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        FBI Bomb Data Center
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                                 General Information Bulletin 97-1
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                                                                                            1997
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                                                                         , 1997
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  1997 BOMB SUMMARY
                                    Contents
                         Introduction                            1

                         Glossary of Terms                       1

                         Bomb Data Center                       2-4

                         Comments                               5-6


                        Charts
                         Bombing Incidents                       7

                         Incidents by State - West               8

                         Incidents by State - South              9

                         Incidents by State - North Central     10

                         Incidents by State - East              11

                         Incidents by Target                    12

                         Incidents by Time of Occurrence        13

Staff                    Incidents by Region                  14-15

                         Incidents by Quarter                   16
Editors:
                         Filler Material                        17
  Latonya O. Gadson
                         Incendiary Devices                     18
  Melody Lynn Michael
                         Improvised Explosive Devices           19
          .
  Regina P Perrin
                         Explosive Fuzing                       20

  Nancy Walsh            Injuries and Deaths                    21

                         People and Motivations Involved
Designer:                in Bombings                            22

  Sandi Holliday         Recovered Explosives                   23

                         Hoax Devices                           24

                         Suspicious Package Poster              25

                         Bomb Scene Card and Threat Cards       26
                                                                       INTRODUCTION
The FBI Bomb Data Center (BDC) collects and reports bombing information to public safety agencies, elected
officials and the interested public. The graphs and tables contained in the body of this summary reflect the use
of explosive and incendiary devices by criminals in the United States. Statistics show criminals are continually
using these devices to facilitate unlawful purposes. This places the public and law enforcement personnel at
great risk.

The information contained in the charts comes from bombing incidents reported in 1997 and its territories. Also
presented are statistics regarding hoax devices, recoveries of improvised devices, explosives, and military ordnance.

State and local public safety agencies (to include over 600 bomb squads) make a significant contribution in
reporting these types of incidents to the FBI. In addition, the BDC gathers information from the Postal Inspection
Service; Military Explosive Ordnance Disposal units; and the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms.

While we make every effort to obtain data on all bombing incidents, it is necessary to point out that not every
incident is reported to law enforcement agencies, or in rare instances, those reported to the agencies may not
come to the attention of the FBI. Special thanks go to the agencies mentioned above whose participation makes
our goal of accurately reporting bombing statistics obtainable.

Actual Bombing                                                                          GLOSSARY
An illegal detonation or ignition of an explosive or incendiary device. Included is the
premature detonation or ignition of a device while it is being prepared, transported or
placed.
                                                                                                  OF

                                                                                                  TERMS
Attempted Bombing

An unsuccessful attempt to illegally detonate or ignite an explosive or incendiary device.
The failure of a device to detonate or ignite results from the malfunction of the device or
the disarmament of the device before it functions.

Explosive Bombing

An illegal actual or attempted detonation of a device constructed with high or low explosive material. For
example, high explosive materials are explosives that can detonate with a blasting cap such as dynamite.
Examples of low explosive materials are black, smokeless, and flash powders. Low explosives generally burn.

Incendiary Bombing

An illegal ignition or attempted ignition of a device constructed with flammable materials designed to produce
a burning effect. Since incendiary bombings are often called “fire bombings,” they are often considered arsons.
However, the use of a bona fide device, despite the intent or effects, is considered a bombing. An example of
an incendiary device is a Molotov cocktail.

Motive

The impulse, emotion, or desire that moves a person to perpetrate a violation of a federal, state or local law
concerning the illegal detonation of an explosive bomb or ignition of an incendiary device.

Time

The time of day an actual bombing occurs. In an attempted bombing, we define the time of day that the device
is discovered after it malfunctions, or when the device is found and dismantled before detonation or ignition

                                                                                                                 1
 Federal Bureau of Investigation
BOMB DATA CENTER

Law enforcement is a difficult enough challenge          Congress mandated that the FBI would assume
without the added risk of improvised explosive           this responsibility. HDS is the only school in the
devices. The damage wrought by bombs is                  United States that trains public safety officials as
extremely ominous, striking random, innocent             bomb disposal technicians. To date, more than
victims, as seen in the bombing of the Otherside         5,500 technicians have graduated from the Basic
Lounge in Atlanta, Georgia, and in the Sandy             course and 4,400 have received refresher training.
Springs Professional Building in Sandy Springs,
Georgia. Bombers are often indiscriminate and            In direct support of the FBI’s domestic and
frequently evade law enforcement by the remote           international terrorism programs, the BDC also
nature of their crimes, frustrating the investigators,   provides field training in bombing investigations
the forensic scientists, the entire law enforcement      and explosive device recognition. The unit conducts
community, and the public. Terrorists and criminals      Post Blast Investigators’ Schools where bombing
are able to utilize improvised explosive mixtures in     evidence collection, preservation, and evaluation
combination with sophisticated fuzing systems. It        is stressed. This training is only available to public
is for these reasons that the resources of all law       safety personnel with investigative responsibilities
enforcement must unite and work together to              in bombing cases.
combat terrorism. It is the commitment of the FBI
to use the resources of its Laboratory Division’s        The unit also teaches Regional Bomb Technician
Bomb Data Center (BDC) to support the fight against      Seminars. The topics covered include the
bombings nationwide and worldwide.                       construction and use of improvised explosive
                                                         devices, techniques for remote neutralization,
Bomb Data Center                                         discussions of research and development, and a
                                                         review of new technical equipment. This seminar
The BDC began as the National Bomb Data Center           is only available to trained bomb technicians who
in 1970. It was initially funded through the Law         are HDS graduates.
Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA) and
managed by the International Association of Chiefs       In keeping with its mission for bomb technician
of Police. In 1972, the administration of the            safety and professionalism, the BDC holds the
program was transferred to the FBI. Technical            Bomb Squad Commander’s Conference every
supports from the U.S. Army’s Picatinny Arsenal          eighteen months. Bomb squad commanders from
ended in 1976 when LEAA funding ceased. The              across the United States attend these conferences.
FBI BDC then took over responsibility for technology     Topics covered have included bomb squad
transfer, training and publications. The BDC’s many      management and safety, domestic and international
distinct responsibilities are outlined below.            bombing trends, and an overview of bomb disposal
                                                         techniques.
Technical Training Program
                                                         Information/Intelligence Program
The BDC oversees the technical training of all public
safety bomb disposal personnel at the Hazardous          The BDC collects and reports bombing information
Devices School (HDS), Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville,      to public safety agencies, elected officials and other
Alabama. Since 1981, the FBI has funded and              interested parties. The graphs and tables contained
administered the HDS through the BDC when                in the body of this summary reflect the use of


