VIEWS: 24 PAGES: 78 POSTED ON: 7/13/2011
Laboratory Safety Manual Laboratory Safety Officer Program October 2005 Laboratory Location: ___________________________ Principal Investigator: ___________________________ To: Laboratory Safety Officers From: Jeannette McGillicuddy, Director Environmental Health & Safety Date: October 2005 The Environmental Health & Safety Department working together with Research Safety Committee and Administration have developed a comprehensive Laboratory Compliance program aimed at ensuring a Culture of Safety throughout BIDMC laboratories. It is the belief of the Medical Center Administration that this culture will create a healthier working environment for fellow employees, and provide an even safer one for research personnel. Enclosed are documents and resources produced by the EHS department aimed at improving the overall environmental compliance and occupational safety at the medical center, including its research facilities. The medical center has many regulatory agencies that oversee its activities, some of which the EHS department provides guidance to medical center in hopes of meeting these agencies requirements. Some information has been enclosed in the packet to help employees understand the requirements as well as programs in place at the medical center aimed at improving working conditions and overall safety at the medical center. It is recommended that each laboratory create a safety binder to include the content of this package and include Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for chemicals found in your laboratory. The following information is enclosed: • Chemical Hygiene Plan • Hazard Communication Program • Training Requirements • Emergency Response Procedures (Chemical, Fire & Disasters) • Personal Protective Equipment & Respiratory Protection Program • Injuries, Accidents & Ergonomics • Laboratory Chemical Waste Management • Environmental Health & Safety Contacts Some other resources for employees are located on the EHS department webpage on the intranet, http://home.caregroup.org/templatesnew/departments/BID/safetydepartment/, or can be accessed through the main portal or the research portal. For questions regarding these programs please contact the Environmental Health & Safety Department at extension 7-3088. Laboratory Chemical Hygiene Plan Revised December 2007 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center- Chemical Hygiene Plan Table of Contents 1.0 SCOPE 1.1 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center Statement of Responsibility 1.2 Occupational Safety and Health Administration Laboratory Standard (1910.1450) 1.3 Purpose 1.4 Hazardous Chemical Definitions 1.5 Responsibilities 1.6 Employee Rights 1.7 Availability 2.0 CHEMICAL HYGIENE PRACTICES 2.1 Monitoring Employee Exposure to Airborne Substances 2.2 Exposure Controls 2.3 PPE 2.4 Employee Information and Training 2.5 Hazard Identification, Labels and MSDS’s 2.6 Medical Consultations, Examinations and Emergency Treatment 2.7 Record Keeping 2.8 Chemical Hygiene Plan Review 2.9 Standard Operating Procedures 3.0 CHEMICAL SAFETY PRACTICES 3.1 Procedures for all Hazard Classes 3.2 Chemical Transport 3.3 Chemical Storage 3.4 Chemical Container Labeling 3.5 Chemical Disposal 3.6 Procedures for Specific Hazard Classes 3.6.1 Flammables and Combustible Liquids 3.6.2 Corrosive Chemicals 3.6.3 Oxidizers 3.6.4 Reactive Chemicals 3.6.5 Peroxide Forming Chemicals 3.6.6 Water Reactive Chemicals 3.6.7 Pyrophoric (air reactive) chemicals 3.6.8 Light Sensitive Chemicals 3.6.9 Shipping Hazardous Materials 3.6.10 Recognition of Hazardous Materials for Shipping Purposes 3.6.11 Package Preparation 3.6.12 Containers and Packing Materials 3.6.13 Compressed Gases and Cryogenic Liquids 3.6.14 General Handling of All Compressed Gases 3.7 Flammable Gases 3.8 Nonflammable Gases 3.9 Cryogenic Liquids revised Dec 2007 2 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center- Chemical Hygiene Plan 4.0 GENERAL LAB SAFETY PRACTICES 4.1 Working Alone 4.2 Unattended Procedures 4.3 General Equipment Setup 4.4 Specific Equipment and Practices 4.5 Distillation Procedures 4.6 Electrophoresis Apparatus 4.7 Cold Traps 4.8 Cooling Systems 4.9 Glassware 4.10 Acid Cleaning of Glassware 4.11 Glass Tubing and Stoppers 4.12 Vacuum Operations 4.13 Centrifuges 4.14 Tissue Machines 4.15 Auto Analyzers 4.16 Fraction Collectors 4.17 Chromatography 4.18 Blenders, Shaking Equipment and Lyophilized Material 4.19 Ultraviolet Lamps 4.20 Laser 5.0 STANDARD LABORATORY FACILITY REQUIREMENTS 5.1 PPE 5.1.1 Eye and Face Protection 5.1.2 Hearing Protection 5.1.3 Hand Protection 5.1.4 Protective Clothing 5.1.5 Respirators 5.2 Safety Equipment 5.2.1 Refrigerators 5.2.2 Flammable and Combustible Liquid Storage Cabinets 5.2.3 Chemical Hoods 5.2.4 Laminar Flow Clean Benches 5.2.5 Biological Safety Cabinets 5.2.6 Biological Safety Cabinet General User Guidelines 5.2.7 Safety Shields 5.2.8 Machine Guards 5.3 Emergency Equipment 5.3.1 Safety Showers, Hand Held Drench Hoses and Eyewashes 5.3.2 Safety Showers 5.3.3 Hand Held Drench Hoses 5.3.4 Eyewashes 5.3.5 Safety Shower, Eyewash and Drench Hose user Guidelines 6.0 CHEMICAL SPECIFIC PROCEDURES 6.1 Sodium Azide 6.2 Picric Acid 6.3 Perchloric Acid 6.4 Mercury 7.0 REVISION HISTORY revised Dec 2007 3 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center- Chemical Hygiene Plan 1.0 SCOPE 1.1 STATEMENT OF RESPONSIBILITY It is the responsibility of Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC), as an employer, to take every reasonable precaution to provide a work environment that is free from recognizable hazards for its employees in accordance with the “general duty” clause of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) section 5 (a)(1). Furthermore, BIDMC is required by the OSHA laboratory standard (29 CFR 1910.1450, Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories) to ensure that the necessary work practices, procedures and policies are implemented to protect all employees working in BIDMC owned and operated laboratories from hazardous chemicals in the work area. 1.2 OSHA LABORATORY STANDARD The Occupational Safety and Health Administration has determined that laboratories typically differ from industrial operations in the use