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'International aspect of the Bologna Process'

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					‘International aspect of the Bologna
              Process’
                    BALANCE Project Seminar
                   Barcelona, 13-14 December 2007

          Robert Wagenaar* and Luigi F. Donà dalle Rose**

•Chair Dutch team of Bologna Experts, Joint co-ordinator TUNING Projects
     **Italian team of Bologna Experts, Tuning Managing Committee

                     * University of Groningen (Netherlands)
                     ** University of Padova (Italy)
       International aspect of the Bologna
       Process

Title to be understood in two ways:
1.External Dimension of the Bologna Process


2.The impact of the Bologna Process at
  institutional and subject area level for
  European and their third country partner
  institutions and their learners:
Paradigm Change in European Higher Education
         The Bologna Process
• A season of reforms in 45 countries: 1999-2010

• The strength of the process rests on their voluntary
  cooperation to create the EHEA – European Higher
  Education Area

• Objectives and instruments: new degree structure,
  the European Qualification Framework (EQF), quality
  assurance (QA), ECTS, Diploma Supplement, … should
  be implemented in a coherent and compatible
  manner
              BOLOGNA ACTION LINES
•Bologna Declaration (June 19th, 1999)
    1. Adoption of a system of easily readable and comparable Degrees
    2. Adoption of a system essentially based on two cycles
    3. Establishment of a system of credits
    4. Promotion of mobility
    5. Promotion of European cooperation in quality assurance
    6. Promotion of the European dimension in HE (higher education)
•Prague Communiqué (May, 2001)
    7. Lifelong Learning
    8. Higher education institutions and students
    9. Promoting the attractiveness of the European HE Area
•Berlin Communiqué (September, 2003)
     10. EHEA and ERA - two pillars of the knowledge based society
The social dimension of higher education might be seen as an overarching or
transversal action line                                                       4
International aspect of the Bologna
Process
  Findings of Ministerial Working Group on External Dimension (2005-2006)




          Competitiveness, attractiveness,……
          openness and cooperation ……..
The Strategy for a EHEA in a global setting
           guiding principles
• European heritage and values
  institutional autonomy, academic freedom, firm belief in democracy, human
  rights and the rule of law, cultural and religious dialogue and tolerance

• Participation of all stakeholders in an atmosphere of trust
• Geographical scope: world wide
• 5 core policy areas:
   – Improving information on the EHEA
   – Promoting EHE to enhance its attractiveness and competitiveness
   – Strengthening cooperation based on partnership and solidarity; special
     attention to developing countries (balanced exchanges and capacity
     building)
   – Intensifying policy dialogue (a global HE cooperation?)
   – Furthering recognition of qualifications (Lisbon Recognition Convention,
     ENIC and NARIC networks)  policy issues (emphasis on Learning
     Outcomes, concept of ‘substantial differences’, recognition of prior
     learning
           Points for attention - 1
• Systems that develop without due regard to
  the outside world run a high risk of failure:
  – Need for clear and comprehensive information
  – Consider seriously and learn from world echoes to
    European reforms


• Existence of a general HE modernization
  agenda: broadening access, diversifying study
 programmes, quality enhancement, employability, links to
 economy, mobility, international students, recognition of study
 periods and degrees
             Points for attention - 2
• The principle of "HE policy development in
  partnership" :
 virtues of the Bologna Process and echoes from other parts of the
 world


• Diversity is an asset and should not prevent
  adoption of common denominators.
  - Examples in the EHEA:
      Overarching framework for qualifications of EHEA,
      Standards and guidelines for quality assurance in the EHEA,
      ECTS,
      Tuning methodology,
      …….
  - and in the Strategy?
                   International aspect of the Bologna
                   Process

Is there a encompassing methodology available to implement Bologna at institutional and subject
 area level?

•Comparability
•Transparency
•Compatibility
•Accessibility
•Mobility (enhanced by structural and social means)
•Recognition                  The TUNING
•Quality
•Employability                  approach
•Competitiveness
•Openness and External dimension
•Relevance
•Cultural diversity
•Promotion of intercultural and inter-religious understanding
•These are the elements on which the EHEA Attractiveness depends
                 International aspect of the Bologna
                 Process

                         Project
        TUNING EDUCATIONAL STRUCTURES IN EUROPE
                                   (and beyond …)

•       A project for and by universities (strongly supported by
             the European Commission: financially and morally)
    •    Large scale project focusing on subject area level
         (Business, Chemistry, Earth Sciences, Education, European Studies, History,
                            Mathematics, Nursing, Physics, etc.)

