Linguistics Department/VLIR Day 1 Workshop: Space, Culture and Multilingualism Venue: Centre for Humanities Research (CHR) Tuesday, 7th April 2009 Time Presenter Title of paper 08H45 – 09H00 Christopher Stroud Introduction Professor of Linguistics Linguistics Department University of the Western Cape 09H00 – 09H40 Amina Peck Multilingualism, Identities and PHD Candidate Transformation in Observatory Linguistics Department (Cape Town): a discourse University of the Western analysis Cape 09H40 – 10H20 Michael Batch Imagining Multilingual Spaces MA Candidate through Scripted code-switching Linguistics Department in 7de Laan University of the Western Cape 10H20 – 10H40 Coffee 10H40 – 11H20 Quentin Williams Popular Spaces of Multilingual PHD Candidate Practices in late-modern Cape Linguistics Department Town: Stones Kuilsriver and University of Western Cape Mzoli‟s Meat 11H20 – 12H00 Kudzayi Ngara Imagining and Imaging the City: PHD Candidate Ivan Vladislavic and the English Department Postcolonial Metropolis University of the Western Cape 12H00 – 12H45 General Discussion General Discussion 13H00 – 14H00 Lunch 14H20 – 16H00 Lionel Wee The technologization of Professor of Linguistics discourse and authenticity in Department of English English Language Teaching Language & Literature (ELT) National University of Singapore Linguistics Department/VLIR Day 2 Workshop: Space, Culture and Multilingualism Venue: Centre for Humanities Research (CHR) Wednesday, 8th April 2009 Time Presenter Title of paper 09H00 – 09H15 Gordon Pirie Introduction Professor of Geography Geography Department University of Western Cape 09H15 – 09H55 Nyasha Garaba Deconstructing souvenir MA Candidate photographs: imagery, Geography Department imagining and (re)creating University of Western Cape Cape Town 09H55 – 10H30 Heike Becker Negotiating Culture in Assoc. Professor of Anthropology Contemporary South Africa: Department of Photographic self- Anthropology/Sociology representations from the University of Western Cape Cape Flats 10H30 – 10H45 Coffee 10H45 – 11H15 Hilde D'haeyere Urban Modernity and University College Ghent & Royal Cinema: American Silent Academy of Fine Arts Comedy (1910-1930) 11H15 – 12H00 Steven Jacobs Urban Modernity and GUST (Ghent Urban Studies Team) Cinema: City Symphonies University of Ghent (1910-1930) 12H00 – 13H00 Lunch 14H00 – 16H00 Roundtable Discussion Abstracts Peck, Amiena PHD Candidate Linguistics Department Title: Multilingualism, Identities and Transformation in Observatory (Cape Town): a discourse analysis The focus of the thesis is conceptually-based and problematizes the notion of a transformed society while addressing and evaluating its meaning in the multicultural setting of Observatory in Cape Town. Concepts such as „multilingualism‟ and „hybridity‟ are discussed within the historical context and understanding of a newly established democratic South Africa. The study endeavours to explore discourses of language and identity in the previously predominantly English-speaking community of Observatory, through a poststructuralist discourse analysis of the kinds of interactions or interactional regimes evident in three sites in Observatory. The idea is to gain knowledge of language use and identity construction in different multilingual spaces in Observatory, as well as to establish a platform on which to understand critical issues dealing with social interaction, translocations and community membership, identity, language and integration in Observatory. Focus will therefore rest on issues such as hybridity, identity options, translocations, translocal and transnational cultural flows, localization and globalization. All these issues fall under the broader theme of discourse of transformation and integration in multilingual spaces. The study strictly works within the framework of a qualitative approach. The focus is on a sociolinguistic multiplex interpretive site approach and a poststructuralist/interactionist discourse analysis of generated narratives supplied by informants during interviews and temporal and spatial descriptions of research sites. The aim is to do an analysis of interactional regimes at different times of day or night. Arising from this study it is hoped that a deeper understanding of migration, transnational and transcultural flows, hybridity and identity in multilingual spaces of South Africa will be reached. Bhatch, Michael PHD Candidate Linguistics Department Title: Imagining multilingual spaces through scripted codeswitching in ‘7de Laan My paper aims to examine the manner in which multilingual spaces are imagined and reconstructed through the use of scripted codeswitching in multilingual performances. I will outline the socio-political discourses and other ideologies from the broader South African context that shape and influence the ways in which scripted performances imagine and reconstruct multilingual spaces. I will use „7de Laan‟, a popular multilingual soap opera as a point of reference as it constructs/depicts an imaginary multilingual space in the fictitious town/suburb of Hillside in Johannesburg, South Africa. This soap opera depicts multilingual hybridity and integration in a late-modern multilingual space through the employment of the linguistic device of codeswitching. Even though the dominant language of the soap is Afrikaans the show incorporates other languages such as IsiZulu and English into its script. This deliberate scripting, and imagining and reconstruction of multilingual spaces is influenced by discourses of new democracy, multilingualism and linguistic and social integration. These discourses mark the movement of the South African media away from the socially culturally, linguistically pure and exclusive discourses of the Apartheid regime to the