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					                                               The Periodic Table of the Elements
      1       2      3       4       5        6       7         8     9       10      11      12       13       14      15      16       17      18
      1                                                                                                                                          2
1     H                                                                                                                                         He
    1.008                        atomic masses in red are the mass numbers of the most stable isotope                                          4.003
      3       4                                                                                         5       6        7       8       9       10
2     Li     Be                                                                                         B       C        N       O       F      Ne
    6.941   9.102                                                                                     10.81   12.01    14.01   16.00   19.00   20.18
      11      12                                                                                       13     14.01     16       16      17      18
3    Na      Mg                                   Transition Metals                                    Al      Si        P       S       Cl      Ar
    22.99   24.31                                                                                     26.98   28.09    30.97   32.07   35.45   39.95
      19      20      21      22      23      24      25      26      27      28      29      30       31      32       33       34      35      36
4     K      Ca      Sc       Ti      V       Cr     Mn      Fe      Co       Ni     Cu      Zn        Ga      Ge       As      Se       Br      Kr
    39.1    40.08   44.96   47.90   50.94   52.00   54.94   55.85   58.93   58.70   63.55   65.39     69.72   72.59    74.92   78.96   79.9    83.8
      37      38      39      40      41      42      43      44      45      46      47      48       49      50       51       52      53      54
5    Rb       Sr      Y       Zr     Nb      Mo      Tc      Ru      Rh      Pd      Ag      Cd        In      Sn       Sb      Te        I     Xe
    85.47   87.62   88.91   91.22   92.91   95.94     98    101.1   102.9   106.4   107.9   112.4     114.8   118.7    121.8   127.6   126.9   131.3
      55      56      57      72      73      74      75      76      77      78      79      80       81      82       83       84      85      86
6    Cs      Ba      La       Hf     Ta       W      Re      Os       Ir      Pt     Au      Hg        Tl      Pb       Bi      Po       At     Rn
    132.9   137.3   138.9   178.5   180.9   183.9   186.2   190.2   192.2   195.1   197.0   200.6     204.4   207.2    209.0    209     210     222
      87      88      89     104     105     106     107     108     109     110     111     112
7     Fr     Ra      Ac       Rf     Ha      Sg      Ns      Hs      Mt
     223     226     227     261     262     263     262     265     266

                                    Inner Transition Elements
             58       59     60      61      62     63    64          65      66      67      68        69      70       71
7            Ce       Pr     Nd     Pm      Sm      Eu    Gd         Tb      Dy      Ho       Er       Tm      Yb       Lu   Lanthanides
            140.1   140.9   144.2   145    150.4 152.4 157.3        158.9   162.5   164.9   167.3     168.9   173.0    175.0
             90       91     92      93      94     95    96          97      98      99     100       101     102      103
8            Th      Pa       U      Np     Pu     Am    Cm          Bk       Cf      Es     Fm        Md      No        Lr  Actinides
            232.0    231    238.0   244     242    243   247         247     251     252     257       258     259      260


            Main Group Metals               Transition Metals               Inner Transition Metals           Nonmetals                Metalloids




        Design by Dmitri Mendeleev, a Russian, and Lothar Meyer, a German, who independently, and almost
        simultaneously, came up with the same way of organizing the chemical elements. Mendeleev is generally
        given more credit, since he was bold enough to use his table to predict the properties of elements yet to be
        discovered.

        The table gets a big twentieth century helping hand from Henry G.J. Moseley, a 26 year old graduate
        student of Rutherford's in 1913, who discovered a way to use x-rays to measure the nuclear charge (the #
        of protons in an atom). This led to the 20th century discovery that the elements in the table are organized
        by the number of protons (atomic number). Tragically, Moseley was killed the next year in World War I.
Boiling Point: -252.77 C                    Freezing Point: 0 C
Melting Point: -259.2 C                     Atomic Number: 1
Atomic Mass: 1.00797
                              H
                     Hydrogen
                           (natural)
                FOUND MIXED WITH GASES.
   This element was founded by Henry Canvendish in 1776.
    It was confused with other gases until Cavendish demonstrated
   in 1776.
                            USES
    It is used for the inflation of balloons. When hydrogen
     is mixed with air or oxygen it ignites.
                                                        Periodic Table
Boiling point:-268.9                  Atomic number:2
Melting point:-272.2
Freeze point::20        HE            Atomic symbol:He
                                       Atomic mass:4.0026


                       Helium
                        (Natural)

      This Element was discovered Pierre Janssen in 1868.
                         USES
  Helium is used to pressurize and stiffen the rocket
  engines.

                                                     Periodic Table
Boiling Point:1342 C                    Atomic Number: 3
Melting Point:181 C                     Atomic Mass: 6.941
Freezing Point:Not
available.               LI             Atomic Symbol:LI




                       Lithium
                       (Man made)
   This element was discovered by Johann A. Arfvedson in 1817.

                           USES
   Lithium is used for bonding carbon dioxide in the ventilator
   systems of spacecraft and submarines. Also the hydride is used
   to inflate lifeboats and its heavy hydrogen is used in making
   the hydrogen bomb.
                                                      Periodic Table
Boiling Point: 3000 C                  Atomic Number: 4
Melting Point: 1287 C                  Atomic Mass: 9.012
Freezing Point: Not
Available
                        BE             Atomic Symbol: BE



                    Beryllium
                         (Natural)
        This element was discovered by Louis Nicolas Vauquelin
        in 1797.
                          USES
        Beryllium is used for important use in so-called
        multiplexing systems.


