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Why Soy is Not Health Food

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Why Soy is Not Health Food Powered By Docstoc
					   Dangers of Soy


Presented by: Bruce Topping
       History of Soy Foods
• Soybeans originate in the Orient.

• Soybeans were considered inedible until
  around 2500 years ago sometime during
  the Chou Dynasty in China.

• Before that, soy was used in crop rotation
  as a nitrogen fixer
 The Discovery of Fermentation
• Ancient Chinese made a fermented food called
  “chiang” made by mixing animals foods like fish
  or meat

• Sometime between 2nd century BC and 4th century
  AD this process was applied to soybeans and it
  became the precursor to miso.

• Soy sauce was originally the liquid poured off
  during chiang production.
       Fermented Soy Foods –
         The Traditional Way
• Miso – paste made of fermented beans
  and grains - developed from primitive
  soupier version of “chiang”
• Miso began to play important role in
  Japanese diet in 1100s under Samurai
  control.
• Samurai popularized national cuisine of
  simplicity and frugality in which grains
  were the starring role.
      Traditional Soy Foods
• Soy Sauce – shoyu = juices from a
  fermented mixture of wheat and soy.
• Long fermentation process made by
  adding mold spores from Aspergillus to
  mixture of roasted soybeans and cracked
  wheat.
• Ferments for 6 – 18 months. Some
  versions use much longer ferments.
        Modern “Soy Sauce”?
• Most soy sauces sold in America are made in 2
  days or less. (Far from traditional method!)

• Modern versions use “acid hydrolysis” –heating
  defatted protein with hydrochloric acid for 8 – 12
  hours, then neutralize acid with sodium
  carbonate. -chemical soy sauce.

• Rapid hydrolysis method creates large amounts
  of unnatural form of glutamic acid that is found in
  MSG.
     Traditional Fermented Soy
              “the good old soys”

• Tempeh: Appeared around the 1600s.
  Most popular fermented food in Indonesia.
  Solid, chunky, meaty texture.
• Indonesians had been making fermented
  coconut press for centuries
• This technique was applied to soy.
• Easy to digest, rich in B-vitamins,
  minerals, enzymes, and omega-3 fats, as
  well as molds, bacteria, and yeasts.
          Tempeh Continued
• Traditional Process for making Tempeh:
-Boiled, drained, then hulled
-soaked and pre-fermented for 24 hrs
-boil again, then inoculate (Rhizopus oligosporus)
-wrap in banana leaves and let ferment for 24 – 48
  hours at room temperature.
• Scientific study of traditional Tempeh finds:
69 species of mold, 78 species of bacteria, 150
  species of yeast.
                  Natto
• Natto – originated in Japan about 1,000
  years ago. Fermented soy product with
  pungent odor, cheesy texture, slimy, sticky
  coat.
• Great source of vitamin K2
• Soaked, boiled, steamed, and then
  fermented. Traditionally inoculated with
  Bacillus and then incubated in straw.
            A Word about Tofu
• Tofu was invented in China in 164 BC.
• Not fermented – made by separating a puree of
  cooked soybeans into solids and liquid using
  magnesium chloride or epsom salts, then pressing
  the curds into solid cakes.
• Developed as a protein source for vegetarian Buddhist
  monks
• They found that it decreased libido and made their
  celibate lifestyle easier. (phytoestrogens can lower
  testosterone levels)
         A Word about Tofu
• By 700 AD tofu was accepted as a meat
  substitute by the general public if meat or
  seafood was not available or not
  affordable.

• Otherwise, tofu was served as a
  condiment or in small amounts in fish
  broth.
    Naturally Occurring Antinutrients
           and Toxins in Soy
•   Protease Inhibitors / Trypsin Inhibitors
•   Phytates
•   Isoflavones
•   Goitrogens
•   Saponins
•   Lectins
•   Oxalates
•   Manganese levels (for infants)
•   Allergens (known and unknown)
•   Oligosaccharides
  Naturally Occurring Antinutrients
         and Toxins in Soy
• Trypsin Inhibitors and other Protease inhibitors:
  interfere with digestive enzymes protease and trypsin.
  Leads to overworked pancreas, gastric distress, poor
  protein digestion.
• Most studies over the years by the USDA on protease
  inhibitors looked at soy, but they are found in many
  nuts, seeds, nightshade vegetables, etc.
• Protease Inhibitors in soy are not only more numerous,
  but harder to neutralize.
• Only Fermentation will come close to deactivating all of
  them. All other cooking methods will leave remaining
  trypsin inhibitors.
  Naturally Occurring Antinutrients
         and Toxins in Soy
• Protease inhibitors / Trypsin Inhibitors continued:

• Pancreas is in greatest danger. When inhibitors affect
  trypsin + protease, body compensates by increasing
  number (hyperplasia) and size (hypertrophy) of
  pancreatic cells.