socially, culturally and linguistically hybrid and all inclusive discourses of a post-colonial multicultural democracy. Barnard (2006:39) argues that popular culture especially soaps in South Africa are working alongside political and social institutions to “chronicle the transformation of the country into a multicultural democracy and imaginatively/materially create a new South Africa” thus shaping the imaginations of the audience. The imagining of multilingual spaces through codeswitching in this soap is not only shaped by its scripting but it is also embedded in the social, cultural and historical context (which I will refer to as the broader context) in which the performance takes place, in this case post-apartheid multilingual South Africa. Bauman and Briggs (1990:72-73) assert that the form and function of a performance cannot be fully understood if it is isolated from its broader and situational context, they suggest that a bi-directional relationship exists between ideology and performance. My research thus aims to contextualize the imagined and reconstructed multilingual spaces in „7de laan‟ in its broader context in order to fully understand how and why codeswitching is employed within the scripting of the soap. Williams, Quentin PHD Candidate Linguistics Department Title: Popular spaces of multilingual practices in late-modern Cape Town In this paper, I report on preliminary data collected at two research sites: Stones Kuilsriver and Mzoli‟s Meat. I will illustrate how dynamic and emergent multilingual practices arise under late-modern processes of production/consumption, and how this problematizes traditional and/or contemporary approaches to multilingual studies that employ structural-functional models derivative of situations of stasis and community. To approach this problem I frame the mentioned sites as popular spaces where encounters between mobile populations and multilingual language users permit investigation into trajectories of development of locally-styled multilingual practices of youth in late modern Cape Town. Much of the literature of relevance to the question of how language practices circulate transnationally and across different spaces is written within the frameworks of the world Englishes (Kachru, 1986), global Englishes (Crystal, 1997), and Linguistic Imperialism (Phillipson, 1992) paradigms. The study is situated in a critical take on this body of literature and has employed methods of multi-site sociolinguistic ethnography research, triangulated with qualitative methods of data collection. It will contribute to an emerging body of theory around multilingualism in late modern societies. Ngara, Kudzayi PHD Candidate English Department Title: Imagining and Imaging the City: Ivan Vladislavic and the Postcolonial Metropolis The postcolonial period has ushered in alternative perspectives on identity, alternatives which challenge the hegemony for instance of the dominant discourses such as colonialism (apartheid) and nationalism (the struggle for national self- determination). In both paradigms of colonialism and nationalism, the quest for an individual identity has often been superseded by the need to assert a perceived communal “good”, to the effect that individuals become aliens in their own communities as they are unable to fully express their senses of “self”. In the decades coinciding with the nationalist struggles for independence in the various countries, a great proportion of literary works and literary criticism has laid emphasis on social realism and the poetics thereof, to the detriment of a deeper understanding of the ways in which a poetics of the imagination might be shaped by perceptions of the individual as subject. The Johannesburg that Vladislavic is narrating is a virtual cultural melting pot with a ceaselessly dynamic demographics. Aubrey Tearle, a character in The Restless Supermarket whose job is to proofread the telephone directory, wryly remarks on the changing character of the surnames in the formerly whites-only suburbs as people from formerly disadvantaged communities move into these former citadels of privilege. I envisage showing that Vladislavic is engaged, in his writing, in the postcolonial deconstruction of ideas about identity. The city is made up of characteristics that go beyond the mortar and brick edifices, which are the manifestations of the physical structure of the city, to encapsulate some of the nature and qualities of the city‟s inhabitants. In the various selected texts character travel through the imagined city but one also gets the sense that the city also travels, imaginatively, through them as the characters adopt different strategies in order to fashion a reality of their own making, as opposed to accepting a place within the bounds of a predetermined objective reality. I am interested in the manner in which characters seem to willingly write themselves into the cityscape. Wee, Lionel Professor of Linguistics Department of English Language & Literature National University of Singapore (Singapore) Title: The technologization of discourse and authenticity in English Language Teaching (ELT) Enterprise culture puts pressure on individuals to demonstrate their entrepreneurial selves by drawing connections between their identities both inside and outside the workplace to consistently display a high degree of agency, initiative and purpose. This means that school-based ELT can and should play a greater role in preparing students for the workplace by sensitizing them to the properties of discourse in enterprise culture. To do this, ELT needs to appreciate that such discourse is both increasingly technologized and reliant on the notion of self-based authenticity. This talk explains how self-based authenticity is related to, yet distinct