TF1_Bike_It by wpr1947


									         Project no.:     518368
   Project acronym:       MAX
         Project title:   Successful Travel Awareness Campaigns and Mobility Management Strategies

                          Integrated Project
                          6.2 Sustainable Development
                          1.6.2 Sustainable Surface Transport Objective
                 Advancing Knowledge on innovative measures in urban transport

               Title of Report:

               MAX-WPA TF1 Case Study Analysis
                        Bike It – Sustrans: UK

                                                                                                     Status: Final

     Period covered:                                              Date of preparation:
Start date of project:    1 Oct. 2006                                        Duration:

                                                                             Version:    Final
                                                                         Prepared by:    UCLAN
                                                                         Checked by:
                                                                          Verified by:
                                                                              Status:    Final
                                                                  Dissemination level:   Public

     Project co-funded by the European Commission within the Sixth Framework Programme (2002-2008)

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MAX - introduction
MAX ran from 2006 to 2009 and was the largest research project on Mobility Management within the EU‟s sixth
framework programme. The MAX consortium, of 28 partners, served to extend, standardise and improve
Mobility Management – it did so in the fields of quality management, campaigns, evaluation, modelling and land
use planning. Much of the work was directly endorsed by the European Platform on Mobility Management
(EPOMM) and continues to be supported by EPOMM – in order to provide truly Europe-wide expansion,
standardisation and dissemination of Mobility Management.
The work has resulted in several products and services that can be downloaded via
For more information, please visit or

Max Partners
Austrian Mobility Research, FGM-AMOR
                                                          Mobiel 21 – Belgium
(project leader) – Austria

ILS Institut für Landes- und
                                                          Eric N. Schreffler, Transportation Consultant – USA
Stadtentwicklungsforschung gGmbH – Germany

Equipo de Tecnicos en Transporte y Territorio,
                                                          FIT Consulting – Italy
ETT – Spain

Lyle Bailie International Limited – United Kingdom        synergo – Switzerland

Timo Finke Consult Aachen – Germany                       Traject – Belgium

Austrian Standards Institute – Austria                    Trivector – Sweden


                                                          University of Maribor, Faculty of Civil
University of Piraeus Research Centre – Greece
                                                          Engineering – Slovenia

Cracow University of Technology – Poland                  Aristotle University of Thessaloniki – Greece

University of Lyon – CNRS-LET – France                    Edinburgh Napier University – United Kingdom

University of Central Lancashire – United Kingdom         Otto-von-Guericke-University of Magdeburg – Germany

University of Giessen, Institute for applied and          Vilnius Gedimas Technical
empirical social research – Germany                       University – Lithuania


Almada Municipal Energy Agency,
                                                          Almada Municipality – Portugal
AGENEAL – Portugal

Lazio Transport Company COTRAL – Italy                    Kortrijk Municipality – Belgium

Tallinn Municipality – Estonia                            Munich Municipality – Germany

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Table of Contents

1. Overview of the case, objectives and research questions ............................................... 6

2. Bike It.................................................................................................................................. 8
    2.1        Background Context ................................................................................................................................ 8
    2.2 The Bike It Project ....................................................................................................................................... 8

3      Method .............................................................................................................................. 10
    3.1        Data Sources ......................................................................................................................................... 10
       3.1.1          Literature Review ................................................................................................. 10
       3.1.2          Sources of quantitative data ................................................................................. 11
       3.1.3           Materials used for the project ............................................................................. 11
       3.1.4           Interviews ........................................................................................................... 12

4      Results & Discussion ....................................................................................................... 13
    4.1        What are the elements of the practical project Bike It and how do they relate to each other? ............. 13
       4.1.1          Message ................................................................................................................ 13
       4.1.2          Medium ................................................................................................................ 14
       4.1.3          Marketing Approach and the Message Receiver .................................................. 14
       4.1.4          Feedback............................................................................................................... 15
       4.1.5          Physical / Fiscal Interventions.............................................................................. 16
       4.1.6          Partnerships .......................................................................................................... 16
       4.1.7          Relationship between the elements of the project ................................................ 16
    4.2    Do the elements of the conceptual framework of campaigns compare with elements found in Bike It
    practical project ? ............................................................................................................................................. 17
    4.3     Does Bike It offer any additional elements which can be added to the                                       conceptual framework? ......... 18
    4.4      Why was Bike It designed in this way?.................................................................................................... 18
    4.5     Are there particular success factors or barriers to success evident in                                    the project? ............................ 19
       4.5.1          Success factors ..................................................................................................... 19
       4.5.2          Barriers ................................................................................................................. 23
    4.6        Does Bike It demonstrate a balance of emotional and rational approaches within it’s message? ....... 24

5      Conclusions....................................................................................................................... 26
    5.1        Recommendations for Campaign Design .............................................................................................. 26
    5.2        Recommendations for Task Forces 2-5 ................................................................................................. 26

6      References......................................................................................................................... 28

7      Appendix – Summary tables for triangulation of data ................................................ 30

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Table of Tables

Table 1 – How have parents heard of Bike It? (from small-scale survey of parents at
Lancaster Moorside Primary School ………………………………………………………… ……………18

Table 2 – How much do parents know about Bike It? (same survey of parents at
Lancaster Moorside Primary School ………………………………………………………………………..18

Table 3 – Results of survey of Bike It officers: average scores out of ten
for effectiveness given to an array of campaign measures ………………………………………………….19

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Table of Figures

Figure. 1 – Signs from Ellel school in Lancaster conveying the message to encourage safety……………….14

Figure 2 – Travel Awareness Conceptual Framework………………………………………………………...16

Figure 3 - Information box from a Sustrans newsletter ……………………………………………………….24

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1.        Overview of the case, objectives and research questions

This case study aims to examine the UK cycling initiative „Bike It‟, in order to refine and test the conceptual
framework devised in the research plan for MAX-WPA. It is intended that the findings here will act as a
theoretical basis for forthcoming case studies in WP3. In the previous stages of MAX, attention has been given
to the design of campaigns by investigating theory relating to campaigns, practical projects and social marketing.
The findings from Bike It and other case studies will enrich the overall understanding of the process of changing
behaviour. .

Task Force One in WPA seeks to ascertain the nature of good practice in Travel Awareness campaigns, which
factors affect the success of the campaign and how, and what is the influence of design to a campaign‟s success
or otherwise. A further requirement is to investigate the roles of emotional and rational approaches within
campaigns. It must be stressed that Sustrans does not see Bike It as being a campaign; it refers to it as a practical
project. However, as Bike It aims to change behaviour in individuals, elements of the project are similar to
social marketing campaigns and the principles will therefore be useful to the research undertaken in MAX. With
these considerations, and the need to test and, if necessary, modify the conceptual framework, the objectives
addressed in the case study are as follows:

         To analyse the effectiveness of the conceptual framework developed for WP3 in relation to this
          practical project.

         To assess in detail the components of the Bike It project – the case study will enable the researchers to
          assess general travel awareness measures promoted by the scheme as well as personalised travel
          planning to school for the household.

         To examine success factors which may be applicable to Travel Awareness campaigns.

         To understand in detail the role of emotional and rational arguments within this practical project and
          how they relate to theory.

         To learn from experts in connection with the project.

The final objective refers to a verification of some of the data collected by the researchers and in discussions
with experts. The following research questions will be analysed using the information generated by the case

     1.   What are the elements of the practical project Bike It and how do they relate to each other?

     2.   Do the elements of the conceptual framework of campaign design match up with elements found in the
          Bike It project?

     3.   Does Bike It offer any additional elements which can be added to the conceptual framework?

     4.   Why was Bike It designed in this way? Is it based on any previous research? Was there a marketing

     5.   Are there particular success factors or barriers to success evident in the project?

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    6.   Does the Bike It project demonstrate a balance of emotional and rational approaches within it‟s

    7.   Has Bike It changed behaviour?

By answering question one and by comparing the findings to the conceptual framework questions two and three
can be addressed. The remaining questions will be answered by analysis of documents, materials used for the
project and interviews. This process will be described in the method section (3), following an outline of the
context and design of the project (section 2). The findings will be displayed and discussed in section 4 and the
conclusions drawn in section 5.

