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SE_ Swedish Family Policy

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					                                                  Swedish family policy

                                                Ministry of Health and Social Affairs
                                                        Social Insurance Division
                                              Unit for Family Policy and Children’s Rights
                                                                   and
                                     Committee of economy and cooperation between separated parents

                                                         Ms. Jessica Löfvenholm




Ministry of Health and Social Affairs Sweden
                                               Swedish family policy
         The Government´s intention is to strengthen parents´ power over their lives and increase
         families´ freedom of choice.
         The Government wants to:
         „ make it easier for parents to combine working life with family life,
         „ improve the conditions for gender equality, and
         „ reduce national political control in favour of families´ own free choice

         The best interest of the child must of be a fundamental value in policies for reconciliation of
         work and family life.




Ministry of Health and Social Affairs Sweden
                  …more family policy

                  Support for
                  „ children in financially vulnerable households
                  „ families with sick or disabled children


                  Also focus on the situation of children of lone parents, e.g.
                  „ appointment of the new committe
                  „ new parental support when lone parents fall ill




Ministry of Health and Social Affairs Sweden
                  Three strategic reforms with great impact on female labour force
                  participation in Sweden


          „ The introduction of individual taxation (1971)

          „ The introduction of paid parental leave (1974)

          „ Available and effordable child care (steps since 70’s)




Ministry of Health and Social Affairs Sweden
                The objective of financial family policy
                             “Financial family policy shall contribute to better opportunities for good
                                financial living standards for all families with children”

                          Family financial support in 3 programme areas:
                          „ insurance
                          „ means-tested allowances and
                          „ general grants




Ministry of Health and Social Affairs Sweden
                              Different family types with children
                                                        New family
                                                       constellation
                                       Single father       7%
                                           5%


              Single mother
                   20%

                                                                         Traditional
                                                                       nuclear family
                                                                            68%




Ministry of Health and Social Affairs Sweden
                               Child and family benefits

                              „ parental insurance (parental benefit, temporarily parental
                              benefit, pregnancy benefit)
                              „ gender equality bonus (max EUR 300)
                              „ child pension and child survivor’s benefits (EUR 130)
                              „ pension rights for childcare years

                              „ housing allowance (max EUR 400)
                              „ care allowance for sick and disabled children
                              „ maintenance support (EUR 130)


                              „ child allowance (EUR 100)
                              „ adoption allowance (EUR 4000)
                              „ child raising allowance ‟ voluntary for municipalities (EUR 300)



Ministry of Health and Social Affairs Sweden
                  Family policy reform 2008-2010

                  The Government recently introduced
                  „ Gender equality bonus ‟ promotes equal sharing of parental leave
                  „ Voluntary municipal child raising allowance ‟ smoother transition
                    between leave and work
                  „ Child care voucher
                  „ Free pre-school for 3 year olds



Ministry of Health and Social Affairs Sweden
                Parental insurance ‟ paid parental leave

                                     The parental insurance consists of three kinds of cash benefits:

                                     - pregnancy benefit

                                     - parental cash benefit in connection with
                                       childbirth or adoption

                                     - temporary parental benefit




Ministry of Health and Social Affairs Sweden
       Parental benefit days used by men
   25%
                                                                                                                                          21,9%
                                                                                                                                         21,5%
                                                                                                                            20,6%20,8%
   20%                                                                                                              19,7%
                                                                                                            18,7%
                                                                                                    17,2%
   15%                                                                                      15,5%
                                                                                    13,8%
                                                                            12,4%
                                                                    11,6%
                                                  10,6%9,9% 10,4%
   10%                                     9,6%


      5%
                              3%

      0%
              74

              95

              96

              97

              98

              99

              00

              01

              02

              03

              04

              05

              06

              07

              08

              09
           19

           19

           19

           19

           19

           19

           20

           20

           20

           20

           20

           20

           20

           20

           20

           20
                                                                                     Share


Ministry of Health and Social Affairs Sweden
                           The loss-of-income principle

                          „ 80 % of annual income up to a ceiling of EUR 42 200

                          „ the highest parental cash benefit per day is EUR 117

                          „ the lowest parental cash benefit per day is EUR 20




Ministry of Health and Social Affairs Sweden
                    Parental cash benefit in connection with childbirth or
                    adoption

                      parental cash benefit can be received for a period of 480 days
                      and can be used until the child is eight years old

                    - for 390 days at 80 % of annual income, of which 60 days
                       constitute the so called mum´s and dad´s months (not            transferable)

                    - parents with low income or no income at all receive a minimum            guaranteed benefit (EUR
                    20/day)

                    - 90 days at a flat rate which is the same for everybody
                      (EUR 20/day)




Ministry of Health and Social Affairs Sweden
                                  Temporary parental benefit

