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NUTRIENT

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					NUTRIENT      SOURCES                               FUCTIONS                                             DEFICIENCY/
                                                                                                          OVERDOSE
             meat, fish, poultry,   body repair cells and make new ones. Protein is            Can contribute togout. A high-protein diet
Protein    eggs, milk, yogurt and    also important for growth and development,                  may also put a strain on the kidneys
                                                    provides energy
           cheese. (Soybeans are
           the only plant protein
             considered to be a
             complete protein),
             beans, peas, nuts,
              seeds, and grain.
             Whole grain, bran,     Cleans bowels, lowers cholesterol, lowers risk of
 Fiber                               come cancers, adds bulk to your diet and makes
                                       you feel full faster, helping you control your
                                                           weight.
            Fish oil and certain    Lowers triglycerides, reduces risk of death, heart           High doses may have harmful effects,
Omega 6        plant/nut oils         attack, abnormal heart rhythms, and strokes in             such as an increased risk of bleeding.
                                    people with known cardiovascular disease, slows
                                    the buildup of atherosclerotic plaques and lowers
                                                  blood pressure slightly.
            Red pepper, carrots,    Helps regulate the immune system (by making white                     Hypervitaminosis A:
Vitamin     spinach, cantaloupe,    blood cells), promotes healthy surface linings of the        Blurred vision, Bone pain or swelling,
                                    eyes and the respiratory, urinary, and intestinal tracts      Decreased appetite, Dizziness, vision
   A
              apricots, mango,
                                                                                                changes, Drowsiness, Fatigue, Headache,
            papaya, peas, peach,                                                               Impotence and ejaculation failure, Nausea,
           cheddar cheese, liver,                                                                 Osteoporosis, Skin and hair changes,
               egg substitute                                                                                  Vomiting
             Fruits and vegetables,     Necessary in the body to form collagen in bones,               Severe deficiency causes scurvy. The use of
Vitamin     particularly citrus fruits cartilage, muscle, and blood vessels and aids in the            vitamin C in the prevention/treatment of the
                                                                                                       common cold and respiratory infections remains
                                                       absorption of iron.                             controversial, with ongoing research.
   C
                such as oranges.

            Wheat germ, Corn,            Protect your cells against the effects of free radicals,      Taking 400 IU per day, or higher, may increase the
Vitamin E   Nuts, Seeds, Olives,
                                         important in the formation of red blood cells and helps the   risk of death.
                                         body to use vitamin K.
            Spinach and other                                                                          Taking smaller amounts, such as those found in a
            green leafy vegetables,      The ability of vitamin E to prevent cancer,                   typical multivitamin, was not harmful
            Asparagus, Vegetable         heart disease, dementia, liver disease, and
            oils -- corn, sunflower,     stroke are still not known. At lower levels,
            soybean, cottonseed          vitamin E may help protect the heart
             Beef, legumes, milk,         Nervous system and muscle functioning; flow of                  Severe chronic thiamin deficiency
Thiamin        nuts, oats, oranges,        electrolytes in and out of nerve and muscle cells           (beriberi) can result in potentially serious
                                         (through ion channels); multiple enzyme processes               complications involving the nervous
  (B1)
                pork, rice, seeds,
                                              (via the coenzyme thiamin pyrophosphate);                    system/brain, muscles, heart, and
               wheat, whole grain            carbohydrate metabolism; and production of                         gastrointestinal system.
               cereals, and yeast.         hydrochloric acid (which is necessary for proper
                                            digestion). Because there is very little thiamin
                                          stored in the body, depletion can occur as quickly
                                                           as within 14 days.
               Lean meats, eggs,            Riboflavin (vitamin B2) works with the                     Deficiency of riboflavin is not common in
Riboflavi    legumes, nuts, green          other B vitamins. It is important for body                  the United States because this vitamin is
                                                                                                       plentiful in the food supply. Symptoms of
   n
            leafy vegetables, dairy        growth and red blood cell production and
                                                                                                       significant deficiency syndromes include
            products, milk. Breads              helps in releasing energy from                         sore throat, swelling of mucous
                & cereals often                         carbohydrates.                                 membranes, mouth or lip sores, anemia,
            fortified w/ riboflavin.                                                                   and skin disorders (water soluble)
               dairy products, poultry,     Niacin assists in the functioning of the digestive   A deficiency of niacin causes pellagra. The
   Niacin       fish, lean meats, nuts,   system, skin, and nerves. It is also important for the symptoms include inflamed skin, digestive
                                                                                                 problems, and mental impairment.
                                                     conversion of food to energy.
               and eggs. Legumes and
                 enriched breads and                                                                Large doses can cause liver damage, peptic ulcers,
                                                                                                    and skin rashes, skin flushing.
                  cereals also supply
                     some niacin.
               Beans and legumes,         Folic acid works along with vitamin B12 and               Folic acid deficiency may cause poor
   Folate Citrus fruits and juices,       vitamin C to help the body break down, use, and           growth, gray hair, swollen tongue
(Folic acid is Wheat bran and other       create new proteins. IT helps form red blood cells        (glossitis), mouth ulcers, peptic ulcer, and
                                          and helps produce DNA, the building block of the          diarrhea. It may also lead to certain types
   the man-    whole grains, Dark         human body, which carries genetic information.            of anemias.
made form of green leafy vegetables,
 folate found Poultry, pork, shellfish,   Folic acid also helps tissues grow and cells work.        Too much folic acid usually doesn't cause
       in      Liver                      Taking the right amount of folic acid before and          harm, because the vitamin is regularly
supplements)                              during pregnancy helps prevent certain birth              removed from the body through urine.
                                          defects, including spina bifida.