and handling of hazardous chemicals. Therefore, a specific standard has been promulgated to protect workers. The laboratory standard applies to all laboratories that use hazardous chemicals in accordance with the definitions of laboratory use and laboratory scale provided in this document. Where this standard applies, it supersedes for laboratories the requirements of all other OSHA health standards in 29 CFR 1910, subpart Z, except as follows: (i) The requirement to keep employee exposures below applicable permissible exposure limits,. (ii) Prohibition of skin and eye contact where specified by an OSHA health standard (iii) Where the action level (or, in the absence of an action level, the PEL) is routinely exceeded for an OSHA regulated substance with exposure monitoring and medical surveillance requirements This standard shall apply to those employees and departments engaged in laboratory use of chemicals. Laboratory use of chemicals is defined as the handling or use of chemicals on a laboratory scale. Laboratory scale is defined as the “means of work with substances in which the containers used for reactions, transfers, and other handling of substances are designed to be easily and safely manipulated by one person. It also excludes those workplaces whose function is to produce commercial quantities of materials. Laboratory scale applies to areas where: (ii) Multiple chemicals and procedures are used (iii) The procedures involved are not part of a production process (iv) Protective laboratory practices and equipment are available and in common use to minimize the potential for employee exposure. The lab standard does not apply when: (i) When the definition of laboratory use is not met. (1910.1200 shall then apply) (ii) Laboratory uses of hazardous chemicals that provide no potential for employee exposure. (Examples include: dip and read tests, commercially prepared kits) revised Dec 2007 4 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center- Chemical Hygiene Plan 1.3 Purpose This document serves as the written guide for BIDMC compliance with the Laboratory Standard and Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP) requirements contained therein. All laboratories at BIDMC engaged in the laboratory use (as defined by this document) of chemicals are required to comply with this document. The primary objective of this document is to provide a general guide for handling hazardous chemicals in laboratories. The Chemical Hygiene Plan establishes the basic safety principles for laboratory procedures, equipment and work practices that are capable of protecting employees from physical and health hazards of hazardous chemicals in laboratories. This document will hereafter be known as the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center Chemical Hygiene Plan. 1.4 HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL DEFINITIONS Designated Area An area which may be used for work with select carcinogens, reproductive toxins, or substances which have a high degree of acute toxicity. A designated area may be the entire laboratory, an area of the laboratory, or a device such as a laboratory hood. Hazardous chemical OSHA defines a hazardous chemical as one for which there is statistically significant evidence based on at least one study conducted in accordance with established scientific principals that acute or chronic health effects may occur in exposed employees. Health Hazard The term health hazard applies to chemicals which are carcinogens, toxic, or highly toxic agents, reproductive toxins, irritants, corrosives, sensitizers, hepatoxins, nephrotoxins, neurotoxins, agents which act on the hematopoietic systems, and agents which damage the lungs, skin, eyes, or mucous membranes. Physical Hazard Means a chemical for which there is scientifically valid evidence that it is a combustible liquid, a compressed gas, explosive, flammable, or organic peroxide, and oxidizer, pyrophoric, unstable (reactive) or water reactive. 1.5 RESPONSIBILITY Chief Executive Officer: The responsibility for institution-wide implementation of all appropriate actions created through the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center’s chemical hygiene officer lies with the chief executive officer. Chemical Hygiene Officer: The responsibility for overall compliance, consolidated chemical training, safety and regulatory auditing lies with the chemical hygiene officer. BIDMC’s current Chemical Hygiene Officer is Luis Collado in the Environmental Health and Safety Department. Principal Investigator: The responsibility for the safety and well being of all personnel in contact with any related activity utilizing radiation, chemicals, or biological hazards lies with the Principal Investigator and the administrative directors. Specifically, the P.I. is responsible for: Ensuring all employees under his/her supervision have received BIDMC’s Consolidated Laboratory Safety Training. Providing all employees under his/her supervision with site specific training. Following appropriate guidelines proscribed in this document. Laboratory Employee: Individual laboratory employees are responsible for their own safety. All individuals performing work with hazardous substances must accept a shared responsibility for operating in a safe manner once they have been informed about the extent of risk and instructed in safe procedures for their activities. They also have the responsibilities to inform their supervisor or PI of revised Dec 2007 5 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center- Chemical Hygiene Plan accidents and work practices or working conditions they believe hazardous to their health or to health of others. 1.6 EMPLOYEE RIGHTS It is the employee’s right to receive information about the known physical and health hazards of the hazardous chemicals in their work areas, and to receive adequate training to work safely with these substances. Employees have the right to work in a safe environment and inform the Principal Investigators or laboratory supervisor about potential risks in the lab. 1.7 AVAILABILITY The BIDMC Chemical Hygiene Plan must be readily available to employees and employee representatives through their Principal Investigator, supervisor or departmental office. The BIDMC Chemical Hygiene Plan is available to all employees through the Environmental Health & Safety section of the Research Web Portal. 