• Many people say protease inhibitors aren’t a problem.
  Probably true for those that don’t eat soy excessively,
  are not infants, and don’t have digestive problems like
  low stomach HCl, celiac, bowel disease, etc.
     Naturally Occurring Antinutrients
            and Toxins in Soy
•    Phytates: bind to minerals like zinc, iron, and
     calcium and keep them from being absorbed.

•    Phytates serve two functions in nature:
1)   Prevent premature germination
2)   Store phosphorous plants need to grow


•    Phytates are valuable to humans because they
     allow winter storage.
  Naturally Occurring Antinutrients
         and Toxins in Soy
• Phytates thought to be one of leading
  causes of poor growth, immune challenge,
  anemia, and other health woes in 3rd world

• Phosphorous is plentiful in grains, but 50-
  75% of it is tied up in phytates and not
  readily bio-available. (Stunted growth can
  result if deficient)
  Naturally Occurring Antinutrients
         and Toxins in Soy
• Isoflavones: plant estrogens (phytoestrogens)
  that act like the hormone estrogen in our bodies,
  affecting the reproductive and nervous systems.

• Soy foods with highest levels of isoflavones are
  soy flours, grits, nuts, soy protein isolates and
  textured vegetable protein. TVP

• Phytoestrogens exert their estrogenic effects
  directly and indirectly.
  Naturally Occurring Antinutrients
         and Toxins in Soy
• One thing is clear: Soy Estrogens are
  not weak.

• Isoflavones are potent endocrine
  disruptors when consumed in sufficient
  quantity.
  Naturally Occurring Antinutrients
         and Toxins in Soy
• Goitrogens: substances that block the synthesis of
  thyroid hormones. Can cause “goiter” which is
  swelling in the neck caused by enlarged thyroid
  gland.

• Principal goitrogen in soy foods are the isoflavones,
  and possibly also the saponins.

• Cooking and processing using heat, pressure, and
  alkaline solutions won’t neutralize isoflavones or
  saponins. Only solvents can do that.
  Naturally Occurring Antinutrients
         and Toxins in Soy
• America is plagued by epidemic thyroid
  disorders. Many go un-detected.
• Thyroid cancer statistics are sobering:
  incidences rose over 40% between 1975 –
  1996.
• Thyroid cancer one of the most common
  cancers among U.S. children and adolescents.
• Thyroid disease is widespread in Japan, where
  soy consumption is the highest of any country in
  Asia.
  Naturally Occurring Antinutrients
         and Toxins in Soy
• Saponins - Bitter compounds that foam up like suds in
  water.
• Saponins found in other beans, alfalfa, and many other
  plants.
• Greatest danger is from damage to mucosal lining.

• Cooking won’t have much effect on Saponins. Takes
  alcohol extraction to remove them. Or Fermentation!