  2
explosive, incendiary, and hoax devices by criminals     England, Germany, Israel, New Zealand, Spain,
in the United States. In addition to these types of      and Switzerland. Additional foreign cooperation
incidents, state and local public safety agencies        in bombing matters is provided by an aggressive
also report incidents involving the recovery of          Legat program. When circumstances dictate, the
improvised explosive devices, explosives, and military   international bomb data center community can
ordnance.                                                be relied upon for immediate information and
                                                         expertise.
Another part of the unit’s information/intelligence
program is the collection, collation, and                Online Capabilities
dissemination of technical information about
improvised devices; render safe procedures;              The FBI has established the Law Enforcement
explosives research; and information about bomb          Online (LEO) system, a restricted online service
technician equipment. The principal publications         that provides a secure means of communication
of the BDC through which this is accomplished are        for law enforcement and public safety personnel.
as follows:                                              Within the LEO system, the BDC has a site that
                                                         provides bombing related information exclusively
        Special Technician Bulletins                     for the bomb technician and investigator
        contain technical information intended           communities. In addition, general information is
        for HDS trained bomb technicians.                available to anyone on the FBI’s Home Page website
        Detailed in this type of publication             at www.fbi.gov.
        are render safe techniques, specialized
        equipment, unusual improvised                    Computer Reference Library
        explosive devices, and technical
        safety information.                              The FBI’s Laboratory maintains the largest single
                                                         computer reference library in the world for
        Investigator Bulletins contain                   identification and comparison examination
        technical information useful to the              purposes. The Explosives Reference and Search
        public safety officer trained to conduct         System (EXPRESS) gives instant access to the division’s
        a bombing crime scene investigation.             resources including a unique device comparison
        This technical data includes information         module for the intercomparison of cases. This tool
        on bomb construction and potential               combines the text of Laboratory reports with
        crime scene hazards.                             evidentiary photographs of bombing cases and
                                                         allows the quick and accurate retrieval of
        General Information Bulletins                    information based upon any aspect of the forensic
        delineate the results of private tests           examination. When a search is performed, EXPRESS
        on bomb handling and detection                   will attempt to find similar devices and identify
        equipment, general evacuation                    similarities in components used in the construction
        procedures, and the elements                     of an improvised explosive device. Currently, the
        necessary for good physical security.            EXPRESS Database System consists of four databases:
                                                         Laboratory Forensic Report Database, Domestic
                                                         Commercial Explosives Reference File, Foreign
Foreign Cooperation                                      Commercial Explosives Reference File, and the
                                                         Underground Publications Database. EXPRESS
The BDC operates as a clearinghouse for information      inquiries and search requests may be directed to
on bombing incidents and new render safe                 the Materials and Devices Unit at (202) 324-4341.
procedures as reported in the United States and          .
abroad. Contact is maintained with bomb data
centers in the following countries: Australia, Canada,



                                                             1997 BOMB SUMMARY                             3
Research and Development Program                                Conclusion

The BDC also conducts extensive research and                    The BDC’s commitment is one of aiding the bomb
development for enhanced render safe procedures                 technician and investigator communities through
and technical equipment for bomb disposal                       active support of major operations. This support
personnel. The unit manages a variety of research               includes enhanced training for bomb technicians
programs involving remote render safe technology,               and investigators, continued development of
detection of explosives, and neutralization techniques          disrupter technology and development of new
for explosive devices.                                          ways of identifying explosive residues from
                                                                improvised explosive mixtures. In addition, the unit
Operational Support Program                                     provides equipment and personnel support to
                                                                supplement state and local law enforcement in time
In response to requests for explosives-related technical        of increased demand and reduced budgets. The
support for special events, the unit possesses two              BDC is dedicated to providing the highest possible
bomb disposal trucks and total containment vessels.             level of service and support to federal, state, and
Each bomb truck contains all the necessary render               local law enforcement agencies in the field of
safe equipment to include a bomb disposal robot,                bombing investigations.
bomb protective suits, screening and disruption
equipment. This technical support is in keeping                 If you would like additional information
with the unit’s philosophy in using remote and safe             about the BDC, its programs or
procedures unless a life threatening situation leaves           publications, please contact us at:
no other alternative.




