Theories of Development

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					Theories of Development
     Qualities of a good theory

• Internally consistent--parts fit together in a
  consistent way
• Should provide meaningful explanations
• Open to scientific evaluation
• Stimulate new thinking and research
• Should provide guidance to parents and
  professionals in the day-to-day work
     How theories differ on four
       developmental issues
• Maturation or
• Process or stages?
• Active or passive role
  of the child?
• Broad or narrow
Psychodynamic developmental
• The ID seeks pleasure
  and avoids pain. It is
  not logical in its
• The ego is rational.
  Conscious, and
• The superego is the
  moral and ethical
   Freud’s defense mechanisms

• Defense mechanisms are unconscious
  distortions of reality used to protect the ego
• Repression forces unacceptable feelings and
  impulses from memory
• Projection attributes one’s own feelings
  such as aggression or distrust onto another
• Fixation is a blockage in development.
Freud's Psychosexual Stages
Psychosexual Stage   Approximate Age   Description

 Oral                Birth - 1 year    The mouth is the focus of stimulation and
                                       interaction; feeding and weaning are

 Anal                1 - 3 years       The anus is the focus of stimulation and
                                       interaction; elimination and toilet training
                                       are central.

 Phallic             3 - 6 years       The genitals (penis, clitoris, and vagina)
                                       are the focus of stimulation; gender role
                                       and moral development are central.

 Latency             6 - 12 years      A period of suspended sexual activity;
                                       energies shift to physical and intellectual

 Genital             12 - adulthood    The genitals are the focus of stimulation
                                       with the onset of puberty; mature sexual
                                       relationships develop.
Erik Erikson
      • Personality
        development is a
        psychosocial process
      • Personality
        development is a
        lifelong experience
        and is influences by
        three interrelated
        forces (next slide)
            Erikson’s forces:

• The individual’s biological and physical
  strengths and weaknesses
• the person’s unique life circumstances and
  developmental history, including early
  family experiences and degree of success in
  resolving earlier development crises; and
• the particular social, cultural, and historical
  forces at work during the individual’s
  lifetime (racial prejudice, war, poverty)

• Trust vs. Mistrust            Birth – 1 year

• Autonomy vs. Shame and        1 - 3 years

• Initiative vs. Guilt          3 - 6 years

• Industry vs. Inferiority      6 - 12 years (Latency Period)

• Identity vs. Role Confusion   12 - 19 years (Adolescence)

• Intimacy v. Isolation         19 – 25 years (Early Adulthood)

• Generativity vs. Stagnation   25 – 50 years (Adulthood)

• Ego Integrity vs. Despair     50 years and older
Ivan Pavlov’s Classical
            • For involuntary
            • Basic, not higher order
            • Paired conditioned
              response with UCR to
              form new behaviors
              (see page 44 of text)
Illustration of Classical Conditioning
     (A) Place a nipple in baby's mouth:

   Touch of nipple (US) — — — —elicits — — — — — > Sucking reflex (UR)
     (B) Show baby a bottle with a nipple:

   Sight of bottle — — — — — —elicits — — — — — > No sucking (UR)
   with nipple (CS)
    (C) Show baby the a bottle and place its nipples in baby's mouth.
        Repeat a number of times:

   Touch of nipple (US) — — — —elicits — — — — — > Sucking reflex (UR)

    (paired with)

   Sight of bottle — — — —elicits — — — — — — > Sucking reflex (UR)
   with nipple (CS)

    (D) Show baby the bottle with nipple:

   Sight of bottle — — — —elicits — — — — — > Sucking reflex (UR)
   with nipple (CS)
       B. F. Skinner’s Operant
• Looks at empirically
  verifiable behaviors
  only. Not an
  introspective field of
• Operant conditioning
  works with voluntary
  muscles only, in
  contrast to classical.
 The behavior-modifier’s tools

Positive reinforcement, response cost,
 timeout, overcorrection, extinction,
ALT-R, negative reinforcement, PAC
 Effective positive reinforcement
• Should be something
  that the STUDENT
  finds rewarding
• In schools, will likely
  be tertiary
• Beware of satiation
• Timeliness
• Reinforcers can
Using response cost effectively
                • Spell out the rules of
                  the game early
                • Allow for buildup of
                  reserve without telling
                • Take fining only so far
                  before mixing it with
                  other techniques such
                  as time out
Using time out effectively
             • Remove the person
               from sources of
             • Timeout situation
               must be neutral with
               no reinforcing
               properties of its own
             • Short in duration
        Overcorrection (restitution)

• Insure the relevance of the corrective
  measure to the problem behavior
• Apply the procedure immediately and
• Keep the performance consistent during
  overcorrection. If the student is having to
  walk heel-toe, do not allow him to run the
  last few yards.
Extinction (systematic non-
              • Specify the conditions
                for extinction so that
                the child knows why
                these things are
              • Dispense no
                reinforcement before
                its time
              • Watch for spontaneous
   Reinforcement of alternative
       behaviors (ALT-R)

