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					                                                                       Diamond Detectors Ltd
Diamond Detectors Ltd
Diamond Detectors Ltd
                        Diamond Detectors
                        Introduction to DDL
                        Facilities / Investments
                        Markets / Applications Partnerships / Projects
                        DDL Proprietary Contact Technology


                         Alex Brown Sales & Marketing




                        13 July, 2011      Diamond Detectors Limited   1
                                                                       Diamond Detectors Ltd
Diamond Detectors Ltd
Diamond Detectors Ltd
                        Diamond Detectors
                        Introduction to DDL
                        Facilities / Investments
                        Markets / Applications Partnerships / Projects
                        DDL Proprietary Contact Technology


                         Alex Brown Sales & Marketing




                        13 July, 2011      Diamond Detectors Limited   2
                                                                                         Introduction to DDL




                                                                                                         Diamond Detectors Ltd
Diamond Detectors Ltd

                        Press release Thursday 3rd May 2007
                                    “Element Six Spins Out New Company to Develop Diamond Detectors…….




                                   June 2007, DDL Moves into new office, Poole, Dorset




                                                 2008, BAE systems acquires 50% share in DDL




                        13 July, 2011                Diamond Detectors Limited                       3
                                                                       Diamond Detectors Ltd
Diamond Detectors Ltd
Diamond Detectors Ltd
                        Diamond Detectors
                        Introduction to DDL
                        Facilities / Investments
                        Markets / Applications Partnerships / Projects
                        DDL Proprietary Contact Technology


                         Alex Brown Sales & Marketing




                        13 July, 2011      Diamond Detectors Limited   4
                                                                                      Facilities / Investments




                                                                                                                  Diamond Detectors Ltd
Diamond Detectors Ltd

                        “From Concept through Design & Prototype to Manufacture”


                                        Facilities                                Expertise
                                       Diamond Lab                              Material Processing
                                         Laser Lab                         Lapping & Polishing Processes
                                      Chemistry Lab                           Laser Dicing & Shaping
                             Lithography and Assembly Clean               Metallization (e.g. Ti, Pt, Au, Al..)
                                rooms. (class 1000 & 10000)              Neutron Scintillation Coating 6LiF
                                        Design Suite                    Lithography (sandwich,strips,pixels)
                                                                              Die Fabrication and Test
                                                                                 Die/Wire Bonding.
                                                                                      Packaging
                                                                                  Characterisation.
                                                                             Electronics Development




                        13 July, 2011                Diamond Detectors Limited                                    5
                                                                       Facilities / Investments




                                                                                       Diamond Detectors Ltd
Diamond Detectors Ltd

                        “From Concept through Design & Prototype to Manufacture”


                           Concept - Design                    Manufactured Devices




                        13 July, 2011      Diamond Detectors Limited                  6
                                                                                                                                                                      Facilities / Investments




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Diamond Detectors Ltd
Diamond Detectors Ltd

                                                     “From Concept through Design & Prototype to Manufacture”

                                                                                                         Device Fabrication




                                                                                                                                                           Dage 4000 Wire bond pull tester‫‏‬
                                                                            Magnetron Sputtering‫‏‬




                                                                                                                                                                                                                Aluminium & Gold wedge and




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ball bonding (K&S 4124)‫‏‬
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ‫‏‬
                        Quazer Laser Dicing‫‏‬




                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ball wire bonding
                                                                                                                  Evap‫ ‏‬ration & Milling
                                                                                                                  Sputtering & E-Beam
                                                         Laser cutting, dicing & sputtering system




                                                                                                                      o




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Universal wedge bonder (K&S
                        ‫‏‬



                                                                                 Semi Automatic Scaife
                           Optical Profiler NT9100




                                                                                                                                           Metallisation




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4523) ‫‏‬
                                                        Lapping, Polishing and Semi-automatic scaife
                                                                                                                                                                                              Wire Bonding (Strip Detector)




                                                     13 July, 2011                                       Diamond Detectors Limited                                                                                                           7
                                                                                       Facilities / Investments