             Mailing Address:                  Federal Bureau of Investigation
                                               Laboratory Division
                                               Bomb Data Center
                                               J. Edgar Hoover Building, Room 1B327, Box 22
                                               935 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW
                                               Washington, D.C. 20535-0001

             E-mail Address:                   labeubdc@fbi.gov

             Telephone Number: (202) 324-2696
             Facsimile Number:                 (202) 324-3784




   4
                                                                              COMMENTS

       Two thousand two hundred and seventeen (2,217) bombing incidents were reported to the
       Bomb Data Center (BDC) in 1997 that is a 14% decrease over the previous year‘s reported
       bombings (2,573).

       The use of explosives in bombings accounted for 76% of the incidents and the remaining 24%
       of the incidents were incendiary by nature.

Actual and Attempted Bombings
       In 72% of the bombing incidents, the devices were “successful” defined as either detonating or igniting
       and 28% were “unsuccessful.” Explosive devices detonated as planned 72% of the time and incendiary
       devices ignited 71% of the time.

       .
Location
       Of the 2,217 bombing incidents for 1997, 810 (37%) occurred in the Western states. Six hundred and
       twenty-two (28%) occurred in the Southern states, which includes Washington, D.C. and Puerto Rico
       and 554 (25%) in the North Central States. The Eastern states endured 10% of the bombings (231).


Time
       Of the 2,217 bombing incidents, most of the attacks, 64%, were perpetrated between six in the evening
       and six in the morning. The remaining 36% of the bombings were evenly distributed between the late
       morning and afternoon hours.

       The time between six p.m. and six a.m was popular for residential bombings as 71% of the incidents
       against private property occurred during this time. Seventy percent of the vehicular bombings, 73%
       of the financial institution bombings, and 60% of the businesses were bombed during the evening and
       early morning hours.

       Fifty-seven percent of the bombings targeting educational facilities occurred during the early morning
       and daytime hours.


Injuries and Deaths
       Casualties from bombings numbered eighteen (18) in 1997 versus twenty-three (23) in 1996. Bombs
       also injured fewer people in 1997, 204 injuries versus 336 in 1996.


Property Damage
       We calculated damage to properties in 1997 at approximately 9 million dollars. That is an increase from
       the 5 million in monetary damages reported for 1996.




                                                                                                         5
COMMENTS
            TOP



       10
   BOMBING
                  STATES             Recoveries of Devices
                                       To be tabulated as a recovery, the device must have been without a target.
                                       Examples of this are devices seized during routine traffic stops or in searches
                                       of residences. There were 939 incidents involving a recovery of an improvised
  INCIDENTS                            explosive or incendiary device. This is a 22% increase over 1996 recoveries.
                                       Eighty-five percent of the devices recovered were explosive, 7% were incendiary,
                                       while the remaining 8% were not specified. In addition, there were 944
                                       incidents in which military ordnance was retrieved. Quite often, these items
458                                    were found to be war souvenirs.
CALIFORNIA

                                                     Recoveries of Improvised
                      208                               Device Incidents
                    FLORIDA
         204                                             1993                          811
 ILLINOIS
                                                         1994                       1,009
                                                         1995                          851
                  103                                    1996                          730
                    TEXAS
                                                         1997                          939

        101                          Hoaxes
     WASHINGTON
                            82         Eight hundred and thirty-eight (838) incidents involved hoax devices in 1997.
                           ARIZONA     This is an increase of 23% versus 1996 (643 hoax incidents). A threatening
                                       note, letter, or telephone call to the establishment or an individual target
                                       preceded 28% of these incidents. For our purposes a suspicious package,
             79                        such as unclaimed luggage in an airport or an accidently forgotten briefcase,
                                       was not tabulated as hoaxes even if the bomb squad was called. This is
     NEW YORK
                                       because there was not a target or intention for mischief associated with the
                                       forgotten items.

                       68
                PENNSYLVANIA



      66     MINNESOTA




                           65
                OREGON
 6
                                                                        BOMBING INCIDENTS

   BY
                                      19 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97
   YEAR                              Total 848 -977 - -1208 1582 2499 2989 2980 3163 2577 2573 2217
                                 Explosive 600 593           641 931 1551 1911 1880 1916 1562 1457 1212
             ACTUAL




                                 Incendiary 104 156          203 267 423 582 538 545                            406 427 378
             $MILLION ATTEMPTS




                                  Explosive 102 161 243 254 395 384 375 522                                     417 504 473
                                 Incendiary 42 40 91 130 130 112 187 180                                        192 185 154
                                  Property   4    2          5      10         6      13 *518 7 **105                       5           9
                                  Damage

                                  Persons 107 145 202 222 230 349 * 323 308 **744 336 204
                                                                  1
                                  Injured

                                   Deaths    21   20         11         27      29      26     49       31 **193             23         18

– Includes 27 incidents involving combination devices.                                                 2438
                                                                                              2255
– – Includes 30 incidents involving combination devices.                              2295                           1979
                                                                                                                                1961
* The 1993 damage figure includes $510 million damage done
to the World Trade Center, New York, by a bomb on
February 26, 1993. The persons injured figure for 1993
                                                                                              Explosive                                 1685
                                                                             1946             actual and attempted incidents
includes the 1,042 persons who were injured
in the same bombing.
                                                                                                      725      725
                                                                                                                                 612        532
** The 1995 damage figure includes $100 million                                               694                      598
damage done to the Murrah Federal Building                       1185
in Oklahoma City by a bomb
on April 19, 1995.                                     884
                                                                                      553
                                                                                              Incendiary
Both the persons injured                                                                      actual and attempted incidents
and the death figures                754                                                                                                1997
                                                                               397                                               1996
for 1995 include           702                                                                                         1995
the 518 people injured                                             294                                         1994
and 168 people killed                                                                                   1993
                                                         196
in the same bombing.                                                                           1992
                                       146                                             1991
                                                                               1990
                                                                    1989
                                                         1988
                                                  1987
                                                                                       1997 BOMB SUMMARY                                7
INCIDENTS BY STATE

