The California Model CalSWEC

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					         CalSWEC


   Workforce Development:
Findings, theories and practices



                                   1
Today’s agenda

   CalSWEC—what we do, history, what
    we track
   Retention Study
   Supervisors Study
   Training Trends
   Implications for agencies—Recruitment,
    Training, Supervision, Retention
                                         2
    A little fun…..



   You can teach a ______ to climb a tree, but its
    easier to hire a ________.




                                                      3
CalSWEC’s Mission (1999)
   The California Social Work Education
    Center (CalSWEC) is a partnership
    between the schools of social work,
    public human service agencies, and
    other related professional organizations
    that facilitates the integration of
    education and practice to assure
    effective, culturally competent service
    delivery to the people of California.
                                               4
What we are…..
   Consortium of 18 California schools of social
    work
   Governance Board: 58 counties, SW school
    Deans/Directors, NASW, Mental Health,
    Private foundations, California Department of
    Social Services
   Central infrastructure at UC Berkeley
    (subcontracts to other universities)


                                                5
What we are….
Stipend Program
 Title IV-E training funds: Financial
  support for students to go into public
  child welfare/foster care; year for year
  payback
 Competency Based Curriculum
  specifically designed to train students to
  work in Public Child Welfare

                                           6
What we are…
Inservice Training Coordination
 Develop competencies for in-service training

 Develop common core in-service curriculum

 Coordinate implementation of in-service

  training
 Evaluate common core training

 Training for Trainers




                                                 7
             How we collaborate..
California State Dept.   Central CalSWEC        University partners County partners              In-service training
Social Services (CDSS)                                                                                partners

Ensures proper funding Coordinate curriculum    Stipends to students   Policies that encourage   Deliver training to
    is established           development        Curriculum                  employees                 counties
Process fiscal claims   Coordinate evaluation   Evaluation                  participation        Develop curriculum
Report project outcomes      efforts            Budget                 Appropriate field         Evaluate curriculum
    to funding agency   Statewide employment    Employment                  placements           Convene regional
                             assistance              assistance to     Agree to reemploy              mtgs on F & E
                        Coordinate budget and        grads                  grads                Participate in
                             fiscal processes   Monitor contract       Hiring preference              symposia,
                        Contracting and              compliance                                       statewide
                             subcontracting                                                           convenings
                        Contract compliance
                        Report program
                             outcomes to CDSS
                        Policy development



                                                                                                                       8
The History & Context
The 70’s, 80’s early 90’s
   Field placements preparing students for private
    practice
   Public sector difficulty in attracting & retaining
    professionals
   Public sector job market expansion
   Highly publicized stories of abuse and death of
    children in placement
   Acceptance that ethnically diverse staff was needed
   Funding entities interested in solving problems



                                                          9
Dean Harry Specht’s vision




                             10
 To produce professionals for careers in the
  publicly supported services focusing on
  underserved populations.
And….
 To advance social work’s committment to the

  poor and the services upon which they
  depend.
                                            11
Dean’s Specht’s markers
in 1990
   Increase the number of professionally
    trained social workers in public social
    services
   Increase the number of professionally
    trained social workers who reflect the
    population being served
   Increase the number of counties that
    have MSW in their workforce
                                              12
Workforce Trends in California
100%


90%
                               0.86
80%


70%
          0.67
                    0.64
60%
                                      # MSW
                                      AA
50%
                                      Latino
                                      counties
40%
                               0.36

30%                 0.308
                               0.25
20%       0.21
                    0.17
          0.14
          0.13      0.13       0.13
10%


 0%
       1992      1998       2004




                                           13
CalSWEC Graduates
(n = 2732)
                             default
                   waivers
                              156
     not working     23
                               6%
         287         1%
         11%




                                       working
                                        2266
                                        82%




                                                 14
     CalSWEC Graduates
     Retention over time
              Percentages of All IV-E MSWs in Payback Agency After Completion of
                Work Requirement by Retention Status and Year of Graduation


90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
     1993         1994         1995        1996        1997        1998        1999        2000        2001        2002


                                  Left                  Stayed                    Status Unknown
            Note: The MSWs completed at least 2-3 years of w ork follow ing graduation, and w ere then surveyed.