2.0 CHEMICAL HYGIENE PRACTICES • Always consult Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs), and other sources of information to familiarize yourself with a substance’s hazards and apply appropriate control methods. Contact the Environmental Health and Safety Department whenever you need assistance. CARCINOGENS, REPRODUCTIVE TOXINS & SUBSTANCES OF HIGH ACUTE TOXCITY • Prior to work commencement, these materials require special precautions and approval from the Environmental Health and Safety Department. Check the MSDS information or consult with the manufacturer to determine if the product you are considering is such a hazard. • In situations outside of a laboratory, consult the Environmental Health and Safety Department prior to use and seek a non-hazardous substitute. • Employees engaged in the laboratory use of these hazardous chemicals shall: Pre-plan all work and use these materials only in designated areas of the laboratory that are clearly identified. Avoid all exposure to these materials, regardless of the route of entry. o Use containment measures (e.g. a properly functioning fume hood, a glove box) whenever there is risk of aerosolization or facility contamination. Fume hoods or glove boxes may serve as designated areas. o Use appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) to prevent inhalation exposure and skin / eye contact. PPE should be utilized in conjunction with administrative (e.g., operating procedures) and engineering (e.g., fume hoods) controls. o Minimize contamination of all work surfaces both inside and outside of the designated work area. o Employ chemically resistant trays and absorbent work surface coverings to control spillage and spread of contamination and simplify clean up. Consider having two people present during the use of any substance of high acute toxicity. Limit (via locked cabinets or other control methods) access to these materials to those who are trained and authorized to use them. Collect chemical wastes, including liquids and contaminated solid wastes, in appropriate containers and dispose of them in strict accordance with established chemical waste procedures. Decontaminate the work surfaces as the last step in the clean up process Wash your hands thoroughly when work is completed. revised Dec 2007 6 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center- Chemical Hygiene Plan Be prepared in advance to manage any emergency involving these materials. Ensure that an eyewash and safety shower are available for all work with these substances. All feasible efforts will be made to minimize exposure to all other hazardous chemicals. Adverse reactions to toxic chemicals include irritation, sensitization, asphyxiation, narcosis or anesthesia, neurological and other site-specific damage. Toxicity of a substance can be dependent upon the concentration, total dose, frequency of exposure, route of exposure, its metabolism within the body, and synergistic effects from chemical exposure combinations. The primary routes of exposure are ingestion, inhalation, injection, and skin absorption. At a minimum: • Regulatory exposure limits will be observed for those substances for which such limits are established. • Skin contact with chemicals assigned a “skin designation” by NIOSH will be prevented through properly controlled work practices and appropriate PPE. • Precautions will be taken to avoid all eye contact with chemical materials. NOTE: The Environmental Health and Safety Department will maintain access to complete and current listings of airborne exposure limits and skin designations and provide any of this information upon request. A substance's material safety data sheet (MSDS) is also a source of this information. 2.1 MONITORING EMPLOYEE EXPOSURE TO HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES Where there is reason to believe that an employee's airborne exposure to a hazardous chemical may exceed applicable exposure limits, including any action level, the laboratory's principal investigator and the Environmental Health and Safety Department will be notified by the employee. EH&S and the principal investigator will jointly review the situation. If warranted, the Environmental Health and Safety Department will conduct or arrange for initial exposure monitoring. Reasons to suspect excessive exposure may include: o Development of symptoms associated with exposure, o Detection of a warning property such as an appearance or odor in the workplace, o Prior experience with a similar operation, o The use of a procedure involving significant quantities of a chemical for an extended period of time, o The absence of good chemical hygiene practices, such as the use of open systems of volatile materials outside of a vapor exhaust or containment device. If initial monitoring reveals that exposure exceeds any applicable exposure limit, the Environmental Health and Safety Department will ensure that periodic monitoring is conducted in compliance with OSHA's general industry standards and that any further requirements pertaining to engineering controls, medical surveillance, personal protective equipment, or training are identified and relayed to responsible personnel for follow up. Employees shall be notified through their management of all monitoring results upon their receipt by the Environmental Health and Safety Department. Management notification shall be in writing. Employee notification shall also be in writing and given either individually or by posting results in an area accessible to employees. Monitoring can be terminated in accordance with the relevant standard. Records of all monitoring results will be maintained by the Environmental Health and Safety Department with copies sent to Occupational Health for inclusion in employee’s health records. revised Dec 2007 7 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center- Chemical Hygiene Plan 2.2 EXPOSURE CONTROLS The use of any hazardous chemical with the potential to result in an airborne exposure exceeding an established permissible exposure limit or a prohibited skin/eye contact shall be conducted with the use of control