        STATE EXPLOSIVES
                 actual   attempt
                                    INCENDIARIES STATE
                                    actual   attempt
                                                                     EXPLOSIVES
                                                                    actual   attempt
                                                                                       INCENDIARIES
                                                                                        actual   attempt


       ALASKA         1       3         0        0     NEW MEXICO       3        0         1        0
      ARIZONA        59       5       11         7        OREGON      37         0       23         5
    CALIFORNIA   228         81     121        28            UTAH     26         5         0        1
    COLORADO         14      13         3        4     WASHINGTON     63         2       31         5
       HAWAII         0       0         0        0       WYOMING        3        0         0        0
        IDAHO         1       0         3        0          GUAM        0        0         0        0
     MONTANA          4       0         0        0
                                                         TOTALS     445      116       196        53
      NEVADA          6       7         3        3

                          101
                                4                                                  West
                             65
                                              4 3
          ALAS
                 KA
                             4                 19 32 34
          GUAM               0

          H A WA
                 II          0                            458                  4
          T O T AL        810                                           82

8
                                                       INCIDENTS BY STATE

   South                                                             49 6
                                                                   10 23 19
                                                          19 54                   11
                                                                                  11
                                                                             25
                                             14 7              8 16                               208
                                                        20                                                 MB       IA
                                       103                                             R ICT O
                                                                                                 F    COLU
                                                                                  DIST              7
                                                                                             RI CO
                                                                                  PU ERTO          22
                                                                                                    DS
                                                                                           I SLAN
                                                                                  V IRGIN           1
                                                                                  T O T AL      622

   STATE EXPLOSIVES INCENDIARIES
                 actual   attempt   actual   attempt
                                                            STATE EXPLOSIVES INCENDIARIES
                                                                         actual    attempt   actual   attempt

    ALABAMA          7       1         6         2     NORTH CAROLINA      11           3         4      1
   ARKANSAS          4       2         0         1         OKLAHOMA        10           2         2      0
   DELAWARE          2       1         2         1     SOUTH CAROLINA      10           0         1      0
     DISTRICT       1        1         5         0          TENNESSEE      25           1       18      10
OF COLUMBIA
    FLORIDA      135       26        36        11               TEXAS      61          25         9      8
    GEORGIA       17         7         1         0            VIRGINIA       9          3         9      2
   KENTUCKY       12         2         5         0       WEST VIRGINIA       6          1         3      0
   LOUISIANA        7        8         3         2        PUERTO RICO        9          3         8      2
  MARYLAND        29         8         5         7      VIRGIN ISLANDS       1          0         0      0
   MISSISSIPPI      3        1         2         2          TOTALS 359                 95     119 49

                                                                  1997 BOMB SUMMARY                             9
INCIDENTS BY STATE

                                                         North
                                                        Central
                                                                          T O T A L 554

                                                 3
                                               1 66
                                              13 38 15 46
                                              42 35 204 38
                                                           53



      STATE EXPLOSIVES INCENDIARIES
                  actual   attempt   actual   attempt
                                                             STATE EXPLOSIVES INCENDIARIES
                                                                       actual   attempt   actual   attempt

       ILLINOIS    100      59         21       24          NEBRASKA      6         1         6        0
       INDIANA       17       5        12        4      NORTH DAKOTA      2         0         1        0
         IOWA        24       7          6       1             OHIO      33         7       10         3
        KANSAS       23       7          9       3      SOUTH DAKOTA      1         0         0        0
      MICHIGAN       30       4        12        0         WISCONSIN      9         0         5        1
     MINNESOTA       25     24           8       9          TOTALS 289          123        95        47
      MISSOURI       19       9          5       2

10
                                                   INCIDENTS BY STATE

    STATE EXPLOSIVES INCENDIARIES
                actual   attempt   actual   attempt
                                                          STATE EXPLOSIVES INCENDIARIES
                                                                     actual     attempt   actual   attempt

 CONNECTICUT        5       7        1         2         NEW YORK       45          18       13         3
       MAINE        3       3        0         0      PENNSYLVANIA      31          21       11         5
MASSACHUSETTS     14        9        6         0      RHODE ISLAND        5           1        0        3
NEW HAMPSHIRE       2       0        0         0         VERMONT          1           1        0        0
   NEW JERSEY     13        3        4         1         TOTALS 119                 63      35         14


           East
                                                                    2                              6
                                                              79 29 2
                                                           68 21

                                                                                UT
                                                                          ECTIC
                                                                     CONN      15
                                                                                   D
                                                                          E ISLAN
                                                                     RHOD        9
                                                                     T O T AL       231



                                                               1997 BOMB SUMMARY                             1
                                                                                                             1
INCIDENTS BY TARGET