                                                                                                                          15
       Ethnicity of Children in Care, CWW
       Staff, and CalSWEC Graduates
100%



90%



80%


70%



60%                                                                                        Other
                                                                                           Hi spani c
                                                                                           Caucasi an
50%
                                                                                           Asi an/ Asi an Amer i can
                                                                                           Amer i can Indi an
40%                                                                                        Af r i can Amer i can


30%


20%



10%



 0%
         Chi l dr en i n Car e   Chi l d Wel f ar e Wor ker Staf f   Cal SWEC Gr aduates


                                                                                                                   16
Questions:
Agency
 What are the things that make people
  leave an agency?
 What are the things that make people
  stay at an agency?
Person
 What is the difference between a leaver
  and a stayer?
                                        17
Retention Study

  Who stayed and who left?
       Professionalism
Opportunities to apply learning
  More career opportunities
  Supervision and training




                                  18
Methods
   Since 1995, CalSWEC has followed
    those graduates who have completed
    their work obligation in public child
    welfare to find out how many have
    stayed beyond their obligation and how
    many have left. Generally these
    graduates are surveyed at 2 -3 years
    post graduation.
                                         19
Methods cont’d
   Among the 1496 graduates eligible to
    participate in the retention study, 765
    have completed their mailed surveys.
    450 have agreed to a telephone
    interview. (as of September 2005)




                                              20
    Definitions: Stayers & Leavers

   Stayers: Those graduates who stayed in
    their original public child welfare agency
    after they completed their work
    obligation.
   Leavers: Those graduates who left
    their original public child welfare
    agencies.
                                                 21
And….
     Those who moved to another county public
      child welfare agency or the state
     Those who took jobs at nonprofit agencies
      serving title IV-E children
     Those who left because of personal
      reasons (retirement, moved out of state)




                                             22
How many stayed and what
they said:
   At least 86.8 percent are still working in
    public child welfare after completing their
    work obligation.
   Those who stayed with their agencies
    reported that they experienced less burnout
    and depersonalization, and somewhat greater
    sense of accomplishment than their
    counterparts who had left their agencies.


                                              23
What they said cont’d
Four broad categories:
 Professionalism

 Ability to practice what was learned

 More career opportunities

 Supervision and training




                                         24
Professionalism
   Now that they have an M.S.W.
    compared to past child welfare
    work experiences, the graduates feel
    they have
   better risk assessment skills
   more self-confidence to overcome
    barriers and to problem solve
   more objectivity

                                       25
Professionalism
   less stress
   more freedom to do the job
   more employer respect
   understand that the bureaucracy
    prevents ―things from falling apart.‖



                                            26
Opportunities to apply what
they learned
   Most said they could apply what they
    learned in the title IV-E program, but a
    significant number said this would be
    easier to do with lower caseloads.
    Urgency of court deadlines also
    interacted with high caseloads.



                                               27
    More Career Opportunities:
   Several respondents reported
    opportunities to do something in addition
    to the standard child welfare job
       joining community boards
       volunteering at community agencies
       working on agency committees
       multidisciplinary committees
       some supervision
       providing public information

                                                28
More career opportunities
cont’d
     providing mandated reporter training for
      different professionals in other agencies
     developing alternatives to foster care for
      children
     leading a children’s’ adoption support
      group
     community agency speaking
     working with a statewide committee on the
      master data system

                                               29
Supervision & Training
   Good supervision was defined as ―supportive‖
    and appears to play an important role in
    retention.
       Credibility
       Peer consultation
   Accessibility of training on the job was
    described as providing the opportunity to be
    a better child welfare social worker


                                                   30
Supervisor Study


Increased reliance on supervision
     Involvement in training
        Supervisory Style




                                    31
Methods

   CalSWEC’s 2003 Supervisor Study
    findings on involvement in training.
   Surveyed 1,000 supervisors, managers
    and line workers about supervision
   Full report:
    http://calswec.berkeley.edu/CalSWEC/S
    upervisorStudy.pdf

