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									          The Tragedies of Hungary
             in the XX Century
      Historicai Drama in 5 Acts and 15 Scene
Locations:The Karpathian. Basin and its Surroundings
                  Time; 1914-2000.
                  Main characters:
         Kings: Franz Jozeph I, (1848-1916), Charles IV, (1916-18).
           Republican presidents: Count Mihály Károlyi, (1918),
           Zoltán Tildy, (1946-48), Árpád Szakasits, (1948-49),
          Mátyás Szürös, (1989-90), Árpád Göncz, (1990-1994).
       Presidential Council Presidents: Árpád Szakasits, (1949-50),
  Sándor Rónai, (1988), István Dobi, (1952-67), Pál Losonczi, (1967-87),
          Károly Németh, (1987-88), Bruno F. Straub, (1988-89).
              Regents: Archduke József (Károly Lajos). 1919,
                        Miklós Horthy, (1920-1944).
               National Leader: Ferenc Szálasi, (1944-45)
      Bolsevik Commanders: Béla Kun, Mátyás Rákosi, János Kádár.
       Other players: József Antall, Péter Bokros, Ernő Gerő, Gyula
       Horn, Pál Maléter, lmre Nagy, Viktor Orbán and many others.
      Supportíng cast: Hungarian, Sekler, Russian, Austrian, German,
   Serbian, Polish, Slovakian, Slovenian, Croatian, Czech, Ukrainian,
                    Romanian, Bulgarian, etc. people.
   Prompters: Andropov, (Jurij Vlagyimirovich), Brezsnyev, (Leonyid
        Iljch), Gorbacsov, (Mihail Szergejevich), Hitler, (Adolf),
       Hruschov, (Nyikita Sergejevich), Lenin, (Vlagyimir Iljich),
    Mao-Ce-Tung, Tito, (Joszif Broz), Stalin, (Joszif Vissarionovich.)
             MUSIC: National Anthem, Marches, Internationalé,
                          Szózat, (patriotic song)
            Choreographer; the internationai political situation.
    Stage Decor: national (red-white-green), brown, green, red colours.
       Written; by prof. Dr. lmre Bokros, based on real happenings.
           PRODUCED: By HISTORY and FATE
                                  Act: 1.

                                 Scene: 1.
The First World War
    On June 28, the14, in Sarajevo, Gavrilo Princip, a Serbian student, murdered prinz
Ferdinand, the heir of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy Under the pretext of the assassination,
an international conflict broke out and led to a World war in which, on the side of the Central
powers, (as a member of the monarchy) Hungary also took part – reluctantly - against the Allied
    The war caused immeasurable losses for the fighting parties, it progressed with alternating
success and became prolonged. Franz JOsep, Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary, who
promised a quick victory, died on Nov. 21, 1916, and was followed by Charles IV.on the
throne of the Monarchy.
    In Russia, a member of the Allied powers, war and disturbances broke out, which ended
with the deposition of the Tsar by a democratic socialist Revolution on March 10, 1917.
Kerenskij (Alexander Fjodorovics) formed a coalition government.
       0n April 6, 1917, the United States declared war against the Central powers. With this
step, the fate of the war was sealed. Due to the overwhelming material, technical and
manpower superiority, the outcome was only a question of time.
    The long, drawn-out fighting, the consequent failures and losses, caused in certain
countries disturbances, dissatisfaction and also revolutionary movements against the war and
governments. Fírst the Russian manpower and material sources were exhausted. On Nov.17,
1917, under the leadership of the Bolsheviks, Trockij (Lev Davidovich, alias Bronstein) and
Lenin (Vlagyimir Iljich, alias Uljanov) executed a coup de-état against the government of
Kerenskij and seized the power.
    On Jan.l2, 1918, they declared the Soviet socialist Federatíon and, on March 3, 1918,
signed a peace treaty with Germany in Brest-Litovsk.
   The Alies proved to be stronger than the Central powers even without Russia and because of
their military losses, they capitulated and asked for an armistice: Bulgaria (Sept.29, 1918),
Turkey (oct.30, 1918), The Monarchy (Nov.5.1918), and Germany, (Nov.11, 1918). With
this, the Central Powers lost the war. The Austro-Hungarian Monarchy disintegrated, on
Nov.l2. 1918, an Austrian Republic was declared, on Nov. 16, an Independent Hungarian
People's Republic.
   The number of Hungarian soldiers who died or disappeared on the fronts of -World War I,
was 530,965, the number of wounded 1,492,000, out of which 575,000 were disabled. The loss
of the civilian population numbered 28,000, (These data refer to historic Hungary.)