• Fermentation is the best way to deactivate saponins.
  Bacterial enzymes in our gut don’t break down saponins
  until the colon.
  Naturally Occurring Antinutrients
         and Toxins in Soy
• Lectins: proteins with a “sweet tooth” –help bacteria fix
  atmospheric nitrogen into roots of plants. Also makes
  plants useful for fertilizer when they die. Lectins are
  also called “hemaglutinins”.
• Lectins “bite” into carbohydrates, especially sugars.
  Can cause leaky gut, immune system problems, blood
  clotting. -they agglutinate blood. 3 to 4 times more likely
  to move into bloodstream than other food proteins.
• However, Lectins that are not deactivated will persist,
  and are not easily broken down by enzymes in our gut
  and can remain in digestive tract, acting like a
  cumulative time-bomb.
• Research has shown lectins can cause shifts in gut flora
  favoring E. Coli
  Naturally Occurring Antinutrients
         and Toxins in Soy
• Oxalates: prevent proper calcium
  absorption and linked to kidneys stones
  and vulvodynia.
• Not Significantly neutralized by cooking.
  Highest sources are soy protein, spinach,
  rhubarb, pecans, carrots.
• Oxalates don’t cause as much calcium
  binding as phytates, however some
  popular foods are high in both!
  Naturally Occurring Antinutrients
         and Toxins in Soy
• Manganese: (A vital trace mineral)
   Soy Formula very high in manganese, 75
  to 80 times higher than breast milk.
  Phytates actually do the infant a favor in
  this case, but not well enough. Can be
  problematic for adults, too.
• Manganese toxicity linked to impairment
  of neurotransmitters and implicated in
  ADD/ADHD.
  Naturally Occurring Antinutrients
         and Toxins in Soy
• Allergen: Soy is one of the top 8 allergens
• Allergies are an abnormal inflammatory reaction by the
  immune system. IgE and other immunoglobulins
  involved.
• Intolerances to soy are not always caused by the
  immune system reactions but by unkown metabolic
  mechanisms.
• Soybeans contain at least 16 allergenic proteins. Some
  researchers pinpoint as many as 30.
• Soy is “hidden” in hamburgers and other “regular” foods,
  people often miss the connection.
  Naturally Occurring Antinutrients
         and Toxins in Soy
• Oligosaccharides: sugars that cause
  bloating and flatulence.
• Require enzymes (alpha-galactosidase) to
  be properly digested, which humans do
  not make.
• The result is that these sugar compounds
  get to the colon intact and are eaten up by
  colonic bacteria. Digestive fermentation
  takes place.
           Reproductive Issues
• Many plants have contraceptive effects. (known since 1926)
• During 1940s sheep were diagnosed with “clover
  disease” caused from phytoestrogens in clover.
• In female sheep, eating clover causes endometrial
  damage and changes in cervical mucous. Infertility often
  results
• In 1980s female cheetahs were suffering liver damage
  caused by isoflavones in their soy feed.
• “Diet rich in estrogens may well be one of the major
  factors in the decline of cheetah fertility in north
  american zoos. (experts reassured everyone that this
  was a cheetah problem, not a human problem. –
  cheetahs lack certain liver enzymes)
  Benefits of Soy Fermentation
• Almost completely deactivates protease
  inhibitors, Saponins, and Lectins.
• Deactivates a large portion of the phytates
• Gets rid of the oligosaccharides which
  cause gas
• Increased levels of certain B-vitamins and
  vitamin K2.
  Benefits of Soy Fermentation
• Essential Fatty acids are not damaged during
  fermentation, and the Rhizopus strain of bacteria
  may produce GLA, an important omega-6 fatty
  acid.
• Digestive aid – help facilitate the digestion of
  other foods eaten at the same time

• Contain beneficial microorganisms that help
  combat food poisoning, and dysentery.
  Benefits of Soy Fermentation
• May help protect us from radiation poisoning
  including x-ray radiation according to research.
• During WWII, a Japanese physician in Nagasaki
  named Dr. Akizuki was out of town the day of
  the bombing, and the hospital where he worked
  was destroyed. He returned to Nagasaki to treat
  survivors of the bombing. He and his staff ate
  miso soup together every day and never
  experienced any radiation sickness, despite their
  proximity to the fallout.
  Important Point to Remember
• Asians do not eat any soy foods in great
  quantity! (unless forced to do so by famine or
  poverty)
• They are used as condiments and flavoring
  agents (not meat replacements) and rarely more
  than once a day.
• The Japanese average 8.6 grams of soy protein
  per day. Well below the US government
  recommendation of 25 grams per day.
           Soy in the West
• Soy was brought to western countries by
  missionaries, and other travelers to the
  orient.
• Soy foods were generally not popular with
  western palates with the exception of soy
  sauce.
• Soy was used in crop rotation, but not
  much else until about 1930
            Soy in the West
• Around 1930 soy started to have some
  influential supporters.
• John Harvey Kellog, M.D. – Ardent vegetarian,
  promoted soyfoods as meat substitutes.
• Henry Ford – promoted soyfoods, soy plastics,
  soybean fiber cloth
• Adolf Hitler – promoted soybeans,
  vegetarianism, and natural foods
• Mussolini – wanted to add soy flour to polenta
           Soy in the West
• Few soybeans sold as whole food
  products. Focus is on soy for industry and
  processed foods.
• Americans for the most part don’t seem to
  mind that industry has slipped “invisible”
  soys into every supermarket food
  imaginable.
• Now perceived as “healthful” additive.
How Soy Became “Health Food”
• By 1962 soy oil had captured over 50% of
  U.S. cooking & salad oil market.