                        Tuning Motto
    Tuning of educational structures and programmes on
            the basis of diversity and autonomy
       International aspect of the
Its strength and size
      Bologna Process

                 Tuning Europe          Size and Strength
                                 (2000-2008):
                   1. ITS SIZE AND STRENGTH
                                         • 2001 EU + EFTA countries
                                         (Socrates - Erasmus)
                                         •2003 New EU member states
                              2006       + Candidate countries
                                         (Socrates – Erasmus)
                                         •2005 Ukraine + countries
                                         South-East Europe (Tempus),
                                         •2006/7 Russia (Tempus) +
                                         Georgia (Tempus)
                                         • 2007 Turkey (Socrates-
                                         Erasmus)
                                2007
           Tuning America Latina

           2003 - 2007        Argentina
                              Bolivia
                              Brasil
                              Chile                    19
                              Colombia
                              Costa Rica
                                                    countries
                              Cuba                 (ministries +
                              Ecuador                Rectors’
subjects                      El Salvador
                              Guatemala            Conferences)
                              Honduras
                              México
                              Nicaragua               + 186
                              Panamá
                              Paraguay             Universities
                              Perú
                              Dominican Republic
                              Uruguay
                              Venezuela
                                                        Other
                                                        regions?
                      International aspect of the
                      Bologna Process

Universities’ contribution to the Bologna Process

             A PROJECT BY AND FOR UNIVERSITIES

• Implementation of the Bologna Process at subject area
  level
• Develop best ways to introduce the two / three cycle
  system
• Promoting transparency in Higher Education
• Focus on employability and citizenship
• Focus on professional and academic profiles
                       Bologna: Make it real !

The Contribution of Tuning (2)

• Europe wide introduction of Learning Outcomes and Competences
  approach
• Change of paradigm: from staff centred to learner centred teaching,
  learning and assessment (input to output based)
• Introduction of a common language ( Tuning glossary!)
• Distinction between generic and subject specific competences
• Transfer of ECTS from a transfer to a student workload based credit
  accumulation and transfer system
                     Bologna: Make it real !

The Contribution of Tuning (3)
• Raising awareness of the importance of quality in process and
  delivery
• Responds to growing demands of a lifelong learning society
  which requires more flexibility and differentiation


  Tuning has identified key issues, has developed a
  consistent approach on the basis of synthesizing theories
  and methodologies for purpose
                            International aspect of the
                            Bologna Process
The Contribution of Tuning (3)
• Raising awareness of the importance of quality in
  process and delivery
• Responds to growing demands of a lifelong learning
  society which The workof TUNING is ofis of importance for the
            The work of TUNING great great
   development of European, National and Sectoral Qualification Frameworks
            importance for the development
• requires more flexibility and differentiation
            of European, National and
            Sectoral Qualification Frameworks
   Tuning has identified key issues, has developed a
   consistent approach on the basis of synthesizing
   theories and methodologies for purpose
               Qualification Frameworks
                Qualification Frameworks




  EQF for Lifelong
  Learning (an EC               EQF for Higher
  initiative)                     Education
  (27 countries)                (46 countries)

National Qualification        Sectoral Qualification
Frameworks                    Frameworks

            Tuning cycle level descriptors
              and reference points for
              Higher Education degree
             programmes and modules
               Qualification Frameworks

               International environment

                   EQF for LLL
NQF                                              NQF
                   EQF for HE
 Sectoral QF                              Sectoral QF




                   Internationally
                   established (subject
                   specific) reference points
                   in Tuning
                        International aspect of the
                        Bologna Process

Key Tuning contributions to the EHEA

• Transparency - Common language understood by all
  stakeholders
• Comparability and compatibility - Programme based on
  learning outcomes expressed in terms of competences
• Recognition – common reference points
• Employability and relevance - Consultation of stakeholders
• Quality and competitiveness – models for programme
  design and quality enhancement
• External dimension – reaching out to other regions
Tuning reference points?
                                              Approaches
          Generic                                 to       Student
            and                                Teaching,   Workload
          Subject                              Learning
                                  Level                      (ECTS
          Specific
                                                 and        credits)
        competences   Profile   Descriptors
   Quality                                    Assessment
 Enhancement




                      Tuning
              International aspect of the
Tuning approach
                Bologna Process



Its marks a shift from:

• Input to output

• Content to competences            LEARNING

• Teacher oriented to

 student centred
                       International aspect of the
                       Bologna Process