measures which are effective in reducing exposure to a level below the applicable airborne permissible exposure limit or preventing the prohibited skin/eye contact. Substitution of less hazardous chemicals shall be considered during the planning of research experiments. Engineering and work practice controls that eliminate hazards are to be considered second and implemented where feasible. If elimination or containment is not possible with these controls alone, then they will still be employed to control the hazard to the extent possible and will be supplemented with personal protective equipment. Engineering and work practice options to eliminate or minimize exposures will include, but not necessarily be limited to: • LOCAL EXHAUST VENTILATION at the point of contaminant generation or dispersal, • SUBSTITUTION of a less toxic or less harmful material for one which is hazardous to health, • CHANGE OR ALTERATION OF A PROCESS to eliminate or minimize worker contact, • ISOLATION or ENCLOSURE of a process or work operation to reduce the number of persons exposed, • WET METHODS to reduce dust, • EFFECTIVE HOUSEKEEPING, including decontamination, maintaining cleanliness in the workplace, proper waste disposal and appropriate washing and eating facilities, • SPECIAL CONTROL METHODS FOR SPECIFIC CHEMICALS, such as reduction of exposure time, use of monitoring devices, and continuous sampling with preset alarms, • USE OF MECHANICAL HANDLING DEVICES. NOTE: Proper use of the lab’s fume hood is the most effective way to prevent exposure to airborne substances. 2.3 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT AND SAFETY DEVICES Personal Protective Equipment Personal protective equipment will be issued for exposure control purposes: • When feasible engineering and work practice controls have been implemented but are not effective alone at maintaining exposure below acceptable levels • During any interval needed to install or implement feasible engineering or work practice controls • During maintenance and repair activities where engineering and work practice controls are not feasible • In emergency situations Information relative to various types of personal protective equipment and safety devices is outlined in further detail in section 5.0, and is also available from the Environmental Health and Safety Department. Such equipment must be employed in a manner and to a degree consistent with the hazards of the chemical use, and affected employees must utilize this equipment when required to. The Environmental Health and Safety Department must be informed of any required application of personal protective equipment, and will assist proper selection and use. Particular attention must be given to chemical compatibility in the selection of gloves for the use in chemical handling. Glove compatibility charts are available from the Environmental Health and Safety Department, and additional help is available through glove distributors and manufacturers as well as from laboratory supply vendors. revised Dec 2007 8 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center- Chemical Hygiene Plan Chemical Fume Hoods No chemical work will be conducted in any chemical fume hood unless it is functioning properly. Where chemical exhaust hoods are equipped with airflow indicators or alarms, personnel shall be taught by their supervisors to recognize when any such device or alarm signifies a functional problem. Maintenance Operations will be available to provide information regarding any flow indicators relative to a chemical exhaust hood. When a problem is indicated or suspected, work in the chemical exhaust hood must cease and be secured by area personnel to prevent contaminating the general room air. Maintenance Operations through the Service Response Center (ext. 2-0070) must be notified. All problems with chemical exhaust hoods detected by Maintenance Operations shall be immediately reported to affected area personnel, who will then secure their work. Maintenance Operations will give affected areas adequate advance notice of any scheduled shutdowns. Respirators Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center follows a respiratory protection program developed by the Environmental Health and Safety Department in accordance with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration respiratory protection standard 29 CFR 1910.134. Use of respirators in the laboratory is strongly discouraged, and respirators may only be worn when issued by the Environmental Health and Safety Department. Respirators will only be allowed where engineering controls are not feasible, where they are being installed, or where they are not sufficient, in conjunction with work practice controls, to keep exposures below exposure limits. Prior to using a respirator for the first time or for a new activity, employees must receive a medical clearance exam from Employee Occupational Health, receive training from Environmental Health and Safety, undergo a successful fit test, and complete a BIDMC respirator use questionnaire. Eyewashes and Showers Maintenance Operations will assure the proper functioning of fixed eyewashes and safety showers through recommended guidelines established by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). If a problem with the proper operation of an eyewash or shower is detected or suspected, Maintenance Operations must be contacted immediately at extension 2-0070, so that the equipment may be repaired. Whenever an eyewash and/or shower is out of service for repair, all employees in the affected area must be aware of the next closest eyewash and shower available for use. Certain laboratory practices, such as the use of highly corrosive chemicals, may need to be halted or relocated if an eyewash and/or shower become unavailable in a particular area due to a need for their repair. 