• Behavior to be reinforced must be
  incompatible with that to be extinguished
• Alternative behavior must already be
• Alternative behavior must be one that is
  likely to be supported by the natural
Negative reinforcement, also
 called escape conditioning
              • Do not allow the
                noxious stimulus to
                become aversive or a
                different set of
                behaviors will take
              • Dispense R-
              • Do not remove the
                noxious stimulus
        Using PAC effectively
• Communicate the          • Present at strong
  rules before beginning     intensity
  an episode where PAC     • Combine PAC with
  might be used              extinction so that the
• No escape after            student will not
  announcement that          attempt the prohibited
  PAC is about to occur      behavior again.
• Consistent and
  immediate application
   Differences between negative
     reinforcement and PAC
• Negative                • Presentation of
  reinforcement uses a      aversive consequences
  noxious stimulus          uses an aversive
• NR has an increase in     stimulus
  behaviors as its goal   • PAC has the
                            elimination of
                            behaviors as its goal
    • Shaping is the
      behaviorist’s way of
      adding new behaviors
    • Behaviors that have
      even slight
      resemblance to the
      target behavior are
    • The “professor in a
Albert Bandura Social Cognitive
        Learning Theory
• Observational learning
• First in a long line of
  studies was at
  Stanford, 1961,
  Bandura, Ross, &
  Ross. Modeling of
• Film-mediated had
  same results (1962)
Jean Piaget’s Cognitive Theory
               • Thinking is
                 qualitatively different
                 depending upon the
                 developmental stage
                 of the learner
               • Processes include
                 direct learning, social
                 transmission, and
                     PIAGET’S BASIC
Sensorimotor          Birth - 2 years        Child develops schemes
                                             primarily through sense and
   SCHEME: Organized pattern of             motor activities
                                           thought or behavior
Preoperational        2 – 7 years       Child can think symbolically;
     ASSIMILATION: Person interprets new ideas or of the
                                        holds egocentric view
      experiences to fit existing schemes

Concrete Operational             changes existing able to
                     7 – 11 Person     Child becomes
      schemes to fit new ideas or experiences logical relationships
                                        among concepts but only by
                                        generalizing from concrete
    ADAPTATION: Interplay between experiences
                                        assimilation and
Formal Operational 11 years - adulthood
     accomodation, resulting in development
                                        Child is able to deal with
                                        abstractions, form hypotheses,
    EQUILIBRIUM: Harmonious balance of a person’s
                                        solve problems systematically
      schemes and experiences with the environment
   Piaget’s Social Transmission
• Cognitive consonance-
  -what the learner is
  experiencing fits with
  what he believes and
• Cognitive dissonance-
  -new info doesn’t
• Equilibrium--state of
  no dissonance

Sensorimotor           Birth - 2 years        Child develops schemes
                                              primarily through sense and
                                              motor activities

Preoperational         2 – 7 years            Child can think symbolically;
                                              holds egocentric view of the

Concrete Operational   7 – 11 years           Child becomes able to
                                              manipulate logical relationships
                                              among concepts but only by
                                              generalizing from concrete
Formal Operational     11 years - adulthood
                                              Child is able to deal with
                                              abstractions, form hypotheses,
                                              solve problems systematically
Lev Vygotsky’s proximal
            • Higher mental
              functions grow out of
              the social interactions
              and dialogues that
              children have
            • Zone of proximal
            • (Womack) Theory
              developmental strain
Vygotsky’s ideas have given birth to the concept of
scaffolding in promoting student learning. Teachers
build a cognitive “scaffold” in order to “bring
forward” previous learnings and to let students know
in which framework the new instruction is coming.
This has the effect of extending the Zone of Proximal
Development a little further so that the student may
extend the boundaries of his knowledge.
Vygotsky’s ideas fit well with those of an American
psychologist, David Ausubel (not listed in our book).
He pointed out the advantage of advance organizers
(1970s) to prepare students for new knowledge.
Creating advance organizers might be likened to
renting, in advance, several post office boxes for
incoming mail, upon beginning a new business. One
box receives only payments on account; one,
complaints; one, invoices from other businesses; a
fourth, general mail. In this way the business owner
should have a good idea what awaits him when he gets
his mail and should have a head start on his
bookkeeping and correspondence.
          Path of a memory (if
• Stimulus occurs
• Sensory register
• Decision to attend
• If attending, short-
  term memory
• Rehearsal strategy
• Long-term memory
       Factors in Information

• Control processes, including rehearsal
  strategies. Failure to use rehearsal
  strategies is the single greatest difference
  between retarded and non-retarded learners.
• Metacognition
• Knowledge base. This affects the
  meaningfulness aspect.
       Brain Basics: The Brain and Learning