                                                     Periodic Table
Boiling Point:3650 C                       Atomic Number: 5
Melting Point: 2180 C                      Atomic Mass: 10.81
Freezing Point: Not
available                    B             Atomic Symbol: B




                        Boron
                         (Natural)
     This element was discovered by Joseph Gay-Lussie,Baron
     Louis Thenard and Sir Humphry Davy.
                          USES
      Boron is used for bone health in humans and other vertebrates.
      It is also used in instruments designed to detect and count slow.


                                                        Periodic Table
Boiling Point: Not                        Freezing Point: Not
Available                                 Available
Melting Point: Not
Available
                             C            Atomic Number: 6
                                          Atomic Mass:12.011


                        Carbon
                           (Man Made)
   This element was discovered by several scientists in 1985.
    Scientists vaporized graphite to produce a stable form of
   carbon molecules.
                            USES
      Carbon is used to remove oxygen from metal.


                                                       Periodic Table
Boiling Point: -195.79 C                 Atomic Number: 7
Melting Point: -210.01 C
Freezing Point: 0 C
                             N           Atomic Mass: 14.007




                     Nitrogen
                           (Natural)

      This element was discovered by Antoine Laurent Lavoisier in
      1772.
                             USES
      Nitrogen is used in the chemical industry and obtained
      by the fractional distillation of liquid air.

                                                     Periodic Table
Boiling Point: 182.96 C                  Atomic Mass: 16.00
Melting Point: 218.4 C
Freezing Point: 0 C
                            O            Atomic Number: 8




                       Oxygen
                           (Natural)
      This element was discovered in 1774 by Joseph Priestely.

                            USES
   This element is used for welding torches and is used for patents.



                                                        Periodic Table
Boiling Point: -188.13 C                Atomic Mass: 19.00
Melting Point:-219.61 C                 Atomic Number:9
Freezing Point: 0 C
                            F
                     Flourine
                           (Natural)
       This element was discovered in 1886 by Henry Moissan.
                            USES
              It is used to destroy the ozone layer.




                                                       Periodic Table
Boiling Point:-246.08 C                 Atomic Mass: 20.18
Melting Point:-248.6 C
Freezing Point:0 C        Ne            Atomic Number: 10




                    Neon
    This element was discovered in 1898 by Sir William Ramsay.

                           USES
            Neon is used in neon lights and advertising.




                                                     Periodic Table
Boiling Point:883 C                           Atomic Mass:22.99
Melting Point:98 C
Freezing Point:0 C           NA               Atomic Number:11




                           Sodium
                               (Natural)
      This element was discovered in 1807 by Sir Humphrey Davy.

                                 USES
       Sodium is used as a cooling agent in nuclear reactors.




                                                          Periodic Table
Boiling Point: 1107 C
                                           Atomic Number: 12
Melting Point: 649 C
Freezing Point: Not
Available
                         MG                Atomic Mass: 24.31




                  Magnesium
                         (Natural)
    This element was discovered by Sir Humphrey Davy in 1808.

                           USES
     Magnesium is used in medicine and effervescent beverages.



                                                     Periodic Table
                                        Atomic Number - 13
Boiling Point - 2467c
                                        Atomic Mass - 26.9815
Melting Point - 660c
                           AL
                     Aluminum
                            ( Natural )

 This element was discovered in 1825 by Hans Oersted in Denmark.

                          USES
 Aluminum is used in cooking utensils, railroad cars, cars, and to
 build aircraft,

                                                     Periodic Table
Boiling Point - 42571f                    Atomic Number - 14
Melting Point - 2570f
                              SI          Atomic Mass - 28.086



                        Silicon
                         ( Natural )

This element was discovered in 1823 by Baron Jons Jakob
Berzelius.

                            USES
  Silicon is used in the steel making industry as a constitute of
  Silicon steel, and in the making of cores of electrical
  transformers.
                                                        Periodic Table
Boiling point-536 f                      Atomic Number-15
Melting point-111.4f         P           Atomic Mass-30.974


                     Phosphorus
                          (natural)



     This element was discovered by Hennig Brand in 1669 when
     he was trying to turn silver into gold.

                          USES
    Phosphorus is used in fertilizers, rat poison, and in the red
    part of matches.
                                                       Periodic Table
Boiling Point- 832.3F                     Atomic Number- 16
Melting Point- 239.38F
                            S             Atomic Mass- 32.064


                         Sulfer
                          (Natural)

   This element was discovered in the prehistoric time and
   mentioned in the bible.

                          USES
  It is used in matches, rubber, gunpowder, sulfa drugs, and skin
   ointments.
                                                       Periodic Table
Boiling Point    -29.29f
Melting Point -149.8f
                            CL             Atomic Number-17
                                           Atomic Mass-35.453


                         Chlorine
                           (Natural)


 This Element was discovered in 1774 by Humphry Davy.

                             USES:
  It was the first substance used as a poison gas in World War 1.


                                                       Periodic Table
Boiling Point-98                            Atomic Number-18
Melting Point - NONE
                           AR               Atomic Mass-39.948


                         Argon
                         ( Natural)

    This element was discovered in 1894 by William
    Ramsey.
                         USES:

 This element is used in neon lamps that gives a red or blue light.


                                                        Periodic Table
Boiling Point - 1408f                  Atomic Number - 19
Melting Point - 145f        K          Atomic Mass - 39.098


                    Potassium
                         ( Natural)


This element was discovered in 1807 by Sir Humphry Davy.

                          USES:
It is used in photelectric cells in matches, fireworks, dyeing, leather
tanning.


                                                        Periodic Table
Boiling Point- 2703                            Atomic Number- 20
Melting point- 1542
                             CA                Atomic Mass- 40.08


                      Calcium
                          (Natural)



  This element was discovered by Sir Humphry Davy in 1808.

