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Development of Superconducting Accelerator Magnets for High Energy

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					Development of Superconducting Magnets
for Particle Accelerators and Detectors in
High Energy Physics


Takakazu Shintomi and Akira Yamamoto
On behalf of US-Japan collaboration carried out with
KEK, University of Tsukuba (Japan)
and FNAL, BNL, LBNL (USA)



                                 US-Japan HEP Collaboration 30th
                                 Anniversary Symposium             1
                Progress and Achievement
Years         Projects     Contribution             Progress               Participation
1981 - 1996   High field   10 T dipole              Champion data          FNAL, BNL, LBNL, KEK
              dipoles      Nb3Sn dipole
                           Superconductors          Improvement of Jc
1980          CDF          Central solenoid         Longest stable         FNAL, U. Tsukuba, KEK
                           (prototype)              operation
1988 - 1994   SSC          Accelerator magnets      6.6 T 1m and 13 m      SSC, FNAL, BNL, LBNL, KEK
                                                    dipoles
1989 -                     SDC detector solenoid    2 T, thin solenoid     FNAL, KEK
                                                    prototype
1987 - 1993   Muon G-2     SR magnets and                                  BNL, KEK
                           Inflector
1995 - 2006   LHC IRQ                                                      FNAL, KEK, CERN
                                                                           (not funded by US-J)
2006 -        LHC          Nb3Al conductor and                             NIMS, FNAL, BNL, KEK, CERN
              upgrade      cabling                                         (not funded by US-J)

2002 - 2004   J-PARC       T2K, neutrino beam line Coil winding and      BNL, KEK
                           Corrector magnet        Conductive cooling HEP Collaboration 30th
                                                                US-Japan
                                                                 Anniversary Symposium                 2
         Objective
 To develop superconducting magnets for high
  energy accelerators and particle detectors
 The program was performed between KEK and
  BNL, FNAL and LBNL since 1981 to present
    ◦ Development of superconducting accelerator and
      detector magnets
    ◦ Development of superconducting wires
   And succeeded to further programs

                                     US-Japan HEP Collaboration 30th
                                     Anniversary Symposium             3
Development of Superconducting Magnets
    High field magnets with Nb-Ti wire
     ◦ 10 tesla dipole reached to Bm = 10.4 tesla (left)
     ◦ SSC dipole: 5 cm ID, 6.6 tesla, 13 m long
    High field magnets with Nb3Sn wire
     ◦ W&R race track coil: 800 mm long
     ◦ Double shell dipole: 600 mm long, 132 mm ID (right)
    Al stabilized SC coil, and inflector magnet for g-2 at BNL
                                                                 Nb3Sn dipole




                                               US-Japan HEP Collaboration 30th
                      10 T dipole              Anniversary Symposium             4
              g-2 Experiment at BNL
                                                         Contribution to very high
                                                         precision magnetic field in
                                                         main muon storage ring:
                                                         - SC coil, Iron pole piece,
                                                           and SC inflector


                                                                     Yoke of Dipole Ring Magnet

                                                                                        Toroidal Field
Cross-Section View of Storage Ring   Ring SC Coil     Dipole Field



                                                           B = 1.5 T   B=
                                                                       0
                                                    m Storage Ring Orbit                    SC Coil

                                                     m Injection Orbit                  SC
                                                                                        Lamination

                                                                       Inflector
                                                         US-Japan HEP Collaboration 30th
                                                         Anniversary Symposium                        5
         SSC Dipole Magnet R&D

   Developed eleven 1 m
    model dipoles
    ◦ Successfully tested
   Developed one 13 m
    full size dipole
    ◦ Successfully tested and
      reached 6.6 tesla
      nominal magnetic field


                                US-Japan HEP Collaboration 30th
                                Anniversary Symposium             6
      Successive Programs in 2nd Stage
 The program for the LHC insertion region
  quadrupole (IRQ) magnet started in 1995, and
  was completed successfully in 2006
 The technologies achieved were succeeded to
  superconducting magnets for KEK-B IRQ, and
  the J-PARC neutrino beam line
 Also, these technologies have been succeeded to
  magnet development for the LHC luminosity
  upgrade, high intensity muon beam, and so on
                               US-Japan HEP Collaboration 30th
                               Anniversary Symposium             7
        Collaboration with CERN for LHC-IRQ

   The collaboration for LHC Insertion Region
    Quadrupole (IRQ) magnets started in 1995 and was
    successfully completed in 2006 by collaboration with
    KEK, FNAL and CERN
   Sixteen IRQ magnets plus four spares were fabricated
   KEK designed and developed technologies which were
    transferred to an industry
   KEK tested all the quads and they satisfied the LHC-
    IRQ requirements
   The magnets were assembled into cryostat at FNAL
    and delivered to CERN on schedule
                                    US-Japan HEP Collaboration 30th
                                    Anniversary Symposium             8
                          LHC-IRQ


