# Summary Achievement Gaps How Black and White Students in Public Schools Perform on the National Assessment of Educational Progress by coopmike48

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HIGHLIGHTS

How Black and White Students in Public Schools Perform on the National Assessment of Educational Progress

NCES 2009-495

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION

Achievement gaps between Black and White students are featured in every major National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) report card. The report, Achievement Gaps: How Black and White Students in Public Schools Perform in Mathematics and Reading on the National Assessment of Educational Progress, examines achievement gaps more closely, and provides a detailed portrait of how achievement gaps and Black and White students’ performance have changed over time at both the national and state levels. This report uses data from two assessments—main NAEP and LongTerm-Trend (LTT). While both programs assess reading and mathematics, they have three major differences: (1) main NAEP assesses performance of fourth and eighth graders, while LTT assesses performance of 9- and 13-year-olds; (2) main NAEP reports results for both the national and state levels, while LTT reports results for the national level only; (3) main NAEP was ﬁrst administered in the 1990s, while LTT was ﬁrst administered in the 1970s. The report uses results from all previous assessments until 2007 for main NAEP and 2004 for LTT. All results are for public school students. The percentages of Black and White students in individual states vary by state. Data for trends in achievement gaps and trends in scores are reported only for states that have enough Black and White students in the sample to have reportable results. This highlights document is an overview of the full report, which is available at http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/studies/gaps/

Understanding Gaps
A difference in scores between Black and White students can only be considered an achievement gap if the difference is statistically signiﬁcant, meaning larger than the margin of error. There are several ways achievement gaps can change, as seen in the display to the right. Whether a gap narrows depends on the amount of change in the average scores for Black and White students. For example, a gap can narrow if the average scores of both Black and White students improve, but Black students’ scores improve more. If scores for both Black and White students increase at the same rate, the score gap may not change. NAEP data can be used to identify gaps and report on trends over time but cannot explain why gaps exist or why they change. The NAEP assessments are designed to measure student performance, not to identify or explain the causes of differences in student performance. In each state, changes in the sizes of gaps could be affected by demographic or population changes, as well as policy changes in the school, district, and state. When reading the results, it is important to consider these factors.

Ways gaps can narrow
A B

The average sc ores of both gr oups increase, whi le the score of the lower perform ing group incr eases even more. The average sc ore of the high er performing gr oup does not change, while the scor e of the lower performing gr oup increases. The average sc ore of the high er performing gr oup declines, while the score of th e lower perfor ming group increase s.

A B

A B

A B

A B

The average sc ore of the high er performing gr oup declines, while the score of th e lower perfor ming group does no t change. The average sc ores of both gr oups decline, but th e score of the higher performing gr oup declines even more.

ACHIEVEMENT GAP HIGHLIGHTS

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National Gap
Long-Term Trend
When comparing score gaps over time in the LongTerm Trend assessment, the gap size in 2004 is compared to the gap in 1978 for mathematics, and 1980 for reading. The Black-White gap for 9- and 13-year-olds in mathematics narrowed compared to the ﬁrst assessment but not 1999. In reading, however, gaps have narrowed for 13-year-olds compared to both the ﬁrst assessment and 1999. National Trends in Score Gaps: Long-Term Trend
Since First Assessment Mathematics Age 9 Mathematics Age 13 Reading Age 9 Reading Age 13 Narrowed Narrowed Since 1999

Main NAEP
To examine gap changes over time, the size of the gaps in the 2007 assessments are compared to the size of the gaps in 2005 and since the ﬁrst assessment. In mathematics, the ﬁrst assessment was in 1990. In reading, the ﬁrst assessment was in 1992. Nationally, at both grades and in both subjects, Black and White students scored higher in 2007 than in either the early-1990s or in 2005. Even as scores were improving for both groups, the gaps narrowed between Black and White fourth-graders over the longer time period.

! !
Narrowed Narrowed

National Trends in Score Gaps: Main NAEP

!
Narrowed

!
Narrowed Narrowed

!
Narrowed

!

Indicates that there was no signiﬁcant change in the gap in 2004.

!

!

!

Indicates that there was no signiﬁcant change in the gap in 2007.

mily Income e. For example, s by Gender and Fa Gap and family incom matics p varies by gender

he achievement ga th-graders in mat The Black-White tween female four ack-White gap be rs narrowed , the Bl male eighth-grade compared to 1990 ack and White fe White male e gap between Bl or tween Black and narrowed. The sc the score gaps be g, d 2007. In readin and 2007. between 2005 an wed between 2005 -graders narro indicator and female fourth h Program as an ional School Lunc e Nat s are only made t eligibility for th trend comparison NAEP uses studen ailability of data, BlackBased on the av rade reading, the of family income. atics and fourth-g hem 07 compared to eighth-grade mat h narrowed in 20 back to 2003. In igible for free lunc for students el White score gaps 2003 and 2005.

