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Hybrid Cars

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Hybrid Cars Powered By Docstoc
					Hybrid Cars

Estefania Cantres
Hybrid cars

 What are hybrid cars?
 A hybrid vehicle(known as HV) is a vehicle
  that uses two or more distinct power sources
  such as an on-board rechargeable energy
  storage system(known as RESS) and a
  fueled power source for vehicle
  propulsion(meaning propelling or a force that
Background Information of
Hybrid Cars

Other power sources include
human powered bicycle with
battery assist or a sail boat with
electric power.
Petroleum base

The term hybrid vehicle
most commonly refers to
petroleum electric vehicle.

Hybrid electric vehicle-
HEV-use internal
combustion engines.

They also use electric
batteries to power electric

The term hybrid in the U.S.
meant that a vehicle or
mixed nationally origin.

Technically a European car
fitted with American
mechanical components.
Components of a
hybrid car

There are quite a few
components that make up
a hybrid vehicle.
Electric motor:handles normal stop-and-go
   travel and initial highway acceleration.
The motor assists the gas or diesel engine to
   reduce fuel consumption and emissions.
It drives energy-wasting accessories like the
   power steering pump and air conditioner.
The hybrid’s gasoline motor(gasoline-or diesel
   powered internal combustion engine)is
   effective whenever the car reaches higher
   Hybrid cars have               Hybrid vehicles
    computer control                batteries are
    systems that
    automatically decide
                                    essential in
    when to switch from             providing power to
    one power source to             the electric motor.
    another. This type of           During the times
    engine can generate             when the hybrid is
    power for electric motor        coasting and
    and at highway
    speed;the gasoline
                                    breaking,the battery
    engine recharges the            recharges itself.
    electric motor’s battery.
Some states    Therefore       The parts        Since a
have added     there are       that make        hybrid is
registration   more            up the           electrical,
fees.          chances for     hybrid car       Water
Hybrids are    failure and a   are more         cannot be
more           typical         expensive        used to put
expensive      mechanic is     and are          out a fire
than non-      not trained     more difficult   that starts in
hybrids.       to properly     to acquire       the hybrid.
               fix the         for one’s car.
   Hybrids(in regards to a       Advantages:
    car accident)have a           A person who
    much higher risk of            purchases a hybrid car
    exploding(depending on         is entitled to a federal
    the impact of the              tax deduction. People
    vehicle)because it has a       who drive hybrids do
    combination of gasoline        not have to learn
    and ethanol(which are          anything or do anything
    both highly flammable).        different to handle the

 Hybrid cars emit up to 97% less toxic
  emissions and half as much greenhouse-this
  causes carbon dioxide as an average
  car(therefore drivers would not have to worry
  about polluting the environment).
 Hybrids can run on electricity or gas.
 The battery pack of a hybrid vehicle never
  needs to be charged from an external force.

   Hybrids have smaller engines,therefore
    they tend to weigh less than non-
    hybrids(but this can lead to problems in
    the future). Since hybrid cars can run on
    alternative fuels, this allows us to
    decrease our dependency on fossil fuel
    and enables us to increase fuel
    options.(hybrids reduce fuel costs).
   A clean burning fuel that reduces carbon monoxide
    and hydrocarbon tailpipe emissions.
   An oxygenate-the oxygen allows it to burn more
    cleanly and more completely than gasoline.
   Made from corn and other crops,renewable
    resources that derive their energy from the
    sun,rain,and soil. Pure ethanol has an octane rating
    of 113,therefore adding 10% ethanol to gasoline
    raises overall octane by 2 to 3 points.
Disadvantages of ethanol

 In most cases,it can be more expensive than
  gasoline(depending on where you live).in the
  Midwest(where much of the country’s ethanol
  is produced)E85 sells for nearly 30 cents less
  per gallon than gasoline. West coast:it would
  cost a driver 35 cents more. Mid-Atlantic
  states:E85 is 44 cents more.
 Regardless of the price one pays for
  it,contains less energy than gasoline.

