thrnkrnghe rs all the more at ease wrth rt.                            constrrutes openrng.the gap that lt ls always necessary find tn even'
                                                                                                           the                                                 to
                                                                                                presentatlon the analyrrc
                                                                                                             of              field. whtch madeus. after havtngconstructed
    Have vou ever.unless     exceptronally.  seena psychoanalyst who questroned                 the momentof the logrc of phantasl spendthe last mmesteraround
                                                                                                                                      .                                 the
    hrmselfaboutrrhat Pasteur      meantrn the medicaladventure?           ls
                                                                    Pasteur nol a               sexualact.preclsely    definedby the fact that rt consrrtutes apona.
    fashronable            but
                  sub.;ect. thrsmrght precrsel.v.'have  caughtrhe afienrron a
    psychoanalvst. hasneverbeenseen. We will seeif it changes.In any
                      It                                                                       Let us take up agarnthen. sanlng from the psychoalalytrcact. thrs
    case. rvouldbe necessary
          lt                      hereto propose oneselfthrslinle exerclse:
                                                    to                                         quesrronrng  aboutwhat s rhe mfintm of the loerc of the phantasy  that I had
    what rs thrsrnrtral  polnt? Ir rs rvorthrvhiie the sameposrnsoneselfthe
                                                  all                                          to begrnto recallhere. That ts rvh.v rnscribed ihe boardtoday'thrs
                                                                                                                                   I           on                      aspect
    questlon. as rre haveglimpsedat the begrnnrng rt rs the axrsof our
               if                                      -                                       of it thatI artrculated year underthe terms of operatron
                                                                                                                      last                                alienatton.
   progress   today- the act rn rtselfis alwavsrelatedto a begrnnne. I quite                                                           to
                                                                                               operauontruth. operatrontransference. make of them the th-ree     terms of
   deliberately not posethe questlonof thrs logrcalbegrnnrne year.
                  did                                                last                      r,lharone can call a Klern group.on condittonof courseof grasprng inthat
   because. more than one pornt of thrs logrcof the phantasv.
              rn                                                             ne                                              are
                                                                                               namrngthem rn thrs wa1'..we not seetnqthe reurn. the operatton, u'hat of
   would havehad to leavelt rn suspense. us prn rt'dgw'n arcfry'.
                                                Let              as       srnce                conslttutesfor eachone the retum operatton. That here as ther are tnscribed
   thts ts horvwe haveentered begrnnrns.It rs an                    r.rrthrhese vectonalrndications. therets only, as I mrghtsay.half a Klern
   trlrtutm. begrmrngbut rn rvhatsense
             a                               .)                                                orolln

   Is rt rn the sense the zeroon a little measurlng
                     of                                apparatus? rndivrdual.
                                                                  An                                                                polnt that we seett rn the analytrc
                                                                                               Let us takeup the act at the sensrttve
   for example.   qurtesrmply. It rs not a bad stan to ask oneselfthrsquestron.                rnstrrutlon let us stan from the beetnntng so far as thrs todavmeans
                                                                                                          and                               tn
   because   alreadrlt seemslt can even be seennght awaythat to posethe                                               the
                                                                                               that Ine act establishes begrnnrng.
   questlon thls wa)-rsto rule out that lt ls a beglnnrns the sense the
              rn                                            rn         of

l0.l.68                                                                       V8           i0.1.68                                                                     V9

    (8+) is lt an act to begrna psvchoanalysrs. or no'.rYes. assuredly.
                                                 ves                         Onl1,.           The end of psychoanalysrs      supposes cenarnrealisatron the truth
                                                                                                                                        a                    of
    who performsthrsact'?We porntedour eariierwhar rt rmpliesfor the one                       operatlon.Namely-.    that if in effect thrsoughtto constltute   thrssort of
    who engages    hrmselfin psychoanalysrs.  rvhatrt rmpliesprecrsely termsof
                                                                         rn                   Joumev.whrch.tiom the sublectrnstalled hrs false-berng
                                                                                                                                              rn                 makeshrm
    reiinqurshtng act, It becomes
                   the                 very difficult. rn rhrssense. anributerhe
                                                                     to                       realisesomethrng    abouta thrnkrngwhrch rncludes "l am not" Thrs does
    structweof the act to rhe one who engages a psvchoanalysrs.
                                                  rn                    A                     not fail to rediscoveras ls appropnate.ln a crossedand rnvertedform. rts
    psychoanalysls a task.and somepeopleeven sa.v- lt ls a trade. I am not
                     ls                                    that                               truer place.rts placern the form of "where lt was" at the level of the "l am
    the one who sardrt. but peopleall the samewho know aboutrt. Thesepeople                   not" Thrs rs tbund rn thrs o-oblectwhosesense        and practlce havedonea
    who have to follow the rule or not. ho',r'ever  you deiine them. must be taushr           lot, rt seems me. to gtve vou. and on the otherhand.thrs lack whrch
    therr trade. In anv case.rn that quaner people do nor talk about therr tradeas                      at
                                                                                              subsrsts the lerei of the naruralsub;ecr. the sublect knorviedge.
                                                                                                                                              of            of              of
    psychoanalysands.     They are golng to sa)'lt now beceuse word has
                                                                 the                          the false-berng the sub3ect.
                                                                                                               of               thrs lack. r,vhrch
                                                                                                                                                 from all trme. has been
    becomepopular. Nevertheless. rs r,vhar means.
                                     that          rt                                         defined as the essence man and rvhrchrs called desrre.but whch at the
                                                                                              end of an analysrs expressed thrs thrng,not only fbrmulatedbut
   So then. rt rs clear that if there ls an act. rt rs probably necessarJ,to
                                                                           look for           rncarnaled,  whch rs called,castratron.
   rt elsewhere. We do not after ail have to force ourselvesvery much to ask
   ourselves saythat if it rs not on the srdeof the psychoanalysand,ts on
              to                                                            tt                Tlus is what we usuallylabelwrth the lenermrnusphr (f). The rnversron   of
   the srdeof the psvchoanaiyst.     Therers no doubt aboutrt. Only'thrs                                                                    ''I
                                                                                              thrs relatronof left to nght rvhrchmakesthe do not thrnk" of the alienated
   becomesa difficulry. Becauseafter what we have regardsthe                      subject correspondto the "where lt was" of the unconsclous the discovery
   act ofposrtrng the unconsclous. lt necessary the psychoanalyst
                                       ls                for                  to                                                                  ''l
                                                                                              of the "where rt.'vas" of desrretn the sub.;ect the am not" of
   posrt rt agarneachtrme? Is rt really possible,especrally we thtnk that
                                                                 if                           unconscrous  thrnkrng,thrs reversrngrtself is properly what supportsthe
   after what we have..;ust   sard,to reposit rt each trme wouid be to grve us                rdentificatronof the o as causeof desue.and of the minus ph (-p) as the
   eachtrme a new opportunity for not thlnklng?                                               place from whrch there rs rnscribedthe gap proper to the sexualact.

   There must be somethrngelse,a relatronberweenthe task and the act                          It rs prectselyhere that we ought to suspend  thrngsfor a moment. You see
   whrch has perhapsnot yet beengraspedand whtch perhapscannotbe. It rs                      It, you put your tinger on rt. there are Fvo "vvoEs war", rw*o   "where rt was"
   necessary  perhapsto make a detour. One seesnght away wherewe can                         corresponding    moreoverto the distancewhrch rn the theory splits the
   find thrs detour. .{t anotherbeernnng. at thls moment of begrnnrng
                                                                    when                     unconsclousfrom the Id. There rs the "where lt was" rnscribedhere at the
   one becomes psvchoanalyst.
                 a                                                                           level of the sub.,;ect. I alreadysardrt. I am repeatrng so rvhatyou will
                                                                                                                   and                                   rt
                                                                                             not ler ttpass.rvherert remalnsattached thrssublectas lack. Therers the
   we must take rnto accountthe fact rv'hrch rn the data that if one rs ro
                                            rs                                               other "where rt rras" whrch at an opposrte    place rs the one rs on the bottom
   belierewhat ls sard.rt ls necessary tnrst oneselfin thrsdomarn.
                                     to                                                      nght 1cf schema),of the the unconsclous
                                                                                                                              of                  w'hrchremarnsaftached    to
                                                                                             the "l am not" olthe unconsclous ob,rect.      oblecrof loss.
   Begrnnrng be a psychoanalvsr. er.eryone
             to                  as           knorvs.begrns the end of
   a ps1'choanalysrs. have onlv to take that as rt rs grvento us if we want
                   we                                                                        The rnrrrallost ob.lect 1hs\,vhole
                                                                                                                   9f         6n3[rt1c genesls. one that Frer-rd
   to graspsomethrng.we must starttiom that. from thrs porntrvhrchrs                         hammered er.erv
                                                                                                        at       phaseof rhebrrthof the unconscloLts, there.thrslosr
   accepted everyone psvchoanalysrs.
            by        rn                                                                     ob;ecr.causeof desrre.We are gornslo seelt as berngat the source the
   So then.let us starttiom thrngsas rhe)'present   themselves.  you have
. come to the end once. It rs from thrsthat vou must deduce relatron
                                                                the         that             (86) But thrs rs only an announcement. am notjustjlrng rt rmmediately.
  ihrs has wrth the beerrmrng even o..uston. you havereached end
                               on                                       the                  There rs still a.;ourneyto take before berngsureof it. w'ehave to pausethere
  of youranalvsrs  once.and rt rs thrs act so ditficult ro graspat the begrnnrne             for a rvhjle. In -seneral. rs oniy taonhrvhile
                                                                                                                      rt                    pausrng a while to graspthe
  (85) of eachps,vchoanalvsrs we quarantee. musthav'e relatron
                               that                 It           a                           trme that one haspassed tt wtthout knoq'tngtt. rve,'villsaymoreover.
                                                                                                                       on                                             to
  wrth rhe end of rr,.hatonce occun-ed.                                                      correctourselves.Passed lt rvouldbe betterto sav"passlng
                                                                                                                         ...                                 Qtassant)"
                                                                                             and if you u'ill allorvme to play wtth the rr'ords
                                                                                                                                              "not wtthoutknorvtngtt
  No* herert rs a.lready
                       necessanrharri hat I put fonvard rastl earshould                      Qtassans le savor)"
  be of someuse. Namelv.the uav rn r.rhrch there rs formulated thrslosrc
  the end of psychoanalysrs.                                                                 Namely. wrth knowledge.onepassed But precrsell'. rs because have
                                                                                                                              rt.             rt           I
                                                                                             presented you the resultof m.u-
                                                                                                      to                          from lastyear.that you are
10 .L 6 8                                                                      v10               6
                                                                                           1 0 ..1 8                                                                       v 11

      supposed knorv.thoughtherers not someexagseratlon thrs. yes.
                to                                                  rn             rt rs
      wrth thrsknorvledge    that I passedthrs trme,too qurckly.namely.rn haste.                The term of analysrsconslsrsrn rhe fail of rhe sub;ectsupposed know and
      As you knorvhasters precrsely     what allows the truth fo escape.Thrs                    hrs reductionto the amval of thrs o-ob1ecr. cause the divrsronof the
                                                                                                                                             as      of
      moreov'er allows us to live. The trurh rs rhatthe lack (on rhetop letr). rs rhe                                                                          ,',vrth
                                                                                                sub;ect  whtch comesrn lts place. The one who, phantastrcalll'.      rhe
     loss.(of the bottomrrght). But the loss tbr rts pan. rs rhe cause somethrng
                                                                         of                     psychoanalysand.    pla.u-s gamewrrh respect the sub.lect
                                                                                                                           the                  to           who rs
     else' \!'e willcall rt the causeof itself on conditron. course.
                                                            of          rharvou are                        to
                                                                                                supposed knorv.namelv.the analvsr. rs he the analystlvho comesro the
     not decerved'God rs the causeof hrmserf,       sprnozateils us. Did he rearise             term of analysrsby berngable to tolerareberngnorhrngmore than thts
     how .ght he was.) why not. after alr. He was someone         verv abre. It rs              remarnder.Thrs remarnder the thrngknown. whrch rs calledthe o-obtect.
     qulte certalnthat the fact of conferrlngon God the fact of berne
                                                                         the cause    of        rt rs around thrs that our questlonshould be broughrto bear.
     htmselt.dissrpared whole ambreurr,u, the Cogiro.whrch mrghtwell
                         the                     of
     have a srmilarprerenslon. leastrn the mrndsof somepeople, if ,h.r",,
                                  at                                                           The analysandwho has come to the end of the analysrs the act, if therers
    an;'thing that analyucexpenenceremmds us of. rt rs that if ihrs expressron.
                                                                                               one. rvhrchcarrreshrm to becomea psl choanalyst.  must we not see that thrs
    "causeof itself'. meanssornetfung, rs precrselyto rndicateto us that the
                                           rt                                                  passage only tahespiace rn the act whrch puts back rn lts piacethe sub.;ect
    self, or what ls calledsuch.rn other words,the sublect which everyone
                                                               to                                        to
                                                                                               supposed know.
    has to come, slnce even rn one or other -A,nglo-Saxon   field wherert can be
    sard that people understand     nothrngabout any of thesequestlons. word
                                                                          the                  We now see thrs place where it ts because can be occupted. But rt rs onJy
    selfhad to emerge. It can be adaptedto nothrng rn anaiytrcrheory.nothrng                   occupredrn so 1-ar thrs sub.yect
                                                                                                                 as                     to
                                                                                                                                supposed know, rs reducedto thls term
    corresponds rt.
                 to                                                                            that the one who up to then guarantees there by hrs act, namely. the
                                                                                               psychoanalyst. psychoanalyst hrs part has becomethrs resrdue,
                                                                                                              the               for                                 thrs o-
   The sublectdepends thrs causewhrch makes rt divrd.ed
                           on                                and rs cailed the                 oblect,
   o-ob;ect. Here rs what marks what rt ls lmportant ro underline:that the
   sublectls not rts own cause. that rt ls the consequence lossand that rt has
                                                         of                                    He who at the end of a trarrunganalysrs    takesup. as I mrght say, the
   to put ltself into the consequence the loss,the onethat the o-obtect
                                      of                                                       challengeof thrs act. we carulotomtt rhat rt rs kaowmg what fus analysthas
   constltutes, klolv what he rs lackrng.
                to                                                                             becomern the accompiishment thrs act, namely,thrs resrdue.
                                                                                                                                 of                                  thrs rubbrsh.
                                                                                               ths relectedthrng. By restonng the sub.Ject               to
                                                                                                                                              supposed know. by hrmself
    That rs why I am sayrngthat we would be gorng too qurckl,vto stateas I                     prckrng up the torch of the analyst.he cannot but rnstall,even if he doesnot
    havedone,thesenvo polnts of the obliqueline. from left to 'ght (cf schema)                 (88) touch lt, camot but tnstail the o rt the level of the sub;ectsupposed    to
    and tiom top to bottom. of thesetwo separated  terms of the first divrsron.                knorv. Thrs sub.;ectsupposedto kno*'. that he can only take up agatnas
   The thrngrs supposedll'knorvn the statement the ,,where was.,rs
                                     rn             that              lt                       conditronof every psychoanaly'nc he knows. at thrs moment thar I called
   lack srartmgfrom rhe subject. it rs onlr truly such if the sublec makesof                  rn the pass.he knows that here ts rhe.ldsete thar through hrm. the
   (87) hrmselfa loss. Nor.vthrsrs what he cannotthrnkexcepiby                                ps1'choanalysand, struck the berngof the analyst. I am sayrng,wrthout
                                                                      makrng                                     has
   hrmselfbe. "i thrnk.he sa1's.  thereforeI am" He re;ects   himselfinvrncibly               touchrngrt. that thrs rs horvhe rs engaged.Because the sub3ect the
                                                                                                                                                       he,              rn
   rnto the berngof rhrsialseact. rvhrchrs calledthe co.sito.The act of the                   passat the moment of the analytrcacr. knows norfungabourthrs ddsErre
   Cogttols error we seern the definrrrve    alienatron  resultrng              established the pornt ot rhe sub.;ecr
                                                                                                           at                                    ro
                                                                                                                                       supposed know. Precrsely         because
  from rt of the bodv.'"vhrch rejected
                               rs        rnto exrensron. relectron rhe
                                                         the            of                    he has become the truth of thrs knorr lsd-s..and that. if I mar sa.v- truth thar
  bodl outsrde rhrnlrn-e the -erear
                of           rs         L-enverfttngof  Descartes. rs stamped
                                                                   It                         rs reached  "not wlthout knorvrngrt" as I sardearlier,    well. rt rs rncurable:
  v'rth rrseffectthat rt reappears the real, namely.rn the rmpossible.
                                   rn                                      It rs              one rs thrs truth.
  tmpossible a machrne be a body' That rs w.hvknowledse
              for            to                                    contrnues     ro
 prove rt b,vmakrng tt into spareparrs. lVe are rn thrs advenfure. do not
                                                                    I                        The analytrcact firnctronsat the stan. as I mrghr say, wrth a falsified sublect
 needI thrnk to makeallus:onsto lt. Bur let us leaveour Descartes        herefor             supposed know. For the sublectsupposed know now proveswhat was
                                                                                                        to                                  to
 toda'to returnto what follorvedand to the punctuatron \!.emust srve
                                                            that                             qurte srmple to seermmediately'thar rt rs what rs at the ctrchdof analytrc
 todal to our progress                                                                                                        anallst could be curedof the rrurhthathe has
                                                                                             logrc. If the onewho becomes
                                                                                             become. ',rouldbe ableto mark rrhat hashappened terrnsof achan-ee
                                                                                                       he                                            tn
\l-e knor,vthat the sub3ecr the anarltrc act can k:iow norhrnsabout whar
                          of                                             rs                  at the level of the sublecrsupposed:o kno''v. Thrs rs w'hatrn our,eraphwe
leamt rn the anal.vtrcexperrence.
                                unlessthereoperates ,, *h'u, rs called
                                                       ,n                                    havemarked by the srgrutier S (O).
transtbrence. The transference I restored a complete
                              that            rn                  by
relatrng to the sub.;ect
        lt              supoosed know.
                                                                           vt2         1 7I. . 6 8                                                                        VI 1

                                                                  ts reduced
   It would be necessar,v graspthat the sublectsupposed knorv
                                                               forms part of
   charactenstrc the unconsclousrtseif, and that thrs discoverv
   the sametnrth-oPeratton'

