What is an argument by MikeJenny

VIEWS: 15 PAGES: 33

									What is an Argument?
  What is Persuasion?
What is argument NOT?
         An argument is not simply a
          confrontational activity
          designed to denigrate the
          opposition’s position.
         It is usually not
          --An absolute truth.
          --A revelation or brand new
          insight.
          --The last word.
          --Bad-tempered complaining.
          --An exercise in pure logic.
          --A chance to prove that you’re
          smarter than everyone else.
What is Persuasion?
           One of the major types
            of
            composition/speaking
            whose purpose is to
            convince others of the
            wisdom of a certain
            idea, belief, line of
            action. Persuasion is
            calculated to arouse
            people to some action.
What is an argument?
            One of the four
             chief forms of
             discourse. Its
             purpose is to
             convince by
             establishing the
             truth or falsity of a
             proposition.
What is an argument?
            An argument
             involves the
             process of
             establishing a claim
             and then proving it
             with the use of
             logical reasoning,
             examples, and
             research.
      What is a persuasive essay?
You are asked to prove something.
    Give reasons why.
    Establish a line of reasoning whereby you establish your
     claims and persuade of their validity.
    Present arguments against your reasons. Show them to
     be false.
    Take a stand.
    Ask or call for an action.
 What are some key words that show it’s a persuasive
  prompt?
 Persuade, convince, tell why, give reasons for or against,
  support, attack, defend, qualify…. a tax increase would
  benefit the local public schools.
    Argumentation/Persuasion
   SAME: Purpose—
     TO   CONVINCE


   DIFFERENT:
     Modus   operandi —
       Ways/styles   of CONVINCING.
            Broad Types
Classical /         Contemporary /
Formal:               Informal:
An abstract         Does not attempt to
  discipline; deals   prove absolutely;
  in absolutes.       gives good reasons
                      and persuasive
                      arguments.
 Aristotelian
                     Toulmin
 Cicero
                     Rogerian
                     Aristotle/Cicero
                         Classical
   Rhetorical Triangle (must BALANCE)
     Writer (ethos)
     Audience (pathos)
     Message (logos)


     Purpose/Aim/Goal
     Rhetorical context (background, situation, occasion)


       How does your response change as the rhetorical context
        changes?
                   Aristotelian/Cicero
                        Classical
       Outline of Classical Argument
       Introduction
       Background of Topic
       Proposition/Thesis
       Partitions/Outline of what will follow
       Body/Main Argument
       Counter Arguments and Responses/Refutation
       Conclusion/Summary of main argument
    Seeks to defeat opponent, military terminology
        Toulmin / Informal Logic
   Claim: Statement of position, a stand (thesis statement)
   Reasons: Supports claims
   Warrant: Unstated assumption. The audience must
    accept the warrant to make an argument persuasive.
    Appeals to values and beliefs.
   Grounds: Claims, reasons, warrants—EVIDENCE
   Backing: Supports the warrant. May not be accepted IF
    the warrant is unclear.
   Conditions of rebuttal: Bring up and address the counter
    arguments.
   Qualifier: Limits a claim or its scope. (few absolutes in
    life!)
Rogerian Argumentation: A modern
 alternative to traditional argument

  Goals:
1. Seeking common ground
2. Give credit to opponent(s)’ argument(s)
3. Building trust
4. Reducing threat
5. Avoiding confrontation
Builds bridges rather than burning them.
Rogerian Argumentation: A modern
 alternative to traditional argument

   When people perceive they are being attacked,
    they stop listening, become defensive and
    perhaps even hostile.

   If people perceive their arguments are being
    heard, taken seriously, and understood, they
    will be more open to listening to an
    opponent’s position.
           How do I start?
    BASICS of Building an Argument
   Rhetorical Appeals
   Rhetorical Situations
   Rhetorical Modes
   Fallacies
   Reasoning
      Deductive
      Inductive
   Outlining
   Supporting
   Writing
        THE ARGUMENT ESSAY
              PROCESS
   “WORK” the prompt / assignment
     Deconstruct --analyze
     Mark key words/elements
     Choose your position (defend, challenge, qualify)