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2.      Bike It

 2.1    Background Context

The overall problem addressed by the Bike It project, and the national movement in the UK to increase cycling
is, a low level of cycling in the country, as reported in the 2001 UK census (Parkin: 2007). The decline of
cycling has occurred over time and coincides with the increase of car ownership. Increased cycle ownership in
the UK has not been matched by a relative increase in actual cycling, whilst car travel has steadily increased
(Lawlor 2003). Funding for cycling was increased in the early years of the 21 st century, along with a range
of Government interventions, but by 2004, the number of cycling trips in the UK had not increased overall, apart
from some isolated pockets of increased activity (Department for Transport: 2005) In the UK a Transport White
Paper (2004) produced by the Government set out to change this situation by increasing the level of cycling over
the next 20-30 years. It promised investments for cycling infrastructure and the involvement of Local Authorities
to monitor cycle participation amongst the public on a regular basis. „Cycling England‟ was set up in 2005 by
the Department for Transport to „plan and co-ordinate projects and programmes across England to help
increase cycling levels (Department for Transport: 2005b)‟. The funding allocated to Cycling (£10 million or
12.5 million Euro per year) would be allocated to projects on a range of scales which encourage more people in
the UK to cycle. Bike It is one of these projects.

A wider Sustrans project known as „Safe Routes to Schools‟, and Bike It both adopt social marketing approaches
to complement the „hard measures‟ to increase cycling among children. The Government‟s school travel action
plan (Department for Transport: 2003) states that children develop travel preferences in the early years of
primary school and implies that by targeting this age group specifically, the trends of declining cycling and
walking [to school] can be reversed in future.

 2.2 The Bike It Project

Sustrans is a non-governmental organisation which works in a very practical way to encourage sustainable
travel. In the past 30 years it has initiated a wide range of projects in association with many organisations to
development sustainable transport in the UK. Bike It is one of several projects currently being managed by
Sustrans (see Bike It project is managed by Sustrans which describes itself in the
following way:

„Sustrans is the UK's leading sustainable transport charity, working on practical projects so people can choose
to travel in ways that benefit their health and the environment. The charity is behind the award winning National
Cycle Network, Connect2, Safe Routes to Schools, Bike It, TravelSmart, Active Travel and Liveable
Neighbourhoods, all projects that are changing our world one mile at a time.

Sustrans is a member of Stop Climate Chaos, a broad coalition of environmental, development, faith-based,
women's and other organisations campaigning to stop human-induced climate change.’ To find out more visit

Bike It was established in 2004. It is associated with the Safe Routes to Schools project initiated by Sustrans in
the UK. The fundamental aim of Bike It is to encourage children of primary school age and lower secondary
(mainly targeting 9-12 year olds) to travel to school by bicycle instead of being taken by car. Each local Bike It
project employs a skilled advocate for cycling, a paid employee of Sustrans, known as a Bike It officer. It also
relies on additional champions for cycling working within schools such as teaching staff, parents or others.

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The project started on a small scale with 40 schools involved in its first year. There have been, as a result,
increases in cycle use. Figures of children regularly cycling to school have trebled since Bike It was launched
(Osborne, pers. com: 2008). This has led to more schools seeking to become involved and more Bike It officers
employed in successive years, with the backing of the Government and other funding (Sustrans: 2007). By
January 2008, 29 officers were working on local Bike It projects Nine more Bike It officers have been employed
following a successful bid to the UK National lottery. At present, the Bike It budget amounts to approximately
£1.5 million per annum (Osborne pers. Com: 2008) which is approximately 2.1 million euro.

The Bike It project is therefore primarily about local communities; this is the level of the intervention. Each
Bike It officer is assigned to an area which include twelve schools. Their responsibilites include removing
obstacles to cycling to school (ensuring safe routes, adequate levels of cycle training and secure storage), and
providing practical support and inspiration to parents, teachers and children (Sustrans: 2007). Organising
awareness-raising events, educating children about safe use of bicycles, maintenance and the health and
environmental benefits of cycling are some of the many methods of achieving these objectives. Incentives, such
as prizes for the children, are offered if targets are achieved (such as cycling to school for two weeks). Parents
and teachers are involved as much as possible to support the children in the project.

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3        Method

The case study method is used to generate theory and therefore is an essentially inductive approach. In order to
address the research questions, a wide multi-method approach to data collection was used. Several interviews
with experts in non-motorised transport took place using a semi-structured method. Relevant literature on the
project was scrutinised, with the basis of enquiry being the research questions. Quantitative data were examined,
derived from the documents (listed below) including a study undertaken by the University of Central Lancashire
in the North West of England. Additionally some of the informational material used in the delivery of the
project were acquired in order to provide additional evidence. Bike It works in conjunction with other projects
such as cycling demonstration cities in the UK and other sustainable school travel project such as Safe Routes to
schools); some of the material relevant to the other projects is also referenced.

The findings were summarised from each source and triangulated in tabular format (see appendix) to identify
common themes or divergences which can be deduced from the evidence. This was necessary given the
differences of evidence-types. The information was then prioritised and the research questions could be

 3.1     Data Sources

 3.1.1 Literature Review

    1.   Bike It Project Review 2007 - The project review covers the second year of Bike It and documents the
         continued success of the project. The material produced by Sustrans is both a source of information but
         is also promotional and this has been taken into account in the analysis.

    2.   A literature review conducted by Parkin (2007) provides recommendations for the Bike It project. It
         did not take place before the project started. It includes an analysis of Bike It and the findings have
         been used to help direct the continued planning of the project.The literature review itself is extensive,
         combining investigation into campaigns in the UK and other countries, and draws on travel behavioural
         change, theories of planned behaviour, the influence of families and peers, best practice in school travel
         and travel planning and the effectiveness of child cycle training.

    3.   Study by Tim Jones (2007) Parental Attitudes Towards Child Cycling Mobility for the School Journey:
         An Evaluation of the Impact of Sustrans Bike It. A comparative approach was used. The two schools
         studied were Bearbrook (a Bike It school) and Oak Green (a non-Bike It school) both situated in the
         small town of Aylesbury (population 65,000) within commuting distance to London. Parents of year 5
         and 6 pupils (ages 9-11) were surveyed. The researcher considered the samples to be representative
         although an expected bias existed given that parents with an interest were likely to respond (it may be
         appropriate to discover if incentives would reduce this bias).

    4.   Bike It / Safe Routes to Schools „Case Studies‟ located on the Sustrans website. There are a number of
         case studies which are short descriptions of success stories from different projects including Bike It and
         the nationwide cycling project. Whilst these „case studies‟ are only short summaries, they hold some
         useful information relevant to the research questions – particularly regarding success factors.

    5.   Sustrans Newsletters – various issues were studied for additional information.

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    6.   Government School Travel Policy Documents (Department for Transport). In 2003 a school travel
         action plan and an accompanying good practice guide were published. These have both had an
         influence on school travel projects.

    7.   Various pages from the website „Celebrating Cycling Lancaster‟ were examined firstly because
         Lancaster is a city where Bike It is implemented (many of the primary schools and some of the
         secondary schools), and secondly because it is also a cycling demonstration town and therefore provides
         a good example of a Bike It location which has been subject to the wider national campaign to increase

    8.   Bike It Project Review 2004-5 – Review of the first year of Bike It.

    9.   Several documents containing details of the monitoring programme adopted by Sustrans for the Bike It

 3.1.2 Sources of quantitative data

    1.   As part of th review of Bike It by Parkin (2007) a survey of Bike It officers was undertaken to assess
         effectiveness of activities used as part of the project. This analysis determined whether activities were
         essential to a project, or whether certain activities are best carried out when linked with another

    2.   Survey of 3000 Bike It school pupils and parents by Sustrans. This extensive survey was undertaken at
         the start of the project in Autumn 2004 and was intended to provide a baseline data on cycling activity
         of pupils at 40 UK schools, predict levels of demand and inform choice of interventions.

    3.   Quantitative data provided by Jones (2007), presented in the comparative study detailed above.

    4.   Researchers from UCLAN and Loughborough University undertook a small-scale survey of parents
         from a Bike It primary school in Lancaster, UK a medium sized town in the North West of England
         (133,000). The analysis utilised a contingency evaluation method which considered implicit values of
         travel which are often not taken into account. For example the value of recreation involved in travel or
         by taking a more environmentally friendly mode. The idea is that individuals place a value on any
         resource and if they placed no value on a particular resource they would not use it.

    5.   Material found in the Bike It Project Reviews (2005, 2007) and Sustrans webpages.

 3.1.3    Materials used for the project

Several different examples of materials used in the project were scrutinised, and observations on qualities
relevant to the research questions (for example emotional / rational approaches) were used to augment the
findings from other methods. They included:

    1.   The Bike It website
    2.   Sustrans Newsletter
    3.   Sustrans Pedal Pack (a general information pack for schools available on the internet which gives
         advice on the best measures for a school to take in order to increase cycling)
    4.   Safe Routes to Schools factsheet entitled „Cycling to School – Information for parents and schools‟
    5.   Leaflets containing Safety tips for cyclists, drivers and pedestrians.