   I repeat.The punrngln questlon the sub.;ect
                                     of            supposed know' the
   subversron   of what. i would sa.v-. whole functrontng knowledge
                                     the                    of
                                                                                          S e m r n a r6 : W e d n e s d a yl 7 J a n u a r , v1 9 6 8
   rmplies and that I alreadl questtonedbeforeyou many tlmes ln the tbrm
   ',so rhen thrs knorvledge.nvhether rs that of the transijnttenumberof
   cantor or of the desrreof rhe analyst.where rvastt before tt was klown?                (9 I ) In speakrngaboutthe
                                                                                                                      ''psvchoanalytrcact" I I mrght say.trvo
                                                                                          ambrtrons:one    lons term and the other shon. but necessarily shortterm one
   From that aioneperhaps,can one proceedto a revlval of the rndivrdual                   rs the bener. The long term one.rvhrch cannot be set astde,ts to illumtnate
   ('arre) whose conditron tt ls to grasp that if its on-stnand tts re-challengng,        what rs mvolved tn the act.. The short term ls to knorv tn what the act of the
   iirut *i,,.h could take place from the srgnifier of the other that has finally         psychoanalystconslsts. Already rn some \wttlngs rn the past. I spokeabout the
   vanrshed    towards what replaceslt. slnce moreoverrt ts from rts field' from          psychoanalyst.I sardthat I was only stanrng from the fact that therets
   the t'ieldof the Other that ths srgnifier has beentom, namely.the o-oblect.            somethrngof the psvchoanal-r-st psychanalyste). The questtonof whether
   thrs would also be to glasp that the rndivrdual as it can emergefrom any act           there rs "the" psychoanalyst not to be put compietely in suspense
                                                                                                                        ls                                     elther.but
   whatsoever,ts an tndivtdual without essence all the o-oblectsare wtthout
                                                                                          that of knolvmg horv there can be a psychoanalyst a questlonthat rs posed
   essence.Ttus rs what charactenses                                                      more or less m the sametenns as what rs called rn logrc the quesuonof
   Oblects wrthout essence   ,,vhtch are, Or not, to be re-evokedrn the act Startlng
   (89i from ths sort of sub.lect wluch, as we will see.ts the sublectof the act.
                                                                                          The ps.vchoanailtc act, if it rs an act and rt ts lndeed tiom tlus that we began
   of every act. i would say. ln so far as like the sub.;ectsupposed know at
                                                                                          last year. ls somethlngthat puts to us the questlonof anculattng tt, of saymg
   rhe end of the anaiytlc expenence,lt ls a sublectwhrch ts not rn the act.                                                                                             of
                                                                                          rt, whrch ls legttimate. And even gorng further. rmplies the consequences
                                                                                          the act rn so far as the act rtself is m lts proper dimenstona statement  (iln
                                                                                          dire). The act sayssomethms, Thrs rs r.vhat staned from'

                                                                                         Tlus dimensronhas aftvaysbeengiimpsed. It rs presenttn the
                                                                                         expenence, It ts enouehto evoke for even an lnstant Somepregnantformulae,
                                                                                         formuiae that have that of      act accordingto one s
                                                                                         consclence".  to graspwhat rs at stake. To act tn accordance  wlth one's
                                                                                         consclence tndeed krnd of mrddlepornt aroundrvhrchthe hrstory the
                                                                                                     rs       a                                                of
                                                                                         act could be sardto haveturnedor that one can take as a polnt of deparrure
                                                                                         centrelt. To act tn accordance wtth one s consclence.Why and befbre

                                                                                         (92) The dimenston the so far as the act bearswttness
                                                                                                              of                                             to
                                                                                         somethlng,cannot be elimrnatedetther. Does thrs mean that ths ts the true
                                                                                                                              COUId even Sustain for an lnstant
                                                                                         turnlnq point, the centreof gravrr.u'?        w'e              tt
                                                                                         r,vhere are comlngfrom. namely.whereconsclence such ls put n
                                                                                                we                                                 as
                                                                                         questlon.put ln questlonln the measurethat lt can lead to what? Assuredl;"
                                                                                         not to knorvledgeor to the truth elther. i1 ts from here that we srartagarnby'
                                                                                         takrng the measure  ofwhat hasnot yet beendefined.ofrvhat hasnot yet been
                                                                                         really crrcumscribed. what rs only tntroduced
                                                                                                               of                           here.not evenpresupposed.
                                                                                         the pslchoanalyttc orderto questlon   asaln thls porntof equilibrrum
                                                                                         aroundrvhrchihe questton posedof r,vhat act ts.
                                                                                                                     ls                the
t7. .68
  1                                                                              vI 2       17.1.68                                                                               VI 3

                                                                                                               those that I recalledearlier under the rerms of alienauon.rrurh.
                                                                                                are taken bern-s
   On the honzon.of rve know. a distantmurmur. a murmur whch                          and transference.
   comes hom afar.lvhrch comesfrom the trmesdescribed classrcal. agaln
                                                              as          or                                                                                      cit v g$
                                                                                        I o(o
   our {nttquttv. r,vhereassuredlv knorvthat ail that rs sardon the subJect
                                   we                                          of
  the exemplaryact. of the mentonousact.of Plutarchrsm. you rvrsh. We
  surely sense  alread."" therels a liftle too much selt'-esteem
                        that                                       gening rntothe
  game. and nevertheless we that far from rt? I thrnk that todar lt rs around
  a discourseon the sub.;ect rhat '#e will rake up the acr agaln. And rhat our
  advantagecomes from nothrn-q     other than somethrngrvhrchhas made us
  restrlctthe supportng polnt of thrs subyect rmposrng ourselves most
                                               by            on          the
  severediscrpline. only wantlngto takeas certalnthrsdimensron rvhrch
                     by                                                by
  It rs the grammatrcalsub.;ect.                                                                                                                                      rY,
  Let us clearly understandhere that lt rs not new, ard rhat last year ln our
  presentailonof the Logtc of Phantasy.we marked ar rts piace. the placeof ''l
  do not thrnk", this form of the sublectwhrch appeared a curtailing of rhe
                                                           as                                   What doesthat mean? Where doesthat lead us?
  field reservedto rt. Thrs dimensronproperly of grammar whrch meant that
  the phantasywas able to be domrnatedliterally by a sentence     whrch rs only               We posrt the psychoanalyucact as conslsrtng the fact of supportrngthe
  sustarned, whrch rs only concervedof in the grammatrcaldimensron;Ein Kind                  transference.We are not sayrng;who supports,         who performs the act, the
  wvd geschlagen,a child rs berngbeaten. We klow all about rt. Thrs rs the                   (94) psychoanalyst   thereforermpiicrtly, Thrs transference     whrch would be a
  surestpolnt we have. around lvhch. m the name of what we posrt for                         pure and srmple obscerury,I would say. rnth some babbling addedon, if we
 discrplinarypurposes,that there ts no meta-language.     that logrc rrseifmust be           did not restoreto rt rts true core, m the fi.nctron of the subject supposedto
 extractedfrom thrs grven wluch languagers. It rs around thrs logrc, on the                  knolv, Here, we have done thrs for some ume by shorvrngthat ever.rthingthat
 contrarv.that we made revolve thrs trrple whrch b.u- sort of
                                                                      a                      rs artrculated.                     as
                                                                                                            about rts diversrqv, a transference     etfect. can oniy be
 attempt at a trlal. a divrnailon. a nsk. we gave the form of the Klern group.               organrsed berng referredto thrs truly fundamentalfunction that rs always
 (93) An operatronthat we beganby hrghlightrng.on fie path alone'"vhrch       we            presentrn everytlxng that rs rnvolved rn any progressof knowledge. Ths
 tackled rt. by the terms of alienatlon.fruth. and transt'erence.                           takes on lts value here precrseiyfrom the f-actthat the exrstence the of
                                                                                            unconsclousputs lt rn questron- a questlonnever posed because are still\,ve
Undoubtedly,thrs rs only a prnpolnttng. -{,ndhal'rng gone over rhem m a                     there,as one mrght say.rmplicrtly- the answerrs evenunnotrced.From the
certarndirectronw'eare - to find our lvay rn them. lo suppon what they can                  moment that there rs knowledge.there rs a sublect.and there must be some
representfor us - forced to glve them anorhername. and of course.on                         shiii. some split. some shakrng,some moment of .f in thrs knowledge, for one
conditron that rve seethat rt rs the sameJourneythat ls ar stake.                           to notlce all of a sudden,for there to be thus renewedthrs knowledee that he
                                                                                            knerv betbre.
 So then lt ls slantns from the subversron the sub3ect
                                            of            that we havealreadl
 for someten yearssutficrently    art:culared. that peoplecan concerve the
                                              so                          of                Thrs rs scarcely   notrcedw'henrt rs happenrng. rt rs the field of
 sensethat thrs term talies on, r.vhen sa\,that rt rs from the subr ersronof the
                                      w'e                                                                     that
                                                                                            ps."-choanal.u-slsmakesrt rnevrtable,        Vhat rs rnvolvedrn the sub3ect
 sublect that we have to take up agarnthe functron of ihe act. In order for us to           supposed knorv.slncewe haveto dealrvrththls sort of unthtnkable
                                                                                                       to                                                               thrng
see that lt ls bet\.veen erammatrcalsublect.the one that rs there. rnscribed
                        thrs                                                                whrch rn the unconscrous     slruates us a kaowledgeiuthout a sublect?
tn the very notlon of act, rn the way rn whrch rt rs rnadepresentfor us, the / of          Narurall.v-  thrs rs somethrngthat one ma) not notlce. by conttnutng to thnk
actlon, and thrs sub.;ect artrculatedrn rheseterms rhat are sliding: ahvaysready           that thrssublectrs rmplied rn thrsknowledge.      quite srmplybv aiiowrngthere
to flee us by a displacement, a..;ump. one of the verrlces rhrs
                                b-v-      to                     of                        to escapeevery4hrng      rnvo.lved the efficecy of represston,
                                                                                                                             rn                             and that tt camot
tetrahedron.rn recalling to .vouthe funcilons of theseterrns.namely.                       be concervedof othenvrsethan rn the facl that the srgnifier presentln the
the posrtron rhe ether-ar from rvhrchrherestartsrhe onglnatlngalienatron.
              of                                                                           unconsclous. liable to rerum,rs preclsel.u-
                                                                                                           and                               repressed that tt doesnot
the one whch culmrnates the "l do not thrnk" for lr to be evenchosen and
                             at                                             -              rmply a sublect,that rt rs no longerwhat :epresents subJect another
                                                                                                                                                   a          for
what doesthts chorcemean?- the ''I arnnot" articulares other term. These
                                                           lts                             srgnifier.whrch rs somethlng     that ts artlcuiated another
                                                                                                                                               to          srgnifierlvtthoutfor
vectors.or more exactlythesedirectrons w.hrch fundamenral
                                           rn        the              operatrons                                   thrs
                                                                                           all that representlng sub;ect.Therers no other definrtron           possibleof what
                                                                                           rs reallv rnvolvedtn the functionof the u:rconscrous. so far as the Freudian
1 7 .. 6 8
     1                                                                               VI 4   t7.t.68                                                                            vl   )

  unconscrous not stmply the rmplicrt.or the obscured. the archarc. the
                ls                                   or            or                        You must must not spendvour tlme tbrgettrngwhat rs
  prrmai. The unconsclous ahvaysrn a completeiv
                           ts                    differentreglster. the
                                                                  ln                         artrculated   aboutrr. what rs anrculatedaboutrt rn Freud.explicrtlyaboutthe
  movementestablished dorng b"v" act. of supporrlng, acceptlng
                        as       thrs                  or          to                        result. it has a name,and Freud did not soften rt for us. r.vhch rs somethrns
  support lhe transference.                                                                  that rs all the more to be hrghlighted because sub.lectlve
                                                                                                                                           as             eKpenence r',as
                                                                                             (96) neverdone beforepsychoanalysrs. rs cailedcastratron.
                                                                                                                                       It                    whrchrs to be
  The questron    ts'"vhatbecomesof the sublectsupposed kno,,v')Iam gorng
                                                             to                              taken m rts dimensron subjectrve
                                                                                                                     of            expenence as much as norvhere
                                                                                                                                              in                     except
  to tell vou that rn pnncrple.the psvchoanalyst    knows rvharbecomes it. of                along thrs path can the subjectbe realised.I meanthe subiectof course.
  Assurediy.rt talls. What rs rmplied theoretrcally thls suspensron the
                                                      rn                  of
  sub3ect  supposed krow. ths line of suppressron. bar on the S whrch
                      to                                 thrs                                 I olo ^ok (\i^k                                                   e^iL/o<
  symbolises ln the becomrng anaiysrs.
               rt                   of          manifests rtselfin the f'actthat
  somethrng produced a place,that ls certalnlynot ndifferent to the
              rs            at
  (95) psychoanalyst.    srncert rs at hrs own placethat thrsthrnganses. Ths
  thrng rs calledthe lnle o-ob1sct.
                                                                                                                                                                    - {^uA,
  The littie o-oblectrs the realisatronof thrs sort of ddsAte that strikesthe
  subSect  supposed know, That it rs the analyst,and as such.rvho comes to
  thrs place ls not ln doubt. It rs marked rn all the rnferences wfuch he felt
  hrmself implicatedto the pornt of no longer berng able to do any-thrng    but
  bend the thrnhng of hrs practrcern the senseof the dialectrcof
 you klow'. Thrs rs linked to the fact that he pr€sents   hrmself as the substance                               hv. ILk"l"    c-,u k
 that ls operated and marupuiatedrn the analytrcdeed. But thrs rs precrsely
                   on                                                                                                                                            t J ".r1-9)
 to fail to recognlsethe disttncuon there rs berweenthrs deed and the act whrch
 allows rt, the act ra'hrchestabiishes the one that I startedfrom earlier by
 definrng rt as thts acceptafion.  thrs support grven to the sub;ectsupposedto               Thrs sub;ectrs onl1'realisedexactly qua lack. whrch meansthat tbe sub.;ectrve
 know. to the fact that the psychoanalystknows that he ts nevertheless      doomed           expenenceculmrnatesln somethrngthat rve symboliseby (-9). But if every
 to dds€neand r.vhrch    thus constrtutes,as I mrght act that rs out of                                                demonstratrng
                                                                                             use of the letter rslustified b.v-             that rt rs enoughto haverecourse
 synchsrnce rs not the sub.;ect
               he                    supposed know. smcehe camot be rt.
                                               ro                                            to lts manlpulatronrn order not to be mrstaken,on conditronthat one knows
 And if therels someonewho knows rt. rt rs above all the psychoanalyst.                      how to use lt, lt nevertheless  remalnsthat we have a nght to try to be able to
                                                                                            put mto rt an "it exrsts"- lvhrch I evoked earlier rn connectlonwrth the
 Mlust I now. or a linle later. yes. but wh;.-not now. rvhy not nght arvay,                 psychoanalyst the start of today s discourse. And that thrs "it extsts"In
provrded I can come back on somethrngthat I want to make you familiar wrrh.                 questron.thrs "it e\ists" of a lack. must be mcamatedby us rn rvhat
by remrnding    1,ou its co-ordinates orherreglsters. other statements,
                     of                  n                 rn                               effectrvely Slvestt lts name: castratlon. Namely. that the sub.;ect realisesthat
Must I no',vremrndyou that the analytrc lask. rn so far as rt rs outlined from              he doesnot have.thathe doesnot havethe organofrvhat I would call unrque.
thts porntofthe aireadvalienared      sub;ect.ln a certarnsense naivern rts                 unary. unif,tng enjoyment(jotussance). it rs a matter.properl,r-. what
alienatron. one rhatthe ps1'choanalyst        knows to be definedbv the "l do not                                one
                                                                                            makesenJoyment nthe conJunctton sub.;ects opposrte
                                                                                                                                       of           of         sex. Namel;".
thnk" that what he setshrm ro as a task. rs an "I thrnk" whrch takeson                      what I tnsrsted lastyear.ln prckrngout the fact thattherers no possible
precrselv whoje emphasrs.
           rts                   tiom the fact that he krows the "l do not tfunk''          sublectrve  realisatron the subyect element. sexedpartnerrn what rs
                                                                                                                    of            as          as
rnherent the srarus the subyect?
          to            of                                                                  rmagmedas unificatron the sexualact,

He sershtm to the raskof a thrnkrng that rs presented a wav ln lts very
                                                       rn                                   Thrs rncommensurabilit;-    - thar I trred to crrcumscribe
                                                                                                                                                     beforeyou. lastyear.b.v
statement.ln the rule that he grves hrm of it, as admrftms the fundamental                  usrngthe goldennumber.rn so far as lt ls the symbolthatallorr's greatest
truth of the ''l do not thtnk" that he shouldassoclate do so freely. That
                                                      and                                   play. thrsls somefilng on rvhtchI cannotrnslst.                      to
                                                                                                                                                because belongs the
he doesnor seekto kaorv rvherher nor he rs entrrel.v-
                                     or                 thereas sublect.                    mathematrcal             -
                                                                                                            regrster thrs rncommensurabiliry. relattonof small o. slnce
,,vhether affirms hrmself there. The task to whrch the ps.u-choanalytlc
          he                                                             acr                tt rs the small o thatI took up againnot unrntentlonally symbolise ln the
                                                                                                                                                       to          tt
glves lls statusrs a raskq'hrchalreadyrmpliestlus destrrution the subject.
                                                                of                          (97) goldennumber.of small o to I . Thrs rs wherethereoperates       what
and wheredoesthat lead us?                                                                  appearsas sub.;ectrve   realisatronat the end of the psrchoanalytlctask
                                                                                            Namelr. thrs lack ls not the orsan.thts narurally not wtthouta background
 r7 . 1 . 6 8                                                                                                          VI 6   t 7. t . 6 8                                                                       vt7

    if we rememberthat the orsan and the functron are |'vo different thrngs. so                                                  separatedfrom (-p). whrch ar the end of anaiysrs rdeallythe realisatron
                                                                                                                                                                                   rs                  of
    differentthat one can say that rherecomesback iiom trme to trmethe problem                                                   the sublect. Thrs rs the processthat rs at stake,
    of knorvrngwhat functronmust be grvento eachorgan.and thrs rs lvherethe                                                                                                                                    et(Li oa
    true problemof the adaptatron the livrng berngiies. The moreorganshe
                                                                                                                                                                     t'l t , ..^^F.,
    has.the more entangled rs,