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ACHIEVEMENT GAP HIGHLIGHTS

State Gap
2007 State Gaps Compared to Nation
National Black-White Gap States with gaps that are: Smaller than nation AK, DE, DoDEA, HI, KY, LA, MS, OK, TX, WV AK, AZ, CO, DoDEA, GA, KY, LA, MS, NM, OK, OR, SC AZ, DE, DoDEA, HI, KY, NH, OK, VA, WV AK, DE, DoDEA, HI, KY, NV, NM, VA, WV Larger than nation CT, DC, IL, NE, WI

26 points

31 points

CT, IL, MD, MA, MI, NE, WI AR, CT, DC, MN, NE, PA, TN, WI WI

27 points

26 points

Mathematics
• Six states had gaps that were smaller in both grades: Alaska, Department of Defense Education Activity (DoDEA), Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Oklahoma. • Four states had gaps that were larger in both grades: Connecticut, Illinois, Nebraska, and Wisconsin.

• Six states had gaps that were smaller in both grades: Delaware, Department of Defense Education Activity (DoDEA), Hawaii, Kentucky, Virginia, and West Virginia. • One state had a gap larger in both grades: Wisconsin.

For more information on 2007 state gaps, see the appendix, which reprints ﬁgures from the full report. These ﬁgures show the average scores for Black and White students and the size of the gap in each state and compare them with the national results.

ACHIEVEMENT GAP HIGHLIGHTS

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Mathematics

The maps on pages 4-7 show the score changes for Black and White students. In some states, scores for both Black and White students increased while in others, scores increased for only one group. The legends on each map show the different ways scores changed. Trends are shown only for states with results available for both Black and White students.

Score Trends for Black and White Students, Grade 4 Mathematics, 1992-2007

Scores increased for Black and White students Data not available

• In 35 states, scores for both Black and White students increased in 2007 compared to the ﬁrst assessment in 1992.

Gaps Narrowed
r In 15 states, the gap was narrowe in 2007 than in 1992.

CA CT DE DC FL

GA LA MA MI MS

NJ PA SC TX VA

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ACHIEVEMENT GAP HIGHLIGHTS

Mathematics

Score Trends for Black and White Students, Grade 8 Mathematics, 1990-2007

Scores increased for Black and White students Scores increased for White students only Data not available

• In 26 states, scores for both Black and White eighth-graders increased in 2007 compared to 1990. • In two states, scores increased for White students but not for Black students.

Gaps Narrowed
In four states, gaps narrowed between 1990 and 2007.

AR CO OK TX

ACHIEVEMENT GAP HIGHLIGHTS

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Scores increased for Black and White students Score increased for Black students only Scores increased for White students only No change Data not available

• In 13 states, scores for both groups increased from the ﬁrst assessment in 1992 compared to 2007.

• In two states, scores increased for Black students but did not change for White students. • Scores increased for White students but not for Black students in 10 states.

Gaps Narrowed
In 3 states, the gap was narrower in 2007 than in 1992.
6 ACHIEVEMENT GAP HIGHLIGHTS

DE FL NJ

Scores increased for Black and White students Score increased for Black students only Scores increased for White students only Scores decreased for Black students only Scores decreased for White students only No change Data not available

• In one state, scores for both Black and White eighth-graders increased between 1998 and 2007. • Scores for only Black students in one state increased compared to 1998. • Scores for only White students increased in two states.

• Scores decreased for only Black students in one state. • Scores for only White students decreased in one state.

No Change in Score Gaps
There was no signiﬁcant change in the gaps for any of the states.

ACHIEVEMENT GAP HIGHLIGHTS

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Appendix
Figure 1. The Black-White achievement score gap in

mathematics for public school students at grade 4, by state or jurisdiction: 2007
Black 222 213 25 227 Gap 26 White 248

Figure 2. The Black-White achievement score gap in

mathematics for public school students at grade 8, by state or jurisdiction: 2007
Black 259 246 32 271 Gap 31 White 290

Jurisdictions Nation (public) Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia DoDEA1 Florida Georgia Hawaii Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin 0 200

Jurisdictions Nation (public) Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware DoDEA1 Florida Georgia Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Nebraska Nevada New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin 270 280 500 0

238 247 20* 219 246 28 217 245 28 218 247 29 224 249 26 220 252 32* 230 249 20* 209 262 54* 227 246 19* 225 250 25 222 246 24 230 14* 244 216 248 32* 224 249 25 224 245 21 226 252 26 219 238 19* 219 240 21* 221 243 22 223 251 29 232 257 25 216 244 28 222 252 31 217 239 22* 218 245 26 211 244 33* 219 243 23 226 250 24 232 255 23 220 242 22 225 251 26 224 251 27 225 250 25 220 242 22* 219 241 22 222 249 26 219 242 23 221 248 26 221 245 24 214 240 26 230 253 23* 228 251 23 222 248 26 223 14* 237 212 250 38* 210 220 230 240 250 260 Scale score

