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Transitions to Modern Times
  Growth of Modern Nations –
     Absolute Monarchs
From 1500s – 1700s, rulers in Spain,
France, and elsewhere gained enormous
– Absolute monarchs – rulers who have
  complete authority in government and over
  the lives of the people they govern
– Europe’s absolute monarchs believed they
  ruled by divine right (theory in which a ruler’s
  authority came from God)
               The Sun King
Louis XIV of France
Made himself center of
Symbol was the sun
Suggested that just as
the Earth depended on
the sun for survival, so,
too, did the people of
France depend on their
king for their well-being
Limited Monarchy in England
In England, monarchs tried,          Parliament
but failed to win the same
powers Louis enjoyed in Fr.          2nd limit on royal power
Limited monarchy – gov’t in          Assembly made up of:
which a monarch does not             – House of Lords
have absolute power                  – House of Commons
Magna Carta – 1215, English
nobles forced King John to           Over the centuries,
sign                                 Parliament won certain
 – Guaranteed nobles certain         powers
    rights                           – Right to approve new tax
 – King had to consult them            laws
    before creating new taxes        – Controlling finances =
 – Stated that nobles accused          control over monarch
    of crimes had right to a trial
    by their peers, or equals
 – Established idea that the
    king had to respect the law
       Scientific Revolution
1500s-1600s new technology and new methods
of research led to explosion of knowledge =
scientific revolution
Changed way Europeans viewed the world and
laid foundations of modern science
Renaissance scholars developed new approach
to scientific study – scientific method
– Step-by-step approach that emphasized
  experimentation and observation
– Relied on mathematics rather than ancient principles
  to test results and prove theories
      Advances in Astronomy
1543, Polish mathematician &      Galileo Galilei (Italy) perfected
astronomer, Nicolaus              the telescope to effectively
Copernicus challenged             observe the sky and declared
traditional teachings about the   that the planets moved around
universe                          the sun
Many ancient Greeks though         – Challenged teachings of
the Earth stood at center of         Catholic Church and Church
universe and all heavenly            officials put him on trial
bodies revolved around it          – Threatened with death if he
 – The Church accepted this          refused to admit his errors
   view b/c it placed humans at      publicly, G. stated that his
   center of universe                ideas were wrong (but they
                                     were not!)
C. used mathematics to show       Isaac Newton (England)
that the Earth revolved around
the sun                            – Proved what G. had observed
                                   – Invented calculus – used to
Many scholars and religious          prove gravity
leaders rejected C.’s ideas at
the time, but ideas eventually
proven correct
        The Enlightenment
With its emphasis on natural laws, Scientific
Revolution influenced philosophers
Felt confident they could discover natural laws
that governed human behavior, just as Newton
and Copernicus had discovered laws that
governed physical objects
1700s, European philosophers thought people
could use reason to free themselves from
ignorance and superstition
Believed people who were “enlightened” by
reason could perfect themselves and society
Ideas discussed during Enlightenment became
basis for today’s democratic governments
         Enlightenment Ideas
Natural rights
– John Locke (England) set out some basic ideas of Enlighten. In his Two
  Treatises of Government
– Regarded gov’t as a contract between the ruler and those he ruled
  (social contract theory)
– Believed people had certain natural rights:
      Right to life, liberty, and property
      Gov’t had duty to protect those rights
      If ruler failed to protect rights, people had the right to rebel
      Rulers should stay in power only as long as they had the consent of
      those they governed
– Voltaire
– Wrote pamphlets that poked fun at France’s backwardness compared to
  the advances in Britain
– Urged religious toleration, freedom of the press and speech
       Enlightenment Ideas
Separation of powers
– Monesquieu wrote The Spirit of Laws
     Discussed various forms of gov’t
     Argued that the best gov’t was one based on principle of
     separation of powers among three branches – legislative,
     executive, judiciary
     If each branch had its own powers and responsibilities then
     no branch could dominate any of the others
– Rousseau
– Supported revolutionary idea that all people are born
– Opposed titles of rank and nobility
– Gov’t, he believed, belonged to the people and should
  represent the general will of the majority
Revolutions for Independence
American Revolution               French Revolution
– Enlightenment ideas fueled      – Amer. Rev. & Enlightenment
  desire for freedom in             helped trigger revolution in
                                    France (late 1700s)
  Britain’s 13 colonies
                                  – Huge economic crisis
– 1776, colonists issued
                                  – People hungry and angry at
  Declaration of                    King Louis XVI (1789)
                                  Stages of French Rev.
