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The Framework for Teacher Leadership (PowerPoint) by MikeJenny

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									   Talking About Teaching:
Conversations to Improve Practice


        Charlotte Danielson
charlotte_danielson@hotmail.com
    www.danielsongroup.org
     The Complexity of Teaching

“After 30 years of doing such work, I have
concluded that classroom teaching … is
perhaps the most complex, most challenging,
and most demanding, subtle, nuanced, and
frightening activity that our species has ever
invented. ..The only time a physician could
possibly encounter a situation of comparable
complexity would be in the emergency room
of a hospital during or after a natural disaster”
                      Lee Shulman, The Wisdom of Practice
  Contributors to Professional Learning


 Self-assessment

 Reflection on practice

 Professional conversation



        “It’s all about the conversation”
       The Wisdom of Practice


Recall an occasion in which you, as a
teacher, were engaged in a productive
conversation about teaching. Who were you
speaking to? What was the situation? What
was the stated purpose of the discussion?
Opportunities for Professional Conversation

  Formal reflective conversations, following an
   observation, associated with performance
   appraisal, with an evaluator
   (a variation; a conversation with a mentor, in
   “preparation” for a formal observation)
  Coaching conversation, with mentors, peer
   coaches, or administrators
  Informal professional conversations, following
   an un-announced, “drop-in” observation
     Formal Reflective Conversations

 Purpose:
  Collect evidence of practice according to
  established standards of practice, e.g., the
  framework for teaching
 Agenda:
  Set by the administrator
 Procedure:
  - As per the district‟s policy
  - Should promote self-assessment and
  reflection on practice
 The Limitations of Formal Observation

 Teachers teach 5-6 hours per day, for about
  180 days per year
 In other words, teachers teach about 1000
  hours per year
 Formal observations take a maximum of 4
  hours per year: about 0.4% of the total
 The best one can hope for is that the
  observed lesson is typical
           HOW LIKELY IS THAT?
The “Traditional” Observation Scenario


 Observer watches a class
 Observer takes notes
 Observer “writes up” the notes
 Observer provides feedback to the teacher


        WHO IS DOING THE WORK?
         “Traditional” Observation
         (from the teacher’s perspective)


 You come to watch me teach, and you take
  notes
 Now, we are in your office, discussing the
  lesson
 All I have to do is endure the conversation;
  eventually you will stop talking and I can
  leave; I just have to live long enough!
                                            Questioning and
What is the evidence?                         Discussion

                                                                     Respect
                                                                       and
                                                                     Rapport




                   Evidence
                        •Accurate and unbiased
                        •Relevant
                        •Representative of the total


                                                        Interpretation




                                                       Judgment
                           Domain 2:The Classroom Environment
                  2a: Creating an Environment of Respect and Rapport

                                                                DOMAIN 2: THE CLASSROOM ENVIRONMENT
     Figure 4.2b                                         COMPONENT 2A: CREATING AN ENVIRONMENT OF RESPECT AND RAPPORT
                                                                                            Elements:
                                                              Teacher interaction with students Student interaction with one another



                                                         L    E V E L        O F      P      E R F O R M A N C E

ELEMENT         UNSATISFACTORY                        BASIC                                   PROFICIENT                            DISTINGUISHED
Teacher         Teacher interaction with at least     Teacher-student interactions are        Teacher-student interactions are      Teacher‟s interactions with
Interaction     some students is negative,            generally appropriate but may           friendly and demonstrate general      students reflect genuine respect
with Students   demeaning, sarcastic, or              reflect occasional inconsistencies,     caring and respect. Such              and caring, for individuals as well
                inappropriate to the age or culture   favoritism, or disregard for            interactions are appropriate to the   as groups of students. Students
                of the students. Students exhibit     students‟ cultures. Students exhibit    age and cultures of the students.     appear to trust the teacher with
                disrespect for the teacher.           only minimal respect for the            Students exhibit respect for the      sensitive information.
                                                      teacher.                                teacher.
Student         Student interactions are              Students do not demonstrate             Student interactions are generally    Students demonstrate genuine
Interactions    characterized by conflict,            disrespect for one another.             polite and respectful.                caring for one another and monitor
with one        sarcasm, or put-downs.                                                                                              one another‟s treatment of peers,
another                                                                                                                             correcting classmates respectfully
                                                                                                                                    when needed.
 Formal Reflective Conversations (cont)

A better procedure:
 Evaluator observes the lesson; takes notes;
   considers evidence against the teaching
   standards; makes preliminary interpretation
 Teacher also considers events of the lesson
   in light of the standards; interprets evidence
   against the levels of performance
 Teacher and evaluator compare notes;
   summarize strengths and areas for growth
         Coaching Conversations

 Purpose:
 Provide “another set of eyes” for a teacher
 Agenda:
 Set by the teacher
 Procedure:
 - Flexible, according to local conditions and
 schedules
 - Promote teacher self-analysis
The Informal, Unannounced Observation


 The lesson is likely to represent typical
  teaching
 Not possible to conduct a planning
  conference; therefore, the observer cannot be
  sure of the teacher‟s aims
 The time in the classroom may be very brief:
  5-15 minutes
  Informal Professional Conversations