              Welcome to
         The Brain and Learning
  The following slide show may be used in a
  PowerPoint presentation session or copied
 onto overhead transparencies. Each slide is
accompanied with notes for the instructor or
             session facilitator.
         Brain Basics: The Brain and Learning

 “Educators must develop a basic understanding
of the psychobiology of the brain to enable them
 to evaluate emerging educational applications.”
                  Robert Sylwester
Brain Basics: The Brain and Learning

There are two types of brain cells.
10% of your brain cells are neurons.
  90% of your brain cells are glia.
        Brain Basics: The Brain and Learning

• The average three-pound brain contains about
              100 billion neurons.
• The average three-pound brain contains about
            1000 billion glial cells.
       Brain Basics: The Brain and Learning

The average three-pound brain has about
  one quadrillion connections between
       Brain Basics: The Brain and Learning

It is the connection between neurons that
            makes us “smart”.
       Brain Basics: The Brain and Learning

• Heredity provides about 30-60% of our
             brain’s wiring.
   •40-70% of our wiring comes from
         environmental impact.
       Brain Basics: The Brain and Learning

“Experience is the chief architect of the
       Brain Basics: The Brain and Learning

•Neurons consist of a cell body, an axon
            and dendrites.
            Brain Basics: How Neurons Communicate

                              The axon sends
Dendrites                       .

                              The dendrites and cell
                              body receive information.
  Axon            Cell Body   The action inside the cell is

                              The action between cells
                              is chemical.

          Brain Basics: The Brain and Learning

   Reoccurring electrical stimulation between cells
 promotes cell growth. This cell growth occurs in the
 form of dendrite branching. More dendrite branches
create more connections. Hence, better understanding.
          Brain Basics: The Brain and Learning

 •We learn on many levels at once. The cellular level is
just one way learning occurs. Learning and behavior are
  also strongly affected by the other chemicals in the
           brain: the monomines and peptides.
    •Some estimate that over 98% of the brain’s
communications occur through peptides and perhaps only
          2% occurs through the synapses.
       Brain Basics: The Brain and Learning

 Take a moment to think on your own…
 then turn to your partner and share an
insight, idea or personal response to the
          material just covered.
             Take 2 to 3 minutes each.
               Brain Basics: The Memory Process

                                               Elaboration and

              Sensory                 Short Term
Smell                                                          Long Term
              Memory                    Memory                  Memory
Taste                    Processing


          Not transferred to short term memory and
             so not stored in the memory system
     Brain Basics: The Brain and Learning

Sensory memory influences different
        areas of the brain.
         Brain Basics: Reaction to Stimuli

This slide represents blood
flow changes that occur
while an individual is seeing
words in print.
         Brain Basics: Reaction to Stimuli

This slide represents
blood flow changes that
occur while an individual
is hearing words.
        Brain Basics: The Brain and Learning

Memory is a process rather than a skill or
a thing. A given “memory” is not created
or stored in one single place in the brain.
                       Brain Basics: The Learning Process

Sensory             Limbic          Short-term     Long-term
Memory              System          Memory         Memory

                                    Neurons are
 Senses         Brain determines    stimulated.     Repeated
 receive        which information   Electro-        activation
 information.   is emotionally      chemical        improves
                important enough    activity        message
                to attend to.       strengthens     Transmission.
                                    the synapse.

       The more these networks of neurons are used,
        the stronger they become…the more easily
        they are accessed and information recalled.
                           Brain Basics: M -Space

 The capacity of short-term memory appears to develop
 with age. The number of spaces increases by one unit
 every other year beginning at age three.
                          Juan Pascual-Leon, 1970

The m-space capacity of
individuals increases at
about this rate but can
vary up or down by up to
two units for each
age group.

                              3   5   7    9 11     13   15
                 Brain Basics: Chunking

A chunk is any cohesive group of items of information that we
           can remember as if it were a single item.

 The difference between novices and experts in a field appears
to be that experts tend -- because of a great deal of experience
  in a field -- to organize information into much larger chunks,
       while novices work with isolated bits of information.

                                       Benjamin Bloom
               Brain Basics: Schemas

 Our neural networks make up a map that represents our
  general knowledge about the world. This neural map is
 often called “schema”. Our schema provides us with the
way for us to understand a subject or the world around us.

      “In order to comprehend, we select a schema
                 that seems appropriate
           and fill in the missing information.”
                         Pat Wolfe

 Without the appropriate schema, students have no way
           to assimilate new information.
        Brain Basics: The Brain and Learning

For more information about the brain and
learning, visit the ArtFul Minds web site.
 Time for your thoughts:

What would a classroom be like if it
 used the best information from all
           these theories?