278 23* 294 23* 266 289 254 282 28 35 253 287 24* 272 296 38* 255 293 29 265 294 19* 272 291 29 289 259 27* 261 288 38* 253 291 32 259 290 31 257 288 28 267 295 25* 257 282 25* 258 283 36* 265 300 40* 264 305 41* 244 285 37 260 297 28* 251 279 34 253 288 51* 240 291 26 255 282 35 264 298 21* 264 285 32 258 290 29 266 295 33 258 291 22* 258 280 16* 272 289 36 257 293 34 250 284 265 293 27* 28 254 282 29 271 300 28 268 296 26 264 291 21 250 271 247 292 45* 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 500 Scale score

* Signiﬁcantly different (p<.05) from the nation (public) when comparing one state to the nation at a time.
1

* Signiﬁcantly different (p<.05) from the nation (public) when comparing one state to the nation at a time.
1

Department of Defense Education Activity (overseas and domestic schools). NOTE: States whose Black student population size was insufﬁcient for comparison are omitted. Reporting standards not met for Idaho, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, Vermont, and Wyoming. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 2007 Mathematics Assessment

Department of Defense Education Activity (overseas and domestic schools). NOTE: States whose Black or White population size was insufﬁcient for comparison are omitted. Reporting standards not met for District of Columbia, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Montana, New Hampshire, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, Vermont, and Wyoming. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 2007 Mathematics Assessment

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ACHIEVEMENT GAP HIGHLIGHTS

Figure 3. The Black-White achievement score gap in

reading for public school students at grade 4, by state or jurisdiction: 2007
Black 203 201 207 206 Gap 27 White 230

Figure 4. The Black-White achievement score gap in

reading for public school students at grade 8, by state or jurisdiction: 2007
Black 244 236 Gap 26 White 270

Jurisdictions Nation (public) Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia DoDEA1 Florida Georgia Hawaii Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin 0 180

Jurisdictions Nation (public) Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware DoDEA Florida Georgia Hawaii Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Nebraska Nevada New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin 500 0

26 227 22 228 17* 224 31* 226 195 27 227 200 24 234 210 34* 238 203 20* 233 213 67* 192 17* 235 218 24 232 208 25 230 205 212 15* 227 29 230 201 24 226 201 22 227 205 22 229 208 21* 225 203 26 220 194 28 236 208 31 241 211 30 227 197 33* 231 198 27 222 195 26 226 200 36* 230 194 22 224 202 215 14* 230 26 238 212 20 228 208 26 234 208 26 228 202 27 231 204 19* 223 204 25 222 198 33* 233 200 29 227 198 26 224 199 32* 224 192 25 232 207 20* 233 213 23 229 206 202 13* 216 38* 229 191 190 200 210 220 230 Scale score 240 250

258

26 261 20* 270 250 21 248 269 31 236 266 29 237 266 22 275 252 30 276 246 23* 274 250 19* 278 259 24 244 268 25 246 271 255 7* 262 27 244 271 26 242 268 22 247 270 27 246 272 17* 247 264 23 264 240 27 276 249 25 278 253 31 267 236 28 273 245 25 264 238 28 270 242 28 271 243 248 15* 263 29 249 278 17* 265 248 29 246 274 29 241 270 27 246 274 22 243 266 20 250 270 25 272 248 29 239 267 26 268 242 27 267 240 26 275 249 20* 273 252 23 270 247 241 15* 256 38* 270 231 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 500 Scale score

260

* Signiﬁcantly different (p<.05) from the nation (public) when comparing one state to the nation at a time.
1

* Signiﬁcantly different (p<.05) from the nation (public) when comparing one state to the nation at a time.
1

Department of Defense Education Activity (overseas and domestic schools). NOTE: States whose Black population size was insufﬁcient for comparison are omitted. Reporting standards not met for Idaho, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, Vermont, and Wyoming. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 2007 Reading Assessment

Department of Defense Education Activity (overseas and domestic schools). NOTE: States whose Black or White student population size was insufﬁcient for comparison are omitted. Reporting standards not met for District of Columbia, Idaho, Maine, Montana, New Hampshire, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, Vermont, and Wyoming. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 2007 Reading Assessment

ACHIEVEMENT GAP HIGHLIGHTS

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U.S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Arne Duncan Secretary U.S. Department of Education John Q. Easton Director Institute of Education Sciences Stuart Kerachsky Acting Commissioner National Center for Education Statistics National Center for Education Statistics Institute of Education Sciences U.S. Department of Education 1990 K Street, NW Washington, DC 20006-5651 To download the full report and highlights, please visit http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/ studies/gaps/ Contact: Taslima Rahman 202-502-7316 taslima.rahman@ed.gov

The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), located within the U.S. Department of Education and the Institute of Education Sciences, is the primary federal entity for collecting and analyzing data related to education. The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) is a congressionally mandated project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education and administered by NCES. The Commissioner of Education Statistics is responsible for carrying out the NAEP project. The National Assessment Governing Board is responsible for setting policy for NAEP, including the NAEP achievement levels. July 2009

“OUR MISSION IS TO ENSURE EQUAL ACCESS TO EDUCATION AND TO PROMOTE EDUCATIONAL EXCELLENCE THROUGHOUT THE NATION.” www.ed.gov

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