2.4 Employee Information and Training Principal investogators shall ensure that laboratory personnel are trained to handle chemical hazards effectively. Information and training shall consist of both the general BIDMC Consolidated Laboratory Safety Training and any laboratory-specific material that is warranted. Consolidated Laboratory Safety Training sessions are conducted by Environmental Health & Safety, Employee Occupational Health, Radiation Safety, and Research Compliance. All laboratory personnel are required to attend this training program as soon as possible after their hire, except for employees in the Pathology labs, who are required to attend a parallel training offered within that department. The program includes a general discussion of the following topics: • An overview of OSHA's lab standard and its appendices • Chemical Hygiene • Hazard Characteristics • Regulatory Exposure Limits • Personal Protective Equipment • Engineering Controls • Lab Accidents revised Dec 2007 9 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center- Chemical Hygiene Plan • Emergency Response • Hazardous Chemical Waste • Radiation • Biological Safety • Animal Research • Employee Health • Research Compliance Consolidated Laboratory Safety Training refreshers will also be offered to laboratory employees online, through the BIDMC Research Portal. Employees completing the online version of the training are required to complete quizzes to verify their comprehension of the material. All new employees are required to attend a live presentation of the training. Pathology employees must complete an online refresher training annually. Laboratory-specific information and training is the responsibility of the principal investigator. It will be provided at the time of the employee's initial assignment and prior to assignments involving new potential exposure situations. The following topics must be included in lab-specific training: • The location and continuous availability of the BIDMC Chemical Hygiene Plan. • The specific control measures the lab uses to control exposure to the particular substances in use, including work practices, emergency procedures and use of personal protective equipment. These lab specific control measures must be documented and available to lab personnel at all times. The best documentation method is to write specific chemical hygiene information into the lab's standard operating procedures or experimental protocols. • The location and continuous availability of reference materials (MSDSs, Chemical Hygiene Plan, etc.) covering substance specific physical and health hazards, signs and symptoms of exposure, safe handling, storage, disposal, and other information pertaining to hazardous chemicals in use in the laboratory. • Any methods or observations in use to detect chemical exposures in the workplace (such as any exposure monitoring, or use of continuous monitoring devices). • Emergency response information and applicable contact numbers. General and lab specific refresher training is required on an annual basis. 2.5 Hazard Identification: Labels and MSDSs • Laboratory management will ensure that labels on incoming containers of chemicals are not removed or defaced and that the contents of secondary and working containers are identified with the name of the chemical as it appears on the Material Safety Data Sheet and also the health and physical hazards associated. • Each laboratory will also maintain copies of any material safety data sheets (MSDS) directly received from distributors or manufacturers. The laboratory will send copies of MSDSs with the identity and location of the user to the Environmental Health and Safety Department for the hospital's master MSDS file in Public Safety. Detailed support information relating to MSDSs is available from the Environmental Health and Safety Department. • Access to MSDSs for all BIDMC employees is also available through the Environmental Health & Safety section of the BIDMC Web Portal, where a link is provided to MSDS Source. If any chemical is found not to have an MSDS available through MSDS Source, a request may be made by clicking the “Request an MSDS” button. • Assistance in locating MSDSs is available through the Environmental Health & Safety Department. • Laboratories must maintain their MSDSs in a location where they are readily available to all laboratory personnel at any time. revised Dec 2007 10 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center- Chemical Hygiene Plan • Chemicals developed within a lab may be subject to several special requirements of the OSHA Laboratory Standard for risk assessment and MSDS development, depending on how the lab intends to use the material. If such materials exist in a lab, contact the Environmental Health and Safety Department to obtain guidance on these additional requirements. 2.6 Medical Consultations, Examinations and Emergency Treatment • Laboratory management shall be immediately notified whenever: An employee develops signs or symptoms associated with exposure to a hazardous chemical, Exposure monitoring reveals exposure above a regulatory action level or a permissible exposure limit, An event occurs, such as a leak, spill or explosion, where there is also the likelihood of an employee experiencing hazardous exposure. • Lab management shall ensure that all employees affected in the above situations are seen in Employee Occupational Health Services (or the Emergency Unit depending on the time of the occurrence and extent of any injuries). Documentation of the event will proceed in accordance with the incident reporting policies of the hospital. • Employee Occupational Health Services (or the Emergency Unit) shall provide an opportunity for consultation, examination or treatment as medically appropriate and in accordance with regulatory standard. • Employee Occupational Health Services shall maintain for each employee an accurate record of any medical consultation, exam or treatment, including tests or written opinions required by the lab standard. • Any employee frequently handling toxicologically significant amounts of a chemical should consult with Employee Occupational Health Services regarding the desirability of regular medical follow up. 2.7 Recordkeeping All monitoring and medical records required to be maintained by this plan will be managed in full compliance with OSHA's standard entitled Access to Employee Exposure and Medical Records, 29 CFR, 1910.1020. 2.8 Chemical Hygiene Plan Review The BIDMC Research Safety Committee and the Environmental Health & Safety Department will review this Chemical Hygiene Plan at least on an annual basis. Each laboratory must ensure that its laboratory-specific provisions are current. 