                                                                                                       Diamond Detectors Ltd
Diamond Detectors Ltd

                        “From Concept through Design & Prototype to Manufacture”

                                                Characterisation




                                          Typical process specifications :-
                                          Polycrystalline standard polish Ra < 20nm
                                          Polycrystalline detector polish Ra < 12nm
                                          Polycrystalline Super polish      Ra < 5nm
                                          Single crystal detector polish Ra < 1nm




                        13 July, 2011        Diamond Detectors Limited                                8
                                                                                  Facilities / Investments




                                                                                                           Diamond Detectors Ltd
                        Manufacturing 2009 update / 2010 plans
Diamond Detectors Ltd

                                        2009 update                                2010 plans
                            Licensed CAT-5 site (Sr-90 37MBq)         Q1, automated ccd measurement
                            Alpha, Beta, Gamma and X-ray sources      capability
                            Dicing technique permits two 100          Yield improvement on 50 and 100 micron
                            micron plates from single crystal          plates enables standard pricing
                            Scaifing specialist improves single       Batch production of standard products
                            crystal polishing – polishing lines        Teething issues with new equipment
                            removed                                    resolved – increases rate of development
                            Laser Shaping, Dicing & Vacuum            1 micron lithography tools under
                            sputtering (including ion beam             evaluation
                            polishing) teething problems               (or 120k budgeted for spray coater)
                            (equipment failures) resolved              Develop techniques to hold diamond
                            New Jigs & Fixtures                       during scaife



                         2009 - under-resourced, equipment issues (largely
                         addressed), yield issues, significant investments, increase
                         in capabilities
                         2010 – yield improvements, significant investments,
                         standard products, increase in capabilities

                        13 July, 2011              Diamond Detectors Limited                              9
                                                                       Facilities / Investments




                                                                                       Diamond Detectors Ltd
Diamond Detectors Ltd



                        Intrinsic Polycrystalline          Intrinsic single crystal




                        13 July, 2011      Diamond Detectors Limited                  10
                                                                       Diamond Detectors Ltd
Diamond Detectors Ltd
Diamond Detectors Ltd
                        Diamond Detectors
                        Introduction to DDL
                        Facilities / Investments
                        Markets / Applications Partnerships / Projects
                        DDL Proprietary Contact Technology


                         Alex Brown Sales & Marketing




                        13 July, 2011      Diamond Detectors Limited   11
                        High Tech Application of Diamond




                                                                            Diamond Detectors Ltd
Diamond Detectors Ltd


                        Diamond Detectors focus includes...
                           Diamond Wide Band Gap Detectors. (solid state
                            ionizing chamber)‫‏‬
                           Diamond Sensors (Electro-chemical and Bio
                            applications)
                                                                                                                 HEP
                        Radiation detectors employed in beam lines and other applications




                                                                                         Diamond Detectors Ltd
Diamond Detectors Ltd
                        with synchrotrons, colliders and cyclotrons. Also used in satellite and
                        stellar instrumentation


                            Applications for CVD Diamond
                                 Neutron & α detection

                                 Radiotherapy, particles and x-ray

                                 Beam monitoring & diagnostics

                                 Precision tracking (inner layer) LHC / SLHC

                                 TOF

                                 Energy resolution

                                 Beam positioning

                                 Heavy ion




                          13 July, 2011                      Diamond Detectors Limited   13
                                                                          Electronic Instrumentation for
                                                                           DDL’s CVD Diamond Detector




                                                                                                               Diamond Detectors Ltd
Diamond Detectors Ltd
                        DDL’s CVD Diamond detectors with CAEN electronic solutions:
                                                                                         Waveform
                                                               N1470
                                                                                          Digitizer
                                                                HV
                                                               Power                    Running DPP
                        Source 210Po                           Supply                Trapezoidal shaping


                         Diamond
                                                                                                     USB 2.0
                         detector
                                                          In        Out             In
                                                               A422A                 DT5724
                                                          Preamplifier               Digitizer
                                                                                         Trig/Gate