                            - temporary parental benefit is given to a working parent
                              for care of a sick child up to the age of 12
                            - 120 cash benefit days per year and child is available at
                              80% of annual income
                            - a parent with severe sick children under the age of 18 is
                              entitled to an unlimited number of days




Ministry of Health and Social Affairs Sweden
                                   ”Dad´s days”

                             „ the father of a new-born child is entitled to 10 days
                                temporary parental benefit

                             „ these days are supposed to be used either to welcome
                                and take care of the child or to take care of older
                                children in the family

                             „ these days shall be used within 60 days

                             „ about 75 % of all fathers used these days




Ministry of Health and Social Affairs Sweden
                                                   Various forms of childcare
                        Pre-school activities
                                    „ Preschool (public and private)
                                    „ Family day care (in someone’s home)
                                    „ Open pre-school

                        School-age childcare
                                    „          Leisure-time centres
                                    „          Family day care (in someone’s home)
                                    „          Open leisure-time activities




Ministry of Health and Social Affairs Sweden
                                               Swedish childcare coverage 2006

                        Pre-school - 79 % (children 1-5 years old)
                        Family day-care - 6 % (children 1-5 years old)

                        School-age childcare
                        Leisure-time centre           78 % (children 6 - 9 years old)
                                                                10 % (children 10 -12 years old)
                        Family day-care               1 % (children 6 - 9 years old)




Ministry of Health and Social Affairs Sweden
                                               Maximum fee ‟ children 1-5 and 6-12
                        age 1-5:
                        Child 1: 3 % of family’s income before tax‟ or max SEK 1260 per month
                        Child 2: 2 % of income ‟ or max SEK 840 per month
                        Child 3: 1 % of income ‟ or max SEK 420 per month
                        Child 4: no charge

                        „        A daily 3 hours session for all children 3-6 years old is
                                         free of charge (universal pre-school)
                        age 6-12:
                        Child 1: 2% of income ‟ max SEK 840 per month
                        Child 2: 1% of income ‟ max SEK 420 per month
                        Child 3: 1% of income ‟ max SEK 420 per month
                        Child 4: no charge




Ministry of Health and Social Affairs Sweden
                  Different child care age 1-3 in 2005

                                   Form of childcare     per cent enrolled

                                   Public pre-school                   63

                                   Private pre-school                  12

                                   Family day care                       7
                                   Different kinds of
                                      private care                       2

                                   At home with parent                 16

Ministry of Health and Social Affairs Sweden
Expenditure of financial support for families with children


                                                        Pension rights for childcare
                                                                   years
                                                           Child pension
                                                                    7%
                                                 Maintenance support
                                                                2%
                                                          3%
                                               Housing allowance
                                                      6%


                                                                                                      Parental insurance
                                                                                                            41%




                                                  Child allowance
                                                        37%

                                                                                       Care allowance for disabled
                                                                                                 children
                                                                                                   4%




Ministry of Health and Social Affairs Sweden
                                               Total fertility rate, children per woman
                                                                1960-2009

                 3,00


                 2,50


                 2,00


                 1,50


                 1,00


                 0,50


                 0,00
                       60

                       63

                       66

                       69

                       72

                       75

                       78

                       81

                       84

                       87

                       90

                       93

                       96

                       99

                       02

                       05

                       08
                    19

                    19

                    19

                    19

                    19

                    19

                    19

                    19

                    19

                    19

                    19

                    19

                    19

                    19

                    20

                    20

                    20
Ministry of Health and Social Affairs Sweden
                                                      Age at birth of first child 1970-2003

              Age
              32

              30
                                                                                 men
              28

              26                                                                 women
              24

              22

              20
                   1970                        1975      1980      1985       1990       1995   2000




Ministry of Health and Social Affairs Sweden
                                               Social Security and family policy
                                                    in Sweden @ Internet



                                  www.sweden.gov.se
                                  www.forsakringskassan.se
                                  www. socialstyrelsen.se/en
                                  www.skl.se
                                  www.oecd.org

Ministry of Health and Social Affairs Sweden
                  Committee on economy and cooperation between separated
                  parents (S 2009:04)

                        Focus on:
                        „ how benefits affects parents to agree on their child’s support and how they
                          take a joint economic responsibility and agree on living arrangements

                        „ Common with reciding alternately every other week




Ministry of Health and Social Affairs Sweden
                  The committee will look into:

                  „ What are the cost/needs of a child

                  „ If there is a need for better incentives for parents to agree on issues
                    concerning economy and care of the child

                  „ If a special child-account can be a solution

                  „ Lone parents possibilities to strike a balance between work and family life




Ministry of Health and Social Affairs Sweden
                  Problems that we see:

                  „ Shared responsibility after separation ‟ but only one of the parents can
                    receive benefits

                  „ No clear objectives of different benefits ‟ support for the child or for
                    lone parent?




Ministry of Health and Social Affairs Sweden

				
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