                                           Scene: 2.
                             Red Terror in Hungary
 The National council, on Jan.1l, 1918, appointed count Mihály Károlyi as Head of State. On
March 21, 1919, Károlyi handed over the power to the communist and socialist leaders who
became united in the Hungarian Socialist Party.
 They declared a Hungarian Council Republic, a Revolutionary Government, under the
presidency of Sándor Garbai. In reality, however, Béla Kun, who returned as a prisoner of
war from Russia in 1918, and his comrades exercised the power. Béla Kun was a commissar
and a member of the Russian communist (Boshevik) party and also the founder of the
Hungarian Communist Part (KMP) in 1918.
  On March 22, 1919, they declared the nationalization of the banks, mines, factories, also
capital punishment, military and ideologicai union with Russia, also a Proletar Dictatorship.
   Bela Kun and his comrades, copying the Soviet-Boshevik system, introduced terrorism at
an immense scale into the country. without proper jurisdiction and sentencing, they liquidated
those elements they considered hostile to them.
   Tibor Samuelly, educational and deputy military commissar, was travelling on a train called
"gallows train". He was not only directing but actively participating in the murderous activities.
     He learnt this, most likely, from Lenin whom he had visited at his Kremlin’s residence.
     The revolutionary schemes of Béla Kun and the creation of Soviet type state, were resented
both by the Allied Powers and neighbouring countries. As the result of misguided politics,
military conflicts broke out with the Romanians and Czechs presenting a very serious situation
for the bleeding and bankrupt country. The Soviet Republic's Red Army, conducted battles
with various results against the intruding Romanian and Czech armies. At the same time, the
so called "Lenin Boys" „The Red Guard” worked havoc in the country.
List of settlements (in alphabetical order), where the Red terrorist committed murders without
     Abony, Akasztó, Alsózsid, Alsózsolca, Balatonkenese, Bélamajor, Berettyóújfalu,
Budapest, Cegléd, Császár, Csorna, Debrecen, Derecske, Devecser, Domony, Dömsöd,
Dunaföldvár, Dunamócs, Dunapataj, Emiliamajor, Érsekcsanád, Esztergom, Garta,
Gesztely, Gödölypuszta, Gyöngyös, Harta, Hatvan, Hajdúszoboszló, Hernádszurdok,
Heréd, Hódmezővásárhely, Jászapáti, Járokszállás, Jászberény, Jászjákóhalma,
Jászkarajenő,       Jászladány,      Kalocsa,    Karcag,     Kecel,     Kecskemét,       Kiskőrös,
Kiskunfélegyháza, Kópháza, Kapuvár, Komárom, Köröstárkány, Lovászpatona,
Madocsa, Makó, Mezőcsát, Mezőtúr, Monosbél, Nagybakónak, Nagykanizsa,
Nagytétény, Nyíregyháza, Onga, Őrtilos, Paks, Poroszló, Putnok, Pusztaszentimre,
Püspökladány, Ráckeve, Sárospatak, Sátoraljaújhely, Solt, Soltvadkert, Sopron,
Sopronkövesd, Szarkásszöllö, Szarkástelek, Szatmárcseke, Szelevény, Szentendre,
Szentistván, Szentkirály-puszta, Szolnok, Tapolca, Tápióbicske, Tass, Tilajpuszta,
Tiszaroff, Tiszavárkony, Tolnatamási, Újpest, Vác, Vámosgyörk, Várpalota,
Zagyvarékas, Zólyom.
     The increasing terror caused fear, unrest and dissatisfaction. To put an end to this situation,
a new National Government was formed in Arad, (May 5, 1919) later in Szeged (May 31,
1919). In the Szeged Government, Miklós Horthy, admiral, (the hero of the sea battle of
Otranto) became the Minister of Defence and commander-in-chief of the newly organized
National Army. (August 9.)
     Under pressure from the Allied powers, military losses and the growing national forces, the
Revolutionary Council Government resigned. (Aug.1.)
     Béla Kun fled to Vienna with some of his comrades and the total assets of the state (25
million gold crowns) thus avoiding persecution and accountability. He returned to the Soviet
Union. in 192o, where, in 1957 he was sentenced and on Stalin's orders, executed. The fate of
the stolen millions remains unknown.
     The 133 days long Proletar Dictatorship claimed 590 victims, that is, 4 murders for every
day during the Red Rule. (There were more, murders and military executions, unrecorded. The
     The material losses are characterized well by the conditions of the armistice, which the
commander-in-chief of the occupying Romanian forces, general Mardarescu, handed over on
August 15, 1919, to theHungarian. Goverment.
    I a./ The Hungarian People's Republic is to hand over all ammunition, except the amunt
allowed for the upkeep of the army.
    b/ The H.P.R. is to dismantle all factories manufacturing arms and ammunition to Romania.
The dismantling is to be carried out by Hungarian workers under the supervision of Romanian
    c./ The H.P.R. is to hand over 50% of all equipment which covers the needs of a 300
thousand strong army.
d./ The H.P.R. is to deliver 50% of railway carriages, wagons, macninery and materials for
their repair.
    e./ The H.P.R. is to deliver 400 automobiles and 400 trucks IN good running conditions.
    f./ The H.P.R. is to hand over 30% of all agricultural equipment.
g./ The H.P.R. is to transfer 20 thousand wagons of wheat, 1o thousand wagons of corn, 5
thousand wagons of rye and barley.
h./ The H.P.R. IS to deliver 30% of livestock and other animals.
    i/ The H.P.R. is to hand over 50% of all shipping.

II. The H.P.'R. is obliged to cover the living expenses of the occupying forces from west of the
river                                                                                     Tisza.
III. In case the H.P.R. is not willing to accept these terms, The Royal Romanian Forces will
take forcefull action

                                    Scene 3
                           White Terror in Hungary
    Following the fall of the Soviet (Council) Republic, a Coalition government was formed
under the leadership of Gyula Peidl (Aug. l, 1919) 0n Aug.7, Archduke Jozsef (Regent by law)
appointed the István Friedrich led temporary - from Aug.15, - permanent government. At the
same time, in the presence of Archduke Jozsef, Miklós Horthy, commander-in-chief of all
military forces, took the oath.

     In Szeged the newly organized detachments, the Prónay, Ostenburg and Héjjas groups –
nominally under Horthy’s command, became "independent" and started punitive actions against
the real and imaginary guilty parties during the Proletar Dictatorship. Mostly in Trans-Danubia,
but also in other areas of the country,                            conducted self-jurisdiction..
Miklós Horthy as the commander-in-chief of the amed forces from March 1, 1920, tried his
utmost to consolidate the situation and subdue the activities of these units, but improvement
came only after his power was firmly established.
     He dispersed the detachments gradualy and based the punitive actions on legal grounds. lt
attributes to the normalization of the situation that under the "Red Terror" forbidden parties
including the opposition party, were formed and functioned. The detachments' (in the Britannia
Hotel and Ehmann settlement) last objectives were liquidated at the beginning of November
by the army and police.
     In 1921, the last Habsburg ruler, Károly IV. (Charles IV) made two unsucessful attempts to
regain the Hungarian throne, (with the support of some nobles, church dignitaries and officer's
detachments) but Horthy and his followers frustrated his plans.
   The Hungarian National Assembly, on Nov. 6, 1921, declared the dethronement of the
House of Habsburgs. (1921, XLVII Act of Parliament)

    xxxxxxxxxxxxxx(See text for the locatioas of the detachments terror activities: 19 places in
alphabetical order.)
    It is undeniable that the White Terror was the reaction to the Red Terror. The innocent
victims, therefore, - chiefly - are on the conscience of those who initiated and executed the
illegal revenge and atrocities and escaped the consequences of their deeds of the ten months
long terror. The documenteed number of victims was 227

                                           SCENE: 4.

    Hungary on June, 1920 - according to the accepted peace treaty, signed in tbe Petite Palace
of Trianon, in the vicinity of Versailles, lost 2/3 of her territory and close to 60% of
her population.
    There is no other nation on our globe which had been torn apart with such             forcible,
thougthless, senseless, and biased changes of the frontiers. At present, in the entire world,
the Hungarian national minoríty is in the largest numbers along those who had been segregated
to territories adjacent right along the borders of the motherland. Weakened by the losses of the
war, mutilated by the Trianon peace Treaty, plundered by Romanians and Czechs, the people
demonstrated incredible efforts and will to live and recover. Under the leadership of Regent
Miklós Horthy, the nation in a relatively short time (6-8, years) started to reach the standard of
the western states. Agriculture, industry, and commerce began to flourish. The Pengő (the new
monetary unit, after the „Crown” in 1926) became one of the strongest in Europe and stayed
very stable right until World War II.
    Factories with European and world wide reputation started to prosper. (Ganz, Weiss
Manfred, Láng, Tungsram, Hoffer, Chinoin, Telephone and Cable companies, Richter, Ozd
Steelworks, Győr, etc) The only medical morphium factory in Europe was established in
Bükkszentminály (Tiszavasvári).
    Public education, medical services, public safety were organized in an exemplary manner.
In spite of the injust, inhuman and tragic Trianon Peace Treaty, Hungary had shown a way out
of a great misfortune, with the will and faith of the people, dutiful and capable leadership.
    Statistical data verify the growth in population and development of economy.
The number of population: in 1920, 7.6 millions; in 1930, 8.7 millions, in 1940, (the last
peaceful year) 9.5 millions. The average economical grovth showed 0.8 - 1.2%, the export
balance (with the countries of the Danube basin) from 1950 on, had always been positive.
    As the consequences of the Trianon peace Treaty, the country's area was reduced from 285
thousand square kms, to 95 thousad square kms, the population from 18.5 millions, to 7.6
millions. They sequestered approximately 5 million Hungarians from the motherland! The
richest mineral, timber and wild animal resources were all on the lost territories.