                        Uses:
   It is used in copper, nickel, and stainless steel.


                                                         Periodic Table
Boiling Point - 5137f                 Atomic Number - 21
Melting Point - 2806f
                        SC            Atomic Mass - 44.956


                   Scandium
                        ( Natural )

This element was discovered in 1879 by a Swedish chemist Lars
Fredrik.
                        USES

                   No uses found.



                                                 Periodic Table
Boiling Point - 5949f                 Atomic Number - 22
Melting Point - 3020f
                        TI            Atomic Mass - 47.88


                  Titanium
                        ( Natural )

 This element was discovered in 1791 by William Gregor.


                        USES

         This element is used in aluminum.


                                                  Periodic Table
Boiling Point - 6116f                 Atomic Number - 23
Melting Point - 3434f
                             V        Atomic Mass - 50.941


                  Vanadium
                        ( Natural )

This element was discovered in 1801 by Andres Manuel Del Rio and
was rediscovered in 1830 by Nils Gabriel Sefstrom.

                           USES
This element is used in hardness, alloys, and plantinum.

                                                     Periodic Table
Boiling Point-4842 f                       Atomic Number-24
Melting Point-3375 f                       Atomic Mass-51.996
                            CR
                       Chromium
                          (Natural)

This element was discovered by a French chemist named Louis
Nicolas Vanquelin in 1797.


                          USES

Chromium is used in alloys, iron, nickle, and cobalt.

                                                        Periodic Table
                                           Atomic Number - 25
Boiling Point - 3564f
Melting Point - 2271f     MN               Atomic Mass - 54.938


                     Manganese
                           ( Natural )

 This element was discovered in 1774 by Johan Gottlicp Gahn.


                            USES
Manganese is used in copper tin, zinc, dry cell battery, paint, and
varnisncils for collecting glash.
                                                      Periodic Table
Boiling Point - 4982f                     Atomic Number - 26
Melting Point - 2795f
                            FE            Atomic Mass - 55.847



                           Iron
                          ( Natural )

 This element was discovered in4000B.C. by Egypt people.


                           USES
This element is used in cars, wrought iron, and castiorn steel.
Melting point- 2723                   Atomic Number-27
                                      Atomic Mass-58.923
Boiling point-5,198
                          CO
                         Cobalt
      Color, silvery                     Structure:
                          (Natural)      Rock formed




   It was discovered by George Brandt in 1735

                       Uses:
                       unknown
                                                 Periodic Table
Boiling Point-2730                        Atomic Number-28
Melting Point-1455                        Atomic Mass-58.69
                        NI
                     Nickel                    Structure:
  Color, Silvery                               Unknown
                      (Man made)



    This element was discovered by Baron Axel and found in 1751


                           Uses
                   Used to make nickels
                                                   Periodic Table
Boiling point-4753                             Atomic number-29
Melting point-1981
                              CU               Atomic mass-63.546




 Color, goldish
                            Copper                    Structure:
                             (natural)                Unknown




        The person who discovered copper . It does not say!

                                USES
                  It is used in things that involve electrity.
                                                             Periodic Table
Boiling Point: 1665                         Atomic Number: 30
 Melting Point: 788                         Atomic Mass: 65.38
                            ZN
                            Zinc               Structure:
Color, Silvery              (Natural)
                                               Rock Form




   This element was discover by Andreas Sigismund Marggraf
                              uses

       It is 5% of the worlds porducktion          Periodic Table
 Boiling point-4357                     Atomic number-31
  Melting point-86
                         GA              Atomic mass-69.72


                     Gallium
Color, Bluish Gray      (Natural)




     This element was discovered by Paul Emile Leeog de

                           Uses
                          Unknown

                                                     Periodic Table
 Boiling point-5126                     Atomic number-32
 Melting point-1719
                          GE            Atomic mass-72.59



                   Germanium
Color, grayish white
                         (natural)




   This element was discovered by Dmitry Nanovich.

                          Uses
               It was used in world war 2.
                                                     Periodic Table
Boiling point-Non-A                       Atomic number-33
Melting point-Non-A                       Atomic mass-74.9216
                             AS
                        Arsenic
                            ( man made)
      Color,green



       This element was discovered by not avalable


                            Uses
      For making glasses.
                                                     Periodic Table
Boiling point-1265                     Atomic number-34
                                       Atomic mass-78.96
Melting point-423
                        SE
                     Selenium
 Color,yellowish      (natural)




        This element was discovered by berzelivs-son jacob, Baron


                           Uses:
                          Unknown
                                                   Periodic Table
 Boiling point-137.8                      Atomic number-35
 Melting point-18.95                      Atomic mass-79.9
                          BR
                       Bromine
  Color,redish brown       (Natural)




This Element was discovered by Antoine jerome Balard in 1826
                           Uses:
                          Unknow
                                                    Periodic Table
Boiling point-244.03                     Atomic number-36
Melting point-250.98
                        KR               Atomic mass-83.8



                       Krypton
Color,orange red       (Natural)




 This Element was discovered by Norman Foster, Ramsey in 1962


                   Uses:
             For the earthes atmasfear
                                                 Periodic Table
Boiling point-1267                     Atomic number:37
                                       Atomic Mass: 85.468
 Melting point-102
                      RB
   Color, red
                 Rubidium
                      (Natural)




        This element was discovered by Robert Wilhelm Busen
                  Uses
           Tea, Tobacco , Coffee, and other plants.
                                                  Periodic Table
Boiling Point:2523                     Atomic number-38
Melting point-1416                     Atomic mass-87.62

                         SR
                     Strontium
                       (natural)
  Color silvery




           This element was discovered in 1790

                          uses

                        unknown
                                                    Periodic Table
Boiling point-6040                        Atomic number-39
Melting point-2772                        Atomic mass-88.91
                            Y
                     Yttrium
                              (natural)
   Color silvery




   This was discovered by


                              uses

                            unknown
                                                    Periodic Table
  Boiling point-7911                       Atomic number 40
  Melting point-3362                       Atomic mass 91.22

                          ZR
                      zirconium
Color, Bluish black     (natural)




        This Element was discovered by Martin Heinrich.