    But let us pause... It rs a rnafterthen of a limrtedcxpenence. a logrcal
    expenence   and after all. why not? Because a momentwe have.Jumped
   onto a differenrplane.onto a planeof rhe relatron rhe livrng berngto rtsell.
                                                         of                                                                                                                                                     (n*\4,
   that we only tacklebv the schemaof thrs sub.;ectrve     advenrure,We must
   clearlyrecall herethat from the pornt of vrew of the livrng berngall of thrs.
   after all. can be consrdered a artefact. A.ndthat iogrc rs the locus of truth
   changes                          the
             nothrngrn rt. because questron       that comesat the end rs precrselv
   the one ro whrch we will be ableto glve rts whole emphasrs ttme. What rs
   the truth?
  It rs up to us to seerhat from thesefwo lines, the onesthat I desr-enated the
                                                                              as                                                 There rs a secondphasern thls statementthat I am producrne. I open a
  task. the path takenby the psy'choanalysand as much as he speaks, naive
                                                  m                         a                                                   parenthesls   here rn order to put what I came to a stop before earlier, rn order
  sublect rvho rs moreoverthe sublectaiienatedfrom thrs realisatron lack, m
                                                                         of                                                      to glve rvhatI should have grven to rt. an ntroductton. I will norv glve a
  as much as, as I pointed out to you the last trme, thrs lack rs not lvhat we                                                  remrnderof it, whrch rs that lt ls not by chance,a scholarly game.a questlon
  knorv to be at the place of the "I am not" Tius lack rvasthere from the start.                                                of takrng a familiar pornt that vour brans were trckled by, at the end of
  and thar from all tlme we have known that thrs lack rs the very essence tlusof                                                secondary    school teachng, that I refer to Descartes'cogtto. The fact rs that rt
  sublectthat rs calledman. somerrmes      thar rt rs desrre. hasalready
                                                            as              been                                                mcludes rn rtself thrs elementthat rs partrculariyfavourablefor the Freudian
  sard.whrch rs the essence man. Qulte srmplythrs lack has madeprogress
                              of                                                                                                detour ro be relocatedrn rt. Not ar ail. of course.rn order to demonstrate    here
 m the artrculatron its functron as organum, an essentlailylogrcalprogress
                      of                                                                                                        some hrstoncal   consrstency if ali of thrscould be put end to end.
 rn thrsrealisatron suchof the phaliic lack. But rt mvoivestharthe lossin
                     as                                                                                                         from centuryto century. a krnd of progress.
                                                                                                                                                           as                    when rt rs only too obvrousthat
 so far as lt was thereat first, at the samepomt, before lts Journe]-  was                                                      if there rs anythmgthat thrs evokes.rt ts much more rather the rdeaof amaze.
 followed through.and srmply for us who L:norv the Iossof rhe oblect whrch                                                      What nratter.let us leave Descartes.ln lookrng closelyat the cogiro. note
 rs at the ongm of rhe statusof the unconsclous,     thrs had alwavsbeen                                                        carefullv that the sublectr,vhors supposedthere as berng.may well be that of
 explicrtivformulatedby Freud - rs realised   elservhere. rs so precrsely.
                                                            It                thrs                                             thrnkrng.but of what thinkrng, rn short? Of rhat thrnkrngwhrch has.;usr
 rs *hat I startedfrom. at the level of the dds€treof tbe sublectsupposed     to                                                         all
                                                                                                                               re.;ected knowledge, It rs not a questlonof what rs done after Descartes        bv
 knorv.                                                                                                                        those sho meditareon the rmmediacyfrom "I am" !o "l thrnk", an
                                                                                                                               obvrousness    that. asthey rvrsh.they make conslstenr fleetrng, What rs at
 It rs rn as far as the one who srves rts supportto transt'erence there under the            rs                                                        act
                                                                                                                               stake rs the Canesran rtselt. rn so far as lt ls an acr. What rs reportedand
 black line. that he knows rvherehe rs stanrngfrom. \ot that he rs rhere.he                                                    sardto us aboutlt. lt ls preclselvby sayrnglt that tt ls an act. It rs from thrs
 knows only too well that he rs not. tharhe ls not the sub;ect                             supposed        to                  polnt. rrhsvstherers completed suspenslon all possible
                                                                                                                                                                  a            of             knoivledge.That
 (98) knorv.but rharhe rs relornedby the ciis€tre                           that rhe sublectsupposed              ro           thrs rs nhat assures "I am" ts lt to be "thought" by the cogttoor ls rt from
 knor'vundergoes.            That ln rhe end rt rs he. the analysr.                who embodies           what the             the re.;ectron kno,,vledge?
 sublectbecomes the form of the linle o-ob;ect.So then,as rs to be
e,xpected. ls rn conformrtyrr'rtheverv.nofron structure
                  lt                                                    of               that rhefunctronof                   The questron well worth askrn-q one rhrn-ks vrhatrs calledrn thi
                                                                                                                                           rs                   if          of
alienatron        whrch rras at thcstm, and ivhrchmeantrhatlve started                               from the                 manuals philoscphv' successors. posrenwof a philosophrcal
                                                                                                                                       of            the            the
top ieft hand'ener of an alienated                     sub;ecr.     finds rrse[fat the endequalto                             thrnlcrng. if it n:re srrnply..questlonof takrngrt up agarn. preceof
                                                                                                                                        as                 3                               a
r t s e l t . s I m r g h ts a \ . I n t h r ss e n s e h a tt h e s u b ; e ch a sb e e nr e a l i s e dr.n h r s
            a                                         t                       t                                               treaclelo make another  mrxtureout of ir. While what rs at stakeeverynme ls
castratlon.        alongthe path of a logrcaloperatlon.An alienated                          parh,remrtsto                    a act \,.hlchrs nol necessssjlr same, And that if ,'vetake
the other, getsrrd - and thrs rs rhe functronof the anaryst of th:s lost oblecr.      -                                       Hegel.of course. everpvhereelse,we find theputtrngln
from whrch, LnGenesrs, can concelvethatthe whole structure
                                       we                                                           orlgrnates.                        of
                                                                                                                              suspense the sub.;ect  supposed knor.r'.
                                                                                                                                                               to       exceptfor the fact that lt ls not for
The distrnctron alienatron. small o rn so far as rr comeshereand rs
                        of                    of
1 7t . 6 8                                                                         VIB   17.1.68                                                                           VI 9

  nothlng.thatthrssublectrs desrgned grveus, at rheend ofrhe advenrure.
                                   to                                                     by berng carned out. To take a further step.let us norv come to rhe only pornt
  absoiureknowledge.                                                                      where the act can be quesnoned: lts potnt of ongrn.

   To seervhatthat means.      one musr look more closelyat rr. and rvhynot look at       What are we told? I evokedtr asatnthe lastrrme. That rt rs at the end of an
   it at the start. If the Phenomenology the sprr s explicirly ser up bv bern_e
                                           of                                             analvsrsthat rs supposedto be complete that rhe ps.u-choanaly'sand
   generated   from the functronof act. rs rt nor vrsiblern rhe mythologyof the           becomea psychoanalyst. rs not at all a matterhereofjustifrng the
  iight to the dearhtbr pure prestlge.   that thrs knowledge the
                                                              of                          possibilitvof thrsconnectron.It rs a manerof posrngrt as arrrculated oi
  havrngto rraceour rtsparh rn order to becomethrs unrhrnkable         thrng,thrs         putnng lt to the test of our iinle tetrahednc
  absolute   knowledge.    and one can evenask oneself- and one rs enrrtled ask
  oneselfbecause      Heeelformulares - what krnd of subjectcan dependupon rt.
                                       rt                                                 It rs the subjectrvho hasaccomplished taskar the end of whrch he has
  for evena srnglelnstant. Thar thrsstanrngknowledee.         that rs presented us
                                                                                to        realisedhrmselfas sub.lect castratron. somethrng
                                                                                                                       rn            qla          lackrngrn the
  as the knorvledge DEATH. namely'.
                                of                   anorher extreme.   radicalform       enJoymentof sexual unlon. Thts rs what we have to seeb,va rotatron.or a
  of puttrng tn suspense the l'ery foundatronof thrs sublectof knowledge.
                            as                                                            tlpprng over, to a certaln number of degrees. thrs figure rs l80o rn
                                                                                          (10i) order to seepasslng,   eomlng back what has beenrealised  hereto the
 Is rt by questlorung agarnfiom the porntof vrew of consequences,
                     ths                                                                  startng posrtron. Except for the fact that the sublectwho comeshere (on the
 somethtngthat rs easyfor us to seethat, what psychoanalytrc expenence                    top left), knows rvhat rs rnvolved rn the subiecttveexpenence.and that thrs
 proposesas the lircleo-ob.;ect along the path of my discoursetn so far as rr             expenencealso rmpiies that on the left. there remamswhat has becomeof the
   only summanses,                glves rts srgn and rts senseto what rs artrculated
                       hrgh.lights,                                                       one whose act ls responsiblefor the path taken. In other words, that for the
   everyrvhere thrs expenence- thls rs what generates disorderand
                m                                            rn                           analyst as we now seelum emergrngat the level of hrs act, there rs aireadya
  confusronthrs little o-ob1ect.Do we not seethat lt comesin the sameplace                knowledge of the dds|*e of the sub.lect   supposed know, rn so t'aras rt rs the
  (100) where there rs m Descarres,    thrs re.;echon knowledge,rn Hegel. thrs
                                                       of                                 necessary   startrngpositron for thrs whole logrc.
  knowledge as knorvledgeof death. And we assuredlyknow that thrs rs rts
  functron. That rhs knowledge of death,artrculated       precrselyrn thrs fight to                                                                                   o
  the dearhof pure prestlge.rn so far as rt groundsthe starusof the master.rl rs
  from rt that there comes thrs.luJhebungof en;oymenr. Thrs exprarns And     lt.
 rt ls as renouncrng   enjoymentrn a decrsrve rn orderto makehrmselfthe
 sublectof deaththarthe masrerrs established.        And rt ls moreo!.erthere.for
 us. I underlinedrt ar one tlme. rhat there rs put forward the oblectronthat w.e
 can make to ths through a cunous paradox,a parador unexplaned rn Hegel.
 It rs to the masterthat en3o.vment supposed return from thrs-4u/hebuig.
                                     ls            to
 tvlanytrmeswe ha'e askedwhy? why. if it rs because hasnot renounced
enjoymentthat the slavebecomes slave? why doeshe not keeprr? why-
should lt comebackto the master.      whosestarus precrsely haverenounced
                                                      ls          to                     It rs precrsely because thrs that thereis questlon what ts lnvolvedfor hrm
                                                                                                                 of                            of
tt. unlessrn a form that we can. perhaps.requirea linle more of than the                 rn thls act. that we have defined earlier as an act that rs out of s1'nch.What rs
conJunng     trrck. the Hegelianmaestrtato accountfor rt? It rs no linle testif          the measureof the illumrnatron of hrs act? Becausern so far as he has taken
we can t'eelrn the Freudiandialecrrc marupulatron ls morengorous.
                                         a                that                           the path that permrtsthrs act. he rs hrmself alreadythe truth of thts act.
more e\act, and more rn conformrf.v     wrth expenence reeards.,vhat
                                                           as              rs
rnvolvedrn w'hatbecomes en;oyment
                              of             afterthe firsr alienatron.                   Thrs rs the questlon that I posedthe last trme. rn saying that a truth conquered
                                                                                         "not wrthout k4orvrng rt" ls a truth that I describedas "incurable", if I can
I alreadrsufficrenrly
                    rndicated ,n .o*.*ron wrth rnasochrsm peopleto
                             ,,                             fbr                          express   myself rhus. For if we follo'"vwhat resultsfrom thts tlpprngover of
knorv herervharI meanand thet I am onr' rndicatrng path ro be takenup
                                                  a                                      the rvhole figure w'hrchrs the onlv one rn rvhrchtherecan be explarnedthe
agatn' we cenarniv cannotdela;- rt today.but rt rvasnecessary rndicare
                                on                             to                        ( I 02) passage the conquest. trurt of the task.Io the posrtton the one
                                                                                                        of                the                                   of
rts begrmrngs the neht plac:.
              at                                                                         w'ho breaksthroughthe act !r rvhrchthrs taskcan be repeated.It ts herethat
                                                                                         there comesthe $ whrch w.asthere at the stan nthe eilher-or of the "etther I
To conttnue our parh rn functtonof w-hat rnvolvedrn the psychoanalytrc
             on                         rs                                               do not thrnk" or ''I am not'' .{nd effectrrely. rn so far as there ts an act mr.xed
act. we hal'edonenothrngup io now exceptro demonstrate
                                                     what lt senerates                   up wrth the task that sustarns $.hat rs ar stakers properly a srgnifyrng
                                                                                         lnterventlon.The way'the pslchoanalvst      acts,howeverlinle rt may be. but
r7 . 1 . 6 8                                                                    VI IO   171.68
                                                                                         .                                                                                     VI II

                                                                                         so far as he rs. assuredly. divrded sublect.
                                                                                                                   a                 even ln hts act, And that the end
                                                                                         where he rs awarted.  namely.thrs linle o-oblect, so far as tt ls not hls own.

                r___-                                                                                                                                                     64

  where he properlyactsrn the courseof the task.ts to be capable thrs
  srgnifyrng           whrch properlyspeakrng not open to any
            rnterterence                        is
  generalisatron mlght be called knowledge.

  What analytrclnterprelatlon generates thts somethtng,whrch carurotbe
  evokedtrom the untversalexcept rn the tbrm that I rvouldask you to notlcels
  so contrary to eveqrthrngthat has been qualified as such up to norv. It ts, as
  one mr,ehtsay, thrs sort of unrversalkey, the key that opensall the boxes.
  Horv the devil can rt be concelved ofl What does lt mean to offer oneselfas
  the one rvho has at hrs disposal what rnitrally can only be defined as                 but what the psychoanalysand     requlres of hrm as Other, so that wlth hrm. he ts
  somethmgor other partlculart                                                           re.;ecteditom rt. Is thts not an lmage to open up for us what ts mvolved tn the
                                                                                         destrny of every acl, And thts under diversetigures.from the hero where
  Such rs the questronthat I am also leavns only openedup here about lvhat rs            Antrqurry from all ttme has tned to place. tn ail rts breadth,tn all tts drama,
 rnvolved m the statusof the one who at the pomt of tlls sub.;ect. can ensure
                                                                 S,                      what rs rnvolved m the act. Not at all certarnlythat at thts samettme
 that there exlsts somethrng m the task, and not m the foundatronal act, whrch           knowledge was not onented towaxdsother traces,for tt ts also. and it ts not
 corresponds the sub;ect supposedto know. Here rs qulte preclsely what
               to                                                                        negligible to recall tt. a trme when people soughtthe reasonfor what ts
 opens up the quesilon. What ls necessary rt to be possiblethat there
                                           for                                           rnvolved ln a wlse act - and n truth there ls nothng thereto be disdarned- m
 should be an anaiyst? I repear.on the top left of the schema,what we started            a good. "The frurt of the act". here ts what seemsto g:ve lts first measureto
 from, rs that rn order for the whole schematisatron be possible.for the logrc
                                                     to                                  ethrcs. I took rt up at one tlme ln commentlngon Anstotle's.
 of psychoanalysrs exrst. there had to be somethrngof the psychoanalyst
                     to                                                     (du
 psychoanalysr).                                                                         The Ethrcsto Niconachtrs starts from thrs:that there ls somethlnggood at the
                                                                                         level of pleasureand 4to1fsllgwrng a correctchannein this regtsterof
 When he puts hrmself there. after havrnghrmself takenthe psychoanalytrc                 pleasurewill lead us to the conceptlon of the soverergn good'
 path. he alread."-kno',vswhere he will be lead ro then as psychoanalyst the
 path to be re-travelled: rhe ddsAtreof the sublectsupposedto know by berng              It rs clear that thrs \\'as.ln lts !vay. a sort of act that has its place rn the
 nothrnebut the supportof thrs oblect calledihe linle o-ob1ect.  \!hat rs                Joume]'ng of any act described philosophrcal'
                                                                                                                          as                The wav that we may.;udge
 outlinedfor us by thrs psychoanalytrc one of rvhose
                                         act.                          it
                                                           co-ordinates must             rt rs of no lmportancehere. It was a tlme. as rve know'.'"vhentherewas set up
 be carefullyrecailedrs precrselyto excludefrom the psychoanalllrc                       a completely different questlontng,the traglc questiorung  about rvhat ts
 expenenceanv act. any tnJuncttonto act? It rs recommendedto rvhat rs called             rnvolved rn the act. and thts was what rvasremtttedro an obscuredivrnrty if
 the patlent.the ps1'choanalysand, name hrm. as far as possiblehe rs
                                    ro                                                   there rs a dimensron.a force, w'hrchw'asnot supposed knorv, tt ts rndeed
 recommended rvartbefore actlng. If somethrng
                 to                                  charactenses posltlon
                                                                  the                    that of the ancrentananke,tn so far as lt w'astncarnated thesefunous
 of rhe psychoanall'st. rs ver! precrsely
                        lt                 thathe only.acts the tjeld of
                                                            rn                           (104) madmenthat the gods were'
 srgniSrngrntenenrronthat I delimrted.,;ust   now.
                                                                                         r\Ieasurethe distancetravelled from thrs oerspectlve the act to that of Kant.
 But rs thrs not also an opportunrty for us to graspthar the statusof every acr          If there rSSgmethngwhrch tn another wav rendersnecessal]' Statement
 (103) emerges     from rt completel.v- renewed?For the placeof the act, whatever        about the act as a say-lng dire). tt ts tndeedln the measurethat Kant grves
 tt ts. and lt ts up to us to nottce from rts trace.
                                                   what \\'e meanwhen we speak           of it. from the fact ihat rt ought to be regulated a mtu\lmthat could have a
 aboutthe statusof the act. w'lthoutelen berngable to allor,r'us add to rt. of
                                                                  to                     unrversal  range. is thts not also what I toor my ttme to cancature-
 the humanact. The fact rs thar. if therers somervhere the ps1'choanalyst
                                                           that                          connecilnsrt to a rule as lt ls statedtn the phantasmagona Sade?
 at oncedoesnot k-nowhtmself. and. rr rs alsothe porntw-here exrsts. ls rn
                                                                 he        [t
 17.1.68                                                                               vr t2   24.1.68                                                                     VIi I