                        THE GREAT DEPRESSION
    The world-wide economical crisis, lasting from 1929 until 1933, hit, from it’s most mineral
wealth stripped country very hard. As all over the world, millions lived under mininum
subsistance level or close to it. in this hopeless situation, in search for employment, many
chose emigration to western Europe or to the United States.
    The majority of the stable state and privately owned companies – with great difficulties -
survived the crisis. The security of public employees was generally not in danger, but the harsh
(agricultural, machinery export markets) cicumstances created a great disadvantage for the
agricultural and industriai workers.
    Emigration continued even during the economic upswing. Many were enticed by the idea of
"getting rich" quickly. They trusted in the industrial revolution (electrification., chemical
development, automation) which started in Western Europe and in the U.S.A., towards the end
of the XVIII. century and in the favourable (empioynient, wholesale and consumer) prognosis.
    Most unrecorded the emigrants kept their Hungarian citizenships, many returned after a few
years, therefore, there are no official records of the numbers of permanently emigrated
Hungarian citizens. Emigration. started already - before World War I, and through the neutral
states. It did not stop even during - the war, however, the number decreased considerably.
Approximately 2.5 million Hungarians emigrated to the West, most of them settled in the

                                            Scene: 6
                    Prologue to the second World War
    Followíng the 1917, coup-de-état in Russia, the V.I.Lenin, and after his death, J.V. Stalin
led Soviet Union, under the aegis of the Proletarian Dictatorship every        dissident person,
organization was persecuted or liquidated. They also threatened the world with military invasion,
claiming the right to free the proletariate from the capitalist yoke. With the help of the
"Komintern" founded in. Moskow (in 1919), they intended to initiate class revolutions in the
developed industrial countries.
    The Red Army (in 1917) already tried to stop Finland's and the Baltic States' efforts for
independence. They forced Gruzia militarily, the Ukraine, Armenia, Kazahstan, Chechnya
and Ingus (1919- 1921) to become „autonome” Soviet Republics. The annexation of Poland (in
1920) failed only because of the polish Army’s resistance.
    In 1925, with Soviet help, a Mongolian Peope’s Revolutionary Party, led by Suhe Bator
won, and in 1924, they declared a Soviet controled Mongol Republic.
    Germany, suffering from severe defeat during World War l, hurt national pride, loss of
territories, huge unemployment, and also the forceful appearance of the Communists. caused
the strenghtening of the extremist nationalists.On January 30, 1933, Adolf Hitler, became
Chancellor and a dictatorial, revengeful, racist system was created,
    The Stalinist Bolshevik and Hitler’s Nazi dictatorships had some common characteristics:
open or covert expansion, cruel persecution and extermination of people of races, the forceful
spreading of false, distorted, senseless and harmful ideologies.
    In spite of all these common traits, Bolshevism and Nazism were mortal enemies. Hitler
imitated Lenin and Stalin (e.g. one-party system, creation of concentration camps, liquidation
of enemies within the party). It was only a question of time, when the two - constantly
expanding empires would attack each other.

In 1936, the Spanish civil War broke out. Stalin offered military help to the left wing Spanish
Government. With the active cooperation of the Komintern, International Brigades were
formed from Communists and Socialist, (equipped wíth Soviet military hardware) and took up
the fight against the General Franco led right wing forces.
    As a reaponse, (on April 26, 1937), Hitler directed the "Kondor" Legion to Franco’s aid,
who also gained Italy's support and, in April 1939, defeated the goverment and international
    On March 15, 1938, Hitler annexed Austria, and on sept. 29, the Sudetenland from
Czechoslovakia. On Sept. 14, 1938, the Hungarian Government sent a memorandum to the
Foreign Office, stating that, it would consider every arrangement in case of Czechoslovakia
unacceptable which did not take into account the interests of Hungarians.

On Nov.2, 1938, the Axis powers (Germany and Italy) declared in the golden room of the
Belvedere palace, known as the first Víenna Decision, that from Czechoslovakia 11, 927
square kms area (869,000 - 86.5 % Hungarian, and 9.8 % Slovak residents) would be returned
to Hungary (with the cities of Kassa, Ungvár and Munkács).
    On Nov.5, Hungarian Army units began to march into these territories. Stalin held Germany
and Hitler the Soviet Union’s most dangerous opponent .The great misleading political game
began on Aug. 25, 1959, by signing of a mutual non-aggression pact. In the secret codicile, it
contained the attack and division of poland, also the Sovietization of the Baltic states.


                                            Act: II.

                                          SCENE: 7

                             The Second World War

    At the beginning of September 1939, Hitler attacked Poland. Following this, the Second
World War broke out. As Poland had a mutual aid pact with Great Brítain and France, they
declared war on Germany. After a few days, Austraila, New Zealand, India, the South African
Union and Canada (later other states as well) joined in against the Nazis.
    The Germans - in possession. of their technical superiority, with the speed of „Blitzkrieg”,
advanced towards Warsaw, sweeping away the Polish army's poorly mechanized, but heroic
    On September 17, 1939, Stalin attacked the Poles fighting against the Germans, who
capitulated on September 28. The two dictators divided Poland between themselves.
    We have to add, that Miklós Horthy said a cathegorical "No" to Hitler’s requeet of allowing
military access routes through Hungary against the Poles. Horthy was even ready to use
Hungarian military forces to stop the Germans in case they entered without permission.
    On November 30, 1959, the Soviets started another treacherous offensive against Finland.
Using their tremendous technical and numerical superiority (not paying attention to the
incredibly high losses), they carved out 40 thousand square kms for themselves under the
pretext they needed it for the (probable) defense of Leningrad.

    In 1940, the expansion of the "Red" and "Brown" dictatorships continued. On April 9,
German troops invaded Denmark and Norway, on May 10, Holland and Belgium. Their
"Blitzkrieg" tactics were very successful occupying Denmark, Belgium and Holland in a few
weeks, and forced France on June 22, for an armistice. The air defence of Great Britain - for the
time being - stood alone against the Luffwaffe's strikes. Knowing the might of the British
Fleet, Hitler dared not risk an invasion of the island nation.
    The Russians, encouraged by the "Nazis" successes, did not remain inactive. In June, they
annexed Bessarabia and North Bukovina from Romania, and - according to a secret pact with
Germany they occupied Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. In. August, Moldavia became a Soviet
Member Republic (approximately 54 thousand square kms area; the composition of the
population: 65% ROmanian, 16% Ukranian, 11% Russian.
    On August 30, the „Second Vienna Decision" returned North- Transylvania and Seklerland,
with Kolozsvár and Nagyvárad to Hungary,             (45,591 square kms area and 2.2. million
inhabitants, 51.4% Hungarian , 42.2% Romanian)
    Between September 5-13, 1940, Hungarian troops took over from the Romanians. On
September 12, Regent Miklós Horthy, officially entered the City of Kolozsvár.