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    6.   School Cycle Parking Permit

 3.1.4    Interviews

Interviews have been carried out with the following people who have been involved in the Bike It project in
some capacity and are considered as experts on the subject:

Paul Osborne, Manager responsible for Schools programmes, Sustrans

Alex Bulmer, Project Officer Sustrans Research and Monitoring Unit

Tim Jones (Researcher, Oxford Brookes University) – Undertook a comparative study of parents from two
schools in Aylesbury (One Bike It, one non-Bike It – used as a control)

John Parkin (Reader, Bolton University) - Expert in non-motorised transport.

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 4      Results & Discussion

The analysis of the data collected in the interviews, drawn from the available literature and by observations of
the materials used for the project produced a diverse array of information. Each question will now be addressed
by discussing the findings. The research approach addresses the research questions which are summarised in the

 4.1 What are the elements of the practical project Bike It and how do they relate
 to each other?

The elements of the project are initially categorised using the categories devised in the existing conceptual
framework: medium, message, receiver, marketing approach, feedback, physical / fiscal interventions,
partnerships. The overall relationship between the various elements is also discussed in these terms initially.

 4.1.1 Message

There are two main approaches utilised to deliver the message. The first relates to promoting the benefits of
cycling for the child and the second to disproving the main concerns of parents about cycling to school. The
main benefits promoted are:
      improved health,
      independence and
      enjoyment from cycling.

The message often employs a positive tone, emphasising that cycling is fun and is of real benefit to the
environment. The message is provided in the „Sustrans Pedal Pack‟ (Sustrans: 2007a Online). This is a general
information pack for schools (available on the internet) which gives advice on the best measures for a school to
take in order to increase cycling. This is not exclusive to Bike It project but is the key element that is directed
towards the schools. It is aimed at schools which are already interested in increasing cycling and the message is
positive. It also works, however, to dispel concerns by using phrases such as: „you are not alone!’ (to suggest
involving travel advisers in the project), „keep momentum going!’ (you are doing well-keep going) and „reward
success and effort!’(make sure that the children are rewarded).

The main message, however, seeks to address concerns related to Bike It. This usually focuses on the safety of
children, or the security of the bicycles, or a combination of both. The project focuses on communicating the
message that that cycling is safe in the right circumstances, i.e when the environment is right. The barriers to
cycling, such as traffic, cycle security, personal security and a lack of cycle skills, do not have to be problems;
they can be overcome.

It also projects the message that taking part is easy. It suggests that changes made (to health, the environment,
etc) at the local level may seem small but when added together they bring a change on a larger scale. A message
in the Sustrans newsletter (Sustrans: 2005 Online) sums up the view of the project designers:
„We hope our work shows how straightforward it can be to re-establish a cycling culture’.

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 4.1 .2 Medium

Following analysis of the available literature it is evident that a combination of different measures has been used
to bring the project to the target audience including:

             o    Cycle Training, skills sessions, maintenance sessions (Dr Bike classes). These sessions
                  introduce a range of methods used in different schools to improve confidence and ability. One
                  example is the national National Standard for cycle training (a safe cycling qualification).
             o    Regular events, competitions, information at full school meetings (assemblies), classroom
                  activities about cycling, family rides. These measures are aimed at increasing and
                  demonstrating the fun involved in cycling and includes variations around cycling such as Bike
                  It breakfasts – where breakfast is provided for anyone who cycles into school.
             o    Incentives such as prizes for cycling in on certain days
             o    Post coding-schemes – This is a measure to improve security by marking bikes with an
                  ultraviolet pen which can only be shown up by a special police ultraviolet light.
             o    Physical interventions – Different physical measures, from helmets and bike locks to new
                  traffic free routes can be introduced with the project.
             o    Groups and after-school clubs – aimed at furthering ability and forming social bonds through
             o    Posters, leaflets, newsletters for children and parents – information and publicity for the
             o    Seeking positive coverage with newspapers and radio broadcasts, local and national scale. i.e,
                  a continuous public relations background campaign
             o    Cycle Parking Permits – explained in detail later, involving permits for using bike sheds or
                  bike racks.
             o    Support from Sustrans, Bike It officers and champions (for instance route-planning, school
                  travel plans)

 Bike It officers, in association with each school, select a variety of mediums to implement the project from the
menu listed above. Some measures are considered important across all schools such as the Dr Bike classes and
the provision of information at assemblies or via leaflets sent to parents. The cycle maintenance sessions in
schools, for example, have been a popular and widely used medium and help to sustain cycling by giving
children the confidence to make repairs (Celebrating Cycling: 2007a online). Many other measures are used
only in one or a limited number of schools. These innovative ideas may then be transferred to other schools.
One example is „Wheely Wednesday‟ a slight variation of a more widely used measure – „Cycle to School
Days‟. During the summer term pupils at Bike It schools in the town of Lancaster, for example, are encouraged
to cycle in on one particular day and are entered into a prize draw for a bike.

The Bike It officers are the „champions‟ of cycling and work to deliver the message to children and parents,
acting as advocates of good practice to promote cycling. They also organise cycling events and maintain
partnerships with other organisations, such as cycle retailers. The aim is to replace the Bike It officer by a
champion of cycling from within the school. This might possibly the head teacher or other teaching staff who
have an interest in the project. This is the aim. Once a positive approach to cycling is established the officer
moves on to another school.

 4.1.3 Marketing Approach and the Message Receiver

The project is an interesting one as there are three distinct audiences: parents, the children involved and the
school. Parents have to be encouraged to allow their child or children to cycle to school. The objective is to

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overcome parental concerns. Secondly, the child or children themselves form a second audience and the
emphasis is on the fun of cycling in a safe environment. There is also an organisation perspective in that the
school is engaged in the process; it becomes a partner in the exercise.

There are two distinct elements of segmentation. Firstly, schools are segmented. Sustrans selects the ones which
are more likely to be favourable to increasing cycling. Secondly, there is segmentation by age-group. The project
has been targeted mainly to years 5 & 6 (age group 9-11), and in some secondary schools year 7 (ages 11-12).
The audience approach has not engaged segmentation in other ways. However, different groups of people are
targeted simultaneously. Each group is sent messages to affect behaviour, for example, parents driving to schools
and for the children involved; this is adapted to the local school environment. Figure 1 demonstrates this:

Figure 1 – Signs from Ellel school in Lancaster conveying the message to encourage safety (Celebrating
Cycling: 2007b Online)

 4.1.4 Feedback

Feedback on the Bike It programme occurs in a number of ways: a monitoring programme which provides
numbers of children cycling into school (and frequencies), studies regarding issues such as the attitudes of
parents towards Bike It and the success of different measures used in Bike It.

The monitoring techniques used have evolved since the pilot stage of the project (2004/5) when individual
surveys (aimed at children, parents and teachers) produced disparities within the results, prompting a switch to
the „hands-up survey‟ (Bulmer: 2008 pers. com). The present methods involve a pre-intervention and post-
intervention survey in which a Bike It officer or school cycling champion / teacher go into classrooms and count
children who have cycled into school. This approach provides an idea of the impact of the programme in the

                                                 page 15 / 37
In order to ensure that the „hands up surveys‟ are executed correctly, and reflect accurate results in all UK
schools, detailed guidelines are given to the persons implementing the surveys, and additional information such
as class numbers, absenteeism and weather is also recorded (Sustrans Research and Monitoring Unit: no date).
Data are collated centrally to give overall figures regarding the impact of Bike It in the UK. The Active Travel
Consortium Project, which is involved in Bike It is currently using hands up surveys, bike shed counts in
addition to monitoring activities such as Bike It breakfasts. This also gives insight into the impact of one off
events. The work of the consortium includes the further-reaching impacts of Bike It on the cycling activities of
siblings, parents and teachers (Bulmer: pers. com: 2008).

Some specific research projects have sought to evaluate parental attitudes towards cycling and include some
surveys of teachers. A comparative study by Jones (2007) of two schools in Aylesbury produced some feedback
from parents in the form of qualitative (interviews) and quantitative (survey questionnaire) material. However,
the study was limited and hence cannot be generalised across the UK.

 4.1.5 Physical / Fiscal Interventions

There are often cases of physical interventions such as speed reduction measures or traffic free routes which are
introduced on routes to schools. These are often part of the wider projects such as Sustrans‟ Safe Routes to
Schools, or national transport projects which include measures to reduce traffic volume or speed. Bike It works
in conjunction with these measures by providing information to schools, children and parents. Other
interventions which are more directly related to Bike It are the provision of cycle sheds provided at all schools
which reinforce the part of the message aimed at reducing fears of security. The provision of helmets and other
safety equipment may also be thought of as a „physical intervention‟ aimed at reducing fears of safety. A
physical intervention for the Bike It style project in East Fife, Scotland, involved the building of a cycle shelter.
In order for pupils to use the shelter they were required to gain a permit which was earned by completing the
cycle proficiency scheme, and to plan out their safest route to school.