2.9 Standard Operating Procedures Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) are required for any lab work that incorporates the use of hazardous materials. An SOP is a written procedure explaining the relevant safety and health considerations that outline how to safely work with the specific hazardous materials used in lab processes. The provisions outlined below are required to make the Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP) a legal document and to ensure the health and safety of individuals working in the laboratory. When each Principal Investigator creates an SOP, the Chemical Hygiene Plan becomes specific to their lab. In many cases, more than one SOP will be needed to encompass all of the different types of work being conducted in the laboratory. For your convenience, this outline is provided on the Environmental Health & Safety section of the BIDMC Web Portal. Each required SOP should be filled out electronically, printed, and kept with the Chemical Hygiene Plan. Elements to include into the Standard Operating Procedures are: revised Dec 2007 11 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center- Chemical Hygiene Plan • Date (review at least annually) • Principal Investigator • Building & Room Number(s) • Phone Number(s) • Identifying whether it is a PROCESS, HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL or HAZARD CLASS • Describe Process, Hazardous Chemical or Hazard Class: List all chemicals in the process and describe / list the names of all hazardous chemicals including common name, abbreviations and Chemical Abstract Service # (CAS) used in the lab. • Potential Hazards: Describe the potential hazards for each process, hazardous chemical or hazard class. Include physical (flammable, reactive, corrosive) and health (toxic, irritant) hazards. • Personal Protective Equipment (PPE): Identify the required level of PPE and hygiene practices needed. PPE includes gloves, aprons, lab coats, eye protection, etc. • Engineering Controls: Describe the engineering controls that will be utilized to prevent or reduce employee exposure to hazardous chemicals. This includes ventilation devices such as fume hoods. • Special Handling and Storage Requirements: List storage requirements for the hazardous chemicals involved with the SOP, including the specific areas and policies regarding access to the chemicals. Special procedures such as dating of peroxide formers or storage only in lab-safe refrigerators are appropriate here. • Spill and Accident Procedures: Indicate how spills or accidental releases will be handled and by whom. List the location of appropriate emergency equipment (spill kits, eye washes, showers, and fire equipment). Any special requirements for personal protective equipment should be reiterated here. • Decontamination Procedures: Specify decontamination procedures to be used for equipment, glassware, clothing, lab benches and equipment such as glove boxes, fume hoods and controlled areas within the lab. • Waste Disposal Procedures: Indicate how waste will be disposed of. List the locations where waste will accumulate within the lab • Material Safety Data Sheet Locations: Indicate the location of MSDSs for each hazardous chemical used. Also, indicate the location of other pertinent safety information, i.e. equipment manuals, chemical references, etc. 3.0 CHEMICAL SAFETY PRACTICES This section is designed to complement the chemical hygiene information presented above. Together, this results in a comprehensive chemical safety management system based on effective chemical safety practices and current regulatory requirements. Relevant requirements must be incorporated into each department's personnel training and standard operating procedures. This section considers four general classes of hazardous chemicals: • Flammables and combustibles revised Dec 2007 12 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center- Chemical Hygiene Plan • Corrosives • Reactives • Toxics 3.1 PROCEDURES FOR ALL HAZARD CLASSES CHEMICAL ACQUISITION • Familiarize yourself with a chemical's safety requirements and prepare for safe handling, proper storage, emergency response and appropriate disposal prior to its acquisition and use. • Notify the Environmental Health and Safety Department prior to your initial use or purchase of the following materials. Acetylene Hydrogen Picric acid and corrosive gases Calcium carbide Hydrogen sulfide Potassium Carbon disulfide Magnesium Sodium Fluorine Perchloric acid Ethers Hydrofluoric acid Phosphorous (yellow or white) Cyanides and toxic gases • Minimize quantities in use and storage. Obtain hazardous chemicals in individual containers sized to meet immediate needs only and in a total shipment quantity which meets short term needs. • Individual containers must not exceed one gallon. • Do not accept or use containers that are cracked, rusted or leaking or whose integrity is otherwise in question. • Accept only chemical containers labeled with the identity of the contents. • Date all containers when received to assist in "first in-first out" stock rotation and to allow for the careful monitoring and removal of materials, such as peroxidizable ethers, whose aging on the shelf can be dangerous. Maintain material safety data sheets (MSDSs) received from manufacturers or distributors. You may receive MSDSs directly upon initial purchase of a material or after an MSDS update is completed. Since many suppliers routinely send MSDSs to a facility’s Environmental Health and Safety Department, check with BIDMC Environmental Health and Safety if an expected MSDS is not received with a shipment. 3.2 CHEMICAL TRANSPORT • Transport all chemicals, including chemical wastes, in safety bottle carriers or other protective secondary containers, or using transport methods that assure equivalent safety. • Use only carts which are stable and in good operating condition. Do not overload a cart. • Do not transport a hazardous chemical on an elevator used by patients. 