 Purpose:
  Advance student achievement by promoting
  rigorous and engaging learning experiences
 Agenda:
  Set by the administrator or mentor/coach
 Procedure:
  - Flexible, based on time available for
  informal observations of teaching
  - Engage teachers in problem-solving
  conversations
          Limitations of Feedback

 If one regards teaching as a cognitive activity,
  then the conversation must be about the
  cognition.
 Feedback as normally offered feels
  judgmental, even condescending, patronizing
 Meaningful conversations about teaching are
  centered on asking questions and solving
  problems, rather than on feedback, convey
  professional respect.
              Conversation Skills

These are used in all three types of conversations

 Establishing rapport
 Active listening

 Linguistic skills:
  - paraphrasing
  - probing
  - clarifying
 Inviting thinking
                    Paraphrasing


 Paraphrasing – interpreting another‟s
  statement or question in one‟s own words
 Two arenas for paraphrasing are:
     content
     emotion
 A paraphrase sends three messages:
     I am listening
     I am interested/I care
     I understand you (or I‟m trying to)
       Principles of Paraphrasing


 Attend fully.
 Listen with the intention to understand.
 Capture the essence of the message: the voice,
  tone, and gesture.
 Paraphrase before asking a question; make it
  shorter than the original statement.
 Use the pronoun “you,” instead of “I.”
                   Probing


 Invite a re-statement

 Ask for an example

 Clarify (so is what you mean …?)

 Use silence
              Coaching Practice



 Observe a learning-focused conversation


 Pay attention to the skills of the coach
  (questions, rapport, paraphrasing, probing)

 Provide feedback to the coach
          Trios Coaching Conversation

 Designate A – B – C in your trios
  A = teacher; B = coach; C - observer
 3 Rounds, 7-8 minutes per round
     A =Talks about anything (1 min)
     B= Conducts a coaching conversation (5-6 min)
     C= Takes notes on the conversation (silently)
 After 1 round, C offers feedback to B (1 min)
 Rotate to new roles and repeat.
           Power and Leadership

 Teachers and administrators in schools hold
  unequal amounts of power
 In performance appraisal, the “buck” stops
  with the administrator
 Even conversations associated with
  performance appraisal can emphasize self-
  assessment and reflection on practice
 For other conversations, administrators can
  remove their evaluator “hat”
             The Basis of Trust


 Consistency
 Maintaining confidentiality
 Professional competence

 Admitting mistakes

 Protecting vulnerability
         The Research Foundation

 The nature of learning:
  - it is done by the learner
  - involves active intellectual engagement
 The nature of student motivation:
  - the need for human connection
  - the drive for competence and mastery
  - the need for autonomy and choice
  - students‟ intellectual curiosity
 Differing views of human intelligence
      The Nature of Human Learning


 Mental activity: writing, investigating,
  collecting information, collaborating
 Sustained and thoughtful reflection; what do
  we know and how do we know it?
 Focus and disciplined application: hard work
 Problem-based; answering an interesting
  question or solving an interesting problem
             Student Learning

We tend, as teachers, to think that our
students learn because of what we do. That‟s
not correct. Our students don‟t learn because
of what we do; they learn because of what
they do.

Our challenge, then, is to engage them in
intrinsically interesting work that will yield the
learning we want.
      A Quote from John Dewey


“The child is already intensely active, and the
question of education is the question of taking
hold of his activities, of giving them direction.
Through direction, through organized use,
they tend toward valuable results, instead of
scattering or being left to merely impulsive
expression.”
              John Dewey, “The School and Society,” 1900
          Theories of Intelligence
                 (Carol Dweck)


 “Entity” theory: everyone is born with a certain
  amount of intelligence, and that is that. There
  is nothing one can do to change it.

 “Incremental” theory: intelligence can be
  enhanced through learning and effort.
       Implications of Entity Theory


 Self esteem depends on easy success
 Effort, difficulty, setbacks, or higher-performing
  peers call intelligence into question
 Students are not willing to work hard; that
  might indicate one is not intelligent
 Students will pursue learning so long as it is
  easy; as soon as they encounter difficulties,
  they give up.
        Implications for Praise
             (Carol Dweck)


“When we say to children: „Wow, you did that
so quickly!‟ or „Look, you didn‟t make any
mistakes!‟ what message are we sending?
We are telling them that what we prize are
speed and perfection. Speed and perfection
are the enemy of difficult learning.”

                     Carol Dweck, Mindset, 2006
           Topics for Conversation


 Clarity of purpose
 A safe and challenging environment
 Intellectual rigor

 Smooth organization and management

 Student assumption of responsibility

 Implementation of school/district initiatives
           Watching Video Clips


 Watch the clips, paying particular attention to
  what the students are doing
 Determine which of the “big ideas” would
  provide the most fruitful topic for conversation
 Frame an initial question for the teacher
        Reflection on the Workshop


 An insight I had as a result of today‟s
  session was ….
 A concern I have related to today‟s
  content is …
 A question I have related to today‟s
  content is …

								
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