 4.1.6 Partnerships

Bike It depends on partnerships with other groups and organisations. Bike It involves parents, schools, local
authority staff, government departments, bike shops, celebrities , health workers and local and national media to
spread the message of the project.

 4.1.7 Relationship between the elements of the project

In the case of the Bike It project the following basic relationships between elements have been observed. The
marketing approach determines the nature of message or medium used for different segments. Physical and
fiscal interventions are often used in conjunction with these elements, whether directly part of the project or not.
These elements (message, medium, physical interventions and approach) are directed to the message receivers
(parents and children). The implementation of the marketing approach has been informed at different points in
the project by research, both before and during the project. In some cases the receivers have directly been
involved in the design of the project such as schools and parents helping to encourage cycling through personal

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 4.2      Do the elements of the conceptual framework of campaigns compare                                                                             with
       elements found in Bike It practical project ?

The answer to this question is directly related to the third question which asks whether the Bike It practical
project offers any additional elements which can be added to the conceptual framework. All the aspects of the
Bike It project can be found in the conceptual framework. However, certain examples detailed below show that
the lines are blurred and some elements crossover or their relationships are slightly different.

                                           Figure 2 – Travel Awareness Conceptual Framework

                        Marketing Plan - Input on consumers and behavioural change
                                                     Travel Awareness campaign: „sender‟
       Physical or fiscal intervention               Social marketing: targeted to stakeholders                 Social marketing: targeted to the
                                                                                                                general public

                                     Core „message‟ or different messages or market segments

       Message : focuses on the intervention:              Message : focuses on benefits to              Message : fine tuning message to segments -
       inspirational but with a rational                   stakeholders -political go odwill, societal   needs input from WP B. Emotional
       underpinning                                        benefit -rational

       Medium : print, television,                         Medium : public relations, briefings and       Medium : integrated marketing package
       advertisements, public relations , on -line         meetings , on -line                            including print, television and public
                                                                                                          relations , on -line

       Marketing approach : service marketing              Marketing approach : adoption of travel        Marketing approach : personali sed
       reflecting on quality, price, etcetera              plans, for example, events such as car         marketing or targeted campaigns
                                                           free cities

       Receivers respond or generate new                   Recei vers may wish to modify message,         Receiver s respond , reject or ignore
       messages relating to wants or desires               to slow progress or to endorse                 message. Unlikely to generate feedback
                                                                                                          unless a major issue

       „Receivers‟: the two way flow                    - media and other „noise‟, feedback and word of mouth referral

It appears from the literature review by Parkin (2007) that when the target audience for this type of project are
children, then the approach to the project (ie delivery of the message, marketing be altered and in fact directed to
the relevant adults involved principally the parents and the school staff. There is also an element of children
pressing their parents to let them cycle to school. The children are the end receivers but the school and parents
are „gatekeepers‟ who allow for the change of behaviour required. It could therefore be argued that this type of
project is directed at changing the behaviour of the parents by changing their views of cycling or opinions as to
whether their child should cycle to school or not.

An aspect of Bike It which requires further clarification in the framework is the relationships between partners in
the project. This clearly varies between schools but Bike It could not work without the action led approach of
the participants. The relationship is therefore not passive (sender to receiver) but more fluid than this.

Another further element which is not clearly positioned in the framework is the existence of barriers to the
success of the project. These can be related to the environment in which the project takes place. Heavily
trafficked locations will not be very attractive for cyclists. Bike It directly tries to remove the barriers towards
children cycling in the delivery of the message but there is much that is environment dependent, i.e. external to
the campaign influence or requiring hard, physical measures to resolve. In some cases, the barriers might be

                                                                              page 17 / 37
cultural in that there is not a tradition of cycling within specific local communities. In either case, Bike It
officers only work where it is safe for children to cycle.

Finally, although feedback is included in the conceptual framework developed by UCLAN, the processes of
evaluation and monitoring found in the Bike It project are not specifically illustrated in the diagram, and more
detail involving these processes should be added. The fact that Bike It has seen a change in monitoring methods
since the pilot stage indicates that a conceptual framework should reflect the fact that evaluation techniques
themselves can evolve at different stages.

Several questions remain. Does the entire project rely on a proactive school or is it demand led by
environmentally or health conscious parents? What factors combine to make Sustrans want to engage Bike It in a
particular location? In reality it is likely to be a combination of both factors but without a proactive school the
likelihood of success is lessened considerably.

 4.3    Does Bike It offer any additional elements which can be added to the
        conceptual framework?

In addition to the differences noted in the previous section, there are additional elements present in the Bike It
project which could be incorporated in the conceptual framework. As the success of the Bike It project builds (at
national or individual school level) the design of the project is modified to reflect the success. This occurs in a
number of different ways. As mentioned previously, there has been an introduction of cycling into the sports
curriculum of some schools. This indicates an extension from the intended behaviour change of the project.

The evolution of the project at schools includes the departure of the Bike It officer (the main message-giver)
from delivering the project at that school after around 12 months or in some cases, longer. The task of removing
the barriers, increasing awareness and enthusiasm for Bike It and increasing cycling in a school, remains in the
hands of the school champion and head teacher who are in charge of continuing to promote cycling (Sustrans:
2007). No firm evidence as to how this happens was found.

The existing conceptual framework makes reference to the use of feedback to generate word-of-mouth publicity
to increase the reach and consequently the success of the project. The project has now reached the stage where
local authorities are now enquiring about the adoption of Bike It – due to the successful first two years of the
project (Sustrans: 2007).

Other aspects of Bike It which could be incorporated in the revised framework are:
     Consideration of the scale and contextual background in which the intervention takes place
     Further detail on the role and nature of evaluation used before, during and after the project which
             o Varies according to circumstances at individual schools
             o Has a targeted approach which at present is not comparable
             o May raise suggestions to be made to individual schools based on monitoring / evaluation
                  findings (including non-bike it schools where cycling has been evaluated)
        Bike It is used in conjunction with several wider projects as mentioned before.
        Variations in the project due to different circumstances found at different schools and areas (such as
         traffic free-routes and available infrastructure)
        Pupils are engaged too – a bottom-up approach using „pester power‟.

 4.4     Why was Bike It designed in this way?

The design of Bike It is partially based on removing the barriers to cycling in order to achieve the anticipated
behaviour change. The negative perceptions of cycling in the UK and fears regarding children‟s travel to
schools (such as dangerous roads or „stranger-danger‟) necessitate this approach. Alongside this a positive

                                                  page 18 / 37
message has been used. Bike It highlights the fun that can be gained, and health benefits derived from daily
physical exercise. This message serves both to counter the negative perceptions and increase enthusiasm for
cycling. To create a cycling culture at a school, it is necessary to keep cycling in the consciousness of the
children, parents and teachers.

No marketing plan, as such, has been identified, but it appears that the following considerations were made when
planning the marketing of the project:

        Schools which were considered to be more inclined to introduce cycling (especially at first) were
         targeted. The success at these initial schools would then create awareness or curiosity at schools where
         there had previously been less potential for increasing cycling.
        The parents were targeted in order to ensure the children are allowed to begin cycling.
        A toolkit of different measures tailored to the needs of each school was employed.
        Each school project was coordinated using the Bike It officer primarily.
        The project is directed at reaching the future adult population now in order to create a lasting interest in
         cycling, and increase the number (and decrease car use) in future.
        Segmentation has been used to assess the readiness for change among the targets, evident in the
         literature review by Parkin (2007).

 4.5 Are there particular success factors or barriers to success evident in                                  the

  4.5.1 Success factors

Evidence was available on factors which have contributed to the success of Bike It. Some of this was found in
the reports by Sustrans, web-pages and empirical data, derived from several pieces of research including the
survey of Bike It officers by Parkin (2007), the contingent valuation of a school in Lancaster by UCLAN (ITT:
2007), further analysis of the same data set specifically carried out for this case study and the comparative study
of primary schools in Aylesbury by Jones (2007).