              TARGET                     EXPLOSIVE   INCENDIARY   PROPERTY DAMAGE

     RESIDENTIAL PROPERTIES
      Private Residences                     136        134            $854,160
      Mailboxes/Other Private Property       670        103             153,869
     COMMERCIAL PROPERTIES
      Financial Institutions                   9           2             31,400
      Commercial/Retail                       90          36          4,328,450
      Restaurants                             21          19            402,470
      Offices                                  5           2            372,750
      Other Commercial Operations             34          18             81,480
     VEHICLES
      Automobiles                            162        106           1,265,946
      Other Vehicles                          11          5             210,600
     FEDERAL GOVERNMENT PROPERTIES
      Postal Facilities/Equipment             18           1               3,723
      Law Enforcement/Judiciary                5           3                    -
      Military Facilities                      3            -                   -
      Other Federal Government                 6            -              8,250
     UTILITIES
      Electric Facilities                      5            -                  50
      Nuclear Facilities                        -           -                    -
      Water/Sewer                              1            -                    -
     MEDICAL FACILITIES
      Hospitals                                1           3              6,000
      Abortion Clinics                         3            -           802,000
      Other Medical Facilities                 1           4              9,500
     OTHER TARGETS
      State/Local Government Property         48         14            412,240
      Law Enforcement/Judiciary                6          1             56,500
      Bridge/Highway                          48         11              1,670
      Academic Facilities                     80         13            240,882
      Radio/Television/Telecommunications     17          1              7,150
      Church/Synagogue/Temple                 20         13             16,465
      Vending Machines                        10           -             3,720
      Open Area                              176         34             12,547
      Other                                   48          4             17,800
      Accidental Detonation/Unknown Target    51          5             28,800
     TOTALS                                1,685        532         $9,328,422


12
       INCIDENTS BY TIME OF OCCURRENCE
                                        12:01am    6:01am       12:01pm    6:01pm–
                                         –6am      –Noon         –6pm      Midnight




                                                                 11
                                                                 10
RESIDENTIAL PROPERTIES
 Private Residences                      114         30           37            89
 Mailboxes/Other Private Property        259        112          122           280




                                                  9
COMMERCIAL PROPERTIES
 Financial Institutions                    8           –            3           –
 Commercial/Retail                        47          26           29          24
 Restaurants                              16          11            1          12
 Offices                                   5           2            –           –
 Other Commercial Operations              23           8           12           9


                                          8
VEHICLES
 Automobiles                             123          48           30          67
 Other Vehicles                            6           5            3           2
FEDERAL GOVERNMENT PROPERTIES
 Postal Facilities/Equipment                 5        5               3         6
 Law Enforcement/Judiciary                   3        3               2         –
 Military Facilities                         –        2               –         1
                                          7
 Other Federal Government                    2        1               2         1
UTILITIES
 Electric Facilities                         3        1               –         1
 Nuclear Facilities                          –        –               –         –
 Water/Sewer                            12   –    1   1               –         –
                           11                               2
                                                  6
MEDICAL FACILITIES
                                             2        –
 Hospitals
 Abortion Clinics        10                  –        2
                                                                  31
                                                                   1
                                                                                1
                                                                                –
                                                                 5
 Other Medical Facilities                    2        1               2         –

                                                                                 4
OTHER TARGETS            9                                       4
 State/Local Government Property          19                  14     13       16
 Law Enforcement/Judiciary         8       4                   1 5    1        1
 Bridge/Highway                         7 12               6 9       21       17
 Academic Facilities                      20                  33     16       24
 Radio/TV/Telecommunications               7                   4      –   12   7
 Church/Synagogue/Temple
 Vending Machines
                                          11
                                           4
                                                               9
                                                               –
                                                                 11   7
                                                                      –
                                                                               6
                                                                               6
                                                                                 1
 Open Area
 Other
                                          39
                                          14
                                                            1044
                                                              12
                                                                     61
                                                                     14
                                                                              66
                                                                              12
                                                                                      2
 Accidental Detonation/Unknown Target      5                   9     19       23
Totals:                                  753           9     393    400     671           3
           Includes both explosive and incendiary incidents.    Grand Total: 2,217

                                                            8
                                                  1997 BOMB SUMMARY 13
                                                                                      4
                                                                  7              5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  INCIDENTS BY REGION
1,200                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1,200



1,100                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1,100


                                     WESTERN
1,000                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1,000
                                     SOUTHERN
 900
                                     NORTH CENTRAL                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 900

                                     EASTERN
 800                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               800



 700                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               700



 600                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               600




 500                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               500



 400                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               400




 300                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               300




 200                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               200



 100                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               100
        302
              252
                    201




                               368
                                     262
                                           215
                                                 132


                                                       361
                                                             388
                                                                   316
                                                                         143


                                                                               555
                                                                                     409
                                                                                           433
                                                                                                 185


                                                                                                       881
                                                                                                             656
                                                                                                                   664
                                                                                                                         298


                                                                                                                               978
                                                                                                                                     797
                                                                                                                                           927
                                                                                                                                                 287


                                                                                                                                                       1,023
                                                                                                                                                               858
                                                                                                                                                                     830
                                                                                                                                                                           269


                                                                                                                                                                                 1,023
                                                                                                                                                                                         904
                                                                                                                                                                                               944
                                                                                                                                                                                                     292


                                                                                                                                                                                                           876
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 765
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       730
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             206



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   976
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         747
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               640
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     210




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 622
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       554
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             231
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           810
                          84




        1987                    1988                    1989                    1990                    1991                    1992                     1993                     1994                     1995                     1996                    1997



