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					Copywriting and Design
 Part 4: Effective Advertising Messages
             Chapter 13 & 14
       The Writer as an Advertiser
•   "I have learned that it is far easier to write a speech about good advertising than it is
    to write a good ad."
     – Leo Burnett, quoted in 100 LEO's, Chicago, IL: Leo Burnett Company, p. 27.
•   "If you are writing about baloney, don't try to make it Cornish hen, because that is
    the worst kind of baloney there is. Just make it darned good baloney."
     – Leo Burnett, quoted in 100 LEO's, Chicago, IL: Leo Burnett Company, p. 23.
•   "I have discovered the most exciting, the most arduous literary form of all, the most
    difficult to master, the most pregnant in curious possibilities. I mean the
    advertisement . . . . It is far easier to write ten passably effective Sonnets, good
    enough to take in the not too inquiring critic, than one effective advertisement that
    will take in a few thousand of the uncritical buying public."
     – Aldous Huxley (1923), British author, quoted in Robert Andrews, The
         Columbia Dictionary of Quotations, 1993, New York, NY: Columbia University
         Press, p. 18.
•   "The trouble with us in America isn't that the poetry of life has turned to prose, but
    that it has turned to advertising copy."
     – Louis Kronenberger (1954), quoted in Rhodas Thomas Tripp, The International
         Thesaurus of Quotations, 1970, New York, NY: Thomas Y. Crowell Company,
         p. 18.

                                                                                        13 - 2
                Copywriting:
         The Language of Advertising
•    Four types of ads in which words are crucial
    1.   If the message is complicated
    2.   If the ad is for a high-involvement product
    3.   Information that needs definition and explanation
    4.   If a message tries to convey abstract qualities
•    Copywriter
    –    The person who shapes and sculpts the words in
         an ad

                                                       13 - 3
    This Norwegian ad is somewhat copy
intensive, but uses copy for artistic purposes




                                            13 - 4
      Advertising Writing Style
• Copy should be as                  Practical Tips
  simple as possible        •   Be succinct
                            •   Be single-minded
• Should have a clear
                            •   Be specific
  focus and try to convey   •   Get personal
  only one selling point    •   Keep a single focus
• Every word counts;        •   Be controversial
  space and time are        •   Be original
  expensive                 •   Use variety
                            •   Use imaginative
                                description

                                                      13 - 5
         Copywriting for Print
• Display copy                      The Headline
  – Elements readers see in   • Key element in print
    their initial scanning      advertising
• Body copy                   • Conveys the main
  – Elements that are           message
    designed to be read and
    absorbed                  • Works with the visual to
                                get attention and
                                communicate creative
                                concept

                                                     13 - 6
       How to Write Headlines
• A good headline will      • The headline must
  attract those who are       identify the product and
  prospects                   brand, and start the sale
• The headline must work    • The headline should
  in combination with the     lead readers into the
  visual to stop and grab     body copy
  the reader’s attention       – Direct-action headlines
                               – Indirect-action headlines



                                                       13 - 7
           Types of Headlines
Headlines Can be Grouped Into Two General Categories
   Direct Action                  Indirect Action

    Assertion
                                     Puzzles
    Command

                                  Associations
     How-to
   Statements

     News
 Announcements

                                                       13 - 8
  How to Write Other Display Copy
• Captions
   – Have the second-highest
     readership and serve an
     information function
• Subheads
   – Sectional headlines used to
     break up a large block of copy
• Taglines
   – Short, catchy, memorable
     phrases used at the end of an ad
     to complete the creative idea
• Slogans
   – Repeated from ad to ad as part
     of a campaign or long-term
     brand identity effort




                                        13 - 9
      How to Write Body Copy
• Body copy
  – The text of the ad
  – Primary role is to maintain the interest of the reader
• Lead paragraph
  – The first paragraph of the body copy
  – Where people test the message and see if they want to read
    it
• Closing paragraph
  – Refers back to the creative concept and wraps up the Big
    Idea
  – Call to action

                                                             13 - 10
     Print Media Requirements
• All media in the print            Newspapers
  category all use the       • Copy does not have to
  same copy elements           work as hard to catch
• The way these elements       audience’s attention
  are used varies with the   • Straightforward and
  objective for using the      informative
  medium                     • Writing is brief




                                                  13 - 11
     Print Media Requirements
       Magazines                  Directories
• Better quality ad       • Use a headline that
  production                focuses on the service or
• Ads can be more           store’s personality
  informative and carry   • Little space for
  longer copy               explanations