Characteristics of the Tuning reference points
• Commonly developed by consensus
• Open ended to welcome diversity
• Dynamic - subject to development
• Reference points, only reference points


TUNING has developed cycle level descriptors and reference
points for a range of subject areas These are reflected in the
Tuning templates of Summary of Subject Area Findings (bench
mark papers)
                    International aspect of the
                    Bologna Process

Profile (of a degree programme)


• Developed from awareness of social needs

• Outcomes of consultation process of stakeholders

• Diversity based on institutional strengths

• In dialogue with European reference points

• Described in competences and learning outcomes
                     International aspect of the
                     Bologna Process


What is a competence?
Tuning definition of competences
• Competences represent a dynamic combination of
  knowledge, understanding, skills and abilities.
• Fostering competences is the object of educational
  programmes.
• Competences are formed in various course units and
  assessed at different stages.

  [competences are obtained by the student]
                         International aspect of the
                         Bologna Process


What is a learning outcome?
  Level of competence is expressed in terms of Learning outcomes:

• Statements of what a learner is expected to know, understand and
  be able to demonstrate after completion of learning.
• They can refer to a single course unit or module or else to a period
  of studies, for example, a first or a second cycle programme.
• Learning outcomes specify the requirements for award of credit.

  [learning outcomes are formulated by academic staff]
                                International aspect of the
                                Bologna Process

   Tuning contribution
   European Credit Transfer and Accumulation system (ECTS):
   Student workload and learning outcomes based
• Recognition of its importance as a realistic tool
• Best use of student time
• Description of ranges of variation in time in Europe
• Incorporation of learning outcomes
First Cycle (Bachelor) 180 -240 ECTS credits ; Second Cycle (Master) ; typically 90 -120, with a
   minimum of 60 at MA-level
One credit corresponds with 25 to 30 hours of student work
Student workload ranges from 1500 to 1800 hours per academic year
                  International aspect of the
                  Bologna Process



Levels
• Relation with QF for the EHEA and EQF (both based on
 descriptors)

• Progression within programme

• Own (sub) levels according to subject area
                   International aspect of the
                   Bologna Process


 Other crucial elements:


Approaches to Teaching, Learning and Assessment
(outcome based)



Quality enhancement of degree programme (internal
quality culture)
                            Tuning dynamic quality
                            development circle
            Definition of academic
                                               Identification
            and professional
                                               of resources
            profiles
                          Programme design: definition of
                          learning outcomes / competences

Evaluation
and                                                                Construction of
improvement                                                        curricula:
(on the basis
                       Programme quality assurance                 content and
of feed back                                                       structure
and back
forward)


                Selection of types of          Selection of teaching and
                assessement                    learning approaches
                       International aspect of the
                       Bologna Process

Where are we today?
• Universities have understood the need for change

• Tuning has developed a consistent methodology and series of
  reference points at Subject Area level to assist in the process of change

• Process of validation of Tuning approach and Subject Area reference
  points

• Dissemination of the Tuning approach at country, institutional and
  subject area level as well as in other (non-European) regions and
  countries
                      International aspect of the
                      Bologna Process

What has been done?

Validation
 Tuning has organized three validation conferences:
    • Natural Sciences (23 March 2007)
    • Health Care sector (22 June 2007)
    • Humanities and Social Sciences (5-6 Nov. 2007)

      Very positive comments by renowned international peers
                        International aspect of the
                        Bologna Process

What has been done?

Dissemination
• Tuning has published a key publication in English about its
  methodology which has been translated in: English, Croatian, French,
  German, Italian, ‘Macedonian’, Portuguese, Russian, Serbian, Spanish,
  Ukrainian. (Slovenian and Polish in preparation)

• Tuning will publish in 2007 and 2008 some 20 Subject Area brochures
  containing Subject Area Findings (including level descriptors and
  reference points). Others will follow.

European contribution to the development of global standards
                  International aspect of the
                  Bologna Process

Relevance of the Bologna Process as well as the TUNING
approach for the international Higher Education
Community:

• More harmony in European Higher Education
• Better international understanding of national
educational systems in Europe
• International cooperation regarding the development of
global reference points for the minimum level / quality of
subject areas / degree programmes
• One European Higher Education Area based on common
reference points reflected in Qualification Frameworks will
facilitate mobility of students and graduates.
                    International aspect of the
                    Bologna Process


Web mail addresses for more detailed
information:

http://tuning.unideusto.org/tuningeu

or

www.rug.nl/let/tuningeu

http://tuning.unideusto.org/tuningeu
ideusto.org/tuningeu

				
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