Many different reasons for success have been ascertained, some generic to all schools, others only influential in
certain circumstances. The factors can be grouped as follows:

        Aspects relating to the message
        Measures to increase the ability and confidence of children
        Innovative ideas
        Backing from external organisations
        Fiscal / physical interventions and infrastructure

The nature of the factors to success will be discussed in terms of these groups. Aspects relating to the message

The Bike It message has influenced the success of the project. The term Bike It symbolises action and the
imagery reflects fun and independence. This has been evident in the feedback from the Bike It officers, national
policy documents relating to school travel and research about the project (Sustrans 2007b Online, Celebrating
Cycling 2007c Online, Jones: 2007,). In the comparative study by Jones (2007) the success at Bearbrook school
in Aylesbury appeared to be influenced by a generally more positive attitude towards cycling than the „control‟

                                                  page 19 / 37
school in the same study. Positive attitudes need to be fostered amongst parents and staff in order to get the
message to the children.

Awareness of the Bike It brand might be thought of as an important success factor relating to the delivery of the
message. Jones (2007 pers. com) found in the schools he studied that three out of five parents were aware of
Bike It, Interestingly, there was a low awareness of „Sustrans‟ brand at both schools

The study of a Bike It school in Lancaster by UCLAN (ITT: 2007) yielded data regarding information sources of
Bike It which have recently been re-analysed for MAX. They cannot be generalised as these results relate to one
small survey with 69.respondents from one school only. The parents were surveyed by self completion
questionnaire at one Bike It school. The large majority of those who knew about Bike It found out through
personal communication with either their children or from the school. Only 14.5% had talked to a Bike It
officer, and just over a quarter (27.4%) had seen the posters. This suggests that from parents point of view, the
project is much more likely to reach them via the children taking a leaflet home or teachers talking to parents.
These are far more important than other promotional items. Thus, in this case it was important to focus the
project on the children initially and then the parents. This may be the most effective means of transmitting the
message to maximum effect.

           Table 1 – How have parents heard of Bike It? (from small-scale survey of parents at Lancaster Moorside
                                               Primary School by ITT 2007

                                                                      % of parents
                                                                      (who have heard
                                  Source                              of Bike It)
                                  Letter / leaflet from the school                   82.3
                                  My child has told me                               69.4
                                  From local newspapers                              29.0
                                  Posters in school                                  27.4
                                  Presentations in School                            16.1
                                  From the teachers                                  14.5
                                  Talked to Bike It officer                          14.5
                                  Other                                                  8.1
                                  From other parents                                     6.5

The people who are most familiar with the project have, on average, been exposed to the more sources (listed in
table 1 above). People who have heard of Bike It „a lot‟ have done so from an average of 4.1 forms of medium,
i.e. through their children, leaflets, newspaper article, etcetera (see table 2 overleaf). This suggests that using
many varied types of medium improves the visibility of the project (to parents).

             Table 2 – How much do parents know about Bike It? (same survey of parents at Lancaster Moorside
                                             Primary School by ITT (2007))

                                     How much do you             Mean Number of
                                     know about Bike It?         different Sources
                                     Never heard of it                               0
                                     Very Little                                 1.7
                                     Some                                        2.3
                                     A lot                                       4.1

                                                      page 20 / 37 Measures to increase the ability and confidence of children to cycle

Maintenance sessions such as Dr Bike workshops and skills training give children added confidence in the safety
and condition of the bike. It also allows them to participate and hence to become more involved with cycling.
This is confirmed in a number of sources (Sustrans: 2007d Online, Celebrating Cycling: 2007a: Online). In
Lancaster, the training initiative directed by Sustrans, called „Bikeability‟ (which involves cycle training to a
nationally recognised standard), has proved successful and this also indicates that success can be gained by
utilising the right campaigns at the location of the school. Both help to sustain cycling by giving children the
confidence to make repairs, ride the bikes with confidence and to demonstrate this to their parents.

Parkin (2007) surveyed Bike It officers to identify the most effective measures of the Bike It project. Scores
were given out of ten for a set of indicators and then an average was calculated (results in table 3, below).

                         Table 3 – Results of survey of Bike It officers: average scores out of ten
                             for effectiveness given to an array of measures (Parkin: 2007)

                                                         Average                                        Average
              Activity                                   Score     Activity                             Score
              Cycle training to national standard           9.38   Class talk                              7.31
              Staff champion – trained and willing          9.38   Classroom activity                      7.31
              Maintaining cycle training                    9.31   Assembly talks continued                7.31
              Cycle storage                                 9.00   After school club                       7.27
              Additional cycle skills sessions              8.88   Safety and equipment sessions            7.2
              Supportive head teacher                       8.75   One-off bike breakfasts                 7.13
              Cycle on special/regular particular days      8.63   Route planning assistance               7.00
              Cycle to school weeks                         8.38   Survey of existing travel               6.94
              Revisions to school policies                  8.31   Staff awareness sessions                6.94
              Cycle maintenance classes                     8.25   Information literature to parents       6.88
              Bike rides for confidence building            8.25   Notice board use                        6.56
              Prizes or rewards                             8.25   Presence at school fair                 6.53
              Assembly talk                                 8.13   Parents drop-in session                 6.36
              Road infrastructure improvements              8.13   Help with school travel plan            6.33
              Bike ride as environmental sport /
              activity                                      8.07   Other curriculum links (e.g. SR2S)      6.29
                                                                   “Change the way you travel”
              Incentive schemes continued                   8.00   fortnight                               6.25
              Green miles schemes                           7.93   Poster competition                       6.2
              Bike rides for regular cyclists               7.73   Breakfast clubs                         6.07
              School infrastructure improvements            7.63   Road safety talks                       6.06
              Inter-school competitions                     7.63   Survey work (KS2)                       6.00
              Parents sessions                              7.47   Lockers                                  4.8
              Tools provided / repairs supported            7.44   Showers                                 3.47
              Bike rides as school trips                     7.4

It was found that Bike It officers considered most of the activities to be effective although local factors lead to
variations in the effectiveness of any given element. Parkin (2007) found that the main themes of the highest
ranking activities are providing and maintaining cycle training to national standard, adequate cycle storage and
commitment from school staff (all key overall objectives of the Bike It project) plus regular and one-off events,
talks to the pupils, awards and prizes, confidence building rides and bicycle maintenance. The highest ranking
activities were considered to be essential. There were also linkages between factors For example it was found
that it is important to link cycle training to maintenance and bike rides in order to build confidence.
Additionally, they recommended that prizes and rewards should be on offered on promotional days.

                                                         page 21 / 37 Innovative Ideas

It was mentioned earlier that innovative ideas often begin at individual schools, and then may be transferred to
other schools if successful. The regular variation of ideas and introduction of new ideas also maintains an
interest in cycling. In some cases innovative ideas are designed to reach the most disinterested segments. The
Bike It officer for London teamed up, for example, with a design graduate from London College of Fashion to
work with teenagers to design cycle clothing and accessories for an event showcasing their efforts, the models
will be riding bicycles (Sustrans: 2007). This serves to broaden the appeal of cycling especially as the teenage
girl segment has been found the most difficult to engage.       Another example was from St Peters School in
Exeter, a medium sized town in the south west of England. To make cycling more interesting to girls in the year
7 – 9 age group, a project called „Beauty and the Bike‟ was created involving partnerships with the Body Shop
and featuring incentives such as free health and beauty advice from professionals, in particular when arriving by
bike (Sustrans: 2007c online).

Innovative ideas have been used to link non-cycling activities of interest to children with cycling in order to
make the idea of cycling more attractive. In Burnholme Community college, York, a professional artist was
employed by Sustrans to work with Art and Design students to design new cycle storage facilities. Variations on
this theme included projects involving the creation of sculptures on shelter roofs in other schools (Sustrans:
2007e Online). Replacing car-parking spaces with cycle storage has also worked – a few car-parking spaces are
equal in area to the space required for many bicycles. A school in the town of Stockton (North-East of England)
was one of several schools in which the pupils themselves helped to design the project. The pupils decided on
several ideas including cycle paths and CCTV monitored cycle sheds to encourage cycling to school (Sustrans:
2007f Online)l. The promotion of the project was in part carried out by the older children who presented their
ideas to the road safety team at the local council. These examples have not been the subject of detailed
monitoring but point to the need for good ideas to engage the interest of harder to reach groups. Backing from external organisations

Backing from the UK Government has been important. It is also important to note the successful partnerships
with other organisations and projects. Officers have indicated the benefits of working with local and national
cycle groups and city councils. Backing from local and national government in the form of policy development
has also been extremely beneficial. The Government objective is that every school becomes a „healthy school‟,
and has a travel plan by 2010 and is thus a sustainable school by 2020 (Sustrans: 2007). Bike It is connected to
a wider project „Safe Routes to School‟ and has been used in tandem with Bikeability (a skills project), and the
UK cycling demonstration towns. Physical / Fiscal Interventions

The presence of physical interventions, relating to infrastructure which facilitates cycling, has had a positive
impact on increasing the numbers of children cycling to school. Measures including toucan crossings, traffic-
free routes, secure cycle storage and speed reductions have been cited by people involved in the project as key
success factors (Sustrans: 2005, Parkin: 2007). In the early baseline study of the project (Sustrans: 2005) the
critical success factors, as seen by the respondents, were as follows:

       Promotional cycling events in school: 90%
       Secure cycle storage: 84%
       Information and advice from Bike It: 74%
       Cycle Training: 68%
       Safety improvements and cycle routes: 26%

                                                 page 22 / 37
The presence of physical measures to increase safety and security are likely to ease fears from the children‟s
parents about cycling. The parents interviewed in the study of schools in Aylesbury by Jones (2007) were
concerned about the safety of the transport system and wanted speed reductions for cars, improved crossings and
safer cycle paths. Buckinghamshire county council were advised by Jones to take measures to reduce speed and
improve and increase crossings around school routes. Additionally publicity is needed when infrastructural
changes are made. This is key as measures may be underway but not known about in some areas. It is
recommended that training is needed at all schools and this in itself can raise awareness and increase cycling,
even in non-Bike It schools.