– Echoed Locke’s ideas
                                  – Early reforms = National
  about “life, liberty, and the     Assembly drew up new
  pursuit of happiness”             constitution; swept away old
You know the story                  feudal order; ended many
                                    privileges of nobles
– Decl. of Indep., the
                                  – The French Republic =
  Constitution & Bill of Rights     radical; Reign of Terror;
  became symbols of                 traitors beheaded; led by
  freedom to people around          Maximilien Robespierre
  the world                         (Committee of Public Safety)
           The Napoleonic Age
1779, Napoleon Bonaparte won            Wars of Napoleon
control of the French government        Conquered an empire that
By 1804, gained enough power to         extended from Spain in the west
proclaim himself “Emperor of the        to the borders of Russia in the
French”                                 east
A majority of French voters             Conq. helped spread revolutionary
approved this action                    ideas of liberty and equality to
Did not return to old system (abs.      peoples of E.
mon.)                                   At same time, Nap.’s successes =
Issued Napoleonic Code                  growth of nationalism among
 – Law code that kept the most          peoples he conquered
   important rights won by the people   As nationalist feelings grew,
   during the revolution                revolts against Fr. rule erupted
 – Code recognized all men created      Eventually Nap. forced in to exile
   equal before the law; protected
   freedom of religion                  1814, Eur. Leaders meet at
 – Made reforms to strengthen           Congress of Vienna
   French economy                       Set out to restore order in Europe
                                        after 25 years of rev. and war
                                        Many wanted to go back to
                                        traditional ways, but revolutionary
                                        ideas lingered
  Industrial Revolution – Stage 1
       (1750-1850, Britain)
Agricultural revolution (1700s)   Factory system
– small farms were combined,      Indust. Rev. began in British
or enclosed, to make larger,      textile industry
more efficient ones               Inventors produced new
Farmers began to grow new         machines that reduced time
crops and use new                 req’d to spin and weave wool
technologies such as the seed     & cotton
drill and iron plow               Running water was needed to
 – Result – increased food        power machines so factory
   production improved people’s
                                  owners built spinning mills
   diet and health = rapid pop.
   growth                         near rivers
At same time, fewer people        New machines led to growth of
needed for farming so             factory system (brought
unemployed farmers formed a       workers and machines
large pool of available labor     together in one place to
                                  manufacture goods)
Improved Transportation &
              Indust. Rev. brought
              advances in transportation
              and communication
              Britain built network of
              roads, bridges and canals
              to connect all parts of the
              Mid-1800s, steam-powered
              railroads and ships were
              providing improved, faster
              transportation around the
              At same time, inventions
              like the telegraph
            Why Britain?
Large iron and coal resources needed to provide
power for machines
Was a major commercial nation where
merchants had the capital ($$) to invest in new
Abundant supply of cheap labor
Colonies that supplied raw materials and
provided a market for finished goods
British gov’t encouraged improvement in
transportation and used its navy to protect
British trade
   Industrial Revolution – Stage 2
(mid-1800s -1914, nations of Western
           Europe & U.S.)
After 1850s, other countries began to industrialize –
Belgium, France, Germany, U.S., Japan
1890s, U.S. had overtaken Britain as world’s leading
industrial producer
German industry rivaled both Britain and U.S. by 1900
New inventions in science were improving industry
 –   Electric generators (physics) replaced steam engines
 –   Telephone and radio (improved communication)
 –   Thomas Edison – phonograph and light bulb
 –   Internal combustion engine = automobiles
New methods of production to meet growing demand for
 – Assembly line – complex job of assembling many parts is broken
   down into smaller tasks, each performed by an individual worker
 – Introduced by Henry Ford
Conditions in Cities:
– Unsafe buildings
– Little light or ventilation
– Open sewers (waste,
  dead animals, etc.)
– Diseases ran rampant
  Social Consequences
– People (men,
  women and
– Hours (14 hours a
  day 6 days a week)
– Not on seasons but
  the almighty clock
dirty and poorly lit
dangerous working
Laid off (fired) with
little warning
   Europe in Two World Wars
                                 World War II
World War I                      Causes
                                   – Growing nationalism in Germany and
MAIN Causes                           bitterness towards Allies for being
 – Militarism                         blamed for the war
 – Alliances                       – Extremely poor economy in Germany
                                      b/c of reparations
 – Imperialism
                                 Germans looking for hope in a desperate
 – Nationalism                   time = HITLER
Trench warfare on eastern and      – Allies (U.S., Britain, France) versus
western fronts between Central        Axis Powers (Germany, Italy, Japan,
Powers (Germany, Austria-             Russia at first)
Hungary, Ottoman Empire) and     Holocaust – 6 million Jews, gypsies and
Allies (Britain, France, U.S.,   mentally disabled are systematically
Russia)                          exterminated and/or experimented upon)
Treaty of Versailles = END       D-Day (June 6, 1944) Allies land on coast
                                 of France (Normandy) and begin march
Germany blamed for entire war    toward Berlin
and forced to pay reparations    Russians march towards Berlin from east
                                 War in Pacific – Japan vs. U.S.