• Manufacture of “vegetable oil” leaves a lot
  of leftover protein. Industry needed to
  create a use for this surplus of byproduct.
How Soy Became “Health Food”
• Soy protein makes an excellent fertilizer, but the
  petrochemicals had that market cornered already.
• Only so much can be fed to animals
• Soy industry wanted to get into human market, but soy
  had a terrible image problem.
• In a clever move, industry solved two problems at once
  while creating a revenue stream out of these surplus
  byproducts
• Soy Industry decided to make soy a health food and
  aimed for affluent people.
• Soybean Industry sponsored many studies, public
  relations efforts are superb. Made sure to publicize any
  study showing benefit.
     Non-Fermented Soy Foods:
          New Era of Soy
• Soy milk, soy cheese, soy ice-cream, soy
  flour – and the more obvious products: soy
  nuts, soynut butter.
• The problem with most of these products
  is that toxins and anti-nutrients are still
  present and most people don’t care for the
  taste.
• None of these products were widely used
  in Asian countries.
              Modern Soy Foods
• Modern soymilks use highly acidic solutions for speed, and cook
  the beans in a pressure cooker. To cover up “beaniness”, they add
  sugar.
• Soy “yogurts” and “puddings” usually contain carrageenan, a
  thickener from red seaweed. Many years assumed safe, but linked
  to ulcerations and malignancies in G.I. tract of animals. (taste
  tasters describe as “awful”
• Soy “Cheese” often will state “cholesterol free” but many are still
  loaded with hydrogenated fats. Taste reviews of casein-free
  versions are usually “horrible”
• Soy “ice creams” is basically water, sugar, corn oil, soy protein
  isolate or tofu, and then more sugar makes up the rest of the
  ingredients, often HFCS. (Some do taste good)
• Soy Flour: added to Many, many foods and widely used in general
  today as an egg substitute and to moisten the final product –
  retaining an illusion of freshness.
          Modern Soy Foods
• Approximately 60% of all packaged food
  products will contain soy ingredients.

• Fast food is near 100% - will usually be found in
  the bun, the burger, the mayo, the fries,
  everything.

• Most commercial breads today contain small
  amounts of soy flour, not labeled as soy
  products.
• Soy often “hiding” in chopped meat mixes.
  Highly Refined Soy Products
• Textured Soy Protein (TSP or TVP): Made
  by forcing defatted soy flour through an
  extruder. Has a long shelf-life and is used
  as a meat replacement or extender.
• Soy Protein Concentrate: made from
  defatted soy flakes by “precipitating the
  solids with aqueous acid, aqueous alcohol,
  moist heat and/or organic solvents”.
   Highly Refined Soy Products
• Soy Protein Isolate: Used in almost all the
  processed foods seen in grocery stores, muscle
  man powders, and main ingredient in soy infant
  formulas.
• Made by mixing defatted soy meal with a
  caustic alkaline solution to remove the fiber, then
  washing with an acid solution to precipitate out
  protein. Protein curds are dipped in another
  alkaline solution and spray dried at extremely
  high temperatures.
• Used for binder + sealer of cardboard boxes.
  Highly Refined Soy Products
• High heat, pressure, acids and alkalis used in
  manufacture leave toxic residues, damage
  proteins, and form new toxic compounds:
• Nitrosamines: damage the liver and are
  mutagens and carcinogens.
• Lysinoalanine: cross-linked amino acid
  produced when amino acid lysine is subjected to
  strong alkaline treatments. Linked to kidney
  damage.
  Highly Refined Soy Products
• Excitotoxins: Amino acids that damage
  neuroreceptors in the brain. Glutamate and
  aspartate are formed during manufacture of
  hydrolyzed vegetable protein and commercial
  soy sauce.
• Heterocyclic Amines: mutagenic and
  carcinogenic compounds
• Cholorpropanols: linked to liver cancer
• Hexane: Organic solvent toxic to the lungs and
  nervous system, linked to Parkinson’s disease.
  Residues remain in soyfoods after processing.
             Soy Formula
• Never used traditionally as an infant food
  in Asia.
• Soy is just as common an allergen as milk
• High levels of soy isoflavones can disrupt
  the infants developing endocrine system,
  nervous system, and immune system.
             Soy Formula
• Contains aluminum levels 10 times greater
  than milk-based formula and 100 times
  greater than breast milk.