12
14                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1997 BOMB SUMMARY                                15
INCIDENTS BY QUARTER

                                              491
 500

 450
              425             419
 400                                                          350
 350

 300

 250

 200
                    131             127             150
 150
                                                                    124
 100

     50

     0
          JAN. - MARCH    APRIL - JUNE    JULY - SEPT.    OCT. - DEC.

                                                                EXPLOSIVE

                                                               INCENDIARY



16
                                                                      FILLER MATERIAL IN
                                                          EXPLOSIVE DEVICES
                                                                                              Pipe Bombs
                                                                                              Account
                                                                                              for
    Pipe                                                                                      26%
    Bombs                                                                                     of all
                                                                                              Improvised
                                                                                              Explosive
    Total -                                                     78% Black /Smokeless
                                                                    Powder/Pyrodex            Devices
          1,131

                                                                 8%     Unknown
                                                                 5%     Pyrotechnics/Fireworks/Flash Powder
                                                                 4%     Improvised Mixtures
                                                                 3%     Match Heads
                                                                 1%     Chemical Mixtures
                                                                 1%     High Explosives

    Improvised Explosive Devices
                                                                              * Total -
      2%     Match Heads                                                              4,335
      4%     Improvised Mixtures

      5%     High Explosives                                                                    Plastic Bottles
                                                                                                (Acid Bombs)
      6%     Unknown                                                                            Account
                                                                                                for
             Pyrotechnics/
    19%      Fireworks/Flash Powder                                                             19%
                                                                                                of all
             Chemical                                                                           Improvised
    20%      Mixtures                                                                           Explosive
                                                                                                Devices
             Black/Smokeless
    44%      Powder/Pyrodex


*   Totals reflect improvised explosive devices used in bombings as well as devices that were
    recovered, for example, in a search of a residence.

                                                                   1997 BOMB SUMMARY                         17
INCENDIARY DEVICES

                                              and Filler
                                              and Filler
 Fillers                                                                      Containers
GASOLINE                                                                      CARDBOARD/PAPER TUBE
                                                                            PIPE – METAL/PLASTIC TUBE
PYROTECHNICS/FIREWORKS
                                                                               BOTTLE – GLASS/PLASTIC



                                                                                      7
PROPANE, BUTANE, ETC.                                                                        BOX/BAG




                                                                                62 9
                                                                                   11             CAN



                                                                                  1
OTHER FLAMMABLE SOLID
                                                                                1       VEHICLE BOMB
                                                                              –




                                                                             17
OTHER FLAMMABLE LIQUID                                                      6        MILITARY DEVICE/
                                                                          1




                                                                        13
                                                                        4




                                                                       –


                                                                     3
                                                                          IMPROVISED MILITARY DEVICE
                                                                     1

UNKNOWN
                                                                   1




                                                                  1
                                                                  2




                                                                                               OTHER
*TOTAL
                                                                1
                                                             10




                                                              –
                                                     15 4



                                                           2




                                                           1
                                                                                           UNKNOWN
                                                          1




                                                         5
                                                        7




                                                                                             *TOTAL
                                                       –
                                                      1




                                                      5
                    25




                                                    1




                                                   2
                                                   1
                                                 7




                                       68 8
                                                –
                                      80 7




                                              4




                                              9
                                              1




                                            –
                                            –




                                           4
                                          2




                                         1




                                        3
                                      –




                                      2
                                   24




                                    –




                                33
                                  –




                                3
                             21




                              1
                              –




                         10
                           4




                         3
                         2
                       –




                                                                 25
                                                             17 2
                                                    –
                                            3




     Fuzing for
                                                               3
                                                        5
                                              19




     Incendiary Devices
                                                          14
                                                  24
                                                       9




     DELAY                       315
                                                  *93




     IMPACT                      589
     BOOBY TRAPPED                  5
     OTHER                          1
     UNKNOWN                       29


      *   Totals reflect improvised incendiary devices used in bombings as well as devices that
          were recovered, for example, in a search of a residence.



18
                                    IMPROVISED EXPLOSIVE DEVICES
                Low
Bla




                                                    High Explosive
    ck




              Explosive
     owP




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                                                                       s




                                                                       T
                                                                        s
             Pipe/Metal Tube        880   34   59    47      1     – 6       – 1      –   5 – –         14 84 1131
             Pipe/Plastic Tube      428   51   56    21 100        – 16      –   –    –   1 – –         17 24            714
      Cardboard/Paper Tube          242    5 589     18     10     –   –    1    – 2      1 – 1          1 16            886
                   Bottle/Glass     37     2    4      5     –     – 2       –   –    –    – – –        28       3        81
                  Bottle/Plastic    92     1   45    18      –     –   –     –   –    –   3 – – 790              6       955
                              Box   14     3   10      5     3     –   –     – 1      –   1 – –          1       2        40
                              Can   23     –    5      7     –     – 1       –   –    –    – – –         4       4        44
                  Vehicle Bomb        –    –    1      –     –     – 3      1    –    –    – – –             –   –        5
Improvised Military Ordnance        100    –    3    23      –     1   –     – 10     –   2 – –          1       5       145
                           None     26     2   11      5     6     1   –     –   –    –   5 – 1              –   2        59
                          Other     19     8    9    11      2     –   –     –   – 5      1 – 17             – 10         82
                     Unknown        58     2   31      6     2     –   –     –   – 6      4 – –          5 79            193
                         Totals 1919      108 823    166 124       2 28     2 12 13 23 – 19 861 235 * 4335           *
                         * Totals reflect improvised explosive devices used in bombings as well as devices
                          that were recovered, for example, in a search of a residence.