                     Conflict between Hitler and Stalin
     Apart from the mutual non-aggression pact, both dictators made preparation to fight for
supremacy. Hitler wanted a "show-down" with England at first, but German history
contradicted a senseless war on two fronts.
     According to military assessements published until now, - for decades - the Germans were
blamed (rightly) for the attack on Russia. However,           it can. be verified now that the
preventive offensive by Hitler, had plenty of reasons for it. Stalin bore as much blame for the
outbreak of the war - as Hitler did. lt was only because of the timing that he was not the
     Before the war, in the "Five Years Plan” Stalin, besides developing the industry, favoured
the incredible increase in the war machinery output. The military budget consumed constantly
40-6o% of the GDP. In september 1939, they started building 8 new airplane factories and
renovated 9 old ones. Between January 1959 and 1941, the air force received 18 thousand
fighter planes, out of which 2700 reached world standard! Their tank production capacity in
the summer of 1941, surpassed one and a half times that of the Germans’. During this period,
they produced 7000 tanks, out which. 2000 made under American licence KV and T-34 models
- (ranked as the best at the time).
     They developed the artillery also with incredible speed, especially the BM-13 „Stalin
organs”, so the army’s ammunition stock, from May, 1940 till the beginning of the war, grew
by one and a half. They produced until the summer of 1941, twice as many grenade launchers
as they did the year before. The Soviet s warship industry’s capacity in 1939-1940 also tripled.
    Until the beginning of the war, they trained 25 million reservists and, by June 1941, they
raised the number of the army to 5.4 millions, from 2.2 millions from september 1939. The
strength. of the Soviet troops, in the districts of the western Soviet Union approached the 5.9
millions. In 1941 Stalin openly declared the possible confrontation with the Germans, in front
of newly-trained officers. In May, they directed 500,000 reservists to the western military
zones and in June, 300 thousand more conscripts to the western frontiers. They counted on the
fact that the Nazis’ air power was weakened as a result of the air attacks on England and large
part of their troops were scattered in numerous European countries (France, Benelux states,
Norway, Romania, Bulgaria, Poland , Czechoslovakia, Austria, ) including the occupation of
Greece and Yugoslavia on April 16, 1941, by the invading German troops.
    On. April 11, 1941, the Royal Hungarian Army also took part in the military manouvers
against Yugoslavia, to defend the safety of Hungarians living there. They marched into the 11,
417 square kms. of formerly Hungarian territory.
    The attack against the Soviets began on June 22, 1941, with 155 divisions. The indicator of
the Soviet-German forces are characterized by the following data:
    Soldiers: 1 to 0, 9
    Airplanes: 1 to 1
    Artillery: 1 to 0, 8
    Tanks: 1 to 0, 9
    Armoured vehicles and trucks: 1 to 4

    This contradicts the untenable assertion of the German’s oppressiv superiority. At the same
time, their mobility unquestionably surpassed that of the Soviets, their military equipment was
more up-to-date and their communication system both in quality and quantity were much betteir
than of the Soviet Army’s.
    Italy and Romania, on the day of the attack, joined the Germans. Hitler promised to the
Romanian Head-of-State, to settle the territorial claims against the Hungarians. (The Finns and
Slovakians also attacked the Soviets a few days later. The Editor.)
    The attackers initial successes are due to the following factors:
    l./ Thc Soviet troops were ready exclusively for attack and paíd no attention to defense
    2./ The troops had very few equipment against the armoured vehicles, defense against them
were not organised;
    3./ The bulk of the first line was comprised of attacking units, which were forced into
defensive role, while they received "orders to attack” from Stalin.
    4./ The Soviet commanders were poorly prepared cadres;
    5./ The training of the infantry was very low standard, they did not know how to handle the
mechanical equipment;
    6./ The supreme state and political leaders did not understand (including Stalin) the
strategical principals; they clang rigidly to the idea that the aggressor must be defeated in his
own country.
   7./ The military leaders’ work was hindered by the presence of political commissars beside
them: they became hesitant making decisions as they were used to orders from „above”
    8, / With the „Mobil Bitzkrieg" experíenced German land and air power, at the beginning,
they had no problem to crush. and disorganize the Soviets.
      The facts convince, even the inexperienced, that the Soviets were ready to move agáinst
the West; and they couldn't or would’t conceal their intensions.
    If we take into account the on April 13 1941 signed Soviet-Japan neutrality agreement, it is
evídent that Stalin wás not concerned about the danger of war on two fronts, which was
hanging over Hitler's head like "the sword of Damokles”. It is also obvious, it would not have
been feasible to keep the troops inactive for a long time in the primitive zones of the western
    Stalin planned to start military operations towards the end of fall as, according to Soviet
practice, the kolhoses (State farms) could not cope with the reaping and harvesting of
agricultural crops without the help of studernts and the military. lt was also considered that the
European terrain, road and weather conditions would favour the Soviet soldiers in the fall and
winter as they were accustomed to rough circumstances.
    Taking all this into account, it is clear that Stalin was not in a hurry, but Hitler could not
wait any later than June. But the failed fight for Moskow also justified that his timing was
already late, because the German Army built on mobility but not prepatred for winter military
operation, first got mired in mud and later, because of the early winter, became frozen.
It must be mentioned the reason for this delay was the German action against Jugoslavia (April
6-17, 1941), and Greece- (April 6-29, 1941).
    | The fate of Germany was sealed already, when Great-Britain, (on June 22) declared
support for the Soviet Union and the USA (on June 30) assured the Soviets transportation of
military equipment by sea, as well as raw materials for the war industry.

                                            Scene: 9.

                    Hungary in the Second World War
The military successes of Germany, changing of the Trianon borders in favour of Hungary,
also the antí-Bolshevik policy gained the sympathy of the Hungarian peopie and the
government, personally also of Regent Horthy’s. With the outbreak of the Soviet-German war,
the Hungarian government was forced to make steps.
    Neither a delay nor a quick decision looked promising. The choice was made „easier" when
on June 26, 1941, the city of Kassa received a bombing raid, which - according to official
statement - involved Soviet bombers. The validity of this had been questioned many times by
many, but nobody provided a 100% sure proof. lt is feasible that it was a German provocation,
but this did not fit into the picture, as Hitler did not demand - at that time - Hungarian military
It is also possible that the disoriented pilots of the Soviet air force missed their targets. It
contradicts all logic that it would have been the purpose of the Supreme Soviet state and
political leadership - in their catastrophic state - to increase the number of their enemies
    In the political situation of summer 1941,            it is undisputable, that the Hungarian
Government could not stay passive concerning the Soviets’ and Germans' permanent territorial
If they did not enter the war on Hitler’s side, the occupation of the country would have
happened sooner or, in case of a German victory, they would have been in a very
disadvantageous position opposite the Romanian, Slovak, Croatian, Austrian, Bulgarian,
Spanish, Italian, Ukrainian and other nationals fignting alongside Germany.

It was also known to the Hungarian Government that the Slovak and Romanian Governments
aided the Germans oniy because they received promises from Hitler to support their territorial
claims. To take into account our geostrategical location, no other choice existed for Hungary in
that military, political and international situation than to choose the lesser evil: enter into
alliance with the Germans.

