The Elements of Fiction: Important literary devices Setting • The setting is where the story takes place. Setting includes the following.. + geographical location (ex. California, Paris) + the time period (ex. 1990, WWII) + the socio-economic condition of the area (ex. wealthy suburbs, inner city) + the specific room, building, etc. (ex. a prep school, a log cabin) Setting • Can also be used to tell the reader about a character. That evening T.J. Smelled the air, his nostrils dilating with the odor of the earth under his feet. “It‟s spring,” he said, and there was a gladness rising in his voice that made us all feel the same way. “It‟s mighty late for spring”…we were all sniffing the air, too, trying to smell it the way that T.J. did, and I can still remember the sweet odor of the earth under our feet. It was the first time in my life that spring and spring earth had meant anything to me. “Antaeus” by Borden Deal Setting • Can be used for the atmosphere of the story. • During the whole of a dull, dark and soundless day, when the clouds hung oppressively low from the heavens, I have been passing alone, on horseback, through a singularly dreary track of country.” “The Fall of the House of Usher” by Edgar Allan Poe Characters • The people (or animals, things, etc. presented as people) appearing in a literary work. • Round Characters are convincing, true to life. They have many different and sometimes even contradictory personality traits. • Flat Characters are stereotyped, shallow, and often symbolic. They have only one or two personality traits. • Static Characters do not change in the course of the story. • Dynamic Characters undergo some kind of change or growth during the story, usually because of something that happens to them. Characters • Protagonist: the main character in a literary work. • Antagonist: the character who opposes the protagonist. Methods of Characterization • Direct Characterization: the author develops the personality of a character through direct statements. • “Jack had been in basic training in Florida and Dottie was there on vacation with her parents. They‟d met on a beach and struck op a conversation. Dottie was the talker, the outgoing one – the extrovert. Jack was too shy to say much around girls at all.” “Furlough – 1944” by Harry Mazer Methods of Characterization • Indirect Characterization: Revealing a character‟s personality through… 1. The character‟s thoughts, words, or actions 2. The comments of other characters 3. The character‟s physical appearance Indirect characterization through a character‟s THOUGHTS. • “Moonbeam closed his eyes and pretended to sleep all the way to Bamfield. He couldn‟t believe what he had gotten himself into. How had this happened? He‟d never held a gun in his life, much less gone hunting for animals.” “Moonbeam Dawson and the Killer Bear” by Jean Okimoto Indirect characterization through a character‟s WORDS. • “It was Kenny Griffey smiling complacently. „Miss Bird sent me after you „cause you been gone six years. You‟re in trouble…yer constipated!‟ Kenny chortled gleefully. „Wait „till I tell Caaathy!” “Here There Be Tygers” by Stephen King Indirect characterization through a character‟s ACTIONS. • “The boy held his breath; he wondered whether his father would hear his heart beating…Through a crack in the counter he could see his father where he stood, one hand held high to his stiff collar…” “I Spy” by Graham Greene Indirect characterization through APPEARANCE. • Miss Kenney was young and blond and had a boyfriend who picked her up after school in a blue Camaro.” “Here There Be Tygers” by Stephen King Plot • Plot is the literary element that describes the structure of the story. It shows the arrangement of events and actions within a story. 1. Exposition • This usually occurs at the beginning of a short story. Here the characters are introduced. We also learn about the setting of the story. Most importantly, we are introduced to the main conflict (main problem). 2. Rising Action • This part of the story begins to develop the conflict(s). A building of interest or suspense occurs. 3. Climax • This is the turning point of the story. Usually the main character comes face to face with a conflict. The main character will change in some way. 4. Falling Action • All loose ends of the plot are tied up. The conflict(s) and climax are taken care of. 5. Resolution • The story comes to a reasonable ending. Putting It All Together 1. Exposition Beginning of Story 2. Rising Action Middle of Story 3. Climax 4. Falling Action End of Story 5. Resolution Elements of Plot: Conflict • Conflict is the dramatic struggle between two opposing forces in the story. Without conflict, there would be no plot. Plot: Types of Conflict Interpersonal Conflicts: Human vs. Human Human vs. Society Human vs. Nature Internal Conflict: Human vs. Self Plot: Theme • Theme is the central idea or central message in the story. It usually contains some insight into the human condition – telling something about humans and life. • The theme can be stated directly or implied by the events and actions of the character in the story. Point of View • The perspective from which the story is told. • Who is telling the story? (For example, is it a player on the opposing team, someone watching the game) • How do we know what is happening? (For example, does a character tell us?) Omniscient Point of View • The author is telling the story directly. • “Myop carried a short, knobby stick. She struck out at random chicken she liked, and worked out the beat of a song in the fence. She felt light and good in the warm sun.” “The Flowers” by Alice Walker Limited Omniscient Point of View • Third person, told from the viewpoint of a character in the story. • “They all laughed, and while they were laughing, the quiet boy moved his bare foot on the sidewalk and merely touched, brushed the red ants that were scurrying about on the sidewalk. Secretly, his eyes shining, while his parents chatted with the old man, he saw the ants hesitate, quiver, and lie still on the cement.” “Fever Dream” by Ray Bradbury First Person Point of View • Told from the viewpoint of a character using “I”. • “Remembering – and this time it didn‟t hurt – a quiet, defeated looking, sixteen year old whose hair needed cutting badly and who had a frightened expression to them. And I decided I could tell people.” The Outsiders by S.E. Hinton Symbolism • A symbol represents an idea, quality, or concept larger than itself. • A lion can symbolize courage. • A red rose can symbolize love. • A journey can symbolize life. Elements of Fiction State Standards: Reading 3.3, 3.4, 3.7 Parts of Plot: 1.Exposition: 2.Rising Action: 3.Climax: 4.Falling Action (denouement) 5. Resolution: 6. Conflict: Man vs. _______ Explanation: 7. Theme: Explanation: 8. Types of characterization used (Direct or indirect) 1. ___________ Example: 2. ___________ Example: 3. ___________ Example: 9. Setting: When: ___________ Where: _________ 10. Point of View: Mood • The feeling created in the reader by a literary work or passage. • Can usually be described in a single word • Scary • Funny • lighthearted Tone • The writer‟s attitude toward his or her audience and subject. Imagery • The descriptive or figurative language use in literature to create word pictures for the reader. – The tree bowed in the wind Connotation • The implied meaning of a word. • Man, I worked hard and made a lot of dough last night. OR ? Denotation • The dictionary definition of a word. • Lake= an actual body of water • Lake = a vacation spot your cabin on a lake Rhetorical Question • A question that is not meant to be answered. – Do I look stupid to you?!