                                                                            1997 BOMB SUMMARY                        19
EXPLOSIVE FUZING

                   TYPE of FUZING for IMPROVISED EXPLOSIVE DEVICES
         Electrical                                          307
         Non-Electrical                                    3,780
         Unknown                                             248

            INITIATING METHODS for IMPROVISED EXPLOSIVE DEVICES
         Delay                                            3,748
         Booby-Trapped                                       101
         Command Remote Controlled                             47
         Radio Controlled                                       4
         Action                                              131
         Unknown                                             304

                    FUNCTIONING of IMPROVISED EXPLOSIVE DEVICES
         Impact                                                48
         Clock/Mechanical Delay                                37
         Burning Delay                                     2,801
         Chemical Delay                                      836
         Electrical/Electronic Delay                         240
         Pressure Activated                                   13
         Pressure Release Activated                           23
         Pull/Push Activated                                  42
         Tension Release Activated                            16
         Other/Unknown                                       279



   Numbers reflect improvised explosive devices used in
   bombings as well as devices that were recovered, for
   example, in a search of a residence.
20 EACH SECTION TOTALS: 4,335
                 INJURIES               AND DEATHS




STATE   INJURIES DEATHS   STATE   INJURIES DEATHS   STATE   INJURIES DEATHS
AK          –      –      LA           2      –     OK            2     –
AL          2      5      MA           2      1     OR            2     –
AR          –      –      MD           9      –     PA           10     –
AZ          9      –      ME           1      –     RI            2     –
CA         52      4      MI           2      –     SC             –    1
CO          4      –      MN           –      –     SD             –    –
CT          2      –      MO           1      –     TN            2     –
DC          1      –      MS           –      –     TX            9     –
DE          –      –      MT           –      –     UT             –    –
FL         16      –      NC           2      –     VA            1     1
GA         15      –      ND           –      –     VT            1     –
HI          –      –      NE           –      –     WA            2     1
IA          2      –      NH           –      –     WI             –    –
ID          –      1      NJ           2      1     WV            2     –
IL          8      2      NM           –      –     WY             –    –
IN          7      1      NV           –      –     Mariana Island –    –
KS          8      –      NY          19      –     Puerto Rico   3     –
KY          –      –      OH           2      –     TOTAL       204    18


                                           1997 BOMB SUMMARY            21
PEOPLE & MOTIVATIONS
INVOLVED IN BOMBINGS

 People Involved
 in Bombing                      1639
 and Hoax
                     858 Unknown Organized
                        Juvenile        Crime

 Device                               3
                 192                        Labor
 Incidents        Other                     Organization
                                                                                                                           12 Member
                                                   Acquaintance/
                                                   Neighbor                                                                                     14
                                                                                                                                                Racial/Bias/
                                                     104                                                                                        Ethnic Group
                                                                       96                                                  16
                                                           Domestic/
                                                                Love                             65         56                      Domestic/
                                                                                                                                    International
                                                            Triangle                                                                Terrorism
                                                                                    Drug/                   Gang
                                                                                   Narcotic                 Related
                                                                                   Related



 Motivations
 in Bombing
 and Hoax Device Incidents
                                                                       Extortion/Bank Robbery/
     Sabotage/Subversion




                                                                                                                           Personal Animosity
                                                                                                            Intimidation




                                                                                                                                                                           Unknown
                                                                                                                                                   Vandalism
                                       Terrorism




                                                                                                  Revenge
                           Publicity




                                                                       Robbery




                                                                                                                                                               Mischief
                                                     Protest

                                                               Other




       5                   10          11           23         53         110 144 148 149                                                          340 605                1457

22
                                      RECOVERED EXPLOSIVES
                    TOP FIVE STATES FOR RECOVERIES

    CALIFORNIA          316                                   Number of Incidents
       FLORIDA          95                                         1,619
                                                                   Pounds of
       ILLINOIS         91                                      High Explosives

         TEXAS          71                                        13,308
     KENTUCKY           66                                      Pounds of Low
                                                                  Explosives
                    TOP FIVE STATES FOR        POUNDS                602
     KENTUCKY        5,621

     COLORADO        3,961
                                                              Number of Detonators
       NEVADA        1,350                                         8,814
    CALIFORNIA       1,327                                         Feet of
                                                               Detonating Cord/
                                                                 Safety Fuse
          OHIO       1,175
                                                                  82,284
                    TOP FIVE STATES FOR        DETONATORS
     COLORADO        2,076                                         Number of
                                                                   Grenades
         IDAHO       1,682                                         2,069
NORTH CAROLINA       1,303                                         Pounds of
                                                                Blasting Agents
     KENTUCKY     549                                              5,194
         TEXAS    472
     Information courtesy of the
     Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms

                                                        1997 BOMB SUMMARY         23
INCIDENTS INVOLVING
HOAX DEVICES
                                                      TOTAL
HOAX DEVICES BY TARGET


                                                    838
                                 PRECEDED   NO
       TARGET                      BY A   THREAT
                                  THREAT