    People who do not acknowledge this, they had forgotten that the Wehrmacht was one of
the mightiest and most modern armies, and in a few veeks (45 days) it brought France to its
knees, Belgium (17 days), Holland (36 days), Norway (6o days),
    Denmark (16 days), Greece (27 days), Yugoslavia (12 days). From the beginning of the
war against the Soviets (June 22). in three weeks the German army was under Leningrad,
Smolensk and Kiev, i.e. 600-900 kms. from the border and on Sept.30 they were threatening
    The occupation of Hungary would not have caused any problem for Hitler (which he proved
on March 19, 1944), but the controlled use of the country’s resources, increase in the number
of the fighting units and enforcement of the radical laws against the Jews would have started
much earlier.
    In retrospect, naturally, we see Hitler’s aims and ambitions in a different light but at that
time, outstanding personalities such as Chamberlain, Pope Pius II, Joseph Kennedy, King
George V, not to mention Stalin, believed (or pretended to believe, in Hitler’s promises.
    Regent Miklós Horthy tried very hard to live through this war time period with minimal
blood and casualities.
    Most of the Hungarian troops were behind the front lines performing occupying (road and
territorial) security duties. In the offensive military operations only one division took part, as
the equipment of most of our troops were not suitable to execute such tasks. Yielding to Hitler’s
and his general staff's pressure, slowly, they increased the number of fighting units, and
(partly) making up for the losses. The frequently changing Hungarian Governments used every
possibility to scale down the steadily increasing German demands.
    Because Horthy’s and the goveriment’s obvious tactics, and the successive victories of the
Allies, Hitler decided to occupy Hungary (March 19, 1944), and force a maximal participation.
Regent Horthy remained in his position, and tried to curtail the fulfillment of German
demands. He initiated secret negotiations with the Allies (unsuccessfully) and entered into
armistice negotiations with the Soviets.The Geman Secret Service discovered Horthy’s plans and
helped the coup de état of Ferenc Szálasi leader of the Arrowcross Party to seize power in order
to stop Horthy’s bailing out attempt.
    Szálasi, as the new leader introduced total military and economical mobilization, as well
as Arrowcross terror.

The state took over the assets of the Jews.(Government decree No. 3840/ 1944) they designated
a ghetto in Budapest for them (Nov.15). and forced them to wear a yellow star.They drove 200
Jewish prisoners from the cellar of the Arrowcross Headquarters and shot them on the bank of
the Danube. They executed a large number deserting soldiers and also killed people on the spot
who      were    hiding     and      not    responding   to    the     "call    up"    orders.
 The German and Hungarian troops retreating from the Soviets also the members of the
Arrowcross party transported a large amount of treasures to the West. (Most of these were
returned to the country after the war): coronation regalia, the gold reserves of the Hungarian
National Bank, the MÁV (State Railway) rolling stock, supplies, machine tools, etc.
    Also caused enormous damages by blowing up the bridges across the country, railway
lines and other sensless destructions mostly by the German trooops.
   The fighting Soviet troops were closely followed by special plundering units which from
industrial equipment, agricultural produce, livestock, to priceles art work and tresures from
bank safety deposit boxes, loaded everything into raiway boxcars and removed them from the
   Together with this, the so called "malenkij robot" („a little work”) became known and
notorious for all Hungarians as it meant the deportation of tens of thousands of men and
women, to the Gulags of the Soviet Union. lt came to light only recently from the testimonies of
Jewish men and women, released from German concentration camps, that certain detachments
were directed straight into the Soviet Gulag Archipelago, from where only few returned alive.

   Among the tragedies of Hungary following World War II, we have to mention the expulsion
procedures. Tens and thousands of innocent. people were expelled from their homeland.
Theywere allowed to take only 20-50 kgs. of luggage with them and were forced to earn their
living in allien surroundings. From the Highlands, about 130 thousand people were expelled by
the Slovaks, from Transylvania (Romania) and Ujvidék (Voivodina, Yugoslavia), tens of
thousands were forced out or dragged away into the unknown.
   Rakosi also expelled Hungarian citizens of German origin.
   From Budapest and other large cities, thousands of people (families) were deported to
villages, farms, and their homes, together with their belongings, were expropriated and given.
to prominent people, including officers of the feared AVH and AVO (Hungarian State Securrity
  Hungary's losses in World War II:

250,000: war dead
120,000: Missingn in action or died Soviet POW camps.
750,000: wounded and disabled
45,000 : civilian dead
372,000: Jewish dead in Nazi concentration camps
540,000: Civilians deported to the Soviet Gulag
45,000;          Hungarians     murdered.     in     Voivodina          by     Tito’s     gangs

Losses of assets:
„Evacuated” to Germany, estimated at 22 billion Pengös (about 5.1 Billion USD)
Removed by the Soviet Union, estimated at 40 billion Pengős (about 9, 4 billion USD)

Public cash losses:
Advanced payments to Germany for consumer goods for after the war delivery 42,502,456
pengős : (About 1 billion USD)
The costs of the occupying German forces and other organizations: 1,569,000,000 Pengős;
(about 3.69 billion USD)
The buy out of shares issued in Hungary to companies of German ownership: l07, 304,061
pengős: (25.248 Million USD)
Wages for work done for the German troops: 301, 363, 868 pengős; (70.9 Million USD)
        Altogether: Close to 2o billion US (1939) Dollars,

War reparation payments:

        200 Million USD to the Soviet Union
        70 Million USD to Yugoslavia
        50 Million USD to Czechoslovakia;
        2, / War damage estimated at 6 billion USD
        3, / About 40% of the total national assets were destroyed.
                                                                                                 Other losses:
                                                                                                 1, / Regained territorie