                                        32
Increased Reliance on
Supervision:
   ―Those *&#% Supervisors!‖
   Seen as key to training outcomes as
    well as retention and workforce stability
         Key Role = Coach or Mentor




                                            33
    INVOLVEMENT IN TRAINING:
Supervisor:
   Is not involved.
   Encourage staff to attend trainings.
   Keep track of staff participation in trainings.
   Talk to their staff about the trainings their staff attend.
   Provide tasks and assignments to their staff related to
    the trainings that their staff attend.
   Provide tasks and assignments to their staff on topics
    their staff need to learn that are not related to trainings
    that their staff attend.
   Other: ________________________
                                                             34
    INVOLVEMENT IN TRAINING:

 All groups would like supervisors to be
  involved in some aspect of line worker
  training, especially managers.
BUT:
 22% of line workers, 4% of supervisors,
  and 12% of managers indicated that
  supervisors are currently not involved
  at all in line worker training.
                                            35
     INVOLVEMENT IN TRAINING:


   Managers and supervisors generally
    would like supervisors to be more
    involved than line workers would.




                                         36
      INVOLVEMENT IN TRAINING:


   A majority of line workers reported that
    they wanted supervisors to encourage
    them to attend training as their principle
    method of involvement, suggesting that
    line workers may not seek or want
    increased supervisor involvement.


                                                 37
INVOLVEMENT IN TRAINING:
What impacts supervisor involvement?



   All of the groups report that high line
    worker caseloads have a significant impact
    on the ability of supervisors to become
    involved in training.
   The majority of line workers and supervisors
    emphasized that lower caseloads (for line
    workers) would help increase supervisor
    involvement in line worker training.
   Managers report that more staff
    development time would assist supervisors
    in becoming more involved.
                                               38
Supervisory Style

   Across all groups, the largest percentage
    of respondents chose One-on-One
    Supervision and Informal Supervision
    as the preferred styles of supervision.

   Another highly ranked style of supervision
    was Group Supervision.
                                             39
Trends in Training


Increased Accountability
Increased Transparency


                           40
Increased Accountability

   Federal Review process evaluates
    training as a systemic factor (California
    not in substantial Compliance)
   Federal Review and AB 636 process also
    generate a great deal of training needs
              Solution = Training

                                           41
Increased Accountability
(Cont.)
   More focus on outcomes of training
   Initial wave of training as panacea, then
    a realization that training must be
    effective.
          Focus = Training Evaluation



                                           42
Accountability
California’s Response:
 New Regulatory requirements for initial and
  ongoing training.
 Development and implementation of a
  Framework for Training Evaluation for child
  welfare core training.
 Sponsorship of National Human Services
  Training Evaluation Symposium (NHSTES) for
  10 years running.

                                            43
Increased Transparency:
   Move toward published, standardized
    curricula, so it can be evaluated and
    tied to outcomes.
   Published outcomes on both the system
    as a whole and on training make faults
    of the system more obvious.


                                         44
Increased Transparency
(cont.):

   Example: Data on disproportionate
    representation of and disparate outcomes for
    different groups.
   Varies by locality, but usually Black and
    Native American Children are grossly over-
    represented.
   Creates pressure on training system to
    address bias in the workforce – Create a FAIR
    and EQUITABLE System

                                               45
Transparency
California’s Response:
 Standardized curriculum for child welfare
  workers and supervisors across the state.
 Focus on Fairness and Equity:

 Annual Training Symposia

 Leadership Symposia

 Integration of bias framework into core

  curricula

                                              46
Implications for Agencies

       Recruitment
         Training
       Supervision
        Retention


                            47
Recruitment




              48
Importance of the Workforce
   Workforce issues really do underlie
    practice and service delivery
    improvements.




                                      49
Title IVE recruitment
   The process is intense and thorough
       Each school develops an Awards Committee comprised
        equally of agency and school representatives. Schools
        operating in the same geographical area coordinate their
        awards processes.
       Personal interviews; include key questions about motivation
        and attitude and inbox exercises to have recruit demonstrate
        his/her judgment and ability to multi-task.
       Consistency and objectivity in evaluation of recruits is very
        important. Awards committees rate recruits on the same
        criteria.