In some of the schools in Fife, Scotland, (there are similar schemes operating in Scotland) the high level of
traffic-free routes meant that parents were more concerned about security of the bicycles themselves rather than
the safety of children riding in mixed traffic. Therefore, the provision of cycle sheds and lockers have proven to
be a success factor in encouraging more children to cycle to school. Other Success Factors

In addition to the grouped examples given above there are several other success factors which have been found
to make a difference. Conditions at the school such as timetabling of classes, for example, can help. For
example, making sure that the school timetable is within daylight hours so that children can cycle into school in
the light were cited by the Department for Transport (2003) as beneficial to a cycling campaign. At Leuchars
Primary School in East Fife, Scotland, a cycle shelter was built but in order for pupils to use the shelter the
children were required to gain a permit which was earned by completing the cycle proficiency scheme, and
designing a safest route to school. This sent a message to parents that their child would be safer as a
consequence. It was considered to be a real incentive to improve cycling skills.

The Bike It officers themselves are core to for the success of the Bike It project. They are trained to deliver the
message and work closely with children, parents and teachers in a practical way. Jones (Pers. com: 2007)
comments that the enthusiasm and creativity of the Bike It officer has a strong bearing on inspiring children. He
or she acts as a role model to the children, whilst maintaining effective communication with the adults involved.
Their skills as negotiators at both of the school and local authority level as well as with the children are key to
the success of the project. An example of this was at Crossflatts school in West Yorkshire, a major urban area in
the North of England. The success was attributed to the following:
      a school champion,
      local organisations becoming involved,
      and good infrastructure including a considerable amount of traffic-free routes (Sustrans: 2006).

Teachers provided their perspective on why Bike It has been a success in their school. The factors were:
 government backing,
the children themselves,
the use of role models coming in to make cycling appeal more (such as a man who cycled around the world and
came into schools to talk to pupils about it),
the Bike It officers,
Bike It days and
cycle racks being installed.

  4.5.2 Barriers

The nature of this project is as much about removing existing physical and perceptual barriers. The barriers to
success are therefore about lack of infrastructure, levels of traffic and parents fears of security and safety in

                                                  page 23 / 37
general. A survey by Sustrans (2004) of a potential 3000 Bike It schools found that 45% of the pupils wanted to
cycle to school whereas only 4% actually did. The figures of current cyclists, however, varied from school to
school. Most children owned bikes but felt that barriers to using bikes to get to school included traffic and
security (of the bicycle). Less than half of the pupils at both the schools studied by Jones (2007) cycled into
school; the main reason being that they were not allowed by their parents or guardians. If they were allowed then
they mostly used quiet roads. Parkin (2007) refers to the trend towards high levels of car ownership among
parents which presents a further barrier, and adds that overall the factors affecting choices of travel mode are
complex in their nature and interaction.

Individual Bike It officers discussed their methods of campaigning and what they found successful. One officer
in Gloucester, a medium sized and busy city in the middle of England, said it was easier to start by focusing on
the reasons why people don‟t cycle, in order to assess and remove the barriers. When a project such as Bike It is
aimed at encouraging behaviour which is generally not seen as desirable, this is considered to be a good

Limited funding directed towards infrastructure may also be a potential barrier to a project. A parent who was
interviewed by Jones (pers. com: 2007) summed up:

„Overall I would say schemes such as Bike It are a fantastic idea and I admire all the energy and effort of the
people involved in it. But it’s the usual situation where people are not interested in putting money into it. I’ve
been to Holland and Denmark and they really put money into the infrastructure there. I can see why some
people in the UK don’t want to cycle or encourage their children to cycle to school.’

Parents were very positive about Bike It but the subtext was along the lines of: „Lets get back to reality, there is
nothing going on here to support our children‟s independent mobility and so parents feel that whilst they want
their children to cycle there is still a huge risk given the current conditions.‟ (Jones, pers. com: 2007)

 4.6      Does Bike It demonstrate a balance of emot ional and rational approaches
         within it’s message?

It is not clear if emotional and rational arguments have intentionally been used in the project – ie the designers of
Bike It have deliberately decided to use one or the other or both. The interviews did not produce any relevant
information. It is therefore only possible to make subjective assumptions based on observation of the project
materials and examination of the literature.

Both emotional and rational responses are evident. The research by UCLAN of a Bike It School in Lancaster
found that parents identify with emotionally based benefits resulting from the project such as reduction of
obesity, or potential of having accidents etc. They also identified rational benefits relating to the environment
(climate change, traffic reduction). From examination of the materials used in the project (such as the box in
figure 3) it appears that the rational aspects dominant the message. A question is asked and a set of rational
benefits are presented relating to health, children‟s academic development, environment and safety.

                                                  page 24 / 37
                           Figure 3 - Information box from a Sustrans newsletter (2004)

It may also be inferred that rational responses have been used for emotional-based problems. Observations show
that materials relating to the project are directed at addressing the concerns associated with cycling such as
safety, lack of training, maintenance and equipment. There is an emotional underpinning with a rational element
present – address the fears with a practical solution. The review by Parkin (2007) draws attention to triggers to
accept or reject cycling (Davies et al: 1997 cited in Parkin 2007) and classifies them as „practical‟, „situational‟
and „emotional‟. The concerns about safety of children on the roads are arguably the major barrier to parents
encouraging children to cycle into school.       The interviews conducted by Jones (2007) suggest that parents
recognise the long term health benefits of their children cycling to school. However, parents face the difficult
dilemma of weighing this against the short term risk of exposing their children to increased danger from other
road users. Jones also found that some parents wanted to cycle more themselves but lacked basic information as
to what provision was available to them, for example, whether there was secure cycle parking at their end

Finally, it is not possible to discern from the case success how much of the success or otherwise of each project
relates to the provision of hard measures. Analysis of the feedback from experts indicates that both a required but
each specific school or project requires a different mix of hard and soft measures depending on the contextual
transport background.


                                                  page 25 / 37
 5     Conclusions

 5.1     Recommendations for Campaign Design

There are a number of implications from the findings of this case study. Bike It is essentially a locally based
project focused on the school as the main organisation, children between the ages of 9-12 as the key target group
and parents as intermediaries or gatekeepers in the process.

The findings from this analysis of Bike It indicate that in this kind of project it is useful to transmit a positive
message to the message-receiver. This emphasises the positive aspects of the desired behaviour (cycling is fun)
and turns the negative preconceptions (cycling is dangerous) into a positive image (cycling can be safe).

The components of this campaign also include a large range of mediums, employed in different combinations, in
different schools. This is useful for each school to select the mediums that best suit the circumstances and
environment. This last point is important. Success is dependent on the provision of infrastructure which is
considered to enable safe travel to the school by cycle and then at the school, secure parking. This is a pre-
condition of success.

Cycle ownership in households in the UK is high and it is likely that many families will have considered cycling
to school for their children. However, they will have rejected this option for a number of reasons. The prime
reason is the safety of the child in that most schools are not located on traffic free routes; the child is likely to
encounter traffic at some stage of the journey. The perception of the threat to safety is in some cases far higher
than reality and thus it is necessary to overcome such barriers by presenting solutions so that the child training
and the route to school minimises risk. In terms of the theory of planned behaviour the attitude of the parent
towards the intended behaviour is likely to be negative.