                                               ACT III

                                                     Scene :10

                               Hungary under Soviet occupation
           On December 22, 1944, in the city of Debrecen – on the previous day - formed temporary
        National Assembly, elected a National Government (INK) with Béla dalnoki Miklós as
        president. The INK on Dec. 25, requested armistice from the Soviet Union and on Dec.28,
        declared war on Germany.
           The occupying Soviet troops were followed by, like shadows, in the Soviet Union. trained
        collaborators, who started their underground activities to establish a Soviet system. Rakosi,
        (alias Matyas Roth), „Stalin's best Hungarian disciple”, (who like Béla Kun came to us as a
        Soviet export). Relying on the arms of the occupying forces. with cheating, intimidations,
        force and brutal terror, he seized the power, abolished the multi-party system introduced
        deportations expulsions, conceptual trials, the seizures of private property and did his utmost to
        eradicate national self-esteem and attach the country to the developing socialist world system.
           On Nov. 4,       1945, as the result of the National Assembly elections,            the FKGP
        (Smallholders Party) received 57%, the SZDP 17.4, the MKP (Communists) 17%, The
        National Peasant Party 6, 8 %, the Citizens Democratic Party (PDP) 1, 7% of the votes.
             0n Feb.6,      1946, the National Assembly abolished the Kingdom as an institution,
           declared Hungary a Republic, and elected Zoltan Tildy as president. Tildy was followed by
        Arpad Szakasits (1948-50) as president - and also as chairman of the Council; in 1950-52 Sandor
        Rónai, and until 1967 Istvan Dobi were Chairmen of the Council.
           After the Paris peace conference, concluding World War II, (Feb.10, 1947), Hungary's
        borders with Austria, Romania, Yugoslavia were identical with those of the Trianon peace
           The    new      border    with     the   Soviet    Union      was    the    same      as   the
        Czechoslovak-Hungarian one with the exception that Horvat-Újfalu, 0roszvar and Dunacsuny
        villages, lying on the right side of the Danube, Hungary was ordered to hand over to
   The peace treaty obliged Hungary to pay reparations to the Soviet Union, Yugoslavia,
Czechoslovakia 500 million US Dollars. (200-70-30 respectively.)
   According to the peace treaty, within 90 days, all allied military units were to be withdrawn
from the country's territory, with the exception of those of the Soviet troops which secured the
supply route for the occupied sector of Austria.
   The four great powers, (USA, Great-Britain, Soviet and France) foreign secretaries signed a
State Treaty with |Austria that on May 14, 1955, Austria would become an democratic and
neutral state, and the treaty would take effect on July 27.
   On this basis, the Soviet route securing troops should have left Hungary. Hovever, one day
before signing the Austrian State Treaty, on May 14, 1955, they brought about the Warsaw
Pact: members: Albania (cancelled the agreement 2 years later) Bulgaria,
Czechoslovakia, Poland, the German Democratic Republic, Romania and the
Soviet Union. The pact was ratified by the parlament on May 25, 1955, and it came
into force on June 6.
   The pact made it possible for the Soviet Union to remain stationed in Hungary,
with the „Solution" it became legal the occupation of the country. The Soviets’ presence made
to look "temporary", but in reality it was a long-range arrangement and they were thinking in
terms of colonization.
   The forces of so called "Southern Army Group” and their families were located in 171
garrisons, their average number 100-120 thousand strong, taking into possession 6.5-7
thousand facilities and used 48 thousand hectares, ground for military exercises.
   In Central Europe, they operated the largest artillery range here. lt happened often
that certain parts of the pusta of Hortobagy, a protected natural reserve, were used for
bombing exercises by the Red Air Force. It was a rare day when different personal,
trantsport or armoured vehicles were not on the move on the main or secondary routes.
   Living - in the Grassalkovich mansion ín Gödöllő, one of the most beautiful
architectural buildings in the country, they caused 15 billion Forints worth of damage.
   They shoved "pioneer” example to the participants to the later exploded great Chinese cultural
Revolution by burning irreplaceable Baroque doors, window frames and wallpanellings. They
„requisitioned" the priceles furniture, paintings and chandeliers, destroyed the coaches, cut
out large part of the ancient park and, "harrowed" the ground with their tanks.
   They also settled in into the defence Ministry's residence and into the offices.In
practice, they were free to enter any office, controlling anything they wanted. From the
Defense Ministry, they were in contact with the Soviet Central Command and general
staff. It is characteristic to their arrogance that they insisted using "Moskow time” in
Hungary. During military exercises they gave "Moskow tine" and the Hungarian units
had to adapt to their "local" time. 'These symptoms seem trivial, but they truly mirror
the face of the Soviet occupation that even in such matters, the Hungarians had to
accommodate them.

                       Material losses caused by the Soviet occupation:

1./ In 45 years, the occupying forces and their families (location, accommodation, furniture,
offices, office equipment, telephone, electricity, water and drainage fees, hotel bills,
hunting, fishing parties, wine cellar visits, the use of buses, cars, gifts), costs to the
Hungarian taxpayers about 13 billion dollars, in 45 years.
  2, / Damages caused by the occupying forces to buildings, monuments, roads, national
parks, about 880 million Dollars.
  3, / The use of the Defense and the Interior Ministries and the recreational facilities of the
Party Armed Forces (Munkasör), about 666 million Dollars.

  Not included in these numbers:
  1, / The cost of unnecessary (usually outdated) war technology and materials.
  2, / Spare parts for the poor quality Soviet made war machinery.
  3, / Western material on the COCOM list, purchased for the Soviets for hard currency.

  The cost of the Hungarian intelligence and reconaissance network working for the Soviets
ammounted to not less than 2, 2 billion Dollars.

  It is impossibie to estimate the expenditure contributed directly to the arms race as these - even
today - are handled with utmost secrecy. But here and there the veil is lifted, regarding the
forced exports, manpower and loans to Vietnam, Mozambique, Lybia, South-Yemen,
Syria, lraq, Iran which were never repaid.
  It is safe to say, these enormous sums contributed directly to the 24 billion Dollar
foreign debt, the Communist government amassed before 1989.

                                              Scene 11

The Russian occupation, the Dictatorship of the Proletariat introduced by Rakosi
and his gang, the forceful collectivisation of the agriculture, the members of the
AVO (State Security Office), later ÁVH plundering, the falsification, reviling,
destroying our national values, history and symbols, making the subscription to
the so called "Peace Bonds" compulsory. The permanent raise of labour norms and
many other factors caused a nation-wide dissatisfaction.
  There was a power struggle between the local and the returned from the Soviet Union
comrades. Finaly they eliminated each other with conceptual trials.
  After Stalin's death, (March 5, l953), Rakosi's position weakened and began in the party
leadership, the changing of the cadres. Imre Nagy, (July 4, 1953), then Andras Hegedüs,
(Apr. 18, 1955), were appointed as prime Ministers. Mihaly Farkas was relieved from all his
functions, Rakosi was repalaced by Ernő Gerő as MDP's First Party Secretary. (July 18, 1956)
  These changes, however, did not calm the population.On October 6, 1956, in the Kerepesi
Cemetery, with the participation of more than 10 thousand people, Laszló Rajk,
György Pallfy, Tibor Szőnyi and Andras Szalai who were executed in 1949, were
  The participants there sounded anti-regime slogans and demanded reforms and the
abdication of the government. Ensuing this, in more and more locations, more and
more people joined the camp of the openly dissatisfied ones, students, writers,
workers and agricultural labourers moved to liquidate the dictatorship.
  The street demonstrations developed into revolutionary movements, beginning on Oct. 23,
1956. In addition. to this, Ernő Gerö, who just returned from Yugoslavia as leader of a
goverment deputation, made underhanded remarks about the demonstrators in the radio. This
made it clear he was going to continue the same policy as did his predecessor, Matyas Rakosi.
  The AVH fired on the demonstrators in front of the Radio Building, but the army and
police units sent in to bolster them, instead, joined the demonstrators. As a result they gained
access to weapons, stormed and took over the radio station
     Ernő Gerö turned to the Soviets for help and the occupying forces took brutal action
against the revolutionaries, thus began a "Freedom Fight” against the foreigners and their
  On Oct.25, 1956, a new government was formed led by Imre Nagy, which had Antal Apró
and Ferenc Münich among their members. Instead, of Ernö Gerő, they appointed Janos Kadar
as First Party Secretary of the MDP.
  The sweeping moral and material support of the majority of the Hungarian people, and the
great sympathy for, the young revolutionaries affectionately called the "pesti sracok”, with
the minimal help of the army, not being disturbed by the counter-actions, they achieved the
withdrawal of the Soviet troops from Budapest.
   The redines for compromise by the Russian government - however - proved to be a lie and
deception, as 8 days before, Oct. 23, 1956, at 19.45 hr. the commander of the Karpat
Military District, Pavel (Ivanovics Batov), division commander, ordered military readines
for an artillery and motorized guard division to cross the Hungarian border in the Csap-
Beregszasz-Nagyszőlős strip and march into the district of Hatvan-Jaszberény, as well as of
   The two divisions crossed the border at midnight on Qct.25, 07:00 hr, and reached their
designated assembly locations.
   It was obvious that the division commander could only take such action under supreme
orders, therefore, the Soviet Government made this decision earlier. Documents prove that
Hruschov did not only misled the Imre Nagy government but deceived the Chinese and
Yugoslav leaders also, as well as the members of the Warsaw Pact, when. he asked their
permission for the actions already started a few day before.
   On, Oct. 31, 1956 Nagy made changes in the government, Janos Kadar became Minister
of State, at the same time instead of Karoly Janza, Pal Maléter was appointed, as Defence
Minister and received the rank of Major-general. Maléter became known when he was sent to the
Kilian barracks (where an auxiliary mechanical battalion was stationed) with orders from the
Ministry of Defense to establish order there and disarm the revolutionaries in the Corvin Alley,
opposite the Kilian Barracs.
   Reaching the garrison, he established his command post and telephoned Janza that he
considered the demands of the "Freedom Fighters" justified and was unwilling to fight against
   The Battalion had minor conflicts with the Corvin Alley, but after negotiations, these
stopped. At the same time, Maléter abstained from attacking the growing numbers of Soviet
troops entering the city.
   On Oct. 24, the two Soviet divisions, already directed to our country were followed by ten
more. Until Nov. 4, without a pause, day and night, armored, motorized infantry, anti
aircraft, artillery, airborne, and fighter plane divisions, as well as other units, of
reconaissance, mechanical repair, communication, and other battalions were pouring in.
   At the same time, Andropov (Jurij Vlagyimirovics), later head of the KGB and after
Brezsnyev's death, the leading man of the party) ambassador of the Soviet Union to Hungary,
was leading on Imre Nagy, by telling, him that the new units oniy came to Hungary in order
to secure the transportation of Soviet civilians back to their homeland. Imre Nagy, feeling fed-
up with the incorrect procedures of the Soviets, on Nov. l, 1956, declared the neutrality of
Hungary, and withdrew from the Warsaw pact. He did this for the sake the UNO and world
oppinion. On the same day, Janos Kadar in his radio speech, declared the formation of the
MSZMP, and in the name of the preparatory committee and himself, expressed their support
for the government’s policy and called Imre Nagy, "an honourable friend".
   On November 2, Janos Kadar and Ferenc Munnich, members of the government, in a
conspiratory fashion, fled to the Soviet Embassy and from there left for an unknown destination
(very likely to Moskow), betraying their government, Prime Minister and the country
   It can be proven with a multitude of facts and names that the escape, desertion, drawing back
and waiting out, characterized the majority of the comrades. They left their party, families,
friends in. the lurch, had only one aim.: to save their own skin.
       Not one of the one-time leading "heroes" picked up arms to defend the large party
headquarters in Budapest, but threw the "small" party members to the rage of the crowd and
recruited soldiers of the AVH, and waited until the Soviet „Brothers” would clear the way
leading them back to power. The Communist Party, transformed first to MDP, then MSZMP,
poured out wholesale the traitors and collaborators in hign positions. György Marosan, one of
the biggest traitors of the Social Democrats, a baker by trade, becoming a soap box orator,
fled to the Tököl air field of the Soviets, together with his comrades (Sandor Nógradi,
Károly Kiss, Sandor Rónai, Erzsébet Andics, Antal Apró, etc.)

