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Engineers Without Borders


									Engineers Without Borders
     Water Supply and Distribution System
 University of Delaware In partnership with Bakang, Cameroon
          Implementation June 2008
• Project Location: Bakang, Cameroon
    – Village of 3,000 in Highlands
• Chapter: University of Delaware
• Travel Dates: June 3-18, 2008
• History
    – SIte-Assessment trip June 2007
    – Site-Assessment trip June 2008
• Travel Team
    –   Dr. Steve Dentel
    –   Samantha Sagett
    –   Julie Trick
    –   Douglas DeVoto
    –   Sarah O’Neill
    –   Taylor King
    –   Andrew Paulus
                      Travel Logistics
Transportation Itinerary:
• June 3 - Flight from Philadelphia International Airport to Yaoundé
   Cameroon, connecting through Paris and Doula
• June 4- Arrive late afternoon in Yaoundé, Cameroon, then transported to
   hotel via car and driver arranged by Mr. Mukam
• June 5- Transported to Bakang via car and driver arranged by Mr. Mukam
• June 16 – Transported from Bakang, to Yaoundé, via car and driver
• June 17- Transported to Yaoundé airport via car and driver; Flight from
   Yaoundé to Philadelphia International Airport, connecting through Doula
   and Paris
• June 18- Arrive late afternoon at Philadelphia International Airport
Lodging Itinerary:
• June 4 – Stay in Yaoundé at Hotel Le Tango
• June 5- 16 – Stay at Mr. Mukam’s home in Bamendjou
• June 17- Stay in Yaoundé at Hotel Le Tango
             Project Objectives
1. To provide a minimum of 15 L of potable water
   per villager per day, primarily for the purposes
   of drinking and cooking.
2. Provide a water source that is significantly
   cleaner, free of fecal coliform bacteria, and
   conforms as closely as possible to WHO
3. To reduce the travel time of women and children
   collecting water through the strategic location of
   the new water system.
Solutions Matrix
                  Design Decisions
• SSF best score because of:
   –   Ease of Use
   –   Water quality
   –   Scope of Impact
   –   Cost
   –   Sustainability
• PV worst score because of:
   – Cost
   – Sustainability questions
• However, community has requested solar and their
  commitment to this design solution will make it feasible for
  the area
• Final design decision based on community acceptance
        Implementation Objectives
1.   Complete construction of 6 household biosand filters with
     community members and students at the trade school at the local
     mission to clean the existing water from streams and hand dug
2.   Start construction of an additional 6 concrete filter containers
3.   Remove the hand pump from the borehole well and install a solar-
     powered submersible pump and storage tank that can be
     expanded in the future and will increase the water supply during
     the dry season.
4.   Partner with a local NGO HydroSante on a water education
5.   Partner with the School of Public Works in Yaounde to train the
     Water Committee in technical aspects and maintenance.
6.   Work with Nura Suleiman, a local Peace Corps Volunteer, and the
     Water Committee to establish a fee structure to pay for the water.
      Path Forward: Phase I and II
• Phase I: Implementation in June 2008
   – 12 Biosand filters with the community and local brick making
     facility so that they can continue making them after the team
     has left
   – A pilot solar well project on a borehole well will be
• Phase II: Implementation in January 2009
   – Drill multiple wells with solar pump systems, a storage tank at
     the top of a hill, and a gravitational distribution network.
       • Conditional on funding and community support
   – Pilot PV system installed during the Implementation in June
     2008 will connect to this system; therefore it is critical that the
     solar pilot design consider parameters of pumping to the top of
     the hill.
  Intermittent Slow Sand Filtration:

“Under suitable circumstances, slow sand filtration may
be not only the cheapest and simplest but also the most
effective method of water treatment”

- World Health Organization’s Water and Sanitation
      Overall Slow Sand Efficiency
• More than 90% of fecal
• 100% of protozoa and
• 50-90% of organic and
  inorganic toxicants
• 95-99% of zinc, copper,
  cadmium and lead
• < 67% of iron and
• <47% of arsenic
• all suspended sediments
                 Logistics: SSF Filter
• The concrete tanks will be made
  at the Church in the center of
  Bamendjou, 5 minute drive.
    – Equipped with a concrete mixer

• Once cured, the concrete tanks
  will be approximately 211.71 lbs.

• The water committee will have a
  list of volunteers from the
  community, who will assist our
  team in lifting the concrete tanks
  into the Chief’s truck, which will
  transport the tanks to the village.
                Logistics: SSF Filter
• EWB- UD will bring 2
  previously constructed molds
  to the village

   – Six filter containers should be
     cured and ready to be filled
     by the end of our two week
     implementation trip.
       • Two will be a week into
         developing the schmutzdecke

   – Six more concrete containers
     will be somewhere in the
     curing process before the
     team leaves the community.
                Current Work
• Customizing design plans
• Building steel household SSF molds to be left
  with the community
• Prototyping slow sand filteration using a
  combination of un-sifted sand and a layer of
  iron in a concrete tank
  – Will test and analyze results
              Pilot PV System: Phase I
• Lay cement slab and cinder block base for 2 x 1000L storage tanks
• Remove hand pump from borehole well with the assistance of a
  technician from Baffousam
• Install a solar-powered submersible pump
• Cap well and run PVC pipe from the pump to two 1000 L storage tanks
• Wire a float switch from inside the tank to the controller.
• The PV panels will be located on the opposite side of the road on a pole
  mount and will also be wired to the controller.
        Pilot PV System: Phase II
• Serves 405 people
  or 13.5% of the
  population at 15
  Liters per person per
• System will be
  expanded in future
  to include
  – larger storage tank
  – multiple drilled wells
  – distribution network
PV and Pump Sizing
            11 SQF-2 Grunfos Pump
            Grundfos CU 200 control
Storage Tank
        Community Ownership and
• Water Committee will recruit volunteers for
  construction prior to arrival
• Fee on individual basis decided by water committee
• Local mission concrete brick making facility
• Monitored and supported by Peace Corps Volunteer in
• Community members and ACREST, a local NGO, will be
  trained in solar system
• Water Education campaign by HydroSante, local NGO

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