    N1470                                                                             DT5724
  4 Channel                                                                       4 Channel 14 bit
Programmable                                                                      100 MS/s Digitizer
   NIM HV
Power Supply


                                            A422A
                                       Charge Sensitive
                                         Preamplifier
                                                                                                          Medical
                                                                    Example Application of




                                                                                                           Diamond Detectors Ltd
Diamond Detectors Ltd
                                                                    EL SC CVD Diamond:

                                                                    Intensity Modulated
                                                                    Radiation Therapy
                                         Focussed Photon
                                         Beam Profile              Before treatment of patient:
                                                                         • Dummy run with detector
                                                                         • Detector placed in tissue equivalent
                                                                          material to assess beam profile
                                                                         • Detector must be moved several times
                                                                          to collect enough information
                                                                          - an array of detectors would be ideal
                                                                   Treatment:
                                                                       • Patient typically receives 3 treatments,
                        Courtesy of Scanditronix                        each from a different angle of entry


                         13 July, 2011                     Diamond Detectors Limited                      15
                                                                                 Nuclear Applications
                        X-ray, Alpha, Beta, Gamma and Neutron radiation detectors for dose /




                                                                                             Diamond Detectors Ltd
Diamond Detectors Ltd
                        spectroscopy applications in nuclear power and reprocessing plants


                               Applications for CVD Diamond
                               α / β in air

                               α spectroscopy

                               α / β contamination

                               Neutron

                               X-Ray

                               Solid State Ion Chamber




                         13 July, 2011               Diamond Detectors Limited               16
                                                                                                                      Oil & Gas
                        Polycrystalline & Single-Crystal Solid-State Ionizing Chambers




                                                                                                                       Diamond Detectors Ltd
Diamond Detectors Ltd
                        Diamond with its wide band gap (5.47ev) and resilient properties makes it an ideal choice for
                        applications working in hostile environments. As a wide band gap semi-conductor the material can
                        operate at elevated temperature and in high pressure, high vibration environments



                                          Solid State /Ionizing Chamber
                                          & Electrode / Electro-Chemical properties
                                             High temperature operation (>>300C, negligible dark current pA
                                              scale)
                                             Extremely low leakage or background currents.
                                             High electron and hole motilities (fast operation in counting modes)
                                             High break down.
                                             High thermal conductivity
                                             Radiation hard.
                                             Solar blind (response to deep UV, soft and hard x-rays, particles and
                                              neutrons)
                                             Tissue equivalent dose measurement (low Z =6)
                                             Spectroscopic measurements (with single crystal)
                                             Chemical inertness.
                                             Wide electro-chemical window
                                             Bio-compatible (non-fouling)
                                             Mechanical hardness



                          13 July, 2011                  Diamond Detectors Limited                                     17
                                                                                  Projects




                                                                                   Diamond Detectors Ltd
Diamond Detectors Ltd

                          Mike Bentley, York University , (Fair beamline
                           Instrumentation)
                          Richard Hugtenburg, Swansea University, (Medical
                           Dosimeters)
                          Prof. Peter Winlove, Exeter University, (Knowledge Transfer
                           Program for diamond based bio/chemical sensors)
                          Japp Velthuis, Bristol University, (RD42 member) Case
                           Studentship for GHz fast counting applications in Civil
                           Nuclear and Particle Therapy
                          Darren Caruana, UCL, BDD electrodes for pollen
                           identification and counting
                          Various industrial partners across the DDL markets



                        13 July, 2011       Diamond Detectors Limited             18
                                                                       Diamond Detectors Ltd
Diamond Detectors Ltd
Diamond Detectors Ltd
                        Diamond Detectors
                        Introduction to DDL
                        Facilities / Investments
                        Markets / Applications Partnerships / Projects
                        DDL Proprietary Contact Technology


                         Alex Brown Sales & Marketing




                        13 July, 2011      Diamond Detectors Limited   19
                                                                             DDL Proprietary Contact Technology
                        Metallization                                (Electrical Contact Fabrication on CVD Diamond)‫‏‬