    Is rt not true. on the other hand. rhat betrveenthesetrvo extremes.I am
   speakrngabout Anstotle and Kant. the ret'erence the Other tal,ien such rs
                                                        to                as
   the one. also verv farcrcal.   whrch,"vas slven at leastby a classrcal
                                                                        form of
   religtousdirectron?The measure the acr ln the evesof God rs supposed
                                         of                                     to
   be gtvenby what ale called g00d lnrenttons,Is tr possible mrtlare more
                                                                  ro       a
   established   path of duperythan that of punrngthrsmeasure the pnncrpleof
   the value of the act.
                                                                                                 S e m r n a r7 ' W e d n e s d a v { J a n u a r T 1 9 6 8
   can the good rntenrronrn an act ln any rvav remove tbr a srngle rnstanttbr us
   the questtonof rvhat ts rts frurt'l It rs certarnthat Freud ts nor the f-irstto allow
   us to emergefrom rheseciosed nngs. That to put tn suspense          ',vhatrs
                                                                                                 (107) Todaytherers golng ro be somethrng littie brr modified rn our pacr.
   rnvolvedin the valueof a good lntentlon.we havea qulteeffectrre.explicrr
                                                                                                 Narurally. rt rs undersrood rhat rn accordance wrth the good law of otfenng an
  and useablecnnque m what Hegel artrculates us about the la',vof the heart
                                                     for                                         exchange. you glve me your presence somethrng
                                                                                                                                         fbr           thatyou are expectjns.Thrs
  or the delusrons presumptron. That rt rs not enoughto nse up agarnstthe
                   of                                                                            rs supposed emergefrom a certarnbackgroundand to have been.up to a
  disorder of the world, for thrs very protestanonnot ro be rtserf its most
                                                                                                 certarnpolnt - rt rs a matter of knorvrn*gwhrch - predestmed. In short you are
  perrnanent suppon. what succeeded act of the cogito. has grr,'en manJ-
                                            the                               us                 expectlnga lecrure. class.
  models-precrselv. thrs thrnkrng when the order, ansmg from the law of
  the destroled by the cntique of the Phenomenology the sptrit,what
                                                                    of                           on severaloccaslons. happensfrom trme to tlme that I pose myself the
  do we see,if not the return. that I cannot do otherwrsethan qualifv as
                                                                                                 questlonof whom I am addressrng      myself ro, and where rt (ga) speaksfrom.
  offensrve,of the ruse of reason.
                                                                                                 You know the amountof care I take to rnstston the fact rhat I cannot for a srngle
                                                                                                 lnstant lose srght of rhe orrgrnaireferencepornt, whrch rs that ths discourse  on
  It rs here that we must nonce that ths meditatronopenedout very specrallyon
                                                                                                psychoanalysrs addressed psychoanaly,sts.
                                                                                                                 rs            to                  There are so many peoplewho
 to somethrngcailed the politrcal act. And that assuredly rs not varn that
                                                             rt                                  are not such and who are ,eathered  here. to hear somethrn_e. Tlus iust by rtself
 what was genemted     not srmplv ln terms of politrcal meditarons but of
                                                                                                demandsa cerrarnnumber of wourd be wrong rn thrs
 politrcal acts,ln w'hrchI ln no wav distrngursh specuiatron Marx from
                                                  the             of                            connectlon contenloneselfqrth hrstoncaiexplanatrons.
                                                                                                             to                                      encounter
 the way rn whrch rs has been put lnto effect at one or other detour of the
                                                                                                or encounters. efects of crorvdpressure.rvhat rt meansthat I found myself in
 revolutron. rt not possiblefor us to sltuatea whole line of descent
               ls                                                       of                      the posruonof berngheardelservhere      than where I gave rt ongmally. Thrs rs
 reflectronson the politrcal act. rn so far as assuredlythey are acts.rn the sense              obvrousl-,- enoughto explan thrngs. Ir rs rndeedhere that one could compare
that theseactswere a saytng (un dire)and precrselyto say ln the name of such
                                                                                                the references hr*ory - for afier all. what one ln generalcalls hrstory.rhis
a one u'ho broughtto them a certalnnumberof decrsrve       changes. rt not
                                                                     rs                         scmm - and of strucrure.
possibleto questlonthem agarnrn the samereglsteras the one ar r.vhrch       there
rvill culmrnatetodav what rs outlined ln terms of the psychoanalrtrc    act?                     Thereare obvrousll'reasons   ofstructure. Ifl am speakrng  thrs yearaboutthe acr.
There whereat the sametrme lt rs and rt rs not. and r.vhrch   could be expressed                 and am postngthe questton the act. tharI arrrvedar the pornt of what i sardthe
as follorvs. ln vlftue of the slogan that Freudglves to the anal-u-srs the
                                                                     of                          last flme whrch seemed me bv some linle samples.
                                                                                                                         to                             proofs that I recerved.rhar
unconscrous.lvo Es vuar he saysand I taughcyou ro re-readrr rhe last trme.
          yverdenJ                                                                              at leastsomepeoplehavegiimpsedrhe rmportance what was formu.lated
                                                                                                                                                     of                       rhe
soll lch
                                                                                                (108) last ttme m asmuch as tt marksa pornt rvhrch;ustities.    rvhrchajlorvs there
                                                                                                to be gathered          at
                                                                                                                togerher leasrln a core pornt.rvhatbe-gan be artrculated
                                                                                                                                                            to                bv
 lvo S tat and you * ili allow me to rwrte the s of the lefter barredhere.
                                                                           there                me trom the stan of our .n-ear whrch of cor_rrse
                                                                                                                              and                  mrght have left a fruzv
r'vhere srgnifierrvorkedrn the doublesense
        the                                       that rt has..lustceased tharlt
                                                                          or                    lmpresslon.            if one startsfrom rhe rdeatharrvhatrs firsr sardare
rvasJust g0lng to act. not at all soll lch werden but muss
                                                            /cft. I r'ho am actrng.-           necessarily"  pnncrpies.In manl cases   one rs tbrced ro proceedotherw:se,
I who am launchrng                                                                                                                                                          even
                       lnto rhe *'orld thrsthrngto vrhrchone can address   oneself             rvhenone has a structr.rral reference and e'en especrallv when one hasone.
as to a reason  musslch (o) werden. I must becomethe wasteproductof what                       because rs of its naturenot io be able ro be grvenat the besrnnrng.It hasro be
I am rnrroduclng a new order mto the *.orld.
                  as                                                                           conquered.orhenrrseI do ncr seewhv a schemaof rherype of the Klern group.
                                                                                               upon which I am u1'rng the momentto anrculatelvhatls rnl'olvedrn the act
Such ts the ner' form rn whrch I am proposmgro you ro posrra new way of
                                                                                               rn the perspecrrve the psvchoanalytrc opensup. I do not seewh,v rreal6
                                                                                                                  chat                    act                             I
questronlng   w'hatrs rnvolved.rn our dal. rn the srarus the act. rn so faras
                                                       of                                      not have staned from there fiieen years ago.
thts act ts cunc,usl.'
                     relatedto a certalnnumbe,of ongrnalrnrroductrons.     rn
24.1.68                                                                        vll 2                                                                   VII 3

   Today. therewiil be a pausewhoseoccaslon        here rs only a pretext.althoughthat       even consrder  whethertherecan be a questron. the level ofprrncrple.about
   does not mean. for all that. that rt rs marglnal. It rs planned rn thrs-vears semlnar     structure. There are thrngsthat I really did nor have the tlme to look at and
   on thepsvchoanalyrrc that the 31" January. r8m February. ?7thL{arch
                          act.                        rhe                 rhe                whrch rt rs not e!'ensurethat i rviil look at closelvbut of whrch.of course.l hear
   and the 29'nNrlaventry ,,villbe by-rnvrtatron.Thrs mexnsthat rr will be reduced          echoes.
  to a certalnnumberof more restncted
                                    encounters. order to allow a
  conversanon.                                                                              One seespeoplervho havea psrchoanalytrc          authonryof a cenarnrverght.
                                                                                            honourable    pracrrtloners they say,who trnd themselves
                                                                                                                       as                                   manifestlngven-
   Thrs has beenplanned glve a mlnrmum of thrs somerhrng
                             to                                  that hasalr.vavsbeen       cunousl-v- pornt at whrch thrngsare at. For example.therers awhole milieu
   difficult to handle. The rule sovemlngclosedsemrnars.     rvrth all rhe                  where rs ! everyone   knows. forbrdden     even to come ruthln rangeof the
  complicatrons     that thrs rnvolvesrn the wav of choosrng.There rs ailvays               accursed   lvord. -\nd then therewas a trme.a fabuloustrme - but rt hasto be sard
  established thrngsof thrs ordera krnd of competrtton.The placewhereyou do
                rn                                                                          that thrngsgo slo'.vll rn ths very specral   milieu- can ].ou lmagrne,I960. rhere
  not want to go. you begm to desrre     onceyour pal ls golng. All of thrs doesnot         are people here rvho were tbuneen yearsold at the trme. The Congresde
  make the prrnctple of who,to lvelcomeeasl'.but lt ls necessar]' try to establish
                                                                    to                      ( I 09) Bonr:evalrs rmmemonal.rt rs dust-covered.       unbelievablelIt must be said
  a milieu of exchangethat has a somewhatdifferent rnternalrelauon. I thought of            that rt took almost slx yearsto producerts proceedings.There are peoplewho. to
  lt today but because one havng been wamed, I had my reasonsfor not dorng
                          no                                                                discuss r.vhat am teachrng,
                                                                                                           I              thrnk that lt rs sreat to take thrngsup agarnffom the
  rt. It rs certaln that apartfrom the people of my school who for therr part were,         Congtes de Bonaeval!
  not man!'candidateswould have presented       themselves.
                                                                                             I thank very much the people of my schooi for havrng produceda.;ournal,whrch
  Here rs how I rntendro resolvematters. somethrng that has nothrngto do wrth               rs obvrously not mlne. whrch allows thesedecantmgeffects. One could not put lt
 the senesmeansthat. thrs 3 l tt I will not be there. Thrs rs not a reasonfor there         elsewhere.elsew'here not lts place, In a certalnRevueFrancatsede
 not to be a closed semlnEu.It was agreedthat the members of the pans School                                 as
                                                                                            Psychanalyse, tt rs cailed. there rs no questlonof discusstngwhat I teach,and
 describedas Freudian.rvhrch e'ervone knows i look after, and ths altogether                that ts understandable.   because  psychoanalysls nor spokenabout m rt. So then.
 legrtrmarelybecause  moreoverthev are psi'choanalysts,    that theseshould be the          at thrs pornt, the empry pocketsfrom next door can empty themseives discuss
 ones. ln the measurern whrch rhey manifestthe come here on the 3l tt             what I am saytng about the srgnifier, With all that I have beensaymg for four
 Januan'. I have nor even askedyet - I am askrnghrm no',v- Dr Nlermanto be                  years.rv'hrch  has largely gone beyond the questronof whetherrt must be known
 (109) there,rn shon. to organrse  thrs meetrng.                                            if at the source lt rs a mafter or not of the srgnifier.

  I had serout the prrncrple  that only the members the school vrhohaveshown
                                                       of                                   People go back to the Congresde Bomeval rvhrch was a tunnel, thrs famous
  themselveshere tn a sufficrentlvregular fashon to know what I have statedup to           runnei rvherethe blacks fought one another.rvrthoutknourng who was h:nrng
  now, shouldcome ro ths meetng. You are golng to seethe degree whrchrt rs to              who. and where there are the most fantastrcal  lucubratrons.There was someone
 justified. Because am gorngro glve to thls meetlngthe follolvng ob.;ect:
                      I                                                            the     called Lefebvrethere.unbelievable   people.the fnendliestof dear
 tdea moreover rs nor unrquely my owrl. far from rt. I rvould even say that rr rvas        fnend ivlerieau-Ponry  who rntervened that occaston. But. everyoneat thar
 grvento me by Dr \lelman who, rn the contextof the teachrng the school.
                                                                     of                    ttme. was off tar,get.It was srmply a mafier. for the first trme, of publicly
 recentll'proposed me that rn the courseof thrs semrnar.
                     ro                                          whrch rs partrcularly     discussrngr,vhat that trme I had beenteachrngfor selen yearsat Sarnte-Arrne
 rmportantall the same.rt rs hardro seehow one could touch on a pont more                  to a linle crrcle,
 central tbr psychoanaly'sts  than that of the ps-"-choanalync rtself,provrdedof
 courseths word hasa sense.Thrs rs whar i hope has beensufficrently           lardout      That rs how thrngs happen,and thrs rs whar makes tangible that m everv
 up to the present vour stghr.that at the r erv leasti gave a cenalnshape thrs
                   ln                                                            to        discourse.                         If
                                                                                                       thereare act-effects. therehad onl.',-    beenthe dimensron  of can ahrculate br follolvrnga cenaln number of questrons
                             rt                                                and         discourse lt. tt ought to havespread
                                                                                                      ln                             more qurckly. Precrsely. rs wharmust
',vhether can ansrver
          one              rr and rvheth..ih.r. are even questrons. precrselv
                                                                        rs                 be hrghlighted. That this discourse mrne.has thrs dimensron act at the
                                                                                                                                  of                          of
rvhat ts left open. Thrs rs the *av, ali the same,the problem rs posed. I gar,ert          momenrthat I am speaktng       aboutthe act. rs somethrng that leapsto the eye. if
rts rnrtralartrcularrt-'n. a resultof whrchone can seethereberngmanifested
                        as                                                                 one looks closelyat lt. lt ls the onl) reason the presence peoplewho are
                                                                                                                                         for              of
wtthtn rt cenarn blanks.rn other polnts sguares     that are already- or even
                                                                     fi:ll                 here.for rt rs hard to see.panicularlyat the level of a young audience.   wharrhey'
super-abundantly   filled, or e1'en completely  overfloq'rng,  unbalanced   because  of    can come lookrng tbr here. \\'e arenot on rhe planeof provtdingunlverslt]
not latr(lngotherstnto account.Thrs rs precrsely rnterest introducrng
                                                     the          of              rvhat    sen'lces. I can bnng you notlungtn exchange your presence.What amuses
rs callec "structure" It rs rather.unou, rhat w; are stjll at lt, and I am obiigedto       you rs that .vousense  therets somethtng   happenrng,   Peopledo not agree.It rs
sav rt srncetherearecerrarn     recentmanif:statlons amongpsvchoanalysts
                                                       rt                         to       alreadl a linle begrnnrng the dimensron act.
                                                                                                                      tn                 of
24.1.68                                                                       vII .+    24.t.68                                                                     VII 5

                                                                                          measure the chorcethat rs at stake. If he renounces posrtron "I do not
                                                                                                                                                    rhe        of
  It rs truly t'abulous- nanrally i only have thrs by hearsay- but rn any casert has      thrnk" as I havelust told vou. he rs all the samedrawn to the opposlre  pole rvhrch
  been affirmed to me that thesekrnd of authorsthat I spoke about earlier.are             rs that of the am not" Now. the "l am nor" properl;-              cannotbe
  among the peoplervho ob;ect to thrsstructure                        to
                                                   whrch rs supposed leeveus. lve         aficuiated. It ts certarnthat what ts presented tirst rn resrstance, that discourse
  ( I I 1) who are persons. ill at ease.The berngof the personts supposed be
                           so                                                 to          rs not able to go and be somethrng.What?
  somethrngthat w'ould suffer from rt. I am aliard that here we are lnto somethrns
  whrch altogether   ments analysrs  and studv. What rs rnvolvedrn rhe beingof rhe        One would like to ask rhepeoplervho speakro us abourthe berngof the person
  personof the psychoanalyst, precrsely
                                 rs         somerhlng                 be
                                                        rharcan onl,v- reall.u-           tn order Io make of it an oblectronto structure. anrculate
                                                                                                                                         to          what rt rs for them.
  graspedtrom its mapptng out rn the strucrure.                                           what rhel'call rn thrscaseBerng. It rs not easvto seevery clearlywhererhev
                                                                                          placert. They speakfor themselves.    Therels a certatnr.vav placrngthe berng
  In thrs linle tetrahedron  whrch rve havestanedfrom theselast trmes.somethrng          of the personrn the otherswhch rs a rathersomerhrng an operanon odd
                                                                                                                                                of               of
  all the samemust be qurte tangiblern lt: the multrplicrryof tanslatronsthat rr         lobbrng.
  lends rtselfto.
   i J,, ..*Lqaa.t (R*r',rt-,- )                                  e,lL/ c.t               What thrs act wrth a rather exbeptronalstructure- we are gotng to tr,vto sav horv
                                                                                          lt ls so - that the analyrc act rs. whar It ls a maner at leastof puttrngforward. of
                                                          -ttt'                          suggestmg, porntlng out, ls how rt can presrdeat a certaln renewalof what ail
                                                                                         the sameremalns.and from all trme.the onentrngpont of our compass,the rvav
                                                                                         rn wluch lt can renew the funcuon of the enlightenedact, There can be some
                                                                                         renewal m lt. If i use the term enlightened. rs not lvrthout seerngrn it an echo
                                                                                         of the Aufklarung. But rt rs also to say rhar if our compassalways seeksthe same
                                                                                         north, and here I endorse thrs north. rt can be posed for us ln terms strucrured a
                                                                                         linie differentiy.
      ,1 -                                                                T
             the erthevor                                                                At the nvo poles that I defined and arbcuiatedof the posrtronof the
        2 - the I am noV I    do nor rhrnk                                               psychoanalyst. as rnuch as I do not refusehrm at all the nght to reslstance. ls
                                                                                                          ln                                                               rt
          1 - lhrs rvorthv unconsctous;                                                  hard to seewh.v-. psvchoanalvsr
                                                                                                           the               should be stnpped of it, thrs psychoanalysr
                                         I am not                                                                                                                           rn
            - the i do not thlnk, whtch rs not a p.lace
                                                      reservedto the psychoalalvst.      so far as he establishes psy'choanalytrc namell . grveshrs guarantee the
                                                                                                                  the                 act.                              to
 a.ll the same. The psychoanalvstrevealslrs necesstf-vThat rs somerhrng         qurre    transt'erence. namelv. to the sublecrsupposed kno*'. While hrs whole
different. He revealstt ln the fact that if ir rs obvrouslvnecessar.r'for  someone       advantage. onll'one that he hasorer the psychoanalysrng
                                                                                                      the                                                         rs
                                                                                                                                                         sublect. ro knorr.
who rs dealing onll rvrth thoughts"not to rhrnk" what are 'weto say about rhe            from expenencew'hatrs mvolved rn the sub.;ect       supposedto knorv. Namely.
othersl rhrs rs wh1 thrs startmg pomt ls lnstructrve.and that rn shon rt rs              rvhat he - and m as much as he rs supposed have traversed psychoanaiytrc
                                                                                                                                       to                the
somethrngwhrch makes qurte clear the facr that thrs pornt on the top left then. of       experrence a wav of whrch the leastthat can be satd rvrthoutenterrngany
the forcedchotcer,r'hrch the definrtron
                              rs              rhati gaveof alienatron rts revrsed
                                                                      rn                further to doctnnal that rt oughr to be a rvav that rve could say rs
form, alienatlon as I have explarnedrt here for you, a littre rmprovemenrgr\.ento                                                              -
                                                                                        ( I 13) pusheda linle further than that of trearments he ought ro know abour
the notronofalienarronas rt had beendiscovered         befbreus. It had firsr ofall     ',vhatts rnvolved m the subject supposed knor,v. Namely, that for hrm, and I
beenporntedout at the level of productron. the revelof socral           explarned you the last trme (cf schema),
                                                                                                    to                                why rt rs rhatthe sub.yect
                                                                                                                                                               supposed    ro
explorratron,                                                                           knorv comes here. For hrm w'ho krows what rs rnvolved n the psychoanalylc
                                                                                        act. the outline.the vector.the operatton   ofthe psychoanalytrc ought to
 Thrs "l do not thrnJi'' what allows us to srve rts sense. thls \lord trury
                       rs                                  ro                           reducerhts sublectto the functron of the lirtle o-ob.1ect. Thar rs what rn an
 manrpulated a,,\av that up ro the presenr
              ln                            rvasratherablect.rn tfus sense   that rt    analysrs. one that foundedthts analysrs an acr.hrsow.npsy-choanal.v-st'has
                                                                                                  the                                 ln
reducedthe posrtronof the psvchoanalysand. patrent. an anrtudethat I
                                               the          to                          become.
would qualifu as disparaged. rhe psychoanalysand. rs nghrly or wrongly'
                              if                       r,vho
calledthe patrentrn a certalnrocabulan. resisted.lnnvav vou seervhatthat                He had becomelt precrsely as much as at the end he hasbecome
                                                                                                                       tn                                  lorned to
( I i2) reduces analvsrsto. To somerhrn-e analvsrs
                                          rhat          ..nurnt. rs not and that no     rvhaihe v!'as at tjrst. I meantn the sub.;ectrvrry'of pslchoanalysand,
                                                                                                      not                                      the                 he
one had ever thought of mahns of it. nanel,"... operarton ensnanng, genrng
                                                           of           of              was nol at flrst. at the start.the sub.lect
                                                                                                                                  supposed kno,,v. He becomesrt. at the
the raL'brt of hrs burrorv;he resrsts.\l'hat resrsts obvrouslvnot the sub;ect
           out                                        rs                                end of rheanalysrs.   I            bv
                                                                                                                        sa1'' hlpothesrs.In anal,vsrs, rsthereto know'
tn analists, \l'hat resrsts obvrouslv discourse.                                                                "vould
                           rs         the             and very precrsely the
                                                                         rn    rs at the momentw hen he becomes rharaiso he rs vestedfor the
 24168                                                                           vII 6      24.t.68                                                                      VIT 7

