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					       MEMORY

 WHICH IS MORE IMPORTANT-

 YOUR EXPERIENCES?

 OR YOUR MEMORY OF
  THEM?
 clear memory of an emotionally
  significant moment or event.
 Atkinson-Shriffrin’s three stage
 processing model of memory
Richard Atkinson
                    Richard Shriffrin
         STORAGE
   RETAINING INFORMATION
 SENSORY MEMORY
 *Iconic (instant) memory-
 photographic or picture-image lasting a few
 tenths of a second
*Echoic (echo) memory-
  momentary sensory memory of
  auditory stimuli recalled within 3-4
  seconds
 WORKING/SHORT-TERM MEMORY
  *Limited in duration (unless rehearsed
   will be forgotten) and in capacity
   ( 7 plus or minus 2 bits of information)

 LONG-TERM MEMORY
  *Capacity limitless - Average adult has
   about billion bits of information in memory
   and capacity of 1000 to a million times
   that.      (P. 364 memory records)
 When we tend to remember the first and last
  items better than those in the middle, this is
  called ___________ __________ _______
 Serial position effect
 What kind of encoding yields the best memory
  of verbal information? Visual, acoustic, or
  semantic?
 Semantic
 We have especially good recall for information
  when we can relate it to ourselves. This is
  called
 Self-reference effect
 We often automatically organize items into
  familiar, meaningful units to help us recall
  information more easily. This is called
 Chunking
 Using “super models have earrings on” to
  remember the Great Lakes would be an
  example of
 Mnemonic device
 The conscious repetition of information to
  maintain it in consciousness or encode it for
  storage is called
 rehearsal
      STORAGE IN THE BRAIN
 Memories do not reside in one specific spot.
 Synapses- ________________________is
  the increase in a synapses firing potential
  after brief, rapid stimulation. This is believed
  to be the neural basis for learning and
  memory.
   long-term potentiation (LTP)
 CREB –a protein that can switch genes on
  and off. Genes produce proteins that
  strengthen synapses enabling long-term
  memories to form.
 When did stress interfere with remembering
  something?
 Identify a time when stress actually
  helped you remember something.
 Study followed by adequate sleep an
  effective memory enhancer.
 Stress hormones can contribute to stronger
  memories
 Prolonged stress can negatively affect
  memory – shrinks the ___________which is
  vital for laying down memories.
 hippocampus
 The ___________(two emotional processing
  clusters in limbic system) can also boost
  activity in brain’s memory forming areas.
 amygdala
 STORAGE OF IMPLICIT MEMORIES-
  also called _____________memories.
  procedural
  Independent of conscious recollection.
  *Can be classically conditioned without
  conscious awareness of the learning.

  The part of the brain that is
  involved is the


  CEREBELLUM
 STORAGE OF EXPLICIT MEMORIES-
  also called ____________memories
  declarative *Can explain their memories


 Left side                       Right side
 damaged                         damaged

 Trouble                         Trouble
 remembering                     remembering
 verbal info                     visual designs
                                 and locations
 RETRIEVAL OF INFORMATION
 Multiple choice questions measure what kind of
  memory? _____________
 recognition
 Fill-in-the-blank questions measure ________
 recall
 Memory measure that assesses the amount of
  time saved when learning for a second time

 relearning
            Retrieval cues
 William James referred to this retrieval cue
  as “wakening of associations”
 Priming
 When words heard underwater are best
  remembered underwater and words heard o
  land are best remembered on land, this
  shows the effects of _________ on memory
 Context
 Sometime being in a context similar to one
  we’ve been in before may trigger the
  experience of
 Deja vu
 What we learn in one emotional state is
  sometimes more easily recalled in that same
  emotional state. This is called ___________
  memory.
 State-dependent
 However, depression disrupts the _______
 process and alcohol disrupts the _______
 of information.
 encoding, storage
 Explain the statement: Our memories are
  somewhat “mood-congruent”.
 Our moods influence how we interpret other
  people’s behavior or how we assess others or
  ourselves.
               Forgetting

 TAB OR BAT refers to:
 Transience, absent-mindedness, blocking
                Distortion
 Misattribution, suggestibility, bias


                 Intrusion
  Persistence of unwanted memories
Who is known for his retention
 curve and forgetting curve?

     Hermann Ebbinghaus
 ____________ (forward-acting) interference
  of previous learning affects recall of new
   information
  proactive
 ___________ (backward-acting) interference
  of new learning affects recall of previously
  learned information.
  retroactive
 Positive transfer
  Old information can sometimes help us
   learn new information.
 What is the Freudian term for memories that
  may be submerged into our unconscious
  because they may be too painful to remember?
 repression
 They may be retrieved through therapy or other
  cues
 More researchers now believe that repression
   rarely occurs.
 Misinformation and
Imagination Effects
             Research on
             false memories
             and misinformation

             Imagination inflation




           Elizabeth Loftus
     Source Amnesia
   (source misattribution)
 Authors and songwriters sometimes
  suffer from source amnesia
 Are very young children’s
 reports of abuse reliable?
 Psychology’s most intense controversy
  “memory wars”

 Memory is reconstruction as well as
 reproduction

				
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