   Brainstorm
   Plan Support (facts, statistics,
    details/description, quotations, definitions,
    examples, recognition of opposition, anecdotes,
    compare/contrast, appeal to authority,
    emotional appeals (diction, tone)
          THE ARGUMENT ESSAY
                PROCESS
   Outline to be sure you have all the needed elements
   Develop the Introduction:
       Refer specifically to the prompt/topic
       State your position in a clearly-worded thesis
   Develop the Body of your Essay:
       Support
       Transitions that connect to the thesis
       Develop the conclusion
   Return to your introduction and conclude the thought
   Proofread and edit!
 WAYS TO APPROACH:
Rhetorical Appeals/Triangle
   Logos
   Pathos
   Ethos
                 Reader
                 Writer
                  Text
          WAYS TO APPROACH:
           Rhetorical Situations
   Purpose/Occasion
   Audience
   Genre/Medium/Design
   Stance/Attitude/Tone
       WAYS TO APPROACH:
         Rhetorical Devices—
See vocabulary for a more complete list
    Diction
      Connotation
      Denotation
    Syntax
    Analogy
    Antithesis
    WAYS TO APPROACH:
      Classical Argument
Classical arguments derive from Greek
and Roman philosophers and include
three types of appeals: emotional
appeal, or pathos—appeal to the
emotions of the audience; logical
appeal, or logos—appeal to reason; and
ethical appeal, or ethos—the character
or expertise of the speaker.
   WAYS TO APPROACH:
   Contemporary Argument

Contemporary arguments may
employ strategies and appeals
beyond the three that characterize
classical argument.
These may include, but are not
limited to, argument by definition,
induction, inference, and analogy.
          WAYS TO APPROACH:
           Argument Building
        TERMINOLOGY to KNOW:
               IN Groups
   Analogy
                             Generalization
   Antithesis
                             Position
   Appeal to Authority
                             Qualify
   Assertion/Claim
                             Rebuttal
   Challenge
                             Rhetoric
       Refute
       Dispute              Support
   Fallacy
     Two main types of arguments
   Deductive:
   A deductive argument is an argument such that
    the premises provide (or appear to provide)
    complete support for the conclusion.
   A good deductive argument is known as a valid
    argument and is such that if all its premises are
    true, then its conclusion must be true. If all the
    argument is valid and actually has all true
    premises, then it is known as a sound argument.
         WAYS TO APPROACH:
       Two main types of arguments
   Inductive:
   An inductive argument is an argument such that
    the premises provide (or appear to provide)
    some degree of support (but less than complete
    support) for the conclusion.
   A good inductive argument is known as a strong
    (or "cogent") inductive argument. It is such that
    if the premises are true, the conclusion is likely
    to be true.
Deductive Reasoning/Logic
          Deductive Reasoning
SYLLOGISM

   Major Premise: All dogs are brown.

   Minor Premise: My poodle Toby is a dog.

   Conclusion: Therefore, Toby is brown.
            Deductive Reasoning
SYLLOGISM

   Major Premise: Tyrannical rulers deserve no loyalty.

   Minor Premise: Saddam Hussein was a tyrannical ruler.

   Conclusion: Therefore, Hussein deserved no loyalty.
Inductive Reasoning/Logic
    Inductive Reasoning/Logic
   Reasoning involves making a generalization
    based on numerous facts.
   Generalization: a general statement, idea, or
    principle.
    THE AP ARGUMENT ESSAY
   AP ARGUMENT
    Prompt:
    Defend
    Challenge/Refute/Dispute
    Qualify

    SOURCES: Current events, high school issues,
    journals, letters, essays, speeches, autobiographies,
    advertisements, quotes from literature (prose, poetry,
    plays), graphs, charts, advertisements....
    THE AP ARGUMENT ESSAY
Three “Types” of Argument Questions
Typically, we speak of three “types” of argument questions: those of fact, of value, and of policy.

Arguments of fact state that something is or is not the case. Causal arguments say that one event or
   condition leads to another or is likely to. For example, we might argue that AP students do better
   in college, that computers enhance learning in the classroom, that the media is responsible for the
   shortening of the attention span, or that mercury in the food chain or cigarette smoke in the air
   causes cancer.

Arguments of value state that something is or is not desirable. They involve evaluations of quality or
   worth according to accepted criteria. For example, one might assert that this or that novel or film
   is of significant merit, that preemptive war is or is not a justifiable practice, that Bill Clinton was
   or was not a good president, that health concerns take precedence over profit.

Arguments of policy state that something should or should not be done. They make
   recommendations for practice or implementation. For example, that the minimum wage should
   be increased, that stem cell research should be funded, that Huck Finn should or should not be
   part of the curriculum, that gay marriage should or should not be legalized, that more students
   should have access to AP, that the designated hitter should be eliminated from baseball (one of
   the finest arguments I saw at the 2004 AP English Language Reading, by the way), or that
   smoking should be banned from public places. This kind of argument will naturally contain
   components—often included as support—of those of fact and value, as my final example in each
   category illustrates.
    THE AP ARGUMENT ESSAY
   1-3 minutes reading and working the prompt
   3 minutes deciding on a position
   10-12 minutes planning the support of your
    position
   20 minutes writing the essay
   3 minutes proofreading
           ARGUMENT UNIT
   Look at Practice Topics
   Build Argument knowledge base
   Practice AP Argument Essays (3 Essays)
   Write Précis (3)
   Read from Files, Text, Internet, and 5 Steps
   Move toward Synthesis Writing (2 Essays)

								
To top