                 \''ift the funcrion occupiedin the d.u-namic him. the
   psychoanalysand subjecr, tinle o_oblecr                                                     analylrcrelatlon- that he refluses act. It rs rn effectqulte onstnai rn the starus
                 as           the
                                                                                              of what rs rnvolvedrn the anaN-trc   functron. El,erypsychoanall,stknorvsrt. and
   This panicularobjectthat rhe linle o-objectis. I mean in this sense                        finally thls endsup bv berngknorvneven b.'-   thosewho havenot approached      rts
                                                                       that it otTersa        field. The analvstrs rheone         rs surrounded a whole zone.rvhors called
   certaindiversitvrvhichmoreoveris not ven broad.because can make                                                                              by
                                                               lve             ir                                            "vho
                                                                                              frequentll'b-v patrenr. make an lnten'entlonrn termsof act. \ot srmplv rn
   quadruple with something empryin rhe so far as this iirtle o-objectis
                                                                                              as much as he mav be called from trme to rrmeto take srdes. be on rhe
             decisivetbr everything that is involvedconceminsthe strucfure the   of           patient s srde.wrrh regardro a closerelatronor anyoneelse. And evensrmpll-to
                                                                                              perform the sort of act that rs rndeed one lvhch consrsts lntervenlng an
                                                                                                                                                        ln             by
                                                                                              approbatron the contrarv,to srve advrce. Thrs rs very precrselv
                                                                                                            or                                                   rvhatrhe
  Allow me to return ro my earlier questioningabout rhosewho are stiil thereon
                                                                                              structureof psychoanalysis   leavesblank.
  the edge.hesitatingabout what is or is nor acceprable a theor,v
                                                          in          sufficiently
  developed therero be no lonsera question disputingits piinciples,bur
              for                                   of                                        ( I 15) It ls very precrsel-n- that reasontharI put on the sarnediagonal I am
                                                                                                                         for                                             -
  simply of knowing rvhetherat one or other point its anicujation i, .orr..r. o. ,o
                                                                                              saylng that to glve an rmage,becauseof coursewhat happenson that line (the
  be criticised Is it not the iase for any of thosewho are here. I ,"vouldeven say            diagonal)has no more rrghr to be cailed diagonalthan what happens the   on
  those. if thereare such,who mieht be arriring for the frrst time. is not what
                                                                                              others. It rs enough to turn the make horrzontalor verncal lines
  settles- that doesnot mean of course   that this could have beensaid so simply
                                                                                             of it, but for reasons ls more convenlentto represent [hrs
                                                                                                                     of                                                 rn
 before - is not what settiespurely and simply the question of rhe following: can
                                                                                             way. You must nor be taken rn by it. Even though there rs nothrn-q     more
 analysis.yes or no, say - it seemsdifficult to me, in the way that I am going to
 say it. for people not to seewhat is at stake- yes or no, does analysismean that            diagonal tn transf'erence  than tn aiienatron.or m what I called the truth operatlon.
 in whateveryou wish, a being as they say, or a becoming, o. *ylhing                         If there are diagonalsrt rs by reasonof the schema. It is rndeedbecause act the
 whatsoever,somethingwhich is of the living order, there should be, whatever                 rernainsb.lankthat rr rs also the one whrch rn the other directroncan be occupred
 there mav be, eventswhich hale their consequences?                                          by tansference. Namely, m the course of what the psychoanalysand        doesby
                                                          Here rve have the term             movmg towards rts honzon, the mrrage,the pomt of arnval at whch I already
 consequence.   w'hichhas all its emphasis
                                                                                             sufficrentiy defined rhe rendezvousln so far as it rs defined by the sub;ect
  ( I 14) rs a consequence                                                                   supposedto know 5. At the start,the psychoanalysand       prcks up lus staffand
                           concei'ableoutsidea signifyingsequence?         From the          puts on go to meer the sub.;ect   supposedto know at the rendezvous.
  very facr that somethingwhich happened      subsistsin the unconsciousin a way
  that one canrediscover on conditionof catchinghold of a piecewhich allows
                           it                                                           a     Thrs alone rs what pemuts thrs careful prohibrtronthat the analysrlmposeson
  sequence be reconstituted. there a single thing that .* hupp.n to an animal
              to                 is
                                                                                              hrmself rvrth respecito the act. In other words. if he did not lmposelt on
  that can be imaginedas inscribedin this order? Is not ereryrhins that has been
 articulated anallsis.from the begin-ning. the order of tiis bi-oeranhieat                    hrmself. he would be qurte srmply a decen'er.because knows n pnncrple
               in                              of                               -^            lvhat rs to becomem analysrsof the sublectsupposed know. It rs because
 articularion as much as it rer'ers ronr!,nin_n
                 in                   L             ,h;i;;   ;.
 signifling terms? That this dimensionis impoisiblero removefrom it, to expel                analysrs as we havemore or lessthe ongrnalexperlence it. thrsartefact.
                                                                                                        ls,                                                 of
                                                                                             thrs somethrng    lvhrchoniy appears.  perhaps. hlstoryfrom a cenarnmomenras
 aom .it ttom the moment that. as has beenseen,it can no longer be reduced
                                                                                   to        an extremelvlimrtec ry'pe eprsode. extremely
                                                                                                                         of           of           partrcular cases a practrce.
 any notion of piasticiwor of reactiviqv of biologicalstimulus-response
                                          or                                    which.       whtch bv chance     opened a completelydifferentstvleof act relatrons
                                                                                                                       up                                              between
 rn any crse.will not be of rhe orderof what is presened in a sequence
                                                                               Nothing       hurnans.   Thrs would not for all that be rtsprrvilege, i believei gaveyou enough
 of what can operate termsof tixation.of transfixing. intemrption.
                        in                                 of                 indeed         tndicattons last trmeof the fact that rn the courseof hlstorythe relatron the
                                                                                                           the                                                            of
even of of seningup. arounda svstem. vrhatis onl1 a system.
                                           of                          and specifically               to
                                                                                            sub.;ecr the act hasbeenmodified. That rt ls not evenwhat can still be found
the nenous one. is by itself alonecapabie corresponding this function
                                              of                 to               of                                                that
                                                                                            rn manuais moraliryor socrolog,v effectrvely
                                                                                                           of                                      grve us an rdeaof what rs
consequenceThe srructure. stabiliry.rhemaintainineof the
                               irs                                   line on which it       effectrvely                            rn
                                                                                                          lnvolvedrn act relarrons our epoch. For example.rt rs obvrously
is inscribed.    impliesanotherdimension.   u.hichis properl.v that of strucrure This       not only a matterof .vourhavrngto remember the way theprofessors
is a reminderand *hich doesnot come hereat the point rhat I havegot to,
                                                                                 ar rhe     speakabouthtm. for !'ou to be able to me3sure rmportance what rs
                                                                                                                                               the             of
moment when rhenI inremrpted        myself to give this reminder                                                              rn
                                                                                            rnvoivedin what he represents terms of a sharpturn wrth respect the act.
Here ue are then at rhis point s which siruates what is speciticailvinvolvedin              Now'. I do not klo*'vrhat I ought to do ar thrs turnrngpornt. To advrse).ou ro
the psy'choanalrtic in so far as ir is aroundit thar rhereis suspended
                  act.                                                   the                read somethrng alwaysso dangerous
                                                                                                              rs                    because   evenrhrngdepends rhe
resistanceofthe psrchoanalvsr The resistance    ofthe psvchoanalvst this
                                                                      in                    de-eree whrch one hasprelrousl.u-
                                                                                                    ro                          beenmore or lesscleanedup. It seems
strucruring manifested
           is             by'the fact.which is altoeerherconstiruti'eof the                 (l i6) ditficuit ro me not to havebeen sufficrently to be able ro slruate book.
                                                                                                                                               so.                   a
  2 4 16 8
                                                                                   VII 8      24168
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          VII 9

     ro qrve a sense. yeight ro w'harI havejusr srated
                    a                                  A iinre book appeared bv                    mrscognitionswhich correspondro the dead or suspended
     someonewhom I beliere I salv at this seminarat one                                                                                                parts in rhe verv
                                                        rime.rvho senrit to me                     operationthat is at srake
     because this. ,'vhich called rhe DiscoLu clela gtrerr
              of          is                  s            e b,u-
                                                                Andre Glucksmann

     it is a book which perhaps                                                                   Thar gives alreadvr\\o aspecrs The rhird rv.hich no  is
                                can give you rhe dimensionon a certainprane in a                                                                             lessthrilling. is rhis
    certain field of what can arise from something rvhich                                         somethinsto which ar rhe end of my discourse      rhe lasttime. I gar.ea too tacile
                                                           is ratherexemprar.v  and               too tempringan indicationto express
    rathercompletein as much as the relationof war is                                                                                     rapidly somerhing    about,i.hichan echo
                                                         somethine   abourwhich                   came back to me one that I camot subscnbeto and rv-hich
    ever!one speakswithout rhyme or reason But as                                                                                                                   is quite amusing
                                                       regardsthe-influence the
                                                                              of                  having come from one of thesenunerous roices tharI hare
    discourse war on ! influencewhich is
               of                                                                                                                                                   o, *" oirporol'"r, i,
                                                    not nJrhing,as ]ou will seefrom              someone I no lonserremember
    reading this book namely. one rvhich conespondsro                                                                              whom I no longerknorvwho repeated to me        it
                                                          a certainr.vay taking
                                                                         of                      He said to me todal decidedly thrs is a Che Guevara
    Hegei's discoursein so far as it is a d.iscourse war in rvhich
                                                   on                                                                                                       seminar All tharbecause
                                                                    one seesclearlr.             in connection  with rhesubjecrsupposed know, the $ banedon the bonom
   horv many limits there are on the side of rhe techlician                                                                                 to                                          lett.
                                                             on the side of the soldier          I had said that what is perhaps- at least this model posesthe quesrion
   And then alongsidethe discowse of the asain                                                                                                                    tbr us _ rhe
                                                                 one would be llrons             end. the finish, the tipping.over the somersault.which is
   to despisethe soldier from the moment rharhe knows                                                                                                           the normal end in itseif
                                                          [o* to ,ur,uln u air.o*i.
   This rarely happens. when it happensit is all the                                            of what is involved in the aci, 'r so far as if there is somethine
                         but                             samevery su.ikingthat it is                                                                                   this
   rather more effective than the discourseof rhepsychoanalyst                                  psychoanalysis    revealsto us. and this from rhe srart,it is that It is not an act of
                                                                                                which anvonecan sav that he is entire.lymaster It is not
                                                                                                                                                               somethingro rear us
   The discourseof crausewitz in so far as ir is cornectedwith                                  away from all our certainties.  from everything thar we have picked up
                                                                  rhat of Hegel and
   contributesits counrerpart it. can give them some
                               to                                                               fi'rndamentally from our experience,from rvhat we kao,,vabouthistory and
                                                         idea of rvhat my discourse                                                                                                  a
   could contnbute arongthis line about a relation,which                                       thousandother things again Every act and not simpry the psychoanarytic
                                                            would ai.rowit ro be                                                                                                   act
   believed. that in our epoch,there is a discourseacceptabre                                  promises to the one who takes its initiadve only rhis
                                                                outsidethe discourse                                                                      ena *iri.l I designate rhe in
   g{ r'var This perhapsmight also account for a certain                                       Iittle o-object And it is not something to make eardrumsburst
                                                          _sap berweenHeger and                                                                                       out of their
  clauservitz at the level of a discourseon war Nanuutty,                                      orbits h is hardly,.ronhwhile becauseof thar to believethat this
                                                              crauservitzdid not                                                                                         is a che
  kngw th9 lirtle o-object But if by chancethe litrre                                          Guevaraseminar There have been others before I am not in the process
                                                      o-ob;.., has ailowed us ro see                                                                                               of
  a linle bit more cleariy into something tirat crausewitz                                     polishing up the tragic in order to make it shine what is at
                                                           inuoaucJ as tne                                                                                        stakeis perhaps
  fundamentalasvmmetrybetrveen       two panies in war, namerv.the absoiute                    something else
  heterogeneiwthere is. Axd this asyrnmeq! is found
                                                        to dominatethe rvhoregame
 benveenoffensive and defensi'"e.    even though clauservitz was nor precisely                ( i I 8) \!tat is at stakeis somethingwhich is obviously more within
                                                                                                                                                                   our reach,if
 someone go on aboutthe necessities rheoffensile
            t0                                                                                we bring it back to rvhaluvemust know about the logical structue
                                           of                This is onlv a simole                                                                               of the act to
 indication                                                                                   truly conceiveof *hat is happening the limited field of psychoanaiysis

 I am filling in. in a rvav.hastiry. cenain number
                                   a                                                          it is here that queslionscan be formulated among thosewho beiongto
                                                    of racksin the tbundationof                                                                                        my
 yi, r am articrllling in connection '"virh,,vhar psvchoanaiytic alrow.s                      schooi rvho one are presumedro be able ro put what I am statins in its place.
                                                 the                 act      us.                                                                                             all
 ln snon to establlsh to restore
                        or          about uhat constitutes co-ordinates rhe                  along a constructicn-the necessiqv r.vhose
                                                                                                                                  of        difTerentstagesthei have beenable
                                                          the            of
 act. of w'hatwe are u1in9 ro open up the parh                                               to follorv Let them bring me through the intermediaryoiooctor
                                               of this rear                                                                                                      iVlelman.  and
                                                                                             this no laterthannext Wednesda.u-    somethinglike a testimony A testimonl that
  ( 1 17) r ou seethenthat thereareseveral                                                   thel'are capable pushinga littre bit funher rhe turningpoinrs rheliving
                                             lacks Firsr of all somethin-s oushr
  to be taken for granted.namely, rvhat in a                                                 things. rhe hinges rhe doors. rhe r',av of using this apparaiusin so far as it
                                               lo_sicalstructureestablishes ourfor
 mapplngout at the minimai level of something                                                concernsthem
                                                     quire privileeed. psychoanall   sis.
 in so far as it consrirutes connectionbet*een
                            the                       an act and a doing If we do not
 set up this logica.lsrnicrure. the pans rharare
                                with                                                         I mean thar whar I am expectingfrom the meeting, from which. I apologise the
                                                       alive in the oper-ation.  and
 ihen those that are teft for dead.rve .u*o,                                                majorir.rof those*ho are herew'ill find rhemselves   excluded a
                                                find our bearingsin ihe anary-tic
operation It is therefore                                                                   certainnumberof questions   uhich prole to mE leasrup to rhepoinr tharI
                            somethingprimordialand somethine         thatis nor simnrt
imponanr for our practiceitserfbularso ro                                                   have ,eone this yearconcerning whar is involl'ed in the act,peoplecan quesrion
                                               exprainrh; ;il;;;;;i;rhr;;;'*''
producedin its sunounds Namely.                                                             themselves  aboursomething.  proposean interpretarion to this interpretadon
                                        ho* it can lend irselfand rery especiallv    on                               ''If
the part of rhoserrho are en_eaged it to a                                                  al vv es i l -                      ^u roa* .
                                                                                                                                                          t h i n g s ii -n t h:i-s - - -a y ^ h i s i: s w h a t i t m e a n s o r - - r t l s
                                                                                            e n n h i J o tLn r u r . r r r .,' v , ' i n t t e-r-p r e t r L i - ^ -       -L
                                                                                                                                                                                               r            !
                                     in         cenainnumberof elective
                                                                                                                                            'jJ            -??,TT
                                                                                            i n c o n r r a c i i c t l g ni t h o n p n r n r h e . ^ ^ i ^ r ^ F ^ , '
                                                                                            thatro crrain
                                                                                              up a e                                      f.T!"iil:::HJ il,i1,'lili".'H.,
24.1.68                                                                        vil l0     24 | 68                                                                       VII II