                           Uses:
        The uses were for vacuum tubes, steel, and porcelain.
                                                          Periodic Table
Boiling Point-5127 C                      Atomic Number-41
Melting Point-2468 C                      Atomic mass-92.906
                           NB
                           NB
    Found in crustal
        rock.
                        Niobium                Burns when heated
                                                     in air.
                            (Natural)

    This Element was discovered in 1801 by Charles Hatchet.
    Found mainly in Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of
                            Congo.
                           USES
 This element is used for nuclear power plants and stainless
                            steel.
                                                       Periodic Table
Boiling point-4640 C                          Atomic Number-42
Melting point-2610 C
                            MO                Atomic Mass-95.94



  Silvery,white,
      tough
                   Molybdenum                              It’s a
                                                           metal.
                            (Man Made)
 This element was discovered in1778 by Carl Wilhelm Scheele.

                                 USES
  In soils it helps contribute to the growth of plants. Used in alloying
    steel, for air crafts and structural work. It serves as electrodes in
                                glass furnaces.

                                                            Periodic Table
Melting Point-2200 C                   Atomic Number-43
Boiling Point-4567 C
                         TC             Atomic Mass-98



                Technetium
                       (Man made)

   This element was discovered in 1937 by Emilo Segre and
   Carlo Perrier by bombarding Molybdenum with Deuterons.

                           USES
           Technetium is used for imaging medicines.


                                                       Periodic Table
Boiling Point-3900 C                          Atomic Number-44
Melting Point-2310 C
Freezing Point- -263 C
                             RU               Atomic Mass-107.07

                                                Superior to Platinum
   Grayish white
      metal.
                      Ruthenium                   in resistance to
                                                  attack by acids.
                            (Natural)
  Ruthenium was discovered in 1844 by Karl Karlovich Klaus


                             USES

  Ruthenium is used for the tips of pens and in the manufacture of
                              jewelry.

                                                        Periodic Table
Boiling Point-3727C
Melting Point-1966 C        RH               Atomic Number-45
                                            Atomic Mass-102.905


   Silvery white       Rhodium                    Very durable.
       metal.
                            (Natural)

 This element was discovered in 1803 by William Hyde Wollaston.

                              USES

  Rhodium is used in mirror surfaces, as plating finish in jewelry
      and silverware and as a black pigment for porcelain.


                                                          Periodic Table
Boiling point-2970 C                           Atomic number-46
Melting point-1554 C
                             PD                Atomic mass-106.4


 Rare silvery white                               Fuses and welds
     soft metal.      Palladium                        easily.
                           (Natural)
      This element was discovered by William Hyde Wollaston.

                             USES
  It is used for nonmagnetic springs in clocks and watches. Used
  in jewelry, for special in mirrors, and alloyed with gold it forms
             white gold. Also used in Canadian nickel.
Boiling Point-2212 C                        Atomic Number-47
Melting Point-962 C
                            AG             Atomic Mass-107.868



 Not Chemically            Silver               Eggs tarnish it
     active.                                       quickly.
                             (Natural)
             Harder than gold yet softer than copper.
Date of discovery is unknown. Silver mines were probably worked
                     in Asia before 2,500 B.C.
                             USES
Silver is used to coat smooth glass surfaces for mirrors, aluminum has
 replaced this though. It is also used in jewelry and used to be used
                               in coins.
                                                          Periodic Table
Boiling Point-1409 C                      Atomic Number-48
Melting Point-321 C
                          CD              Atomic Mass-112.41


                       Cadmium
                   Burns bright when heated.

                             USES

  This element is used for coating metals and is used in batteries
             that are used for specialized purposes.



                                                        Periodic Table
Boiling Point-2080 C                         Atomic Number-49
Melting Point-157 C
                              IN             Atomic Mass-114.82


 Silvery white soft       Indium
       metal.
                            (Natural)

   Discovered by Hieronymus Theodor Richter and Ferdinand
                          Reich.

                              USES
This element is used in nuclear reactors control rods, and is found in
                certain zinc blends, tin, and iron ores.

                                                         Periodic Table
Boiling Point-2260 C                       Atomic Number-50
Melting Point-232 C
                             SN            Atomic Mass-118.69


                                                Forms stannic acid
 Silvery white metal.
                               Tin              when heated in air.

  Discovery date is unknown and who discovered it is also unknown.
It is found in Malaysia, Brazil, Indonesia, Thailand, Bolivia, Australia,
                             and America.
                                USES
 Tin is used in hundreds of industrial processes throughout the world.
 It is also used as a protective coating for copper vessels, and various
                metals used in the manufacture of tin cans.
                                                          Periodic Table
 Boiling Point-1750 C                        Atomic Number-51
 Melting Point-630 C
                              SB             Atomic Mass-121.75



   Bluish white
 brittle semimetal.
                       Antimony
                            (Natural)
   This element was probably discovered in 1450 but was certainly
discovered in 1600. It is mined in China, France, Italy,Japan, Mexico,
                     and Western United States.
                             USES
   Antimony is used in certain medicines, as a yellow pigment in glass
    and porcelain, used for bronzing steel, and as a mordent in dying.