                                                                                                                                             Diamond Detectors Ltd
Diamond Detectors Ltd
                        Diamond Detectors Limited (DDL) has patented an innovative metallization technique to maximize CVD diamond
                        performance. Here we seek to highlight the issues and describe the solution.
                        The development of CVD Diamond has made possible many new applications for detecting and sensing. However,
                        manufacturing semiconductor devices in diamond present some interesting challenges due to diamond’s unique
                        characteristics. Traditional or inadequate contact fabrication may result in poor mechanical adhesion, polarization
                        effects and unrepeatable results.

                         Mechanical Adhesion
                         Specifically, the mechanical adhesion of the metal chosen as electrode on the diamond surface. A flatter smoother surface
                         presents fewer adhesion points. When a metal is thermally evaporated on diamond it may not adhere and it could peel off
                         after a short period of time with the consequent deterioration of the electrical signal measured and therefore a decrease in
                         the lifetime of the device. Mechanical adhesion is a function of the diamond / contact interface.
                         Polarization Effects
                         Polarization phenomena occur when electric currents pass through diamond if the electrical contact is not able to extract and
                         inject electrons fast enough. In this case, the neutrality of the crystal after the passage of ionizing nuclear radiations is not
                         restored in the time interval between two consecutive events. As a result, charge accumulation occurs within the crystal and
                         immobile carriers establish an electric field which acts in a direction opposite to the applied field produced by the external
                         bias voltage V. The minimisation of polarization effects requires optimal injecting contacts.
                         Repeatable Results
                         If a device is to be commercially viable it should be consistent and stable in a variety of environmental conditions. Requires
                         stable and resilient contacts.
                         Historically, there have been three main approaches to fabricate good electrical contacts on diamond:
                         1. Damaging the diamond surface in order to disrupt the sp3 bonding.
                         2. Using carbide forming metals like titanium or chromium to create a hybrid metal-diamond interface material .
                         3. Doping of diamond during growth or using ion implantation.
                         For example, to prepare good injecting contacts, several metals were used by Kozlov et al., for hole injection they used Ag,
                         Au, Pt or C deposition, aluminium or boron implantation, for electron injection P, Li or C.



                                                    Galbiati et al. IEEE TNS VOL 56 N 4 AUGUST 2009 p1863
                                              DDL Proprietary Contact Technology
                        Metallization   (Electrical Contact Fabrication on CVD Diamond)‫‏‬




                                                                                            Diamond Detectors Ltd
Diamond Detectors Ltd




                                    Galbiati et al. IEEE TNS VOL 56 N 4 AUGUST 2009 p1863
                                                                          DDL Proprietary Contact Technology
                        Metallization                             (Electrical Contact Fabrication on CVD Diamond)‫‏‬




                                                                                                                                       Diamond Detectors Ltd
Diamond Detectors Ltd


                        DDLs solution
                        To address the polarization issues mentioned above and to provide a method for forming an ohmic electrode that is also
                        durable and stable for applications in diamond radiation detectors and diamond electronics, Diamond Detectors Ltd have
                        developed and tested an innovative electrical contact using a very thin diamond like carbon layer. Diamond-like carbon (DLC)
                        is a form of amorphous carbon between diamond and graphite, containing significant portion of sp3 bonded atoms in the
                        matrix. DLC films can be grown when carbon is deposited under energetic (~10-100eV) bombardment, where the
                        instantaneous local high temperature and pressure induce a proportion of carbon atoms to bond as diamond. The conditions
                        for DLC deposition are obtained during a variety of methods, including CVD, laser ablation, magnetron sputtering, cathodic
                        arc, and ion beam deposition.
                        This innovative contact consists of a very thin (1-3 nm) diamond-like carbon film which is formed on a diamond substrate by
                        means of Argon magnetron sputtering from a carbon target. The very thin DLC layer allows for the injection of both holes and
                        electrons in the diamond substrate. Also, the DLC layer becomes a seed for the sputter deposition of high work function
                        noble metals (Pt, Au) which allow metals to cohere to the diamond surface. As platinum and gold have a higher work function
                        than diamond this permits electrons present at the diamond surface to be driven towards the noble metals via quantum
                        mechanical tunnelling through the thin DLC layer acting as a quantum mechanical tunnelling junction.