                beans, nuts, legumes,       Vitamin B6 helps the immune system produce                 Large doses of vitamin B6 can cause
 Vitamin          eggs, meats, fish,       antibodies; helps maintain normal nerve function            neurological disorders and numbness.
                                           and form red blood cells. The body uses it to help           Deficiency of this vitamin can cause
 B6/B12
                  whole grains, and
                                          break down proteins. The more protein you eat, the            mouth and tongue sores, irritability,
                 fortified breads and                 more vitamin B6 you need.                       confusion, and depression. (Vitamin B6
                        cereals.                                                                      deficiency is not common in the United
                                                                                                                      States.)
                   Dairy, sardines,             help muscles & blood vessels                          Osteoporosis, kidney stones, also
 Calcium         salmon, leafy green       contract/expand to secrete hormones and                     effects the heart and circulatory
                     vegetables           enzymes and to send messages through the                    system, as well as the secretion of
                                                       nervous system.                                        essential hormones
                                     Helps formation of bones and teeth. It plays an important         There is generally no deficiency of phosphorus
Phosphorus A diet that has           role in the body's utilization of carbohydrates and fats and in   because it is so readily available in the food
           adequate amounts of       the synthesis of protein for the growth, maintenance, and         supply.
           calcium and protein       repair of cells and tissues; crucial for the production of ATP,
                                     a molecule the body uses to store energy.
           also provides an                                                                            Excessively high levels of phosphorus in the blood,
                                                                                                       although rare, can combine with calcium to form
           adequate amount of        Phosphorus works with the B vitamins. It also assists in the      deposits in soft tissues such as muscle. High levels
           phosphorus.               contraction of muscles, in the functioning of kidneys, in         of phosphorus in blood only occur in people with
                                     maintaining the regularity of the heartbeat, and in nerve         severe kidney disease or severe dysfunction of
                                     conduction                                                        their calcium regulation.