3.3 CHEMICAL STORAGE • Minimize hazardous chemical storage. Do not store bulk quantities. • Keep containers well sealed to avoid vaporization and spills. Do not use makeshift caps (such as those constructed of aluminum foil, corks, or corks wrapped with foil) or glass stoppers. revised Dec 2007 13 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center- Chemical Hygiene Plan • Maintain an updated chemical inventory list. BIDMC maintains laboratory chemical inventories with an electronic system that all laboratories are required to use. Training on the chemical inventory system is provided to all laboratories to assist with compliance. • Periodically review chemicals for shelf-life expiration and container integrity. Promptly and properly dispose of any materials that are outdated or no longer needed. • Do not store chemicals directly on the floor, in aisles, under furniture or on lab benches. Limit storage in hoods in order to prevent interference with airflow. • Properly maintain chemical storage areas. They must be: - Adequately ventilated and illuminated - Not exposed to temperature extremes - Free from sources of ignition and heat such as flames, hot water pipes, direct sunlight and heaters - Dry • Establish chemical (and waste) storage by general compatibility classifications and prevent potential contact between incompatible substances. Do not store potentially reactive chemicals alphabetically. Tables of general compatibility groupings are available from the Environmental Health and Safety Department. Some general rules are • Flammable and combustible liquids (Including combustible organic acids such as acetic acid) o Store alone in approved cabinets o Keep all oxidizers away • Oxidizers (Including strongly oxidizing mineral acids such as nitric, perchloric, and sulfuric acids) o Keep away from flammables and combustibles o Keep away from reducing agents and bases o Keep away from organic acids such as acetic acid and phenol • Reducing agents (Alkali and alkaline earth metals etc.) o Avoid oxidizers • Non-oxidizing acids o Keep away from bases • Bases o Separate from acids • Water reactives o Keep dry, protect from all moisture and air o Do not store on shelves above sinks or water baths • Air reactives (pyrophorics) o Protect from air by tightly sealing o Follow substance specific storage instructions on MSDS • Toxic chemicals o Protect cyanides and sulfides from contact with acids 3.4 CHEMICAL CONTAINER LABELING revised Dec 2007 14 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center- Chemical Hygiene Plan Keep all containers, including secondary containers, clearly labeled with the identity of the contents and any relevant hazard warning. Identify chemical mixtures by percent or volume composition. Do not deface any labels on incoming containers or on chemicals in use or storage. 3.5 CHEMICAL DISPOSAL Refer to the hospital’s established procedures for disposal of hazardous chemical waste prior to discarding any chemical materials. Contact the Environmental Health and Safety Department for information. 3.6 PROCEDURES FOR SPECIFIC HAZARD CLASSES 3.6.1 FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS Ignitable liquids are classified into two distinct groups: flammable and combustible liquids. This distinction is important for complying with fire regulations, and is based on a chemical’s relative ease of ignition as measured mainly by a substance's flash point. A flash point is the lowest temperature at which a liquid will give off enough vapor to form an ignitable mixture with air at the liquid's surface. Flammable liquids have lower flash points than combustible liquids, but practically speaking, all flammable and combustible liquids present significant fire hazards, even when present in small quantities. FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS have flashpoints less than 100 oF and are the more hazardous. There are three classifications of flammable liquids: Class IA IB 1C Flashpoint oF < 73 < 73 ≥ 73 and < 100 Boiling point < 100 > 100 COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS are also serious fire hazards. There are also three classes of these materials. Class II IIIA IIIB Flash point oF ≥ 100 and < 140 ≥ 140 and < 200 ≥ 200 STORAGE REQUIREMENTS FOR FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE CHEMICALS o Limit quantities of flammable and combustible liquids to the smallest practical working supply. o Labs must limit quantities and store these materials in a manner consistent with the following tables (A and B). MAXIMUM QUANTITIES (IN GALLONS) OF FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS FOR LABS A. Amount permitted out in the open lab (Excludes quantities in storage cabinets and safety cans) Area of lab Flammable or Combustible Liquid Class (Square feet) I I+II+IIA * Gallons 100 2 4 200 4 8 300 6 12 400 8 16 revised Dec 2007 15 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center- Chemical Hygiene Plan 500 and greater 10 maximum 20 maximum B. Total quantity permitted in lab (includes quantities in storage cabinets, safety cans and in the open lab) Area of lab Flammable or Combustible Liquid Class (Square feet) I I+II+IIIA * Gallons 100 4 8 200 8 16 300 12 24 400 16 32 500 20 40 600 24 48 700 28 56 800 32 64 900 36 72 1000 40 80 1500 and greater 60 maximum 120 maximum • Limit the maximum allowable individual container size for flammable or combustible liquids in laboratories to one gallon. Use of larger sizes must be approved by the Environmental Health & Safety Department. • Segregate all flammable and combustible liquids from oxidizing materials. • Do not store and/or use flammable liquids in walk-in cold rooms, ordinary household refrigerators or other unventilated spaces. • Avoid all sources of ignition and heat in storage areas. HANDLING PRECAUTIONS FOR FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE CHEMICALS • Do not use flammable and combustible liquids near sources of ignition such as Bunsen burners and other open flames, ovens, hot pipes or other sources of unregulated heat. • Use hot water, steam or an electric mantle when it is necessary to heat flammable or combustible liquids. Never use open flames. • Handle, heat or transfer flammable and combustible liquids in fume hoods. • Use electrical heating equipment of an explosion-proof design with flammable or combustible liquids. • Electrically bond all metal containers when pouring ignitable chemicals, and ground them so that static electrical buildup is safely discharged. 