• Contains toxins formed during processing
  as well as undesirable additives and
  preservatives.
               Soy Formula
• Different fatty acid profile than breast milk: no
  EPA and DHA important for proper brain
  development.
• Leads to lower immune system function and
  more infections.
• Use sucrose and corn syrup instead of lactose
  which is vital to nervous system development.
• Phytates in soy formula prevent good absorption
  of minerals like calcium, zinc, iron, and copper.
                 Soy Formula
• Soy formula contains high levels of manganese
  from the soybean itself. Infants cannot eliminate
  excess levels because of immature livers.
• Soy formula can lead to poor growth caused by
  low levels of methionine and protease inhibitors
  remaining after manufacture.
• “Exclusive use of infant soy formula is the
  equivalent of consuming one or two birth control
  pills daily, on an estrogenic basis” --
  environmental toxicologist Mike Fitzpatrick
                 Soy Oil
• Soy oil was sometimes extracted in Asian
  countries and used for lamp oil, soap,
  greasing axles, and lubricating machinery.
• Soy oil was very rarely used as a cooking
  oil because of unpleasant smell and taste.
• Traditional fats used for cooking in China
  include lard, sesame oil, peanut oil, and
  rapeseed oil.
                 Soy Oil
• Higher in Omega-3 fats than some oils
  (8% of the unsaturated fat is omega-3)
• Omega-6 to omega-3 ratio is 6.5: 1 – less
  than ideal
• Most of the omega-3 fats are lost or
  damaged in processing.
• Soy Oil: Polyunsaturated = 61% (very
  prone to rancidity), Monounsaturated =
  23%, Saturated = 15%.
                  Soy Oil
• Extracting soy oil involves grinding and
  crushing the beans then extracting using
  high temperature, intense pressure, and
  chemical solvents.
• The process causes exposure to light,
  heat, and oxygen
• Rancid oils taste and smell horrible, so the
  oil is then refined at high temperatures,
  deodorized, and lightly hydrogenated.
                   Soy Oil
• In the 1950’s processors discovered that the
  rancid omega-3 fats were what caused soy oil to
  smell so bad during frying so they had to find a
  way to get rid of them.
• Most soy oil undergoes selective Hydrogenation
  of omega-3 fats = 2.7-5.4% trans fatty acids in
  liquid oils. “light hydrogenation”
• They also have a genetically altered soybean
  that has fewer omega-3 fats.
                     Soy Oil
• Most Soy oil is further hydrogenated and
  colored to make margarine or bleached to
  make shortening.
• 77-79% of vegetable oils consumed in
  America come from soy:
-90% of salad dressings,
-72% of baking and frying fats,
-88% of margarines,
-76% of salad/cooking oils.
    Genetically Modified Soy
• In 1997, Argentina became on of the
  first countries to authorize GMO.

• Monsanto’s Roundup Ready soybeans
  promised increased productivity and
  decreased herbicide requirements.

• Problems with herbicide-resistant
  “super weeds” led GM soy producers
  to double herbicide application.
      Genetically Modified Soy
• Bacteria died, leaving soil so inert that weeds
  would not rot.
• Farmers & neighbors suffered health problems,
  many livestock died or gave birth to deformed
  offspring.
• 10,000 sq. miles of rainforest leveled for
  soybean production. 150,000 small farmers
  driven off their land.

• Monsanto called this an “exemplary success”
                  GMO Soy
• Soy allergies jumped 50% in the U.K. just after
  GM soy was introduced

• The level of one known allergen, (trypsin
  inhibitor), was 27% higher in raw GM soy
  varieties.
• Increased residue of Roundup herbicide in GM soy.

• Mice fed GM soy had reduced levels of
  pancreatic enzymes
                  Dangers of Soy
• Why is soy a problem?
      (from the scientific literature)
• Long list….
-Malnourishment             -Thyroid Problems
-Reproductive problems -ADD/ADHD
-Immune problems             -Loss of Libido
-Digestive Distress          -Top 8 allergens
-Linked to heart disease risk
-Accelerate cancer (especially breast)
• Many countries warn about soy foods officially.
   (Switzerland, England, Australia and New Zealand)
       Take Home Messages
• The only safe, traditional soy foods are
  fermented and eaten in small amounts
• Do not give infants soy formula!!!
• Avoid soy oil, shortening, and margarine entirely
  when possible.
• Use of solvents, alkalis, extruders, high-heat &
  pressure is similar to MANY foods… but rarely
  are these foods billed as “Health Foods”. Soy is
  different this way.
Thank You!
              References
• The Whole Soy Story by Kaayla T. Daniel,
  PhD, CCN
• www.westonaprice.org
• Politically Incorrect Nutrition by Michael
  Barbee
• Wild Fermentation by Sandor Katz

				
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