                                                                   50
Recruitment Methods to
consider
   Interview Q’s include—motivation, attitude, in
    box exercise to demonstrate judgement
   Informed consent
       It pays to fully disclose what the job is about to
        potential recruits
       Emerging practice-video of a child welfare social
        worker on the job
       Observations/shadowing


                                                             51
Recruitment methods cont’d:
 Home-Grown Recruitment:
  Build on the significant interest in current staff

   desire to obtain a college or graduate degree (i.e.,
   administrative assistants, social work aides and
   current child welfare workers. (2004 California
   Workforce Study).
  Align resources to support the field placement

   function in your agency—there is a relationship
   between good field supervision and recruitment of
   staff well aligned with agency.

                                                     52
Training




           53
What agencies can do –
Training
Use Training Strategically to meet your
  outcomes:
 Focus training on the knowledge and skills
  that can be taught and will lead to the
  outcomes you want.
 Evaluate the training to see if the trainees are
  attaining the knowledge and skills in the
  classroom (or via distance learning)

                                                54
What agencies can do cont’d:
   Accessibility to multiple modes of
    training on the job
       Distance learning, mentoring, peer
        consultation, licensure supervision, group
        supervision, one on one, etc.




                                                     55
Supervision




              56
What agencies can do –
Supervision
Use Supervision Strategically to Enhance
  Retention:
 Support training in the field by using field
  trainers, coaches and supervision that is
  knowledgeable about and supports the
  classroom training
 Establish clarity and distinction between the
  role of training and the role of the supervisor,
  and what each does to support agency
  outcomes.
                                                 57
Supervision
   Good supervision of the supportive type
    plays an important role in retention.
       Credibility
       Peer consultation
   Support field instructors by giving them
    release time and resources to do the
    job.

                                           58
Retention

       Encourage professionalism
  Offer career enhancing opportunites
     Supportive Work Environment


                                        59
What the stayers & leavers said:
   Those who would recommend their agencies
    would do so because ―you can help people‖; ―the
    people who work here are nice‖ ; ―the pay is good‖;
    ―it’s rewarding‖
   Those who might recommend their agency said
    the atmosphere was suffocating after a while,
    although it was ―a growth experience.‖
   Those who would not recommend their agency
    thought the bureaucracy was not good, there were
    no resources for the families; management does not
    support the workers; caseload is overwhelming; and
    coworkers act unprofessionally.


                                                      60
Stayers & leavers cont’d
   Aspects of the job that they liked the
    most were: contact with families,
    coworkers, service providers, direct
    interaction with children, multidisciplinary
    teamwork, working with the court,
    accomplishing positive permanent outcomes
    for children.
   Aspect of the job that they liked the
    least: court—waiting time and writing court
    reports, paperwork, long hours, attorneys
    and others yelling at them.

                                               61
Encourage Professionalism
   Allow workers to practice what they have
    learned from their education/training
    experiences.
   Offer collateral activities that benefit the
    agency and clients (i.e., joining community
    boards, working on
    agency/multidisciplinary/statewide
    committee, providing public information,
    training for professionals in other agencies,
    developing programs, community agency
    speaking)

                                                    62
Offer career enhancements

    Connect the job with a career path
       reward education-seeking behavior by offering
        better salaries and advancement to those with
        additional education and training
    Acknowledge those who want to improve service
     delivery to their clients
       Service orientation—show workers how their
        work is affecting outcomes for clients and
        create a deliberate information sharing strategy
        with staff


                                                      63
Supportive Work Environment
    Develop supervisors who are comfortable with
     their roles as mentors, teachers, consultants.
    Parking, desks, telephones, pay attention to safety
     measures and highlight those things to potential
     workers
    Create an intentional communication strategy with
     the internally and externally to demonstrate
     positive respect for the work and the workers.
    Reward field instructors and others who take on
     duties outside their job specs.

                                                      64
California Social Work Education Center
    University of California, Berkeley
         School of Social Welfare
      Marchant Building, Suite 420
           6701 San Pablo Ave.
        Berkeley, CA 94720-7420
Phone: 510-642-9272 Fax: 510-642-8573
      http://calswec.berkeley.edu



                                          65

				
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