                                   – Ends when two atomic bombs on
                                   – Hiroshima and Nagasaki
       Cold War in Europe
Two Germanies
West Germany governed collaboratively
by democratic U.S., Britain & France
– Economy boomed = people happy
Germany (east) governed by Communist
– Economy declined = people unhappy
– Berlin Wall divided east and west Berlin
        Cold War Europe
Germany unites! (October 1990)
Soviet Union breaks apart
During 1990s, many European gov’ts
created welfare states
– Government provides a wide variety of
  programs to improve its citizens’ well-being
– Gov’t pays for programs social programs with
  tax money = E. pay high taxes
        The Chunnel
Dec. 1, 1990, French and
British workers shook hands
150 ft. beneath the English
Channel (under the water in a
 – 1st time since Ice Age Britain
   was linked by land to the
   European continent
Paris-London trip by bullet
 – Was 7 hrs now less than 3
Some Britons sad to lose their
status as separate nation, but
accepted Chunnel as part of
changing world of Europe
Unifying Europe – European Union
Reduction of trade barriers within Europe
Less barriers = created larger market and
spurred economic growth
15 members
Encourages free movement of goods, people,
and capital among member nations
Promotes common economic policies & seeks
political unity within Europe
By mid-1990s, EU took on new role to ensure
stability of newly formed eastern E. countries
 – Provided economic aid
     Literature and the Arts
Historical developments help shape literature
and the arts
Many peoples of E. have own lang. & national
cultures, but share common heritage whose
roots lie in Greece and Rome and in biblical
As European nations expanded overseas, they
introduced their art forms to peoples throughout
the world and at same time, Europeans
absorbed important ideas from civ. in Africa,
Asian and the Americas
Early 1800s, many writers
reacted against Enlightenment
and its emphasis on reason
Created movement called
Valued feelings and emotions
above reason
– Glorified nature, Middle Ages
  as a heroic period (“Robin
  Hood”, Hunchback of Notre
– Also reflected spirit of
      Grimm’s Fairy Tales – Jakob
      & Wilhelm Grimm roamed
      German countryside
      collecting folktales
mid-1800s, some writers began to rebel against
romantics’ emphasis on emotion
Turned to realism – school of writing whose goal was to
describe life as it really was
Writers examined social problems caused by
urbanization and the evils of industrial society
– David Copperfield, Oliver Twist (Charles Dickens)
     Exposed social ills such as slum conditions and mistreatment of
Charles Dickens
             Modern Writers
1900s writers experimented w/new styles and forms
Ideas of Austrian physician Sigmund Freud greatly
influenced literature
Explored how the unconscious part of the mind affects
human behavior
– Marcel Proust – Remembrance of Things Past
– Virginia Woolf & James Joyce – used inner monologues to
  reveal the subconscious minds of their characters
World Wars left many writers disillusioned
Began to reject long-held beliefs
– Simone de Beauvoir, Albert Camus, Jean-Paul Sartre
– searched for meaning in what they saw as chaotic and
  meaningless world
               The Visual Arts
Like writers, artists responded to changing social
conditions and values
1800s, romantic artists created huge landscapes that
glorified the awesome power of nature
Painters charged their work with emotions that ranged
from joy to terror
– John Constable
     Before wife’s death paintings utilized light, shade and vivid colors to
     produce realistic landscapes
     After wife’s death paintings became less colorful reflecting his
     somber emotions
– Francisco Goya
     Blended romanticism and nationalism
     Painting Third of May shows foreign invaders executing Spanish
     patriots who die nobly in the cause of liberty
Third of May – Francisco Goya
Late 1800s, school of painting called
impressionism revolutionized art
– Tried to capture fleeting visual “impressions”
  made by light and shadows
– Place bright, glowing colors side by side to
  create shimmering effects to capture viewer’s
    Claude Monet, Edgar Degas, Paul Cezanne,
    Pierre Auguste Renoir
Claude Monet
Blue Dancers
Edgar Degas
Pyramid of

Un Coin de Table by Paul Cezanne
                  Modern Art
1900, artistic styles change rapidly
Artists often distort or exaggerate the real world
to convey a particular feeling or idea
Marcel Duchamp
– Copied Da Vinci’s Mona Lisa, but with a mustache to
  express disgust w/ modern society (dadaists)
– Meant to shock viewers
Pablo Picasso
– Studied art of other cultures
– Pioneered new art forms
     Cubism – use of geometric blocks of color to show subject
     from many different angles at same time
                          Modern Art

Mona Lisa recreated Marcel Duchamp   Three Musicians or Musicians in Masks
                                           by Pablo Picasso (cubism)
Many E. musical traditions had origins in
By late 1700s, E. music reached a peak of
creativity in Austria and Germany
Classical composers
– Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart,
  Ludwig van Beethoven
1800s, opera blends orchestral music, skilled
singing, and dramatic acting to tell as story
Italian composers Giacomo Puccini and
Guiseppe Verdi
– La Boheme
– Madama Butterfly
– La Traviata
German opera by Richard Wagner drew on
German legends to create powerful musical
dramas (Hitler loved Wagner!)
                     Modern Music
                                     Claude Debussy –
                                     impressionist comp.
                                     – Used sounds to suggest
                                       moods and images such as
                                       moonlight or the wind
                                     Other composers rejected
                                     traditional styles and
                                     – Arnold Schoenberg (Austria)
                                       experimented with atonal
                                       music, or music w/o a key
                                     Technology opened up new
                                     directions for modern music
                                     – Composers start using
        Delia Derbyshire               electronic sounds to produce
female pioneer of electronic music

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