Sustrans has chosen to present rational arguments in order to meet these emotional fears. The evidence
regarding the increases of children cycling into school indicates that this is successful. It certainly enables those
who have contemplated the options to change to the next stage. It is unlikely to have changed a large proportion
of parents and teachers who have emotional barriers to cycling to school nor will the social norms pressuring
them allow them to do so at present.

There are a number of key elements from the project which need to be incorporated in the model being devised
as part of the Max project. Principally, the key point is the engagement of participants in the social marketing
process and the role of gatekeepers in relation to changing behaviour of children.

Bike It has also been successful because appropriate schools (in areas where cycling culture is more likely to be
present and can be developed) have been selected for the project.

 5.2     Recommendations for Task Forces 2 -5

It is useful to consider positive messages in campaigns which emphasise existing positive attitudes towards the
desired behaviour change (which the campaign is hoping to influence), and also to remove negative
preconceptions which are evident in the target population.

Developing a range of different measures which can act as a „toolkit‟ to be selected from by different schools is
an important strength of Bike It. When a Bike It officer devises a new successful measure, it is added to the

                                                  page 26 / 37
toolkit. If a campaign is situated across a number of geographical locations with varying circumstances
necessitating different measures, this approach can be beneficial.

Modifications to the research framework being developed as part of the Max project, made as a result of the case
study analysis of Bike It, should be taken into account during the design of the research in each of the task

TF3 can identify more clearly the role of the champion in campaign development. The Bike It officers in this
project demonstrate an effective use of a message giver who can encourage the desired behaviour change to
children, adults and teachers. The qualities which the Bike It officer displays may be transferable to other

Other taskforces should investigate the extent to which rational arguments can overcome the barriers which are
present with emotional beliefs. It is stressed here that it is likely that in many travel awareness campaigns, the
emotional that this distinction is not evident in the decisions made in the design process. It is a subjective
observation in the hands of the researcher conducting the case study on the campaign.

Taskforces should also investigate exit strategies for campaigns based on the example of the Bike It project; the
outcome is to create a new school based champion after Sustrans moves on from the school.

Tim Jones‟s study is the best example of analysis of the Bike It project. It should be considered by the other
taskforces – particularly taskforce 5. This study also contained stage-diagnostic questions relating to the Stage
of Change model (Prochaska and Diclemente: 1983) which has been adapted by WPB.

Bike It has been proven to be more successful in areas in which hard measures such as infrastructural
improvements are present. This might be relevant to task force 4.

 In sum, it is a practical project directed at children cycling to schools. Backing for cycling projects from local
authorities and the government was already in place before the beginning of the project.

                                                  page 27 / 37
 6       References

Bulmer, A. (2008) personal communication, 28/2/08

Celebrating Cycling (2007a, online) Bike It Cycle Maintenance available @
Accessed 11/11/07

Celebrating Cycling (2007b, online) Bike It Infrastructure and Routes to School available @
Accessed 11/11/07

Celebrating Cycling (2007c, online) Bike Offered Bike It?... Take it! available @ Accessed 28/11/07

Davies et al: 1997 cited in Parkin, J. (2007) A review of literature relevant to promoting cycling to children

Department for transport (2003) Travelling to School: Good Practice Guide & Action Plan available @
Accessed 27/10/07

Department for Transport (2005a) Delivery of the National Cycling Strategy: A review available @ accessed 4/4/08

Department for Transport (2005b) Cycling Project Fund available @ accessed 4/4/08

ITT (2007) Contingent Valuation Study of Bike It

Jones, T. (2007) personal communication, 19/12/07

Jones, T. (2007) Parental Attitudes Towards Child Cycling Mobility for the School Journey: An Evaluation of
the Impact of Sustrans Bike It

Lawlor, D. A. Ness, A. R, Cope, A. M, Davis, A, Insall, P. & Riddoch, C. (2003) The challenges of evaluating
environmental interventions to increase population levels of physical activity: the case of the UK National Cycle
Network Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2003(57) pp.:96-101

Osborne, P. (2008) personal communication, 11/01/08

Parkin, J. (2007) A review of literature relevant to promoting cycling to children

Sustrans (2007) Bike It Project Review 2007 available @
Accessed 19/10/07

Sustrans (2006) Bike It Project Review March 2006 available @
Accessed 19/11/07

                                                  page 28 / 37
Sustrans (2005) Bike It Project Review September 2005

Sustrans (2005, Online) Bike It Special Insert – Spring 2005 available @
s/srs01.pdf accessed 4/11/07

Sustrans (2007a, Online) Pedal Pack available @

Sustrans (2007b Online) Bike It Supervisor in the North accessed 28/11/07

Sustrans (2007c Online) Girls get the feel good factor with ‘Beauty and the Bike' available @ accessed 2/12/07

Sustrans (2007d Online) Bike It available @
accessed 6/12/07

Sustrans (2007e Online) UK wide selection of Cycling Case Studies available @ accessed: 4/12/07

Sustrans Bike It / Safe Routes to Schools ‘Case Studies’ (2007 online)
Available @
Accessed 24/10/07

Sustrans Newsletters (various issues 2004-2007) available @
Accessed 27/10/07

Sustrans (2004) Survey of 3000 Bike It school pupils and parents
Accessed 11/11/07

Sustrans (2007f Online) Stockton - Development of an independent pupil travel scheme available @ accessed 15/12/07

Sustrans Research and Monitoring Unit (no date) Bike It Monitoring Guidelines

                                                 page 29 / 37
 7       Appendix – Summary tables for triangulation of data

                   Table 1 - What are the elements of Bike It and how do they relate to each other?

Quantitative      Information gained from               Information                Overall analysis of findings
Data from         Literature                            gained      from
Reports                                                 Interviews

No quantitative   Message                               Message                    Message
                  Making many small steps to            Not discussed              The positive aspects of cycling are promoted whilst the
                  make a difference on a larger                                    negative pre-conceptions are assuaged.
                  scale.                                Medium
                  Cycling can be safe (Personal         The Bike It Officer
                  safety and security of bicycle)                                  The Bike It officer is the most important and effective
                  and fun.                              A variety of different     medium.
                                                        measures is used –
                  Medium                                which can be tailored      A range of different mediums are used.
                                                        to different schools.
                  Message giver – Bike It Officer                                  The mediums can be tailored for different schools.
                  who is assisted and eventually        Literature on the
                  replaced by School champion           project was evident        Innovtive ideas are also employed.
                  and teaching staff.                   but did not reach
                                                        parents until late in      Message Receiver / Marketing approach
                  Regular events, initiatives,          the project.
                  training, cycle maintenance                                      The project is directed at parents and indirectly to
                  classes rewards given for             Main means were the        children.
                  cycling (once / lots of times)        Dr Bike workshops
                                                        and assemblies.            Segmentation of the population – parents with children,
                  Newspapers, politicians, radio.                                  primarily year 5-6 (9-11 year olds)
                                                        Marketing approach -
                  Politicians, radio broadcasts,        Segmentation               Feedback
                                                        Parents, even though       Hands up surveys and bike counts used. Some further in-
                  Other innovative ideas                the intervention was       depth research such as the comparative study at
                                                        aimed at children          Aylesbury.
                  Marketing    approach             -
                  Segmentation                          Feedback                   Physical / Fiscal Interventions

                  Identifying    different    sub-      Regular hands up           Bike storage, links to schools, traffic free routs and traffic
                  groups amongst schoolchildren         surveys and bike           reduction around the area of the school.
                  who       require      different      counts     coordinated
                  motivations.     Also different       centrally.                 Partnerships
                  materials directed at parents /
                  teachers. Necessary to foster         Qualitative       from     Between the Bike It officers and the school, the parents
                  positive attitudes in parents         parents      from    a     and the children.
                  and teachers The school is a          questionnaire at two
                  segment itself.                       schools in Aylesbury –     Outside organisations, local authorities, businesses, media
                                                        local scale.               etc
                  Feedback – Focus groups,
                  hands up surveys                      Physical    /     Fiscal   Relationship between elements
                  Physical / Fiscal Interventions                                  The marketing approach informs the message and
                                                        Not discussed              medium. Physical and fiscal interventions are used in
                  Bike sheds / storage, traffic                                    conjunction with these elements and are directed to the
                  reduction. Links to schools           Partnerships               message receivers (parents and children). The
                  (paths, traffic free routes)                                     implementation of the marketing approach is informed at
                                                        Not discussed              different points in the project by research - both before
                  Partnerships                                                     and during the project -, evaluation and monitoring and
                                                                                   feedback. In some cases the receivers have directly been
                  Parents,    schools,   local                                     involved in the design of the project
                  authority staff, government

                                                            page 30 / 37
departments, bike shops,
celebrities, health workers,
local / national media.