Magnesium vegetables, such as                 Contraction and relaxation of muscles
                                                                                                        Side effects from increased magnesium
          dark green, leafy                  Function of certain enzymes in the                        intake are not common because the body
                                                                                                                removes excess amounts.
          vegetables, bananas,                body
          dried apricots, and                Production and transport of energy                        Lack of magnesium (deficiency) is rare.
          avocados, Nuts (such               Production of protein                                             The symptoms include:
          as almonds and
          cashews), Peas and                                                                                          * Hyperexcitability
          beans (legumes), seeds,                                                                                     * Muscle weakness
                                                                                                                         * Sleepiness
          Soy products (such as
          soy flour and tofu),
          Whole grains (such as
          brown rice)
            Dried beans, Dried       The body needs iron to make the oxygen-carrying                   Low iron levels over a long period of time
  Iron        fruits, Eggs (esp.     proteins hemoglobin and myoglobin. Hemoglobin                        can lead to iron deficiency anemia.
                                     is found in red blood cells and myoglobin is found                   Symptoms include lack of energy,
           yolks), Iron-fortified
                                                         in muscles.                                   shortness of breath, headache, irritability,
          cereals, Liver, Lean red     Iron also makes up part of many proteins in the                          dizziness, or weight loss.
          meat, Oysters, Poultry,                           body.                                            Iron poisoning (not common):
          dark red meat, Salmon,                                                                        Fatigue, Dizziness, Nausea, Vomiting,
            Tuna, Whole grains                                                                                  Headache, Weight loss,
             Beef, pork, and lamb    Needed for the body's defensive (immune)                  Deficiency include:
  Zinc     contain more zinc than     system to properly work. It plays a role in     Frequent infections, Hypogonadism in
                                                                                        males, Loss of hair, Poor appetite,
            fish. The dark meat of    cell division, cell growth, wound healing,
                                                                                         Problems with the sense of taste,
              a chicken has more     and the break down of carbohydrates . Zinc      Problems with the sense of smell, Slow
               zinc than the light    is also needed for the senses of smell and       growth, Trouble seeing in the dark,
                      meat.                               taste.                     Various skin lesions, Wounds that take a
           Peanuts, peanut butter,                                                              long time to heal
           and legumes.
                                                                                     Zinc supplements in large amounts may
                                                                                     cause diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and
                                                                                     vomiting, usually within 3 - 10 hours of
                                                                                          swallowing the supplements.
                                                                                      (Rare) selenium deficiency may occur
Selenium     Plant foods, Fish,      It helps make special proteins, called
                                                                                     when a person is fed through a vein (IV
           shellfish, red meat,       antioxidant enzymes, which play a                   line) for long periods of time.
               grains, eggs,             role in preventing cell damage.
            chicken, liver, and                                                     Keshan disease: leads to an abnormality of
                                                                                                 the heart muscle.
              garlic, Brewer's                                                      Kashin-Beck disease, which results in
            yeast, wheat germ,                                                      joint and bone disease
           and enriched breads                                                      Myxedematous endemic cretinism, which
                                                                                    results in mental retardation

                                                                                      Too much selenium (rare) can cause a
                                                                                      selenosis- loss of hair, nail problems,
                                                                                    nausea, irritability, fatigue, and mild nerve
                                                                                                       damage.
                All meats, fish, Soy       It assists in the regulation of the acid-base balance,      Moderate reduction in the body's
Potassium                                 in protein synthesis from amino acids and in                  potassium levels can lead to salt
                products, broccoli,
                                          carbohydrate metabolism and is necessary for the            sensitivity and high blood pressure.
                  peas, lima beans,
                                          building of muscle and for normal body growth.             Hyperkalemia often has no symptoms.
                 tomatoes, potatoes                                                                   Occasionally, people may have the
              (especially their skins),                                                                       following symptoms:
                sweet potatoes, and
              winter squashes, citrus                                                                          * Irregular heartbeat
                 fruits, cantaloupe,                                                                                 * Nausea
                                                                                                          * Slow, weak, or absent pulse
               bananas, kiwi, prunes,
                 and apricots, dried
                 apricots, Milk and
              yogurt, as well as nuts.
              Table salt, Milk, beets,    Regulate blood pressure and blood volume. Sodium          Too much sodium will contribute to high
Sodium             and celery also         is also critical for the functioning of muscles and                 blood pressure
                                                                   nerves
                  naturally contain
                   sodium, as does
                    drinking water

   As taken from: www.nlm.nih.gov