from, the text-based and task- based authenticities that usually concern ELT, and suggests that a performance-oriented perspective can help learners come to terms with the demands of technologized discourse. Garaba, Nyasha MA Candidate Department of Geography & Environmental Studies Title: Deconstructing souvenir photographs: imagery, imagining and (re)creating Cape Town As evident in postcards, calendars, magazines, books and brochures, Cape Town is one of the most captivating tourist destinations in the world; it is also one of the most photographed. This suggests a strong relationship between tourism and the pictographic (re)presentation of Cape Town through photography. One salient conclusion that has emanated from the discourse on the relationship between tourism and photography is that tourist perceptions of the “other” are primarily constructed, shaped and standardized by both commercial and non-commercial genres of photography. Commercial and non-commercial photography of tourist destinations seems to influence how tourists behave in and consume cities, landscapes and cultures. The research focuses on souvenir photographs of Cape Town that have been appropriated, captured and refracted through tourists‟ camera lenses. Much of the existing research suggests that souvenir photographs are devices for consuming visual images and aspects of the analysis of cultural encounters. However the very same research fails to offer sufficient evidence for explaining what the tourist looks at and sees through photographic practices and what tourists do with their travel photos, introducing broader questions of performance and (re)presentation. Drawing on both cognitive and theoretical perspectives, this research attempts to deconstruct the complexities surrounding the construction of the tourist gaze on cityscapes such as Cape Town. Using a variety of methods, the proposed study also seeks to explore, examine and deconstruct the role of souvenir photography in creating stereotypical images of Cape Town. Analysis of the format and content of the souvenir photographs of Cape Town helps identify and explain dominant aesthetic elements that point to the selectivity and novelty of souvenir photographs. Personal narratives on the uses and meanings of photographs provide insights into how souvenir photography of Cape Town symbolizes actual and desired tourist experiences and how they sustain tourism motivations. Becker, Heike Associate Professor of Anthropology Anthropology and Sociology Department Title: Negotiating Culture in Contemporary South Africa: Photographic self- representations from the Cape Flats This paper presents insights from recent research into visual imaginations of culture on the Cape Flats, and more specifically in two of Cape Town‟s older townships. The project in visual ethnography critically investigated the visibility of popular understandings of culture and the processes, discourses and practices of negotiating culture in post-apartheid South Africa. Township residents were asked to make use of inexpensive photographic technology to visually represent what they see as their culture. The solicitation of photographs was complemented by a series of interviews with the same Cape Flats residents, which investigated their life histories, everyday practices, and the participants‟ reflections on culture. The analysis of how residents of the poorer urban areas in the Western Cape make sense of and relate to broader culture discourses is focused on encounters with the visual and visual expressions in the see-saw of negotiating culture. The argument connects discourses in the public sphere, where the state, media, and other political and societal agents employ cultural strategies, with those of a range of intermediate and micro social settings, and the aspirations of persons. The paper argues that different media of popular expressions: oral and written verbal discourses, sound, different forms of visualisations (including new forms such as cellphone photography), bodily practices, and others, provide different contexts in which people may affirm publicly generated notions of reified culture or may engage in rethinking and debating their identities in more fluid and porous ways. Jacobs, Steven GUST (Ghent Urban Studies Team) University of Ghent (Belgium) Title: Urban Modernity and Cinema: City Symphonies (1910-1930) Often presented as a stage determined by the culture of hyperstimulation (cf. Simmel) and shock experiences (cf. Benjamin), the metropolis was often interpreted in cinematic terms. Conversely, cinema was often presented as the only medium capable of evoking life in the modern city. This was clearly the case in the so-called city symphonies - a film genre, hovering between documentary, feature film, and experimental film, which was popular in the 1920s and 1930s on both sides of the Atlantic. Films by Walther Ruttmann and Dziga Vertov among others attempt at translating the urban experience into a pure film form based on stimulus-response mechanisms and experimental cinematic techniques. D'haeyere, Hilde University College Ghent & Royal Academy of Fine Arts Title: Urban Modernity and Cinema: American Silent Comedy (1910-1930) The new thrills and dangers of the modern city were not only important topics in avant-garde film culture but also in early-twentieth century American popular culture and its sensationalist stance. This was also the case in so-called slapstick - the American silent film comedies by Mack Sennett, Charlie Chaplin, Buster Keaton, Harold Lloyd, and many others. With its fascination for mechanical speed, physical action, and consecutive thrills, slapstick embraced the metropolitan environment turning its icons, such as the car and the skyscraper, into crazy machines.