                                                 13 - 12
     Print Media Requirements
  Posters and Outdoor         Product Literature
• Primarily visual         • Also called collateral
• Words try to catch the   • Used in support of an ad
  consumer’s attention       campaign
  and lock in ideas        • Typically a heavy copy
• An effective poster        format
  marries words with
  visuals


                                                 13 - 13
Principles of Effective
  Print Advertising

       By Steve Blom
        Principles of Effective Print
                Advertising
•   Establishing an Objective
•   Sell to the Objective
•   Designing the Ad
•   Evaluate the Ad




                                        13 - 15
     Establishing the Objective
• Main selling idea should be aimed at the
  objective; resist the temptation to add more
• Support the main selling idea with all elements
  of the ad
  – Headlines
  – Visuals
  – Copy



                                              13 - 16
            Sell to the Objective
• Sell the merits of the Product or Service
   – What’s in it for me?
• Emphasize benefits, not facts
   – Fact: Birdie Drivers are made of solid unobtanium with a
     unique plasticized hydroid alloy core
   – Benefit: Birdie Drivers are lighter, faster, harder, and
     cheaper than our competitor Bogie Drivers, and they
     consistently hit longer, straighter shots




                                                           13 - 17
                  Designing the Ad
• Design for Easy Reading
  –   KISS
  –   Solve a problem
  –   Call to action
  –   Don’t try to cram everything in
  –   Don’t overfancify your design
  –   Avoid:
       •   Dark backgrounds
       •   Small headlines
       •   Difficult to read fonts
       •   Unrelated images
       •   Atypical layouts

                                        13 - 18
            Designing the Ad
• Illustrate your product in use
  – Show what the product can do for the reader
  – Avoid static graphics showing whole lines of
    products
• Avoid Humor and Shock value
  – You’re probably not as funny as you think you are
  – Humor or shock almost never works toward your
    objective



                                                   13 - 19
                   Evaluate the Ad
    • Repeat a Successful Ad; Drop an Unsuccessful One
      – Repetition is good, to a point
      – Good ads wear out a lot slower than you think
      – Because you are tired of it doesn’t mean your audience is
    • Don’t Blame Ad Placement for Poor Performance
      – Design has far more to do with the success than getting it
        on cover 4.




                                                                13 - 20
L
           Designing for Print
• First responsibility of the art director is to
  choose visual elements used in ad or
  commercial to produce a layout.
   – Plan that imposes an orderly arrangement that is
     aesthetically pleasing.
   – Map, the art director’s blueprint.
   – Communication tool for others so that the idea can
     be discussed and revised.
   – Many ways to lay out an ad; different ways create
     different feelings about the product.
                                                    13 - 21
             Layout (Handout)
       The General Steps in a Layout Are:
       Thumbnail Sketches
        Preliminary Sketches

                Rough Layouts
    Ads Done to Size Without Attention to Looks

                        Semicomps
         Layout Drawn to Size, Used for Presentations

                           Comprehensives
              Art is Finished, Designed to Impress Audience

                                     Mechanical
                    Largely Computer Based and Generated to Guide
                                  Color Separations           13 - 22
L
     How to Write Radio Copy
• Must be simple enough for consumers to
  grasp, but intriguing enough to prevent them
  from switching the station
• Ability of the listener to remember facts is
  difficult
• Theater of the mind
  – The story is visualized in the listener’s imagination



                                                     13 - 23
      How to Write Radio Copy
• Voice                       Radio Guidelines
• Music                 •   Keep it personal
• Sound effects         •   Speak to listener’s
                            interests
                        •   Wake up the
• See radio script in       inattentive
  handout packet        •   Make it memorable
                        •   Include call to action
                        •   Create image transfer


                                                 13 - 24
  How to Write Television Copy
• Moving action makes television so much more
  engaging than print
• The challenge is to fuse the images with the
  words to present a creative concept and a story
• Storytelling is one way copywriters can
  present action in a television commercial more
  powerfully than in other media


                                              13 - 25
    Tools of Television Copywriting
•   Video                                 Talent
•   Audio                      •   Announcers
•   Voice-over                 •   Spokespersons
•   Off camera                 •   Character types
•   Other TV Tools             •   Celebrities
•   The copywriter must
    describe all of these in
    the TV script


                                                     13 - 26
      Scripts and Storyboards
• Script
  – The written version of the commercial’s plan
  – Prepared by the copywriter
  – See handouts
• Storyboard
  – The visual plan or layout of the commercial
  – Prepared by the art director
  – See handouts

                                                   13 - 27
Frontier Photoboard




                      13 - 28

				
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