                                                          Periodic Table
Boiling Point-1390 C                        Atomic Number-52
Melting Point-630 C
                              TE            Atomic Mass-127.6



   Silvery white
    semimetal.
                        Tellurium                   A gravity of
                                                       6.25.
                             (Natural)
  This element was discovered in 1782 by Franz Joseph Muller Von
                           Reichenstein.

                               USES
Tellurium is used in the manufacture of rectifiers and thermoelectric
devices. With organic substances it is used for natural and synthetic
 rubber, in antiknock compounds for gasoline, and as an impart for
                          blue tints in glass.
                                                          Periodic Table
Boiling Point-185 C                        Atomic Number-53
Melting Point-113.6 C
                                 I        Atomic Mass-126.905


 Blue black solid.
                           Iodine                Chemically active.
                             (Natural)

 This element was first isolated from seaweed in 1811 by Bernard
                             Courteous.
                              USES
   Iodine is used in medical use and without this, stunted growth
and conditions like goiter can happen. It is also used in photography,
            making dyes, and in cloud seeing operations.
                                                         Periodic Table
Boiling Point-108.1 C                    Atomic-Number-54
Melting Point-111.8 C      XE            Atomic Mass-131.29


                         Xenon
                         Colorless and
                           odorless.

 This element was discovered in 1898 by Sir William Ramsey and
                        Morris Travers.

                            USES

    Xenon is used in lighting high-speed photographic tubes.

                                                     Periodic Table
Boiling Point: 1236 F                    Atomic Number: 55
Melting Point: 82 F
                             CS          Atomic Mass: 132.905



                          Cesium
                           ( Natural )       Structure, Not available
Color, White


Cesium was discovered in 1860 by the German chemists Robert Wilhelm
Bunsen and Gustav Robert Kirchhoff through the use of a spectroscope.


USES: Cerium is used to remove residual oxygen from radio vacuum
tubes. Thus it is used in televisions, radios, and computers.


                                                        Periodic Table
Boiling Point: 2984 F                       Atomic Number: 56
Melting Point: 1337 F                       Atomic Mass: 137.33
                             BA
                          Barium
                        ( Natural )
Color: Soft, Silvery                             Structure: Not available


   This element was discovered in 1808 by the English scientist Sir
   Humphrey Davy.

           USES: Barium is sometimes used in coating electrical
           conductors in electronic apparatus and in automobile
           ignition systems.
                                                          Periodic Table
Boiling Point: 6267 F                       Atomic Number:57
Melting Point: 1684 F
                             LA             Atomic Mass: 138.91


                    Lanthanum
                     ( Natural )
                                             Structure, not available
Color, Metallic


   This element was discovered by the Swedish chemist Carl Gustav
   Mosander in 1839.


     USES: Lanthanum is used in optical glass and cigarette flints.

                                                          Periodic Table
Boiling Point: 6229 F                     Atomic Number : 58
Melting Point: 1468 F
                             CE           Atomic Mass : 140.12


                          Cerium
                        ( Natural )
Color: Soft, Gray                             Structure: Not available

Cerium was discovered in 1803 by the Swedish chemists, Baron Jons
Jakob Berzelius and Wilhelm Hisinger, in the same year it was also
discovered independently by the German chemist Martin Heinrich.

USES: Cerium is used in small quantities in the
manufacturing of glass, ceramics, arc-lamp, electrodes,
and photoelectric cells.

                                                          Periodic Table
Boiling Point: 6368 F                    Atomic Number: 59
Melting Point: 1708 F
                            PR           Atomic Mass: 140.9


                  Praseodymium
Color: Silvery           ( Natural )            Structure: Not available

                  Extracted from Neodymium
Praseodymium was discovered in 1885 by the German chemist, Carl Auer
von Welsbach.

USES: This element is used in magnesium alloys and in misch metal, an
alloy used for cigarette-lighter flints and as a deoxidizer in alloys and
vacuum tubes.


                                                           Periodic Table
Boiling point: 5565 F                  Atomic Number : 60
Melting point : 1870 F
                         ND            Atomic Mass:144.24


                 Neodymium
                         ( Natural )
Color, Silvery                              Structure:
                                            Not Available

            Extracted From Praseodymium

    This element was discovered in 1885 by the Austrian
    chemist, Baron Carl Aver Von Welsbach.

USES: Neodymium is used in the screens of color televisions.
                                                Periodic Table
Boiling Point: 5432 F                       Atomic Number: 61
Melting Point: 1908 F
                            PM              Atomic Mass: 145


                     Promethium
                      ( Natural )
Color, Radioactive                              Structure, Not available
Metallic element

    Promethium was isolated in 1945 by scientists at the nuclear
    research laboratory at Oak Ridge, Tennessee by the American
     chemists Charles DuBois Coryell, Jacob A. Marinsky, and
    Lawrence E. Glendenin.

  USES: Promethium is used in atomic batteries and as a beta-particle
  source in thickness gauges.
                                                        Periodic Table
Boiling Point: 3261 F                  Atomic Number: 62
Melting Point: 1965 F
                        SM             Atomic Mass: 150.4


                     Samarium
                        ( Natural )

   Color, White                        Structure, Not available


  This element was discovered by the French chemist P.E Locoq de
  Boisbaudran in 1879.


USES: Samarium oxide is used in the control rods of some nuclear
reactors.
                                                       Periodic Table
Boiling Point: 2781 F                       Atomic Number: 63
Melting Point: 1512 F
                            EU              Atomic Mass: 151.96


                      Europium
                       ( Natural )
Color, Silvery                                Structure, Not available


Europium was discovered in 1896 by the French chemist, Eugene
Demorcay.