   Residential Properties           26
                                    26    181
                                          181
   Commercial/Retail                47
                                    47    138
                                          138
   Offices                           3
                                     3     18
                                           18
   Financial Institutions           59
                                    59     37
                                           37          This is a
                                                       This is a
   Academic Facilities
   Government Properties
                                    18
                                    18
                                    40
                                    40
                                           40
                                           40
                                           37
                                           37
                                                       23%
   Vehicles                          5     39
                                                       increase in
                                                       increase in
                                     5     39
                                                       Hoax Device
                                                       Hoax Device
   Medical Facilities                4
                                     4     13
                                           13
                                                       incidents over
                                                       incidents over
   Law Enforcement/                                    1995 Hoaxes.
                                                       1996 Hoaxes.
   Judiciary                         8
                                     8     11
                                           11
   Utilities                         3
                                     3       6
                                             6
                                                   28% of incidents involving
   Other                            21
                                    21     84
                                           84      Hoax Devices were preceded
   TOTAL
                                   234
                                   234    604
                                          604      by a threatening note, letter
                                                   or telephone call.


 Residential Properties  25%
                                                                        Hoax Device
                Other 13%
                                                                          Targets by
               Utilities  1%
     Law Enforcement/                                                    Percentage
              Judiciary     2%
      Medical Facilities    2%
               Vehicles     5%
Government Properties       9%
     Academic Facilities    7%

  Financial Institutions   11%
                 Offices    3%
     Commercial/Retail     22%
24
                       WARNING!          a to rs
                           o m b In d ic                                                      Excessive
                 Package B
L e tt e r a n d             tive
                                         Mailed from try
                                            reign Coun
                                                                                              Postage
                                   Restric                       Fo
                                   Markings
                                                                    A
                                                                     L                            Misspelled
                                                                   N                              Words
                                                                 SO                               Addressed y
                       No Return                              PE
                                                                R
                        Address                                                                   to Titled Onl
                                                  SpecIAL                   DU N N
                                                 D Eli veRY      G ENER AL     Y.
                                                                 FT. DI XON N.    1 350 7 8


                                                                                                        Rigid
                                                                                                        or
                                                                                    Badly               Bulky
                                                                                    Typed
                          Strange                                                   or Written
                          Odor
  Protruding
  Wires
                                                               Wrong Title
                                                                                      Tr e a t It
                                                                                                   t!
                                                                                    as Suspec
                                             8
                                   N
                                     N
                                       0
                                         7                     with Name
                                 U . 35


                                                                                     Is o la t e It !
                                D Y 1
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                                                                         Lopsided

                                                                                NS
                                                               P R E C A U T IO
                                                                                                      es, at
                                                                                        cially packag
                                                                          pt mail, espe
                                                          1. Never acce in a foreign area
                                                             your home                                  al staff
                                                                                          rs and cleric home
                                                                          family membe             l at
                                                          2. Make sure fuse all unexpected mai
         Oily Stains                                         know to re
              on                                              or office                         Bomb -
          Wrapper                                                                May Be A
                                                           3. Re member - It ect
                                                                              sp
                                                              Treat It as Su
                                          POINTS
                                 OGNITION
                         BOMB REC
                D PARCEL
       LETTER AN
                                                                                                       pe
                                                                       ed or U       neven Envelo
                                                              s Lopsid
                                                              t
                 ive Post     age
        t Excess                                                        ding Wire       s or Tinfoil
                                                               s Protru
                                                               t
                   t Title    s
        t Incorrec                                                      Distrac       tions
                                                               s Visual
                                                               t
                              ames                                                                 ial Delivery
         t Ti   tles but No N                                            n Mail, Air M
                                                                                      ail and Spec
                                             ds                 s Foreig
                                                                t                                             l,
                  lings of         Common Wor                                                 as Confidentia
         t Misspel                                                               arkings such
                                                                t
                                                                s  Restrictive M
                  ains or         Discoloratio
                                                    ns             Personal, etc.
         t Oily St                                                                                 Addresses
                                                                                     Poorly Typed
                                   ress                          s Ha
                                                                 t    nd Written or
                    rn Add
          t No Retu                                                              curing Mater
                                                                                              ial such
                                  ght                            t
                                                                 s  Excessive Se pe, String, etc.
          t Excess
                   ive Wei                                          as Masking Ta
                      velope
           t Rigid En
                                                          CENTE R
                                        FBI BOMB DATA 69 6
                                             (202) 3 24-2



                    Available from the Bomb Data Center upon request.


                                                                                    1997 BOMB SUMMARY              25
     Available from the Bomb Data Center upon request.

                                                                                               mb ing                 losio
                                                                                                                           n
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                                                                                                                                                                               ...and in Spanish
                                                                                                                          FB OMB
                                                                                                                           B




                                                                                  ...in English



26
                                                                            Mail:
                                      Bomb Data Center                      FBI Bomb Data Center
                                                                            JEH Building
                                      REQUEST FORM                          Room 1B327, Box #22
                                                                            935 Pennsylvania Ave., N.W.
                                                                            Washington, D.C. 20535-001
                                                                            Fax No. (202) 324-3784
                                                                            E-mail: labeubdc@fbi.gov


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Please send me the following items:                                                        Quantity

        Bomb Threat Card (English)

        Bomb Threat Card (Spanish)

        Bomb Scene Card

        Suspicious Package Poster

        Bomb Threat Challenge (Publication)

        Physical Security Guidelines (Publication)

        Other (Please Specify)




             UNAUTHORIZED PUBLICATION OR REPRODUCTION OF FBI BDC MATERIALS IS PROHIBITIED




                                                                   Please allow 2 - 3 weeks for delivery

				
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