                        DDL’s patented metallization technique provides a manufacturable, high adherence diamond / contact interface with
                        minimal polarization effect while maximizing stability and contact resilience.




                                                  Galbiati et al. IEEE TNS VOL 56 N 4 AUGUST 2009 p1863                               22
                                                        DDL Proprietary Contact Technology




                                                                                            Diamond Detectors Ltd
Diamond Detectors Ltd
                        Dark Current Characteristics




                                    Galbiati et al. IEEE TNS VOL 56 N 4 AUGUST 2009 p1863   23
                        REFERENCES:




                                                                                                                          Diamond Detectors Ltd
Diamond Detectors Ltd
                        Bergonzo et al., Diamond and Related Materials, Volume 10, Issues 3-7, March-July (2001),
                        631-638

                        J.H. Kaneko et al. / Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 505 (2003) 187–190

                        Pomorski et al., Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 202, No. 11 (2005)‫‏‬

                        Gianluca Verona-Rinati “Single crystal CVD diamond neutron detectors in a p-type/intrinsic/metal layered
                        structure” , http://www-norhdia.gsi.de/talks/4th/G_Verona-Rinati.pdf

                        Galbiati et al. “Performance of Monocrystalline Diamond Radiation Detectors Fabricated Using TiW, Cr/Au
                        and a Novel Ohmic DLC/Pt/Au Electrical Contact” IEEE TNS VOL 56 N 4 AUGUST 2009 p1863

                        Angelone et al.: “NEUTRON DETECTORS BASED UPON ARTIFICIAL SINGLE CRYSTAL DIAMOND”
                        IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NUCLEAR SCIENCE, VOL. 56, NO. 4, AUGUST 2009 pp.2275-2279

                        Almaviva et al.: “Thermal and fast neutron detection in chemical vapor deposition
                        single-crystal diamond detectors” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 054501 2008

                        G.J. Schmid et al. “A neutron sensor based on single crystal CVD diamond”,
                        Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 527 (2004) 554–561

                        M. Pillon, M. Angelone, A.V. Krasilnikov, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. Phys. Res. B 101 (1995) 473.
Diamond Detectors Ltd
                        25
   Thank you




                        Diamond Detectors Limited
                        13 July, 2011
Diamond Detectors Ltd
Diamond Detectors Ltd
                        Collaborating Opportunities ?




                                                                             Diamond Detectors Ltd
Diamond Detectors Ltd


                          Custom design and prototype manufacture.
                           Let us help you develop a resilient detector/sensor
                           technology for your application using our design
                           tools, facilities and experience in collaboration with
                           your R&D team.

                          Prototype to Product (cost engineering, batch
                           processing and test)




                        13 July, 2011     Diamond Detectors Limited          26
                                          Application Diamond Sensors
                                           Bio-and Chemical Sensing




                                                                        Diamond Detectors Ltd
Diamond Detectors Ltd

                        Wide electrochemical window

                        Extremely low background current.

                        Bio-Compatible (non-fouling)

                        Very stable surface (Chemically inert)‫‏‬

                        Varied surface terminations possible

                        Mechanically robust




                         13 July, 2011                                  27
                                         Application Diamond Sensors




                                                                                     Diamond Detectors Ltd
Diamond Detectors Ltd
                        •Electro-chemical sensors (MEA, trace element analysis)‫‏‬
                         (Mining, Automotive, Medical, Food, Water, Environmental,
                          Emissions …..)‫‏‬

                        •PH-Sensors

                        •Temperature-Sensors

                        •Conductivity
                        •Replacement of Mercury Electrodes (Mercury ban widens)‫‏‬




                           Next Generation (addressable MEA)
                           under consideration

                         13 July, 2011                                               28

				
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