USES: This element is used in the screen of a color television, and when
bombarded with electrons, produces the color red.

                                                          Periodic Table
Boiling Point: 5923 F                        Atomic Number: 64
Melting Point:2395 F
                            GD               Atomic Mass, 157.25



                   Gadolinium
                      ( Natural )

   Color: Silvery, White                     Structure: Unknown

   This Element was discovered in 1880, By a Swiss Chemist Jeande
   Marignec.
                        Uses:
     It is used as a component of control rods in nuclear reactors.

                                                           Periodic Table
Boiling Point: 5846 F                      Atomic Number: 65
Melting Point: 2473 F
                            TB             Atomic Mass: 158.925


                         Terbium
                           ( Natural )

Color, Metallic                                  Structure, Not available



Terbium was discovered in 1843 by the Swedish chemist Carl Gustav
                            Mosander.


USES: Terbium is used in refactory materials, and electronic apparatus.
Boiling point:4653                            Atomic Number:66
Melting point:2574
                            DY                Atomic Mass:162.5


                    Dysprosium
                        (Natural)
                                                 Structure:
  Color,yellow or
                                                 A high magnetic
  yellow green
                                                 susceptibility


  This element was discovered in 1886 by Paul Erile Locoq de
  Boisbaudran.
                      Uses
  He separated one of its compounds from an oxide of
  Holmium.It is sometimes used to control rods of nuclear reactors.
Boiling Point:4892 F                        Atomic Number:67
Melting Point: 2683 F
                            HO              Atomic Mass: 164.93



                       Holmium
                       ( Natural )
Color, Silvery                                     Structure:
                                                   Not Available
This element was discovered in 1878 by the Swiss chemists, Jacques
Louis Soret, and Marc Delafontaine. It was also independently
discovered by Per Teodor Cleve in 1879.


USES: Holmium is used in some electronic devices and as a catalyst
in industrial chemical reactions.

                                                        Periodic Table
Boiling Point: 5194 F                         Atomic Number: 68
Melting Point: 2784 F
                            ER                Atomic Mass: 167.26



                         Erbium
                        ( Natural )
  Color: Bright, Silvery Luster             Structure: Not available


  Erbium was discovered in 1843 by the Swedish chemist, Carl Gustav
  Mosander.

  USES: Erbium is used in experimental optical amplifiers that amplify
  light signals sent along fiber-optic cables.


                                                         Periodic Table
Boiling Point-3542                            Atomic Number-69
Melting Point-2813           TM              Atomic Mass-165.934


                          Thulium
                            (Natural)
  Color, Silvery-gray Metallic            Structure:
                                          Soft, malleable ductile



   The element was discovered by the Swedish chemist Per Teodor
Cleve in 1879.
                            USES

 Thulium is used in small portable x-ray machines which utilize
 artificially radioactive Thulium as it’s x-ray source   Periodic Table
Boiling Point-1506                          Atomic Number-70
Melting Point-2185
                             YB             Atomic Mass-173.04



                       Ytterbium
Color,bright silvery          (Natural)       Structure:
                                              Soft, malleable


      Ytterbium was discovered by a Swiss chemist Jean Charles
      De Marignac in 1878.
                                Uses
   Ytterbium is used in alloys, electronics, and magnetic materials.

                                                          Periodic Table
 Boiling Point-6153                           Atomic Number-71
                                              Atomic Mass-174.97
  Melting Point-3025
                             LU
                       Lutetium
                          (Natural)
Color, Silvery White                     Structure: Not Available


          This element was discovered by a French chemist
          named Geoges Ubain, and a Carl Auer
          von Welsbach about the same time, in 1907.
                           USES
          Lutetium is used in determining in meteorites
          in relation with the earth.
                                                          Periodic Table
Boiling Point-8316                          Atomic Number-72
Melting Point-4041                          Atomic Mass-178.49
                           HF
                       Hafnium                  Structure:
  Color, Metallic         (Natural)             Resembles zirconium

    Hafnium was discovered by the Hungarian chemist, Georg
    von Hevesy and Dutch physicist Dirk Coster in Copenhagen
    in the year 1923.
                            USES
     Hafnium is used with zirconium as a structural material in
     nuclear power plants.
                                                         Periodic Table
Boiling Point-5425                           Atomic Number-73
Melting Point-9797                           Atomic Mass-180.948
                            TA
                       Tantalum
                            (Natural)
  Color,White                                          Structure:
                                                       Acid

      Tantalum was discovered by Baron Jons Jakob Berzelius
      in 1820.
                           USES
   It is used for Laboratory wear, circuits, and Camera lenses.

                                                         Periodic Table
Boiling Point-10,220                           Atomic Number-74
Melting Point-6170
                                W              Atomic Mass- 183.85



                         Tungsten
                              (Natural)
 Color, silver-steel                          Structure: Hard and Brittle


       This element was discovered Carl Wilhem Scheele, and Juan
       Jose and Fausto D’ Elhuyar in 1781.
                                 USES
                       Tungsten is used in cutting tools.
                                                              Periodic Table
Melting Point-5756                          Atomic Number-75
                                            Atomic Mass-186.207
                           RE
                       Rhenium
                        (Natural)
 Color,Silvery White                   Structure:
                                       Very hard


      This element was discovered by Walter Karl Noddack and
      Ida Eva Noddack in 1925.
                         USES
        Rhenium is used in electrical filaments, welding rock,
        and photographic flashbulbs.