   the follorvrngclosedsemrnar   (18i2). rn as rnuch as rhe oniy peoplewho will be          explain verv much. because wherethereis truly a master that doesnot meanso
   tnvtted. are thoseof my School rvho have taken part rn thrs first meetlng. It is an      much thosewho havea cushy time as people think - rhereare thosewho have to
  act to go out of one s wav It rs especrally act not ro go out of one s wav. [1
                                               an                                           deairvith rheact and rhosewho haveto deal with the doing So thereis doing
  happens. example.
              lbr        that I can ask someone    r.vhy panrcularanallst.who rs
                                                        a                                   and doing This is rvhereone can begin to understand horv this doing, despiteits
  very alvareto what I am teachrng.and I ask. r.v'hy' rs not here.precrselythrs
                                                      he                                    futile characrer. am speakingabout ps.u-choanalysis perhapsa srearer
                                                                                                            i                                 has
  ,vear. rvhatI am statlngabout rhe act. You ',vill say tharpeoplerakenotes. In
        at                                                                                  chancethanany otherof ailorvingus access enjo_vment
  passtng, would like to pornt out rhat rr rs berterto take notesthanto smoke.
  Smokrngrs not sucha good slgn as regards      listenrngto rvhatI am sayrng.I do           (120) Look carefulll ar rhis doing in a t'earure I would like counderline
  not disapprove smokmg .. .
                   of                                                                       There is no needro sa) that it is a doing of pure speech It is somethingthart
                                                                                            have killed myself recalline for y'ears order to try ro see its funcrion in rhe tjeld
  It seemsto me that smce I made an aliusron to the fact rhat what seems me ro
                                                                          to               of speech  and of language what is not that because is a doing of
  motrvatethrsaudience    whrch honoursme b.u- presence. the aspect
                                                 rts        rs            of               pure speech.that it getsclose to being an acr as comparedto comrnon doing and
  openlng up ofwhat rs happemngbefore you. And I do not even find that on the              that one could moreoverexprsssit by the signifier in acr If we look at things
  part of analysts, to be presenthere at the moment that I am speakrng
                   not                                                     about           very closely.namely.what is truly the senseof the fundamentalrule, ir is
  the act - namely,that rt rs not Just any discoursewhatsoever- even if they are           precisely.that up to a point that is as advanced possible.theseare the
  grven farthful and well rnformed notes,there rs somethrngrathertelling,                  instructions;that the subjectshould absenrhimself lrom it
  srgnificant,and whrch may well lie where I rnscribedthe term, reslstance.
                                                                                           The task. the doing of rhe subject is to leavethis signifier to its operation The
  (l l9) I rntended ask one or |rvo or three people to pur one or two questlonsro
                   to                                                                      "in act" is a device.but it is not the act of the signifier The signifier in act has
  me, to grve a model tbr entenng the closed semrnar. It would not be a bad thrng.         this connotation,this evocationof the signifier that one could call in a certain
 I also kno',vthe freezng effect rhat results from thrs large number. I propose, potency But to know rvhat our doctor earlierwould like there to be
 nevertheless,  that rt should be esrablishedthat apart from a few exceptrons,that        recalledamong thosewho put the stresson stmcture,thereare so many there
 for the regulatronof the semrnarof those admrtted on the 28/2. rt rs thosewho            ready to rabbit on aboutthe person Being is so superabundant         that for us to uy
 will havesentme a rwltten questron     whrch seemsto me to be on thenght lines           to catchourselves its this logic which is not a logic at all,
 about what I am tryrng to bnng vou rvho rvill recervethe little lnvttattoncard for       about which one camot in any way and bl'an:" right put the sign of emptiness I[
 the 28/2.                                                                                is not so easvto constructthis logic. you see here what it resultsfrom Let us
                                                                                          say, that tbr an analystto bring up terms iike that of the personis something
 It only remalnsfor me to prnpornt somethrnghere and there to advance a       us                      al
                                                                                          excessive. ieastto my ears But if he wants to reassure        himself, .lethim
 linle. even if todav lt ls not of the e.t cathetlra order that I habrtualiyadopt.alas.   observethat I would define this iogic a linle bir like one rhat wouid remain as
It must all the samebe noted that thrs gap. rvhrch still remarnsbenveen act   the         close as possibleto Erammar That stanlesyou, I hope So then. Aristotle, quire
and the dorng,rs what rs at stakd. Thrs rs rhe burnrng pornt aroundwhrch people           calmly, huh? \Lhy not?
have beenrackrngtherrbrans tbr a cenarnven limrred numberof centunes.
from the t'ervgreat.sreat-srandJathers are necessan, be rrght away at rhe
                                            that                to                          We must quite simply try to do bener I point out to reLrrharif rhis logic of
epochof Caesar.You have no rdeaof the deereeto whch you arermplicared               rn     Aristotlehasremained     un-punctured Iong cenruries ro orlr own, it is
                                                                                                                                  for                up
thtngsthatoniy hrstorymanualsmake 1.ourhrnk belongto the past.                             because the objecrions
                                                                                                      of              that rveremadeto it of being as rheysaid,a logic
                                                                                           w'hichdid nor notics that it was doing srarTrmarI admjreenormously      professors
 If peoplerack therrbrans - look at Hegel - about the difference      berween the          in the universiq'w'ho   know that Aristotledid not noticesomerhins He is the
 maslerandthe slave.     vou can gl'e to thls as elastrca sense you wrsh,if you
                                                                 as                       _qrearesr  naruralistuho ever existed You can stiil rereadhis History of animals
 look carefullyat lt. lI tnvolvesnothrngorherthan the difference              the '
                                                                      between act          It still holdsup It is fabulous It is the sreatestste! ever takenin biology Nor
and the doing,to rvhrchwe arerrying-rogrre a differentbody, a lirtlebri              that somehavenot beentakensince in logic also.sreps         takenpreciselystaning
stmple thanthe sublect     rvho posesthe act. It rs not at all necessarilyand             from gnmmar It is still somethingthat !!e can rack our brainsaboutevenafter
untquell ' thrs rs what rs disturbrng rhe sublectwho commands.pierreJaner
                                       -                                                  ( l2 I ) haring addedro it some! er! astulethings,quanrifiers example Thel
construcied whole psycholoe aroundthar. That doesnot meanthathe was
            a                                                                             have onli o4g incsnvenience.    rrhich is thatthey are quite unrranslatable
bad.lyonenred.on the conrraq.'.   srmpll-his analv'ses rather rudimentary Ther
                                                        are                               lan*euage am nor saling that thrs doesnot bring up ro datethe questionon
do not allorvverv much to be understood.Because         outsrde fact of what rs
                                                                 the                      rvhich I iook a kind of dogmaticstand. label.a bamer. a slogan;there is no
represented Eg.u"ptran
            on              bas-reliefs.
                                       nameir'.a pilot, moreover,    thattherers a        meta-languageYou can welJ imaginethatit rvoniesme also if perhapsthereis
conduciorat Pleyelor elservhere. thereare thoservhohave - thrsdoesnot
                                                                                VII i2       SemrnarS: Wednesday January1968

                                                                                             JacquesLacan did not attendthts
  one, In anv case.let us start from the rdea that there ts not. Thrs r'vouldnot be a
  bad thrng. It would avordus beiievrngrwongly that therets one.                             .A.mongthose who panlclpated ln he discusstonwere: C Vlelman.G lvlichaud.J
                                                                                             Oury, P Lemorne.F Tosquelles.J Rudrauf. X Audouard. I Roublef. E LemorneT
  It rs not sure that Somethlngthat cannot be translatedtnto language does not               Abdoucheli.C Conre.J Ayme. !l Noyes. L Vlelese,C Dorgeuille. Guattan.J Nassif

 Suffer from a qulte et'fectrvedeficrency. In any case.fbllorvrngmy remarks.                 and others.
 bnngrng us to the ts obvtousll gorngto be a mafterof
 postngcenalnquestlons.     whrch are gotng to concernrvhattSInvOlved.   r,vhat tS
 golng to happenln the comer of the S olthe sublectsupposed know whrch has
 beenremovedtiom the map. What we rvill haveto iucubrate        aboutthe
 availabiliryof the srgnifiertn thts place.'"villperhapsleadsus to thtslornt of
 grammar and logrc. Thrs ts - I am onll' remaJklngtt tn thts con-nectton to
 recall rt to mmd - very prectselythe pornt b;- lvhtch we have ahvavsnavtgated.
 thrs logrc that my entourageof the trme called, wlth
 eiaSficlogrc. I am not tn complete agreementabout thrs term. Elasttclty ls not
 the best thrng that one could hope for as a standardof measurement,

 The.'1ornt berweenlogrc and glammal. ts also somethrngperhapsrvhrchwill
 make us take some further steps. in any case.what i would like to say rn ending,
 rs that I cannotsummon psychoanalysts much to meditateon the spectalness
 of the posrtronwhch happensto be theus. of havrng to occupy a comer
 completely different to the one where they are requtred.even if they are
 forbrdden to act. It rs ali the sameffom the pornt of vterv of act that they have to
 centre therr meditatlonon thetr function.

 But rt rs not for nothrngthat tt ts so difficult to get lt. There ts tn the postttonof
 the psychoanalyst.   and by functron. if thrs schemarendersrt sufficrentlytangible
 for no offence to be seenln tt. somethtnglike takrng cover (de tapi) We will tw
 to decrphersomelvhere       "an tmage rn the carpet", or ln the . ' .. as ;-ou wrsh'
 There rs a certatnrvay for the ps-vchoanalvsr centrehtmself. to savour
 somethrngthat ends up rn thts posltlon of takrng cover. They call that what they
 (122) car;..they call tt listentng.they call rt the ciinrc. You carurotrmaglneall the
 opaque rvordsthat are found on thts occaslon. For I ask myself what can ln any
 wav. what can allorv the accentto be put on what ls qulte specific about thts
 flavour of an expenence.It ts certatniynot accessible an-v- to        logrcal
 manrpulatton.In the nameof ths. i do not dareto sa)'solitaq!'enioyment.
 morosedelectatton. the nameof this to allow oneselfto sa) that all theones
 are of equal value. That above all y..ou   must not be aftachedto an.v- of them.
 whetherone expreSSes       thrngsln telrnsof insttnct.of behavrour. genests,
                                                                         of           of
 Lacantantopology. All of that. we should find ourseiresequldistant            from thrs
 sort of discussron.tll'of'thrs fundamentally a hypocondnacal
                                                    rs                     en;oyment'
 ThrSCenUed    aspeqt.  penstalttcand antt-pertstaltlc the sametlme lS somethtng
 rntestrnal psvchoanalyttc
            to                  expenence.It ts tndeedthrsthat effectrvely        you are
 golng to seetmaged.whtch displals rtselfon a ls not necessarily            the
 easlest polnt to wm though the effect of a dialectrc.Thrs ts the essenttal        pont
 arOundwhch there rs played out, alas.what Clausrvtrzdescribes asymmetncal as
 berweenoffenstveand defensrve.
7.2.68                                                                          D(l

   S e m r n a r9 : W e d n e s d a y F e b r u a a v1 9 6 8

  I am takrng up agalnthen after a fortnrght the contrnuatron what I am
  advancrnsbeforeyou thrs year about the psychoanalytrc   act. It rs parallel to a
  certaln number of propositrons. employ the proper term. that I proposedrn a
  crrclecomposed psychoanaiysts.

   The responses theseproposrtrons.
                  to                     whrch moreoverare not limrted to those
  entitled such. are followed bv a certan number of other productrons. Therers
  gorng to appearat the end of thrs month a iournal whrch will be the.;ournalof the
  Schooi. Ail of tlls has as a result a certalnnumber of responses    or
  manif-estatrons. whrch are certanly not ln any casewrthout nterest for thoseto
  whom I am addressrng                                                          of
                            myself here. It rs clear that some of theseresponses.
  thesereactrons.  madeto the most lively pornt where my proposrtlonsare rather
  conseqlrent wrth r'vhat am producrngbeforeyou on the psychoanalltrcact. are
  assuredl.v" of sense detjne through a test that can be describedas crucral.
            full           to
  lvhat ls mvolved rn the statusof the pslchoanalyst.

  In effectthe last trme.I left r ou rvrththe rndicatron a logrcalreference. ts
                                                        of                     It
  qulte certarnthat at the polnt that we are at. where the act definesby tts curttng
  edgervhatrs rnvolvedrn the passaee rvhrchthe psychoanalvst rnstaured
                                          in                         ls           or
  established. rs qulteclearthat lve camot but passagarnby r.vay the klnd of
               rt                                                     of
  testrngthat logrcalquestlonngconslrrutes us. for

  Wiil rt be. to takelhe rnausural         of                             as
                                  reference the moment,,vhen. I
  evoked.he takesthe decrsrve   stepsfrom whrch therers rnstaured. such.the
  ( i 46) logrcalcategory tts tbrmal specres? rt a mailerof an approach
                          rn                  Is                       w:th an
  demonstratrve dialectrcal
                  or          rntentron?The questron. you aregolngto

 Whr rs rt secondarytBecause      *hat rs at stakers rnstaured tiom the discourse
        nameh' that everJthrnethat we can formr"rlate
 rtselt-.                                               about the psychoanaivsand
 and the psychoanalrst. gorngto turn - I thrnk I am not gotngfo surpnse.v-ou
                        ls                                                         ln
 statlnsrt as I am solng to - I prepared sutficrentllfor the thrngto appear )'ou
                                        rt                                    to
 now'as alreadysatd- rs golngto turn aroundthe follo"vrng:                 the
                                                               horvcontest fact
 that the psychoanalysand. hrs placern lhe discourse at the placeof the
                            rn                            ls
 sublect? Whatererreference arrnourselves          w'tthto benersttuate htm. tt ts
7.2.68                                                                          [X 3     7.2.68                                                                                                   IX3

   narurally tn the first place wrth the iingursttcreference.He rs essentrally one
                                                                             the             truly cenrralpornrof.thehrstoryof logrc. The one whrch by berngdulled
   who speaks.                                                                                                                                                        by a
                                                                                             growlng ambrgurw. sublectrediscovers hrs parhas rn modern
                                                                                                                 the                    on                       logrc.ihrs
                                                                                             other aspectof a son of turnrngpornt whrch makeslts perspectrve  up one
   He rs tlte one who speaksand on whom thereare tesredthe effectsof the rvord.              mtght sa-v. one whlch. tn mathematrcal
                                                                     ')?                                                               loerc.rendsto ridu.. rt ro the vanable
   What rs meantbr,thrs"on'"vhomare tesled"("nr qur s'riprouvent          fhe               of a functron. Namely.somethlng    whrch rs gorngro entersubsequentlv the
   formula rs deliberately  ambrguous.I meanthat hrsdiscourse rt ls reeulated.
                                                                as              set         whole dialecrrc rhequanrifier.
                                                                                                            of               whrch hasno othereffecrthan ro makerr
  up, b)'the anaiytrc                     to
                       rule. rs desrgned be the testoirhe way rn sub.;ect.        henceibrthrnemediable the rvay rn rvhrchrt rs manit'ested the proposlrlon.
                                                                                                                     rn                                 rn
  he rs alreadyconstlruted elfect of the rvord. And nevertheless. rs alsotrue to
                              as                                    rt                      The term ''tumrngpornt" seems me well enoughtjxed rn the tbrmulathat
  say that thls discoursertsell. as rt ls -gorng be pursued,be sustarned task.
                                               to                                                                                                                        I
                                                                         as                 thoughtI should-srve ir. rn sayrngtharrhe sub.Jecr verv preclsely."vhar
                                                                                                                  of                            rs
  finds rtssanction. evaluatron. resultqrradiscourse-et-fect.
                      tts                                                                                                                                              a
                                      rts                         aboveall lrom             srgnitierrepresenrs anothersrgnifier.
  thts properdiscourse    ttself.rvhatever mav be the r.vav analvstlnsertshrmself
  lnto lt bv hls lnterpretatlon.                                                            Thts tbrmula has rheadvantase re-openrngr,vhat eludedrn the posrtron
                                                                                                                              of                  rs                      of
                                                                                            mathemattcal  logrc. Nameiv.the questron whar rs rnltlal.lnrrratlng. posltlns
                                                                                                                                         of                          rn
  Inverselv. shouldnottcethat if the alrva,vs    currenr.
                                                        rndeed sometlmes bumrng             any srgnrfierwharsoever. rntroduclng as representrng sublect.For rhrs
                                                                                                                       by             rt                the                  rs.
  questlonrs brought to bear on the psychoanaiyst. us say. to be sav
                                                    Ier                                    and thrs ls slnce .{rtstotle, what rs essentral
                                                                                                                                         about rt and what alonl allows there to
  the mrnrmum,that rt rs ln so tar as the term "psychoanalyst" grven zlsa
                                                              rs                           be srtuatedln lts correctplace the difference betweenthrs first bipartrtron.
  qualiticatron. who, what. can be sardto be - predicate- "psychoanalyst"t                                                                                              rhe one
                                                                                           whrch differentlates untversalfrom the panlcular. and the secondbrpanrtron.
                                                                                           the one whrch affirms or whrch denres. oni and the other as you know cross
  Assuredly.if even thrs wav of geftrn-e  rnrothe quesrlonappears be gorng too                                                                                             over
                                                                     to                    (1'18)one anotherro glve the quadnpartrtron the unrversalaffirmatrve.
  qurckly,rt rs by a nust that rr will belusrifiedif thrsrs the way go ro the                                                      of                          the
                                                                                           uruversalneganve.and of the parlrcularnegatlveand affirmauve, by turns.
  kernel.I am announcrngunder what escutcheon.        underwhat rubnc I rntendto
 place my discoursetoday. You can tmsr me. lt ls not wlthout havrng,rn ths
                                                                                            The nvo brpartrtrons  have absoiutelyno equrvalence.what rs meantby the
 connectlon,renerved I mrght say,with rvhatrs enliehtenrngn the very
                                                                                            rntroductronof the sublect.ln so far as rt,i ut,t, level that therers srtuatedrhe
 hrstorvof logrc. rn the wav rn whrch. in our tlme, the handline of rvhat rs
                                                                                            blpartrtlon of the umversaland the partrcular? what can that mean,to takethrngs
 desrgnated thrs term logtc see-saws such a wav. a way ,ihrch truly
             by                            rn                                              as did someonewho found happened perrce.charles sanders.
                                                                                                                                               ro                          at
 I mrght say. not ahvaysmore difficult. but makesus more and more confused
                                                                                           thts hrstoncpolnl. at thrs Ievelof the;orntngof traditronai         to
                                                                                                                                                         lo*erc mathematrca1
 beforeArrstotles starttnspolnt.
                                                                                           logrc? whrch meansthat 1na w'ay w'et'ind from hrs pen thrs moment of
                                                                                           oscillatronrn rv'hrch therers outlinedthe rurmngporntthatopensup a nervpath.
 (147) You lraveto consulthrstext. and specificalll.the     organ on, atthe level of      No one more chanhe - and I alreadyproducedhrs tesrrmonywhen I had ro Jpeak
 the categones example. or the prtor .lnalyfics. or the firsr book of theToptcs,
                                                                                          rn 1960abourthe rermrdentificatron has betterunderlined, ,,vrth   or     more
 to notrcehow closeto our problematlc the themarrc the sublect, he states
                                          rs              of               as             elegance.what rs rhe essence thrs foundatlonfrom rvh:chthereemerges
                                                                                                                          of                                             the
 rt. For assuredh-from the tlrst staremenr.   nothing rs aireadymoie tangiblero           distrnctronbetrveen unrr ersaland the partrcularand the link of the unr\.ersal
enlighten abourwhat. rn rhrssublect. of its n"*r. ,or.thrng that slips
           us                              rs                                   arvay     to the rerm sub;ecr.
par ercellence. \othrng thar at the stan of the logrc rs more firmly
                                                                        affirmed as
berngdistrngurshed   from rvhat has beenrransrateJ.   very rnsutficrently
undoubtedly' "substanc ol$ra. what rs at stakeln translatrng                                                                                                 v c r . ( i t , . l ' , , , " . , . \ ^ f i ' . , - . . t ' " r)
              as           e                                           rt by substance
ts cleuly seen.rn the courseof be an excesslve     slippaee the functronof
the sub.;ect rts first Aflstorelian steps.for the term "substance".
            rn                                                        whrch
consllrutes heread equlr.ocarton  wrth rrhat the sublect  rncludes termsof
                                                                                                  P^,r-l                                    u
supposltlon. rheterm "substance" havebeenso easilyput forr,vard.
             for                       to

                                                                                                                                                              ^o;"-f                    ' ') '      t
Therets nothtngtn the olsrczrn r.vhat - namel.v-. Anstotle - the
                                     rs        lbr                                                                                                   !-.P)                       {h*
                                                                 rndirrdual.of                                                                tn
a nature be abie to be or srtuated the sublect. affirmed.
        to                         rn          nor          namely.nor                                                                          -)             p;'-'rh ts\cr
anributedto the sublect.
                                                                                         He did rt by means a lirtle exemplan drarvrng
                                                                                                           of                             that thosewho havealready
But *hat elsers more likell'ro make us rmmediarelylump   wrrhboth feet lnto rhe          follo*ed me for somettme knorvrvell. but that moreo!erlr ls not wrthoutrnterest
formularn ',vhrch believedI could. rn all .gour.
                 I                               bearwrtness thrs trulv kel.,
                                                            to                           to repeat. desrsnare
                                                                                                   to         here. The t'acrrs rhatrt glvesthe facilitl.of grvlngas a
7.2.68                                                                          tx 4     7.2.68                                                                                                           D(5

   suppon to the sublectwhat rs reaily rnvolvedtn tt. namelv.nothlng. [n thrs casea         thngs are true at the sametrme.somethrng    thatcurrouslvAnstotle.if my
   stroke gratt).                                                                           knowledgers correct.   failed to recogruse.