      G = 215 T/m, Aperture = 70 mm, B ~ 9 T
      L= 5.5 m (FNAL) or 6.37 m (KEK)
      Higher Order Multipoles < 1 unit (10-4)
      Beam Heating: 5 ~ 10 W/m
                     Q3             TASB            Q2                                  Q1
DFBX       KEK MQXA                        MQXB   FNAL         MQXB              KEK MQXA

                 6.37                      5.5                 5.5                      6.37
                                                                                                       IP
                            2.985                        1.0             2.715

 MCSOX     MCBXA          MQSX                    MCBX                    MCBX
  a3
           MCBXH/V                                MCBXH/V                 MCBXH/V
  a4
              b3
  b4
              b6
                                                                     US-Japan HEP Collaboration 30th
                                                                     Anniversary Symposium                  9
    LHC-IRQ Production

                                           25
                                                              Production
                                                              Tested at KEK
                                           20




                       Number of magnets
                                           15
                                                                                                   2004-6



                                           10


                                            5
                                                    Started
                                                    01-6
                                                                 02-01        03-01        04-01

                                            0
                                                0         5        10    15     20    25   30      35       40
                                                                              Month

   Production was on schedule in just 3years
                                                                US-Japan HEP Collaboration 30th
                                                                Anniversary Symposium                       10
        LHC-IRQ Performance Test
•   1.9 K:
•   Training quench  230 T/m (~ 9 T)
•   Full energy dump @215 T/m
•   Fast ramp test @150 A/s
•   Field measurement
•   To reach 220 T/m w/o quench
•   Electrical insulation test
    1.5 kV @ 4.2 K He-gas




                                        US-Japan HEP Collaboration 30th
                                        Anniversary Symposium             11
                                      LHC-IRQ Quench History
                        Quench history is one of the most important
                        characteristics with field quality       Bore modific ation
                     8000
                            230 T/m
Quench Current (A)




                            215 T/m
                     7000

                                      Thermal   Thermal                                                                Thermal
                                       cycle     cycle                                                                  cycle


                     6000
                                                                                                                        Quench
                                                                                                                        No Quench
                             MQXA                                                            11                                  11 15 16 17 18 19
                              -1         2      3         5   4 2b 7   6   9   8     10               12      13      14
                                                                                          1s t T.C.                              2nd
                     5000                                                                                                        T.C.
                                                                                   Quench Sequence




                                                                   Warm bore tube for field measurement attached
                                                                   to the coil and coil temperature increased
                                                                                                           US-Japan HEP Collaboration 30th
                                                                                                           Anniversary Symposium                     12
          Summary
   The program for development of superconducting magnets for
    high energy accelerators and particle detectors was successful
    and various technologies have been achieved
   The technologies developed by the Japan-US Collaboration
    Program were succeeded to the Japan-CERN collaboration for
    LHC-IRQ
   The successive programs such as the J-PARC neutrino beam line
    magnet stand on these technologies
   The future programs for superconducting magnet development
    such as the LHC upgrade are important for high energy physics
   The successful development of these programs is owing to the
    collaboration with industries

                                           US-Japan HEP Collaboration 30th
                                           Anniversary Symposium             13
Appendices




             US-Japan HEP Collaboration 30th
             Anniversary Symposium             14
Development of Superconducting Wires
   Development of Nb-Ti wire                                             Ni-Ti wire
     with industry                                             6
                                                                      Our achievement
   Development of Nb-Ti (Ta) wire                             5




                                        J (kA/mm @ 4.2K, 5T)
   Development of Nb3Sn wire                                  4
                                                                                        Lab. scale

                                                                                             Commercial
     for high field magnet beyond                              3                                     LHC




                                        2
                                                                                            SSC
     10 tesla
                                                               2
   The effort has been succeeded                                            Tevatron




                                                        c
                                                               1
     to develop Nb3Al wire for higher
     field magnet                                              0
                                                                1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000
                                                                                  Year




                                                                   US-Japan HEP Collaboration 30th
                                                                   Anniversary Symposium                   15
                              LHC-IRQ Field Quality
                          2                          0.2
Multipole-coefficients




                          1                          0.1
      an, units




                          0                            0

                         -1                          -0.1

                         -2                          -0.2
                              a3      a4       a5            a6         a7           a8          a9            a10


                         2                                        0.2
Multipole coefficients




                         1                                        0.1
      bn, units




                         0                                         0


                         -1                                   -0.1

                         -2                                   -0.2
                              b3      b4       b5       b6              b7           b8         b9         b10


                                                                         Allowance
                                   Coil oval deformation                     US-Japan HEP Collaboration 30th
                                                                             Anniversary Symposium                   16
       LHC-IRQ
①
                                                                             ④
                                  ③




                                                                             ⑤
②




                                           US-Japan HEP Collaboration 30th
Production ①, ② ☞ Test ③ ☞ Assembly ④ ☞   Installation ⑤
                                           Anniversary Symposium                 17

				
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