                                                         Periodic Table
Melting Point-4892                     Atomic Number-76
                                       Atomic Mass-190.2
                         OS
                       Osmium
                       (Natural)
 Color, Bluish-white                   Structure:
                                       Brittle metallic


     It was discovered by Smithson Tennant in 1803.

                         USES
      It is used in standard weights and measurements.

                                                          Periodic Table
Boiling Point-7466                             Atomic Number-77
Melting Point-4370                             Atomic Mass-192.22
                               IR
                        Iridium
   Color, white                              Structure:
                                             Brittle and extremely hard

It was discovered by Smithson Tennant, a British chemist in 1804.
                            USES
It is used for jewelry, fountain tip pens, compasses, and surgical tools



                                                             Periodic Table
Boiling Point-6291                           Atomic Number-78
Melting Point-3222                           Atomic Mass-195.09
                              PT
                         Platinum
 Color, bluish-gray          (Natural)      Structure:
                                            Metallic



    Discovered sometime before the 16th century.
                          USES
    Used in laboratory apparatus, contact points in electrical
    apparatus and in instruments used for measuring high
    temperatures, also used in dental fillings.
                                                          Periodic Table
Boiling Point-1947                             Atomic Number-79
Melting Point-5086                             Atomic Mass-196.97
                             AU
                             Gold
  Color, Gold                                   Structure:
                             (Natural)
                                                Soft, Dense




 This element is the second most valuable mineral in the world.
                            USES
 It was used for jewelry, as money, and in the form of gold leaf.

                                                          Periodic Table
 Boiling Point-675                              Atomic Number-80
 Melting Point-38                               Atomic Mass-200.59
                              HG
                           Mercury
 Color, silvery metallic      (Natural)         Structure:
                                                Free flowing liquid


It was discovered by a French chemist Antoine Laurent Lavosier.
                             USES
Mercury is used in thermometers and it’s used in other types of
scientific apparatus.
                                                          Periodic Table
Boiling Point-2665                             Atomic Number-81
                                               Atomic Mass-204.383
Melting Point-597
                               TI
                           Thallium
                              (Natural)
   Color, bluish-gray                        Structure:
                                             Soft and malleable




Discovered by Sir Williams Crookes an English chemist in 1861.
                         USES
 It is used for rat poison and ant poison. It can also be used to diagnose
some types of heart disease.
                                                              Periodic Table
Boiling Point-3164                            Atomic Number-82
Melting Point-662                             Atomic Mass-207.20
                              PB
                             Lead
                             (Natural)
 Color,Bluish-Gray                          Structure:
                                            Soft and malleable

     Lead was discovered by the Romans and was mentioned
     the Old Testament.
                          USES
 Lead is used in the storage of batteries and in sheathing
 electric cables, industrial lining for tanks and x-ray apparatus.
                                                            Periodic Table
Boiling Point-2840
Melting Point-520          BI             Atomic Number-83
                                         Atomic Mass-208.98

                       Bismuth
 Color-Pinkish tinge     (Artificial)         Structure:



                       Founder unknown


                          USES
  Used in fluoroscopy (used to examine the internal organs.)

                                                 Periodic Table
Boiling Point-1235                            Atomic Number-84
Melting Point-527          PO                   Atomic Mass


   Color, Blue Glow    Polonium                      Structure:
                                                   Simple Cubic
                           (Natural)




   This Element was discovered by Marie Curiein in 1898 in Paris


                             USES
            Polonium is used for thermoelectric power.
Boiling Point-610
Melting Point-575
                          AT              Atomic Number-85
                                          Atomic Mass-210

                      Astatine
                          (Natural)


                    Discovered by Corson in 1940.




                                                    Periodic Table
Boiling point-211
Melting Point-202       RN                  Atomic Number-86
                                             Atomic Mass-222


                      Radon
                        (Natural)


             Discovered by Dorn in 1900 in Germany.


                           USES
                    Earthquake Prediction

                                                  Periodic Table
Boiling Point- 950                        Atomic Number-87
Melting Point- 300.2
                             FR           Atomic Mass-223.0197


                                                 Structure:
Color:
                     Francium                    body centered cubic
                         (Natural)

 This Element was discovered by Marguerite Perey in 1939 in France.


                               USES


                                                       Periodic Table
Boiling point-1809                          Atomic Number-88
Melting point-973           RA            Atomic Mass-226.0254


 Color, White
                          Radium               Structure:
                            (Natural)          Body centered cubic




   Isolated by the Curies and Are Debierne in 1898 in Paris

                              USES
                Radium is used in Neutron sources

                                                       Periodic Table
Boiling Point-3473
Melting Point-1323
                           AC                 Atomic Number-89
                                         Atomic Mass-227.0278

                      Actinium
  Color, Silvery           (Natural)          Structure:
                                              Face centered cube


             Discovered by Debierne in 1899



                            USES
              Actinium is used in Thermoelectric power.
Boiling Point-5061
Melting Point-2028
                            TH                 Atomic Number-90
                                           Atomic Mass-232.03804

                        Thorium
Color, White                (Natural)               Structure:
                                                    Face centered cubic

Thorium was Identified in 1821and isolated by J.J. Berzelius in 1828 in
Sweden.

                              USES

   Thorium is used in gas lamp mantles and nuclear breeder reactors.
Boiling Point-----
Melting Point-----         PA                 Atomic Number-91
                                            Atomic Mass-231.03588

                  Protactinium
 Color, Silvery                                   Structure:
                          (Natural)               Face centered cubic

       Discovered independently by Fajans and Gohring in Germany
and by Soddy , Cranston and Fleck in Scotland in 1913.