  None of thesestrokesthat rve are golng ro take rn order to exemplifu ,,vhat
                                                                            rs              At the other porntsof the cructaldivtsronyou havethe rnstauratron parrrculars.
  rnvolvedrn the functron0f the sub1ect thEpredicate.
                                       fbr                 therers noneof these             There ue ln thesenvo boxes (thoseon the left) vertrcal strokes.and. ar rhe
  (1-19) strokes we are golng to rnscribe
                as                        rhemwhrch rs not already   specified by           Junctron the trvo lower boxes.thereareoniy. and nothrngmore.strokes
                                                                                                     of                                                               whrch
  the predicatearoundwhtch rveare -qorng make the statemenr our proposrtlon
                                          to                      of                        ale nor so.
  turn. namely.the ''venrcal"predicate.
                                                                                            You seethen that at the level of the unrr,ersal
                                                                                                                                          tbundatron. thtngsaresrtuated arn
  1) In the first box. on the top left. the strokesconespondto the predicate.
                                                                            rhey are        wav that rnvolvesan exclusron.  that of thrsdiversrt-1-. one rn the box on the
     vertrcalstrokes.                                                                       boffom left. Likewrseat the levgl 6t the partrculardifTerentratron.
                                                                                                                                                              there rs an
  2) And then thereareothersrn thrs bomomleft box. someof whrchare nor so.                  exclusron: that of rhebox on the top nght,
  3) Here on the bottom nght none rs.
  4) Here. as you see.there are no strokes. Thrs rs ',vhere sublectrs.
                                                           the                             Ths rs what gtvesthe illusronthat the panrcular an affirmatron exrstence.
                                                                                                                                              rs                of
                                                                                           That rt rs enough ro speakat rhe level of "some", some man. for example.of
  Thrs rs where the sublect rs. because thereare no strokes. Evenwhere else.the            yellow colour. to lmply that lrom thrs fact that rs statedrn the form of a partrcular.
  strokesare maskedby the presence absence the predicate. But to make you
                                       or          of                                      there rs supposed be from rhrsfact, if I may expressmyself thus.from the fact
  grasp clearly whv rt rs the "no stroke (pas de trail)'' that rs essentral,
                                                                           thereare        of thrs statlng,the affirmatronalso of the exrstence the partrcular. Thrs rndeed
  severalmethods.even if it w'ereonly by rnstaunngthe statementof the uruversal            ls sometlungaroundwhrch tnnumerable       debates  have tumed on the sub.;ecr the
  affirmatrve, for example, as follows. There rs no snoke that rs not verbcal.             iogrcal statusof the partrcularpropositron. Aad thrs rs assuredlywhat makesrt
                                                                                           densory,for rt rs not enoughtbr a proposrtlonto be statedat the level of the
  You will seethat rt rs makrng the "no" fi.mcuonon the "vertrca.l"or by removrng          parilcular,to rmply ln any way the exrstence the sublect,exceptm the name of
  rt that will allow 1"ou maiie the affirmatrveor negatrvebrpartrbon,and that lt ls
                         to                                                                a srgnifurngarrangement. effect of discourse.
  by suppressrng "no" beforethe stroke.and that rt rs by leavrng,the strokethat
 rs or not venrcal. that you enrerthe partrcular. Namely, at the moment when the            The rnterestof psvchoanal,v"srs              rs that rt has never beenable to be
 sub.;ect entrrely..
           rs         sub;ectedto the vanarlonof venrcal or not '"ertlcal. There are        done up to the present.theseproblemsof logrc. by contributtngto them vlhat.rn
 some that are. and others that are not. But the statusof unrversalifyrs onlv              short. was at the sourceof ali the ambrgurtres                   that developedrn the tustoryof
 rnstaured   here for example bv the unron of |w'o boxes, Namell . the one w'hrch          logrc. by rmplyrng rn the sublectan ousta,a berng. That the sub.;ect fiuctron                      can
 has onl."" vertrcal strokes.but the one moreoverwhere there are no strokes. For           as not berng(comme             n'itant pas). rs properlv- I haveanrculated I havernsrsted      rt.
 the statement the unrversal.
                  of               whrch sar.s
                                             that all rhestrokes I'ertrcal. onlv
                                                                are          rs            on rt hom the begrnrrnsof thrsrear - w'hatcan brrns us the enlightentng                                  openrng
 substanttated.   legrtrmatel-v.
                              from thesenvo boxesand therrunron.                           thanksto whrch therecan be re-opened exarnlnatlon the developmenr
                                                                                                                                                    an                       of                          of
                                                                                           logrc. The task rs still open - and                     knorvs.   perhaps statrng here.I will
                                                                                                                                                                            by            rt
                                                                                                                                  -          "vho
 It rs ls more essentraliv the level of the empw box. Thereare         ( I 5 I ) p r o v o k e ! o c a t r o n o f s h o w r n g s w h a tr s t n r l y m e a n tb v s o m a n ) ' d e r o u r s .
                                                                                                                  a                                u
 no strokesexcept verttcai onesmeansthat ',vhere     thereare no vertrcals.there rs no     so much embanassrnent,                sometlmesso paradoxrcal.                    manifested the  rn
 stroke. Suchrs the acceptable    definrtronofthe sub;ect so far as beneath
                                                            rn                every       courseof hrsrory Theseare rvhathal'e markedlogrcal debates                                   throuehourthe
 predicatrve  statlng.rt rs essentrally somethlng
                                      thrs            &at ls onl)' represented a
                                                                             bv           agesand renderso rncomprehensible, from a certarn       seen                leastfrom ours,
 srgnitierfor anorher  srgnifier.                                                         the trme they sometrmes               took. and rvhich appearto us for a long Bme to have
                                                                                          consttruted        stagnatlons.      evenpasslonsaroundthe sragnatlons.                    rvhoselrnport w'e
I rvill only mentlonqurckll . tbr not golns to spendour r.vhole
                                       are                               taik dweliing    can hardlysense long as ne do not seelvhat was truly at stakebehrnd
                                                                                                                    as                                                                            rhem.
on whaf we can drarvfrom Perrce's      schema.It rs clearthat lt ls srmilarfrom the       Namely,nothlng lessthat the statusof desrre                      whoseiink. because rs secret.'wth
unronof theset\r'o $sys5 (rhenght hand bracket)     rhatthe statement: strokers
                                                                        no                politrcs.for example. altogetherrs                 tangibleat the turnlngpoln! \vhrchconsrlrured
vertrcaltakesrts suppon.u hv? Thrs rndeed ls necessary me ( I 50) to
                                               rs                     for                 the rnstawatron onephilosophv.
                                                                                                                   ln                         Englishphiiosophy            specificall.".,.a certan
accentuate                           -
             how tt ts demonstrated rvharrs alreadl known if one readsAnstorle s                                                     to
                                                                                          nomrnalism. It rs rmpossible comprehend conslsrency thrsloerc ruth
                                                                                                                                                          the                     of
text ln an appropnate   wa\ - that the unr|ersalaffirmatrveand rhe unrversal              politrcs.     rvrthoutnotrn-s       rvhatthe logrc rtselfimpliesaboutthe status the sublect         of
negattve no w'avcontrrdicrone another.
          ln                                 that thev are both acceptable  on            and aboutthe reltrenceto the effectrveness desrre oolitrcalrelauons.
                                                                                                                                                        of             rn
conditrontharwe are rn rhrstop neht handbox. It rs also trueat the level of thrs
box to statethat all the strokesare vertlcal.or that no stroke ls vertlcal.the two
7.2.68                                                                         X. 6       7.2.68                                                                          Lr\   /

  For us. for whom rhrsstatusof the sublectrs illusrrated questrons and I
                                                             by           -                  arttculatton.Ifone psychoanalirst    everythrng assured.Therecan be a
                                                                                                                            extsts.        rs
  markedasarnthat all of thrs happens a very [imrted.rndeed
                                        rn                         verv shortmilieu.         crowd of others.
  markedby discusstons                         -
                           abourlts presnance whoseburnrngcharacrer.        panlcrpates
  I would sav rn these  ancrentunderprnnrngs.   whrch rs rvh;-,rn thrs case. rake as
                                                                            rve              But tbr the momenr.the quesrron us rs ro know how the psy'choanalysand
                                                                                                                                for                                         can
  example.what rve are able to arilculate. Thrs rs \,vh\ lt camor but have an                become psy-choanalyst,
                                                                                                      a                Holv doesrt happenthat.rn the most rvell grounded
  tnctdence a much largerdoman rn as much as rt rs assuredlv
               on                                                    notJustln the           wav. thrsqualificatron only-
                                                                                                                    rs      supporred the taskcomplered rhe
                                                                                                                                      b.'"                    by
  practlcewhtch tums aroundthe firnctron desrre so t'aras malysrsdiscovers
                                            of       rn                                      os_vchoanalysand.  Here rndeed\,veseethereberngopenedup thrs other
  rt. lt ls not srmplvherethat the questron it rs pla-,-ed
                                           of              out.                              dimensron,  whrch rs one that I alreadyrned to protilebefbreyou. aboutrhe
                                                                                             conJunctlon the act and the task. Horv do the nro corutecrup? We tind
  Here then are the psychoanall'sand the psychoanalyst
                                        and                   placedbv us rn rhese          oursel'es here betbre anotherform of r.vhar  createda problem and endedup b;-
  disttnctposlttons.r.vhrch respecuvelr'.
                             are.             what rs gotngto be the statusoia              berngartrculatedrn the fuliddleAges. It ls nor theretbr nothrng thts mvenrto
  sub.;ect defrned thrs discourse. thrsdiscourse
                    bl                by                               the
                                                       that.I told _u-ou last       medi, from whrch there starTs  wlth thrs admrrablylively step the Prrcr .lnalyrtcs
  established the rule. especrally
               bv                     because the facrthat the sub;ectrs askedto
                                              of                                            (153) of .{nstotle. Namely. the first figureof the mrddlererm.of ths mrddre
  abdicatefrom rt. Thrs rs tbe arm of the rule. and by-commrttrnghrmself. ar rhe            term about whrch he explams to us that by berngsrruated a predicate,rt will
  limrt. to the drift of language.he is gorneto anempr by a sort of immediare               allow us to connecr a ratronalfashronihrs vanrshlng
                                                                                                                rn                                  subjectro somerhrng
  expenenceofits pure effect. to connectup wrth rts alreadyestabiished     effects.         whrch rs a predicare,Throughthe mrddleterm.thrsconnectlon possible.
                                                                                            where rs the mysreryt How doesrt happenthat rt appears      thatsomcthlng   exlsts
 Such a sub.lect. subjectdefined as effecr of discourse. fie pornt that he
                                                            to                              rvhrchrs a mrddle term and rvhrchappears the first figure as predicateof the
 undertakes tnal of losrng hrmself in rt rn order to find hrmsell such a sublect
              the                                                                           malor '"vhere sub3ect
                                                                                                          the        awartsus, as sub.Ject the mmor whch ls gomg to allow
 whose exercrse ln a way to put hrmselfto the test of hrs own reslgnatron.
                  rs                                                            when        us to lay hold agarnof the predicateln questlon. Is rr yes or no. attributableto the
 can we say to whar rs a predicateapplied? In other words. could we state                   sub;ecr?
 (152) somethrngthat falls under rubnc of the unrversal? If the unrversaldid not
 a.lreadyshow m lts structure that it finds lts source.rts foundatronrn the sub;ectrn       Thrs thrng whrch. r,vrth passage nme. passed
                                                                                                                    the        of             rhroughdifferent colours,
 so far as he can only be represented hs absence.
                                       by              namely, rn so far as he rs           whrch appeared. the turn of the i6tn century.when all rs sardand done - there rs
 never represented?   we would assuredlv    havethe nght to posethe questronif              no doubt that one seestt from rhe pen of the authors- to be a pwely futile
 anythrngwhatsoe'er could be statedof the order, for example.of "everv                      exerclse.We lvill glve lt body agarnb1'notrcmgrvhatrs at stake.
 psychoanalysand    resrsts"
                                                                                            What rs at stakeis ,uvhat called the o-ob-rect
                                                                                                                     I                    whrch rs for us here the true mrddie
  I am how'evernor solng to decrdeyet whetherany unl!,ersalwhatsoevercan be                term that rs proposed. assurediy. a plus one,of a more lncomparable
  posrtedaboutthe psychoanalvsand. will nor serlt astde,
                                        We                       desprte the               senousness   by'berngthe effectofrhe discourse   ofrhe psychoanalysand. by  Aad
  appearance. that rn posltrn-s psychoanalysand thrs sub..;ect chooses
                                the                 as              lvho          to       berngon the other hand. as I have statedlt. ln the nerveraph that you seeme
  make one mrght say.morealienated      thanany dedicate               usrnghere for the lasr trvo ,v-ears. r,vhat ps,
                                                                                                                              not      the                becomes.   what rs
  hrmselfto the fact that onll' rhedetours an unchosen
                                           of              discourse.  namely.thrs         rmpliedat the startby the lvholeoperarron.   rvhatouehrto be the outcomeof rhe
 somethrng  whrch rs most opposed vr.hat here- ln rhe schema at the start.
                                     to       rs                      _                    psy'choanalysrng              rvhatirberares rt somethrng a fundamental
                                                                                                            operatlon.                 rn              of                truth.
 Namell . that lt rs of courseb1 a chorce. a chorce
                                           but          thar rs masked.  eluded.           The end of psychoanal,vsrs.   nameiy.the sublecr berneunequalro any possible
 because  madeeariier. we havechosen represenr sub.;ect the stroke.b.,-
                                          ro           the         by                      sublectificatton sexualrealiryand the requlremenr
                                                                                                           of                                    rhat.rn orderthat thrstrurh
 thrs strokethat rs no longerseenbecause rs hencetbrth
                                            rt              qualiiied. Therers             shoulciappear.the psychoanalyst    shouid aireadvbe the representatron ,',vhat
 nothrngmore opposed,rn appearance. how the psvchoanall'sand
                                         to                             constltutes        masks. obtrudes. sroppers   thrstruth and whrchrs calledthe o-obrect,
 hrmself.rvhtchts all the sameby a certaln    chorce.thrschorcethat I earliercalied
 abdicatron. chorceof tesungoneself
             the                           agarnst effectsof language.h rs
                                                  the                                      Note *ell. rn effect.that I rvill retum ai lengthto rheessentrai what I am
 tndeedhere that \\e are golns to find our beanngs.
                                                                                           artrculatlng                     rs
                                                                                                        here.the essent:al nor thacat the endof the ps1'choanalysrs.some
                                                                                           peoplermagrne I saw rt tiom the quesrrons      posed- the psvchoanaly'st becomes
 In effect.if r.refollow the thread. *.eb thatthe useof the srllogrsmsuggesrs
                                    the                                         ro         the o-objectfor the other, Thrs "for the other"herecunousrl rakes the value
 us. what of coursewe oughr ro somethrns   that ts gotngto connectrhts         of a "ibr oneself' rn as much as. as sub.;ecr rherers noneorherthan thrsother to
 sub.;ecr what rs heread'ancedas a predicate. pil choanall - if a
        to                                       rhe             st                        rvhomthe w'holediscourse left. It rs nerther rheother. nor ln a for oneself
                                                                                                                        rs                  for
 ps1'choanaiyst  exrsts. And. alas.thrsrs rr.hat lack to suDoort
                                               we                thrs loercal              rvhrchdoesnot exlstat the level of the :si,choanalvsr. thereresrdes
                                                                                                                                                   that              thrso. it
                                                                                           rs rnceed rn rtself(en soi\. an rn rtseifof ihe ps1
                                                                                                     an                                                    it
                                                                                                                                                choanall,sr. rs rn asmuch as.
7.2.68                                                                              IX 8       7.2.68                                                                          X9