                               page 31 / 37
Table 2 - Do the elements of the conceptual framework match up with elements found in the
Bike It project?

Quantitative   Information     gained              Information gained from            Overall analysis of findings
Data from      from Literature                     Interviews

N /A           In general, yes, but more           It must be stressed that in this   Differences in the relationships between
               detail could be added and           project, different forms of        partners, stakeholders and the message
               the      links       between        communication       are     used   receivers.
               stakeholders specified.             between the Bike It officer with
                                                   the children and the parents.

                                                                                      The presence of evaluation and
               The conceptual framework                                               monitoring is slightly differently
               does not contain the depth                                             represented in this project in
               to differentiate the approach                                          comparison to the layout of the
               to children and adults.                                                conceptual framework.

               Some of the relationships                                              The roles of the parents and children as
               are slightly different – fiscal /                                      message recipients and the focus of the
               physical interventions are                                             behavioural change goals are complex.
               used in conjunction with
               social marketing message /
               mediums such as cycle
               permit systems with cycle

               In some instances the
               children themselves have
               been involved in designing
               the project – the target
               group become the medium.

                                                         page 32 / 37
Table 3 - Does Bike It offer any additional elements which can be added to the conceptual

Quantitative   Information gained            Information gained from Overall analysis of findings
Data from      from Literature               Interviews

N/A            Identifying and removing      The comparative study by Tim     Changes made after a period of time or
               the barriers to success       Jones was an example of          after certain levels of success of the
                                             research into the behavioural    project.
                                             change and impact generated at
                                             a local level.
               Diversity of approaches
               relating to variations in                                      Any additional behaviour change caused
               circumstances in different                                     by the project other than what was
               areas.                                                         intended

               Evaluation and monitoring –                                    Considerations of monitoring and
               such as surveys, bike                                          evaluation, area differences, changes in
               counts, hands up surveys.                                      scale.      Evolution of monitoring
               Comparative studies with                                       techniques.
               non-Bike It schools have
               identified             new
                                                                              Bike Its position in the wider projects
                                                                              aimed at increasing cycling and
                                                                              sustainable travel
               Expanding the project after
               success, building cycling
               into the curriculum and
               increasing cycling out of                                      The effects of feedback
               school time.

               The overall problem being

                                                  page 33 / 37
Table 4 Why was Bike It designed in this way? (Is it based on any previous research? What
was the marketing plan?)

Quantitative   Information     gained           Information    gained Overall analysis of findings
Data from      from Literature                  from Interviews

N/A            Barriers such as concerns        Behavioural goals – evidence    Barriers existed which required removing
               about child safety dissuade      from the comparative study      before to the intended behaviour change
               parents from allowing their      of two schools in Aylesbury     was achieved.
               children    to    school     –   shows a cycling culture being
               necessary to remove them         developed at the Bike It
               whilst also creating positive    School (as opposed to the
               message to increase cycling.     control school)                 Necessary to create a cycling culture at a

               Partnerships     and      the
               interaction         between                                      Positive message used to increase
               teachers, pupils parents, the                                    enthusiasm for cycling and prevent
               community (bike shops), local                                    negative perceptions.
               government and planners are
               crucial and need to be
               marketed differently in some
               cases.                                                           Not clear whether previous research had
                                                                                been conducted after interviews although
                                                                                Parkin’s lit review for Bike It signifies a
                                                                                more recent use of theoretical
               Targeting children in this age                                   consideration. It is likely that research
               group will increase cycling in                                   informed the nationals cycling movement
               the future.                                                      from which Bike It grew out of.

               Increasing cycling in     the                                    No marketing plan as such has been
               national consciousness.                                          identified, but it appears that the
                                                                                following considerations were made when
                                                                                planning the marketing of the project:

               Aimed at making small-scale
               differences which add up to a
               large change.                                                    Target schools which were considered to
                                                                                be more inclined to introduce cycling
                                                                                (especially at first).

                                                                                Target the parents and the children to
                                                                                make sure the children are allowed to
                                                                                begin cycling.

                                                                                Use a toolkit of different measures
                                                                                tailored to the needs of each school.

                                                                                Coordinate each school project using the
                                                                                Bike It officer primarily.

                                                     page 34 / 37
Table 5 - Are there particular success factors or barriers to success evident in the project?

Quantitative                Information            gained          from      Information gained Overall analysis of
Data from                   Literature                                       from Interviews    findings

Success                     Success                                          Success                      Success

Most measures used          A positive message is an essential part of       A flexible project.     A    Flexibility of    the
were thought of as          the project.                                     toolkit of measures to be    project for different
contributing          to                                                     used by each school to       schools.
success         (Parkin)    Government backing of initiatives which          suit the varying needs
particularly training to    increase cycling filtering down to local         between schools.             Publicity reaching the
national      standard,     authority planning.                                                           home effectively.
staff    commitment,                                                         The enthusiasm and
one off and regular         Infrastructure at school and on the school       creativity of the Bike It    Backing           from
events.                     route – traffic free routes in particular.       officer.                     governments        and
                                                                                                          other      campaigns,
Focusing the project        Brand Awareness and familiarity with Bike        The Bike Officer acting as   other organisations.
towards the children        It.                                              a role model to children
has been effective.                                                          whilst also effectively      Decent infrastructure
Cycling activities and      Partnerships                                     communicating         with   and            physical
competitions (UCLAN                                                          parents on a regular         interventions.
analysis)                   Bike It officers are very important to           basis.
                            success – both in their work and they way                                     The Bike It Officers
Letters / leaflets from     they are employed.                               Barriers
the school and the                                                                                        Brand Awareness
children were the           Innovative ideas. Measures which capture         Whilst the Bike It brand
most likely way which       the imagination of the children (such as         was reasonably well          Innovative ideas
parents found out           ‘cycle around the world, relating cycling to     recalled by parents, the
about Bike It               other interests of children)                     Sustrans brand saw very      Confidence     building
                                                                             low awareness. It could      measures
The more information        Building on the momentum.                        be argued whether it is
sources (eg posters,                                                         necessary to remember        Barriers
newspapers) a parent        Cycle Training, secure storage                   Sustrans as Bike It is
was exposed to, the                                                          successful but has a         Parents views of safety
more      they  knew        Multi-disciplinary monitoring.                   complex message
about Bike It (UCLAN                                                                                      Transmitting
analysis)                   Cycle demonstration towns – cycling is in        In Aylesbury, getting the    information to parents
                            the local consciousness                          message out to the
Barriers                                                                     parents was difficult and
                                                                             it is recommended that
Concerns about child                                                         more is done to ensure
safety, traffic, security   Barriers are often based on concerns about       information       reaches
                            child safety.                                    parents.
Poor branding in one
example? (Jones)            Negative views of cycling generally.             Parents             active
                                                                             participation   to    the
The first year saw          Some groups (ie year 7-9 girls) are less open    project could be stronger
varied        success       to cycling into school.                          (ie attendance at events,
between schools of 0                                                         training)
– 37% of children           High car ownership / dependency among
cycling regularly to        parents                                          No reliable method of
school.                                                                      evaluation or monitoring
                            Concerns about security (children and            observed at present,
                            cycles)                                          individually, within or
                                                                             between towns.
                            Examples at individual schools have shown
                            that different barriers exist and additionally   In     comparison       to
                            different measures vary in terms of their        countries      such     as
                            success.                                         Denmark and Holland the
                                                                             sustainability of the
                                                                             project Bike It and the
                                                                             amount of money and
                                                                             effort put into increasing
                                                                             cycling in the country in
                                                                             general is questioned.

                                                                page 35 / 37
page 36 / 37
Table 6 - Does Bike It demonstrate a balance of emotional and rational approaches within its

Quantitative Data   Information         gained      from    Information gained   Overall analysis of findings
from Reports        Literature                              from Interviews

N/A                 Emotional     and    rational   used    No information       Both emotional and rational methods have
                    together.                                                    been employed but perhaps not intentionally.

                    It is not clear if emotional and                             As the literature      section   –   no   other
                    rational      arguments      have                            information
                    intentionally been used in the
                    project – ie the design team have
                    deliberately decided to use one or
                    the other or both. Can only make
                    subjective assumptions.

                    Combat        obesity,       provide
                    enjoyable activity for children and
                    alleviate fears of child safety – all

                    Reduce     congestion,     climate
                    change, solve parking problems
                    around the school – rational.

                    Rational solutions to emotional
                    concerns (teach children safe
                    cycling, bike maintenance)

                    Fears still exist at schools
                    regarding traffic systems.

                                                            page 37 / 37

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