                            USES
                     --------------------------
                                                       Periodic Table
Boiling Point:4407                          Atomic Number:92
Melting Point:1405           U              Atomic Mass:238.029

   Color: Silvery      Uranium
                             (Natural)               Structure:
                                                hex cls pkd distored
     This element was used by the Romans for yellow
     pigments in glass. The element was discovered
     in 1789 by a German chemist, Martin Klaproth.

                            USES
                     Nuclear reactor fuel

                                                      Periodic Table
Boiling Point-------                  Atomic Number: 93
Melting Point- 910       NP          Atomic Mass- 237.048


                   Neptunium
                       (Man-Made)      Structure: Complex
Color: Silvery


       Neptunium was produced by E.M. McMillan

                          USES



                                                 Periodic Table
Boiling Point-3503                              Atomic Number-94

                              PU                 Atomic Mass-244



                         Plutonium                Structure:
   Color, Silvery         (Man-Made)
                                                  Face centered cube
                    Extracted From Uranium Ore



    This Element was discovered secretly by Glenn Seaborg in 1940
    with Wahl and Kennedy at Berkley and publicly reported in
    1946.

                             USES
        Plutonium is used in nuclear weapons and is used in space probe
electricity sources.                                      Periodic Table
Boiling Point: 2880                         Atomic Number: 95
Melting Point: 1268      AM                  Atomic Mass: 243


                       Americium
Color: Silvery White    (Man-Made)           Structure:
                                             Face centered cubic


    This element was discovered by Glenn Seaborg in 1944 in
    Berkeley.
                            USES
                         Smoke Detector


                                                      Periodic Table
Boiling Point-----                            Atomic Number-96
Melting Point-1613
                           CM                Atomic Mass-247


Color: Silvery White     Curium            Structure:
                                           Face centered cubic
                           (Man-Made)

           Discovered by James, Seaborg, and Ghiorso in 1944


                         USES
             Thermoelectric power and source


                                                      Periodic Table
                                              Atomic mass 247
Atomic weight-247                            Atomic number 97



                          bk
                    berkelium

Named after the University of California at Berkeley. Berkelium
tends to accumulate in the skeletal system.




                                                     Periodic Table
Atomic weight-251                                  Atomic number 98

                              Cf                   Atomic mass 251




                     Californium
                            (artificial)


  Named after the state of California. It has a half life of 90 years. It
  is a radioactive rare earth metal.




                                                            Periodic Table
                                           Atomic number 99
Atomic weight-254
                                           atomic mass 254

                          Es
                    Einsteinium
                    (Artificially)




           Named in honor of Albert Einstein.
           Discovered In 1952 in the debris from a
           hydrogen bomb explosion.


                                                     Periodic Table
Atomic weight-257                               atomic Number 100

                            fm                  Atomic mass-257



                       fermium
                           (Artificial)


  Artificially created, the element was isolated in 1952 from the
  debris of a hydrogen bomb explosion by the American chemist
  Albert Ghiorso named after Enrico Fermi



                                                       Periodic Table
Atomic weight-258                                         101
                                            Atomic mass 258
                          MD
               Mendelevium
                          (Artificial)

       Mendelevium is artificially created radioactive element.
       Discovered in 1955 and named after Dmitri Mendeleev. It
       has a half-life of 54 days.


                                                     Periodic Table
Atomic weight-259                         Atomic number-102

                          No              Atomic mass-259




                    Nobelium
                         (Artificial)


Nobelium is a radioactive metalic element named after Alfred
Bernhard Nobel. It was discovered in 1957 and is not found in
nature but is produced artificially in the laboratory. The properties
of Nobelium are unknown and it has a half-life of a few minutes.



                                                         Periodic Table
Atomic weight-260                        Atomic number-103

                          Lr             Atomic mass-260



                 Lawrencium
                         (Artificial)



  Lawrencium is an artificially created radioactive metallic element.
  It was discovered in 1961 and named after Ernest Lawrence.




                                                        Periodic Table
Atomic weight-261                       Atomic number-104
                                        Atomic mass-261
                         RF
             Rutherfordium
                     (Artificial)


Rutherfordium is an unstable chemical element named after Ernest
Rutherford. In 1969 it was synthesized according to a convention
adopted in 1980 for naming elements 104 and beyond, however,
the element was named unnilquadium.


                                                     Periodic Table
                                         Atomic number-105
Atomic weight-262
                     Db                  Atomic mass-262



                Dubnium
                    (Artificial)



Dubnium is an artificial element that was discovered by Ghiorso. It
was named after Duba, a northern suburb.




                                                      Periodic Table
                                        Atomic number-106
Atomic weight-263
                       Sg               Atomic mass-263




               Seaborgium
                     (Artificial)



   Seaborgium is an artificial element named after Glenn Seaborg.
   Discovered by Ghiorso.




                                                    Periodic Table
Atomic weight 262                                Atomic number 107

                       Bh                        Atomic mass 262




                    Bohrium
                     (Artificial)


 Bohrium is a synthetic element and is not present in the environment
 at all. The German discoverers proposed the name Nielsbohrium
 after Niels Bohr. IUPAC are happy to name an element after Bohr
 but suggest Bohrium on the grounds that the first name of a person
 does not appear in the names of any other element named after a
 person.

                                                      Periodic Table
      Atomic weight 265
                               HS               Atomic number 108
                                                atomic mass 265


                          Hassium
                             (Artificial)



Hassium is a synthetic element that is not present in the environment at all.




                                                            Periodic Table
                                              Atomic number 109
 Atomic weight 266
                          MT                  atomic mass 266



                   Meitnerium
                          (artificial)


Meitnerium is a synthetic element that is not present in the
environment at all.There is no dispute concerning the name
Meitnerium.




                                                        Periodic Table

				
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