   On the evening of November 3, Pal Maléter, Minister of Defence, Major-General Istvan
Kovacs, Head of the General Staff, Colonel Miklós Szücs, and Ferenc Erdei, Ex-Deputy
Prime Minister, met in Tököl with the Commissar of the Soviet Government, General Malinyin
(Mihail Szergejevich, the first assistant of the Soviet Military Forces General Staff) for the
purpose of discussing details of troop withdrawal. A few minutes into the negotiations, Szerov
(Ivan Alexandrovich), the Head of the KGB, accompanied by soldiers with machine guns,
burst into the room and arrested the Hungarian delegation.
   With this, Hruscsov put a „crown" on their lies and in a despicable manner, unknown in
international diplomacy, snared the legal minister of the legal government of a sovereign
country as well as the members of the delegation.
   During the hearings after the arrest of Pal Maléter, Istvan Kovacs and MIKLOS Szücs,
informed the general willingly about the location of the revolutionary troops, as well as their
numbers, composition and weaponry. Doing this, they also became traitors, as captive
soldiers they were not obliged (and could not be forced) to betray their comrades, as well as
giving out military secrets.
   It is obvious, that Maléter's group tried to save their SKIN, Believing in Zürjanov who
promised them "temporary captivity” and, later, after everything was cleared up, they would
all be free." (Quotation from Zürjanov's notes taken-on Nov.5, 1956)
                                       Scene: 12.

                                The Retaliation
                                                                                                 Qn. Nov.4,
      With the help of the Soviets, the "Revolutionary Worker-Peasant Government", (that is locations in nu
the       Kadar Government) gained power and initiated unprecedented actions of revenge after civilians.
the defeat of the "Freedom Fighters".
    They formed special (pufajkas) regiments whith, both in the capital, as well as in           Imre Nagy,
several places in the country executed "blood baths". With the backing of the Soviet          Soviet attack,
occupiers, they intimidated the inhabitants by daily arrests, beatings,    torturings,        troops were fig
                                                                                                 The last tw
                                                                                              embassy, and
                                                                                              from resisitin
deportations, executions by firing squads. There was no mercy for minors and for those to             The      inm
whom Kadar promised immunity on the Radio and in the newspapers.                                   civil populatio
   Among many, they sentenced to death, was Imre Nagy, who also became the victim of               "Freedom fig
revenge. With his death, he merited the forgivenes of many for his earier misdeeds against the     intruders.with
Hungarian people. Pal Maléter also shared the same fate, who, with his steadfast attitude          such wunds on
before the "blood tribunal'', made up for his vaccilating and (ambigous) behaviour during the
revolution and freedom fight.                                                                      The balance
    The revenge lasted for four years, but in "milder" format continued for decades, as they       7.5 thousands
pushed to the periphery of society all those who had the slightest suspicion as sympatisers with   18 thousands
the endeavours of the "Freedoom Fight". These included (open or covert ) discrimination against    200 thousands
relatives, „circle” of friends, in the workplace, recognition, awards schooling, promotion,        21 billionns of
deciding apartment, car, telephone line assignements etc.
                                                                                                   On. the Soviet
  The consolidation, extorted by terror, was so successful that Hruschov even mentioned the        5.5 thosands w
possibility of troop withdrawls. Kadar, however did not trust neither the army, nor his            250 tanks, tra
favourite workers guard and convinced him the necessity of maintaining the status quo, was not
his first crime against his country.                                                               During the "F
  During the time of Brezsnyev (Leonid Iljics 1964-1982) who followed Hruschov this question       procedures an
was never mencioned again. .|Brezsnyev´s successor was Andropov (Jurij Vlagyimirovics 1982-
84), who took an avtive part in suppressing our freedom fight, then for a short time Cservenko
(Konsztantyin Usztyinovics) took over the "baton". Being orthodox Bolseviks, they followed
the same internal and foreign politics, as their predecessors. With. Gorbacsov (Minail
Szergejevics 1985-1991, began an unsteady democratization which made it possible for certain.
States (belonging to the Soviet interest sphere) to regainr heir independence.

1 The balance of the retaliation:
  290 sentenced to death and executed by the Kadar courts,
  16,748 sent to prison,
  40,000 imprisoned for shorteror longer periods of time without court sentencing;
  840: victims of firing squads;
  140 executed by the "pufajkas"(witnout court sentencing)
  During the three decades, nicknamed "soft dictaorship" of Kadar, 2.1 to 5 thousand people,
called "dissidents" left the |country because they were unable to, bear the atmospnere, which
was created by Kadar's chief assistant: György Aczél. The relatives of the "dissidents" were
(generaily speaking) harrassed and persecuted, their assets - in most caaes - were expropriated.
As the data referring to "dissidents" was kept in secret, it is possibie to estimate their numbers
only roughly: in three decades, about 70-8o thousand people left the country.