   as the psychoanalvsts  themselves                       -
                                       protestmoreover tt ts enoughto openthe                     But then. perhapslike that. tn a srdelongwav, lt ls a rvay that I have. like that. a
   (154) literature lt to seethe testtmony- it at everymoment - thev arereall-u-                  heunstrcone, of iniroducrng                                   -
                                                                                                                               vou. you mrghtaskyourselves I put the quesrlon
                   on                           of
   thts breastof the "oh. my morherIntelligence"of our Nlallarme:that ther are                                                                -
                                                                                                  because answerrs already'there course what doesthrspsvchoanalvsrng
                                                                                                          the                         of
   themselves  thrs uaste product.preslding    over the operatlon the task.thatthev
                                                                    of                            task produce?
   are the look. that they are the votce. It ts tn so far as they are tn themselves
   supponof thrs o-ob;ectthat the whole operatton possible.Therets onlv one
                                                        rs                                        To gurdeus rve alread,u- the o-ob1ect. if at the end of a termrnared
                                                                                                                           have             For
   thrngthat escapes   them. w'hrchrs the degree whrch lt ls not metaphoncal.
                                                   to                                             ps.'-choanalysls. o-oblect.whrch rs no doubtalrvays
                                                                                                                  thls                         the lerel of our
                                                                                                  questlon.namelv.the psychoanaly'trc rt rs all the sameonly'atthe endof the
   Norv let us try to take up agatnrvhatthe psychoanalysa:rd thtsts.                              operatlon.that rt rs golng to reappear the real.from another
                                                                                                                                       ln                     source.\amely. as
   psychoanalysand. ts engaged thts cunoustaskthat i described betng
                       rvho             tn                                  as                       ectedby the ps."..choanalysand.
   supponedby hrs abdicatton. no! golng to sensehere that. tn an,v-
                                       we                                      case.
                                                                                                 But thrsrs whereour mrddleterm functrons.    that we find rt werghted  wtth a
   therers somethlngeniightening whetherhe can or cannotbe taken,we do not
   know. under the hrnctronof the untversal? There rs perhapsanotherthing that rs                completelydiiferent accent. Thrs o that rs at we have satd.ts the
   gomg to strike us. It rs that we haveposrtedhrm as sublect not wlthout lntentlon.             psychoanalyst.It rs not'because rs therefrom the stan. that at the end. from the
  That meansthat the senseof what thts rvord,psychoanalysand.          meanswhen lve             pornt of vrew of the psychoanalysrng thrstlme. rt rs not what ls produced.I
  artrculatett at the level of the so far as he ts the one,'vhoplays wlth all         mean that one can ask oneselfthe questron what descnpttoncan we gtve of the
                                                                                                                                             of thoseof a murenaon the plateof a nch Roman,cannot                       psychoanalyst.One thng rn any casels certaln.there rs no    rvtthout
  be put to use except by changrnglts senseas an attribule. The proof is that when               a psychoanalysand.    And I would say more. that thrs thrng w'hrchts so cunous ibr
  one usesrt as an usesthe term psychoanalysed. tbolishly as
                                                                     as                          havrngenteredmlo the field of our world. namely.that thereare a certalnnumber
  possible.But one doesnot say that theseor thoseor all ofthese or all ofthose are               of people of r.vhom are not so sure that thrs has the power to establishrherr
  psychoanaiysands. did not use,as you notlce.the srngularterm. Thts would be
                        I                                                                        statusas sub.;ect.There are. all the same.people w'ho work at thrs psy"choanalysts.
  stiil more outrageous.But let us leavethe srngular one stde.expenencing
                                                         to                        at            The term work has never been excludedfrom rt for a srnglernstant,from the
  thrs turrung pornt the samerepugnance     that ensures that Anstotle doesnot use               ongm of psychoanalysts.Durcharbeitung,worktng through, ts rndeedthe
  slngulartenns rn hrs syllogrsttcs.                                                             charactensic to whrch we must ndeed referourselvesrn order to admtt the
                                                                                                                     the detours,even sometlmes uncertamfyof thts area.
                                                                                                 andit-l'.the drvness.                             the
  if you do not sensenght away what I am armlng at rn connecttonwtth thts
  tangibletestrnsofthe useofthe term psvchoanalysand. sublector asattribute.
                                                        as                 I                     But if we put ourselvesat the levelof an omnttudewhere all the sublectshankly
  am gorngto makeyou sense   it.                                                                 affirm themseivesthen, tn thetr untversalir.v. no ionger berng.and as berng(the
                                                                                                 (156) box on the nght) the foundahon the untversal.What we seels that,
                                                                    ''workers                    assuredly.therers sometlung  that rs gorngto depend tt. which ts the product
   Use the word worker. as lt rs srruated fie perspectrve
                                            ln                  of:            of the world
   unrte'' namely,at the level of the rdeology    whrch prcksout and emphasrses        therr     and even properlv speakrngthe productton.
   essenttal alienatron. constrtutrve
                        the                explortatron whrchconsrders     them as
   u.orkers.Opposethrs to the useof the sameterm ln the paternalistlc         expresslon,         Here alreadyI can prnpotntrvhatts the nature these"people" of thrs specles:
   the one that rvoulddescribe populatron hardworkrng(travoilleme).
                                 a              as                                 These          the psychoanalyst. detinrnghrm as productlon.if therewereno
  peopleare workersb.v-    nature.they are lartribute)  "good'"vorkers" Thrsexample.             psychoanalysand.    I would rn someclasstc    humouror otherthat I am
  thts distincttonls one ,,vhrch  perhaps golngto rnrroduce
                                           ts                     vou to somethrng                reverslng: therelvereno Polestherer.rould no Poland. It can aiso be sard:if
                                                                                                            if                                   be
  lvhrchwill perhaps   make -v-ou  posethe questlon    afterall. of rvhr,. thrsso curtous
                                                                         rn                      therew'ereno psychoanal.'"sands. would be no psychoanalyst.
                                                                                                                                     there                               The
  (155) operatron   rrhrch rs the one b,'-
                                         whrch,as I told you. the sub.;ect the
                                                                             of                  psvchoanalyst definedat thrslevel of productron. ts definedas bernsthts
                                                                                                                 rs                                      He
  psychoanalyrc rs supponed.
                   act               [erv, on the pnncrpleof the fact that the act b1'           sort ofsub.;ect                     the
                                                                                                                 who can approach consequences          ofdiscourse. a fashron
                                                                                                                                                                      tn         so
                          rs               startselservhere? thrs not desrgned
                                                              Is                      to         pure rhathe can rsolate planeIn these
                                                                                                                           t1s              relattons  rvrththe one for whom. by hrs
  make us graspthat there rs herealso.a krnd of alienatlon.And afterall, you are                 acr. he sets up the task and the progralTrme thrs task. And throughallrhe
  not surprtsed rt slncerr uas alreadypresent mr first schema,
                 at                                 rn                    that lt ls frorn a                                        ln
                                                                                                 sustalnmg thrs task.only-sees lt relattons
                                                                                                            of                                    whrchareproperlythosethatI
  necessan'alienatron. one rn r.vhrch rs rmpossible choosebetlveen
                         the                 rr              to                    the           desrgnate                               the
                                                                                                           when I handlethrs algebra: $. the o. rndeed O and the i(o r. The
  "ettherI do not thrnk" and the "or I am not" tharI derrvedthe r.vhole       firsr              6ns u'ho ts capable matntatntng
                                                                                                                       of              hrmselfat thrs level.namel.'-. oniy seerng
                                                                                                                                                                     of           the
  formulatronof uhat rs rnvolvedrn the psychoanalltrc       act.                                 polnr at whrch the sub.;ect at thrstask.whoseend rs. whentherefalls. rihen
                                                                                        the final term the o-ob.;ect.  The onewho rs of sucha hnd. rvhrch
                                                                                                 meansthe one who ts capable. relatton someone
                                                                                                                                  tn         to           who rs herern the posrtron
7.2.68                                                                          D{ l0      7. 2 . 6 8                                                                        xil

                                                                rnvolved tn that by
   of treatment.of not lettrng hrmseif be atfectedby ever-r'thrng                              Thrs of coursemeansthat the psychoanaiyst not enttrely o-ob1ect.He operates
   whtch everyhumanbetngcommunlcates everyfuncttonwlth hls t'ellow.
                                             ln                                                as o-ob;ect.But I thrnk I havealreadyanrculated act ln quesllon
                                                                                                                                                  the                 stronely
                                                                                               enoughup to the present be take lt up agalnwrthourcommentary.
                                                                                                                         to                                                  the
   And thrshas a name.whrch rs not srmpl)'theone that I haveahvays        denounced.                              rn
                                                                                               act whrchconststs authonsrng psychoanalysrng
                                                                                                                                the                   rask.wrrh rvharthrs
   namelr'.narcrsslsm. to lts extremeterm.whish ts called love. Therets not
                        up                                                                     rnvoivesrn termsof having t-arth the sub3ect
                                                                                                                                rn             supposed krow. The thrngwas
   onlv narcrssrsm. luckil-""
                    nor         only love benveen  humanberngs. lt ls called.
                                                                    as                         qurtesrmpleas long as I had not anxounced   that thrs fatth ls unsustalnable.{nd
   Therers somethrng   that someone   who knew how to speakaboutlove happiiy                   that the psychoanalyst the t'irst.and up ro norv the onlv one. ro be able ro
   distrngurshed. Therers taste.therers esteem.Tasters one aspect,      esteem ls              measure It hasnot yet beendone. Thanksto what I am teachrng ls necessary
                                                                                                         lt.                                                        lt
   perhapsnot the same.but thev connectup admrrablv. There rs fundamentaliy         thrs                        that:
                                                                                               fbr hrm to kno'"'"
   somerhrng whrch rs called "l like you. Trtme plars" and w'hrchrs madeup
  essentrally thrstltratlon, of what ensluesthat ln an exact and rneplaceable
              of                                                                               1 - The sub;ect       to                r,vhat transference
                                                                                                              supposed know rs precrsely    rhe          consrdered
  proportlon. of what you can put rn the bottom left hand box. the relatron.the                a gift tiom heeven,
  supportthe sub;ecttalces   from the o and hom thrs i(o) whrch groundsthe
  narclsslstlcrelauon.resonates, for you exactly what rs necessalv you to like
                                   rs                                   for                     2 - But that also from the rnomentthat rt provesthat transi'erence the sub.;ect
  hrm. Tlus rs what ensuresthat rn relatronsbetweenhuman berngsthere rs an                      supposed know. he the ps-v-choanalyst.the only one able to put ln quesrlon
                                                                                                          to                               rs
  encounter. It rs very preciselyfrom thrs. whrch rs the flesh and blood of                     the followrng. The fact rs that if thrs supposltronrs rn effect qulte useful rn order
  everltlung that hasever beenartrculatedur the order of ,,vhat our day peopletry
                                                                  rn                           to engageln the psl"choanalytrc    task. namely.there rs a - call rt what you rvrshthe
  to mathematlctse a farcrcalway under the name of human rela[ons. It rs tiom
                    rn                                                                         ofirnlsclent, Other - there rs someonewho alreadyknorvsall of that,
  (157) rhrsthat the analyst  precrselydistrngursheshrmself,by neverhavrng                     everyttungthat rs golng to happen. Nanually not the analyst. But there rs
  recourseln the relatronwtthtn analysrs, thrs unexpressible. thrs term whrch
                                           to                     to                           someone. The analyst,for hrs part, doesnot knorv that there rs a sublectsupposed
  grveslts only supportto the reality of the other whrch rs the "i like you" or "I do          to know and evenklows that eveq,thrnsrnvolved m psychoanalysrs,           because  of
  not like you"                                                                                               of
                                                                                               the exrstence the unconscrous.              precrsel,v
                                                                                                                                    conslsts         elimrnatrng    from the map thrs
                                                                                               funcuonof subject              ro
                                                                                                                    supposed know.
  The extractron.the absence thrs dimensronmeansthat there rs a berng,the
  berngof the psychoanalyst who can make everythrnethat rs at staketn the fate of             It rs then a curlousact of farth that rs affirmed by puttrng one s fath rn what rs put
  the psvchoanalysrng sublectrum. by bernghrmselfin the posltlonof the o.                     rn questlon,srnceby srmply engagrng psychoanalysand the task one prefers
                                                                                                                                        the                  rn
  Namelv, m truth. to make hs relahon to hrm turn purel.v- srmply aroundthese
                                                         and                                  thrs act of farth. namely,one saveshrm.
  terms of an algebrawhrch are ln no wa\ concemedruth a crou'd of exrstmgand
  more thanacceptable  dimensrons.A pile of grvens. substantralelements
                                                    of                     rn                 Do you not seeheresomethrng    that overlaps a cunousway a certalnquanei?
  what rs ln operatton. placeand breathngthereon the couch. Herers a
                      rn                                                                      One of thesethrngs that havenow lost therrrelief a linle. to the porntthat norv no
  producnonthat rs altoeethercomparable that of one or other machrne
                                         to                            whrch                  one gtvesa damn about them. At Luther s last cenrenary appears
                                                                                                                                                        lt        that there was
  ctrculates our sclentificworld and w'hrch properll'speakrng, productron
             ln                             rs,                  the                          a postcardfrom the Pope: "Best wrsheslrom Rome'' Is rt fath or works rhat
  of the psychoanalysand.                                                                     save? You seeperhaps   there a schemari'herethe trvo thtngs areconnected.
                                                                                              Between  psychoanalysrng work and psrchoanalytrc   farth.therers sometle-up.
 Here ts somethrng   ortgtnal. Here ail the samers somethrng   that rs rathertangible.        w'hrchmay perhaps  ailows thereto be ciarifiedretrospectlvelv validin.and the
 whrch rs not all rhatnew'.e'en thoughrI rs artrculated a'uva1' may appear
                                                        rn        that                        asvmmetncal   orderrn whrch theretheserwo forrnulaeof salvarron    b.v'theone or
 stnkrngto you. Because    what doeslt meanif one asksthe pslchoanalvst to    not             by-the otherrrereposrted.
 brlns lnto pla' rn analysrsr,^,'hat calledcounter-transference?
                                   rs                              I would defl'
 anyoneto glve rt another  sense  than the tbllowrng. That therers no placeerthgr            But rt will no doubtseemmore lnteresrrn_s us - ar leastI hopeso - to seethere
 for "l like you" or "l do nor like you" afterhavrnsdefinedthernas I havelusr                bern_e hr-ehlighted the end of thrs discourse
                                                                                                               at                        somerhrngthat I mustsay,for
 done. But then rvefind ourselves agatnst questron what rs rnv'olved.
                                      up        the         of                      ls a surprrse hnd.
 after havtngtransformed o-oblectfor you at thls pornt lnto an assembly
                           the                                                 line
 productton.if the ps,u-choanalyst producesthe o like an Austrn. What can the                If ic rs true thar m the field of the psvchoanalytrc what produces
                                                                                                                                                acr               the
 psychoanalytlc mean.if in efTect ps.v-choanalylrc rs.all the same,
                 act                    the              act                                 psychoanalysand the psychoanal.u-st. if you reflecton thrs little reference
                                                                                                                 rs                    and
 commrtted the psychoanaiyst?
              by                                                                             that I took rn passlng  aboutthe essence   ofthe unrversalconscrousness ofrhe
                                                                                             worker,properll-               qrra
                                                                                                                 speakrng, sublectof exploltauon man by man. doesnot
                                                                                             focustng rvholeat"tentron
                                                                                                        the                   abouteconomlc              on
                                                                                                                                             e.\plolratlon the alienatron the
                                                                                   wL2     21.2.68

  product worknotmasksomethmg
           of                            rn theconsrturrve  ariena[on the
  economrc   exploltatlon man? Is thrsnotto rnask
  wtthout                                              anaspect. perhaps
                                                                  ald         not
          motlvatron, cruellest
                       the         *p..r oii, wh,ctr   perlraps *nu,n number
                                                                u                of
  politrcalfactsmakerikeryr wrry             *. no, askourserves questron
                                                                  rhe         of
  (l 59)rvhether does appear"riria
                 rt     not        at a cerratn degree ofthe organrsatron of
 productron,   precrsely, iheproduct rheworker.
                         that             of            under  ir.rto,n
 prectsely srneular
           the          form.thefigure caprtalism on rnourday.
                                         thar           takes                I mean
      bv follow'rn! rhread.
                    rhrs        andln thenseemg tuncrron caprrarist
 f,at                                              rhe          of         farth.             S e m r n a rl 0 : l V e d n e s d a y l F e b r u a r v
 take some  linlereterenceswhatI amrndicatrng
                             rn                                                                                                                        l96g
                                                     about sublecr the
                                                           the         of
 psychoanalytrc A'd keep
                 act.           tharrn themargrn. vourhead. theremarks
                                                    ln             tbr
 wrthrvhrch amgorngto pursue discowse.
             I                    my                                                          (161) one of these   daysa linreiournarrs gorngro appeax
                                                                                                                                                                that I am nor responsible
 I am gorng to contlnue then rn a_fortnrghr
                                                                                             for prese  ntrng to you. you rniri find rt out there.
                                              ln vrrhle of the very vacatlon that                                                                    at st. Germarndes pres.rn a f-ew
 g'ven to the littre brats rn secondary                                           ls         davs' You will seeln lt a certalnnumber
                                         school. I am grvrng,t to,nurirr"nd                                                                 of features  *rr,.rr *iiibe partrcuiar rt to
 gtvmg vou an apporntment rn a                                                 I am          rn the t'irst rank of whrch. the fac*hat
                                   fortnrght s ttme.                                                                                   apart from m1.oryn. for reasons        thar I shail
                                                                                             explarn.the arrrcles.rn aJenor srgned.
                                                                                                                      rt                  Ths*rri.Jpropr.           -a created
                                                                                             cenaln fuss' narurairy,p'ncrpairy iu'h"r.                                                   a
                                                                                                                                          lt ought to have beengrasped        almost
                                                                                            rmmediately. I meaaamon_g       those who. up to now were the onl_v
                                                                                            been rnformed that thrs                                             onesto have
                                                                                            psychoanalysts. benerstill. peopte                                                not srmpry
                                                                                                               bur.                     ,uho *. members my.School.
                                                                                            because rhar ought to have therr                                  of               who.
                                                                                                      of                           *r, o linr. il.,
                                                                                            case'i hope that after what comes                            -;;;i,        ,",0 here. In any
                                                                                                                                  rn the order of what t u- t.u.t rng yor.
                                                                                           namely,,what I am golng to say today.
                                                                                                                                       the explanalon. the sourceof thrs
                                                                                           admrnedpnncrplethat th. urr,.,..
                                                                                                                                  ,nit *'r not be s:gnedwiil, perhaps,
                                                                                           clearly' Since rt seemsthat.lbw people                                             appear
                                                                                                                                       are.capable takrng thrs rin,e step
                                                                                           forward. even though rt is already,";;;;
                                                                                                                                             by rhe earlier approach.
                                                                                            The prquantthrng rs still thar rn the
                                                                                                                                  nervsreport. rt r.vas specifiedthat the fact thar
                                                                                           theseartrcleswere not srgneddid
                                                                                                                                not mean that on. *ouid no,-t oo* the
                                                                                           Becausert was sad that the aforesard                                             authors.
                                                                                                                                    uurt orc w.ouldappearrn the form
                                                                                           the end of eachyear. The term of unsrgn.J                                      of a list at
                                                                                                                                           un,.t. wai lmmediareryprckecup.
                                                                                           ampiified by ears, anway.,. earsrhat
                                                                                                                                     are rike seashelrs, n"* ,r*r, thereemerse
                                                                                                                                 har rhe funchon
                                                                                          'I:y-1' the thrngsthat have beensad rn rhrscomecrron.                        ; ;;;l,;#"
                                                                                          (163) communrcated                                             Because I if
                                                                                                                wrth sornepeopleaboutthrs.unrquelv
                                                                                          purposes.                                                          tbr rnstructronai
                                                                                                    namery.,  how one rhrngcan be rransform.o
                                                                                          worsr deathess                                             ,nro onoir,.rl'Tl,.r. ,, no
                                                                                                          than when one does nor rvrshto hear
                                                                                                                                                  the nrrt t,n.,.. others have
                                                                                          gone fllnher and rn co
                                                                                          collaborators like employees.Thrs rs don..'rt appears.
                                                                                         perhaps more badlyplacedbecause                             in cenarn  loumalsrhatare
                                                                                                  not                               ort'ut. ,n any casefrom
                                                                                         rs horvpeopreailow themselves aescrib.                                the outsrde.Thrs
                                                                                                                            to          iire fact that rnlournaisof cnrrcs
                                                                                         *hrch rt rs not usualfor the critlc to put                                          rn
                                                                                                                                    hrs n-ame. ttre.r- on.ry. appea$.
                                                                                                                                                     are       lt
                                                                                         employeesof the management.In thar case
                                                                                                                                        who krorvs how far the notron
                                                                                         employ'ee can be takenr Anrr,r'ay.I heardeverlthrng                              of
                                                                                                                                                   that can be I do
                                                                                         e'erJ tlme that I have to get a response
                                                                                                                                  to an rnno\.atron.

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