   This is a major drawback because this
    does not enable your car to go farther
    on the highway,and your fuel economy
    will decrease by 20-30 percent. This is
    not a good factor for consumers
    because even if the price of E85 at the
    pump is cheaper than gasoline. Using
    ethanol may not be less expensive in
    the end.
Issue with E85

 E85 is widely available only in the mid-
  west;therefore it is clear that wider distribution
  is needed.
 It is distilled from corn-gaining special
  attention because transportation accounts for
  so much of domestic oil consumption,and
  ethanol is only currently viable as a substitute
  for gasoline.
Other drawbacks
   Unfortunately,it takes 1.5 gallons of ethanol to
    provide the same amount of energy as a
    gallon of gasoline. Ethanol(produced from
    corn),cannot be possibly grown forever
    because growing corn depletes the soil if
    sustainable farming methods such as crop
    rotation are use. Producing corn is very
    energy intensive,and uses fuels in virtually
    every step of the crop cycle:transporting and
    planting the seeds;operating farm
    equipment;making and applying fertilizer;
Process of ethanol

   And transporting the corn to market. Fertilizer
    production consumes the most fossil fuels.
    Fossil-fuel based fertilizers also contaminate
    the soil and groundwater,but they can’t be
    replaced by natural fertilizer because there
    are not enough animals to provide the
    fertilizer to grow the corn necessary to
    produce all the ethanol needed to run
    American cars.
 70% more energy is required to make a
  gallon of ethanol. To grow each acre of corn,it
  takes 49-89 gallons of gasoline.
 Takes about 56 pounds of dry corn to yield
  2.7 gallons of ethanol;it would take about 9.4
  acres to produce enough E85 to drive one car
  10,000 miles a year.
 Even if it were possible to grow this much
  corn in the U.S.(to make ethanol),the problem
  remains of how to get it to the market for
Amount of ethanol
   Amount of ethanol that         Another problem is
    can be made from an
    acre of corn is 378             that ethanol cannot
    gallons for a total of          be easily shipped
    7,840 pounds of corn            across the country.
    per acre. Nearly half of
    the entire 2004 U.S.
    corn crop of 11.8 billion
    bushels would be
    needed for use to
    manufacture enough
    ethanol for all gasoline
    to be E85.
Benefits of ethanol

 Renewable fuel made from plants.
 Since it is not a fossil fuel,the
  manufacture and burning of it does not
  increase the greenhouse effect.
 An alternative to harmful fuel additives.
 Ethanol blends can be used in all petrol
  engines without any need of
More benefits

   Reduces harmful exhaust emissions and is
    biodegradable. It has a high level of oxygen
    in it;therefore it helps to reduce carbon
    monoxide levels. Ethanol blends dramatically
    reduce emissions of hydrocarbons which are
    a major contributor to the depletion of the
    ozone layer. As an octane enhancer,ethanol
    can cut emissions of cancer-causing benzene
    and butadiene by more than 50%.
Factors to improve hybrid cars
and ethanol
 Some of ethanol’s disadvantages can be
  avoided if a source other than corn is used.
 In regards to a hybrid car,one of the main
  problems is that the car runs on two
  motors;therefore it is not efficient enough to
  perform as well as a non-hybrid. The main
  problems with ethanol is that it is highly
  explosive(and also toxic),and since it burns
  faster,the hybrid is unable to save this energy
  while on the road(it is useless to own a
Other factors
   E85 burns out faster than regular fuel,causing hybrid to be
    constantly filled up because of loss of fuel. One way to improve
    hybrid cars is to find a way to replace the ethanol fuel that is
    currently being used. Manufacturers should find an alternative
    fuel besides E85 in order to make hybrid more self-sufficient.
    Manufacturers should also find a way to lessen the complex
    components that make up the hybrid.
   Since ethanol is highly explosive, there should be an alternative
    in making the hybrid safer because this is life threatening
    {especially to children who are exposed to hybrids} and this
    could save a lot of lives if it were to be done. We only have one
    million and we need five million.

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