                                         "Scene 13

                               Change of System
   Denying (and refusing) the developements "of the spectacular market economy
(economical, scientific, technical and technological) states of the socialist camp were
sufíering from shortages of goods and, with the speeding of the armament race, from
the beginning of the eighties, sank into deeper and deeper into debts to the weatern
   Our country’s total debts by 1989, reached 25 biliion dollars. In March 1989 the closed
section or the MSZPM KB (Central Committee), the records" show clearly the Country’s
bankrupt state.
   Karoly Grósz (Prime Minister):: "Hungary today, in the economical sease is not in
possession of her larger souvereignity and is fighting daily against economical collapse."
   Matyas Szürös (C.C.member): „We have to try to borow, then. thnk very hard how to spend
the money and which sector to support in the national economy."
   Péter Medgyessy (Finance minister): „The devisa reserves are desperately low. They are
threatening our security."
   Similar situations of bankruptsies existed in all the socialist camp. It was proven that every
socialist country fell far benind the countries of western Europe in average life expectancy, in
nominal value of work wages, in the choices of everyday necessities, services, in quaiity and
quantity, in communication infrastucture, mechanisation and automation.
The unstoppable mass movement demanded independence, reforms, radical changes, multi-
party system freedom of speach and press, that is: democracy.
   This movement started to develop also in the Soviet Union and, combined wíth the
endeveaures of certain member states for freedoms, Gobacsov decided, though reluctantliy,
it was more profitable to support. these movements and rein them in to a certain extent, than
returning to the old Stalin methods.

   Very few, however, expected that events will speed up and lead to the spectacular military
and economical collapse of the Soviet Union.
   In our country, the opposition groups and parties became so powerful in such a short time that
the Communist party which for decades has been in supreme ruling position was swept away
at the first free Party. In 1990 the election was won by the (Hungarian Democratic Party (MDF)
by 42.7%, won 163 out of, 586 seats in the parliament. From the MSZMP the party became
and with changed(?) ideology the Communists with 8.5% finished fourth (35 MP-s), the SZDSZ
24.4%, (94 MP-s) second, and the FKGP 11.4% (44 MP-s) third.
   However, the hopeful masses, expecting radical changes, felt bitter disappointment in the
Jőzsef Antall led government (1990-95), and these feelings did not diminsh after the death of
Antall, when Péter Boross led the government (1995-94).
   The promised "cleaning up" did not happen, the polititians who carried the country
into bankruptcy, became "turncoats" incredibly fast and grabbed potencial political
economical and social positions.
The "day of reckoning" of murderers, informers, instigators, spies, never happened
and, the people who enjoyed ecnomically favoured positcions as relatives, friends or
(comerades), during the Kadar regime, gradually took over the media. which influenced
and controlled public opinion, as well as the well-paid collaborator journalists,
reporters (certain) artists and (humourists.)

  A year or a year and a half, prior to the election of '94 the public m.ood indicated the defeat of
the MDF. The "landslide” was even bigger than the conceited government party politicians
thought. During the election of '94, the former MDF winning party fell back from 42.7% to
9.84% and the MSZP ciimbed up to 54%.
  Apart from the fact that. the Antall-Boross govermnents did not fulfill their election
promisses (from inexperience,        ignorance, lack of certain conditions, etc., the
embittered people - with sweeping amjority – reelected those from whom they freed
  The ideological '"brainwashing" of the Kadar era, the apathy of the masses and the activities
of the media created this absurd situation vhich, made Gyula Horn prime Minister. The same
person who took part voluntarily in the squashing the "preedom Fight." i.n 1956, and more: on
the basis of his popularity index, he was on the top!
 The MSZP uniting with the SZDSZ, did everything to make tha status-quo pemanent. The.
effort, however, was doomed to failure right from the start. lt would have contradicted the laws
of logic that a party schould build successfully a market ecnomy which had been unable to lay
down. the grounds of socialist economy in forty years.

Despite of this, the one time into socialist transformed Communists became strong because:
 1./ by grabbing considerable part of the state assets they own enormous capital;
 2./ they had and still have a well-developed and informed positions and personell;
  5./ well-trained party discipline;
  6./ the fear from being called to account binds them together;
  7./ they hold 95-97 % of the media throught wnich they manipulate public-opinion.

  Finally, we have to mention the number of members of parliament and the election

Such numbers (386) is not only unnecessary, but it obstructs the actual work.220-230 MP-s
should be more than sufficient for a small country

  If we consider the historical Hungary's .65 counties, as well as the 8 Croat-slavon ones (inside
these Fiume and districts), formed the council chambers' seating capacity - taking our present 19
counties into account - it is and unbelieveable luxury to maintaím such an apparatus.
   The election. system also contradicts sanity and the interest of the people representation.
Considering the fact that to get. on the voting list depends exclusively on the subjective
judgement of individual parties or organizations, so the actual voting act of the electorate is like
a game of "pig-in-the-poke".
   These problems- fit intu the Hungarian tragedies, because while into the
hignest corporation of the state, people can get in by being approved by
one (or a few) and cannot be recalled even if hi or she does not do any work
at all.
   The often mentioned "Tuuran curse" from Mohacs until the ”Change” was the couse of our
direct or indirect catastrophies. It is time for us to get rid of this "heritage”. This is independent
from our surroundings, East-West orientation stands or falls with us.
The summary of our personal and material losses:
  First World War:

   The number of wounded and disabled                              1, 492,OOO
   Civilian victims                                                   28, OOO
   Loss of territories, Trianon peace treaty, l92O                  19O, OOO sq. Km.
   Hungarians forced under foreign rule: Trianon P.T.            5.OOO, OOO
   Monetary losses in Gold Crowns                           2, OOO, OOO, OOO

                                                                                               The number of dead
  Victims of the Red Terror (documented)
  Victims of the White Terror (documented)
  Losses due to Czech and Rumanian intervention:
                Dead and missing                                   31,
                Civilian victims                                   17,
                Material losses in Gold Crowns            75O, OOO, O
  Emmigration during the Great Depression                     2, 3OO, O
  Second World War:
  Dead and missing                                                 25O
  Wounded snd disabled                                             75O
  Dissapeared P:O:W:’s in Soviet Gulag                             13O
  Civilians deporteed to the Soviet Gulag                          34O
  Hungarian Jews lost in the Holocaust                              372
  Civilians killed in battles and air raids                          45
  Hungarian civilians killed by Tito’s partisans in Voivodina        45

 Lost territories after WW2
 Hungarians expelled from successor states:                        25
 Destroyed buildings, bridge and other equpment
 Expenses of the German invasion and unpaid debts
            War reparations (nominal value only)

  Revolution of 1956:
  Material losses
  Wunded and disabled
  Escaped or emigrated to the West (56 to 1989)
  Executed or gunned down by the Kadar death sqads
  Cripling foreign debts bz the Kadar regime:

  Nett loss caused by the Soviet occupation   (in 2OO3 US$:)


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