3.6.2 CORROSIVE CHEMICALS Corrosive chemicals, including acids, bases, halogens, dehydrating agents and oxidizing agents, can have a destructive effect on living tissues and can degrade a wide variety of materials. Strong oxidizing agents, including revised Dec 2007 16 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center- Chemical Hygiene Plan some common mineral acids such as nitric, perchloric and sulfuric acids, can also present significant fire and explosion hazards upon contact with organic material or other oxidizable substances. ACIDS and BASES USE AND STORAGE PRECAUTIONS FOR ACIDS: • Store acids on low shelves. Keep below eye level and in acid cabinets. • Segregate acids from bases and from reactive metals such as sodium, potassium, magnesium, etc. • Segregate oxidizing acids from combustible organic acids (e.g. acetic, trichloroacetic) and other flammable or combustible materials. • Segregate acids from chemicals that could generate toxic gases upon contact such as sodium cyanide, iron sulfide, etc. • When mixing acids and water, always slowly pour the acid into the water (never the reverse) while stirring. USE AND STORAGE PRECAUTIONS FOR BASES: • Segregate bases from acids. • Store solutions of inorganic hydroxides in polyethylene containers. • Store bases on low shelves, keeping them below eye level. 3.6.3 OXIDIZERS USAGE AND STORAGE PRECAUTIONS FOR OXIDIZERS: • Store in a cool, dry place. • Keep away from flammable and combustible materials, such as paper, wood, cardboard, styrofoam, etc. Oxidizing agents can increase the ease of ignition of combustible materials and invariably increase the intensity of burning. • Keep away from reducing agents, such as zinc, formic acid, alkali metals (lithium, sodium, potassium), alkaline earth metals (beryllium, magnesium and calcium). 3.6.4 REACTIVE CHEMICALS Chemicals that are classified as reactive have the potential to explode at the slightest provocation or react violently with air, water or other substances. Closely follow all storage recommendations specified on the MSDS. 3.6.5 PEROXIDE FORMING CHEMICALS Formation of unstable peroxides can result in violent detonation if the peroxide containing material is disturbed by shock or friction or exposed to elevated temperature. Learn to recognize the potential for peroxide formation. MSDSs will contain information about peroxide forming abilities of specific compounds. The Environmental Health and Safety Department can also provide general reference material on the recognition and handling of peroxidizable chemicals. Peroxide forming chemicals kept too far beyond their expiration dates may necessitate extremely costly “high hazard” disposal procedures, requiring remote opening of the bottle, a fire department detail, and a notice published in a local newspaper. revised Dec 2007 17 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center- Chemical Hygiene Plan STORAGE AND USE OF PEROXIDE FORMING CHEMICALS • Purchase peroxide forming compounds in the smallest practical container size and in shipment quantities that represent short-term needs. Minimize storage. • Keep accurate inventory of peroxidizable materials, dating them when received and when initially opened for use. • Review the inventory periodically and properly dispose of any materials, previously opened or not, which approach or exceed any expiration date set by the manufacturer. (Check labels and MSDSs for manufacturer expiration dates). • In the absence of a manufacturer's expiration date, properly dispose of containers within six months of opening or (for unopened containers) within one year, whichever occurs first. Consider crystallization in a peroxidizable liquid or discoloration in a peroxidizable solid to indicate an extremely dangerous condition. Do not handle such material and contact the Environmental Health and Safety Department at once. • Avoid accelerating the peroxidation process. Avoid exposing peroxide-formers to air, heat, and especially light. Keep containers tightly capped or sealed to keep air out. • Store on stable shelving, protected from physical damage and in an area free of ignition sources. • Store in original containers. Do not store ethers in amber colored or ground-glass stoppered bottles. • Handle peroxide-forming compounds in a fume hood. • Keep the immediate work area free of ignition sources such as Bunsen burners and non-explosion- proof electrical equipment. • Test for peroxides before distilling. The Environmental Health and Safety Department can provide general reference material on testing for peroxides. Leave at least a 10 percent bottom and do not distill to dryness. • Clean all spills immediately. 3.6.6 WATER REACTIVE CHEMICALS Reactions with water may yield flammable or toxic gases or create other hazardous conditions. The alkali metals and metal hydrides react violently with water and liberate hydrogen from the reaction, which in turn, may be ignited and explode by the heat of reaction. STORAGE AND HANDLING REQUIREMENTS FOR WATER REACTIVE CHEMICALS • Protect all storage from contact with water. • Store lithium, potassium and sodium under mineral oil or kerosene. Avoid using oils that contain sulfur since a hazardous reaction may occur. • Store other water reactives under an inert liquid or dry inert atmosphere in a water and airtight container. Refer to chemical manufacturer's instructions on the MSDS for specifics. • Prominently label storage areas. 3.6.7 PYROPHORIC (AIR REACTIVE) CHEMICALS revised Dec 2007 18 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center- Chemical Hygiene Plan STORAGE AND HANDLING REQUIREMENTS FOR PYROPHORIC CHEMICALS: • Store and handle with extreme caution. Pyrophoric substances ignite spontaneously upon contact with air. • Yellow phosphorus (also known as white phosphorous) must be stored and cut under water. Red phosphorous is much less reactive and does not need to be stored under water. 3.6.8 LIGHT SENSITIVE CHEMICALS Bromine, ethyl ether, ferric ammonium citrate, hydrobromic acid, mercuric salts, oleic acid, potassium ferrocyanide, silver salts, sodium iodide, and mercurous nitrate are examples of chemicals which are reactive when exposed to light, and must be stored in the manufacturer’s containers. STORAGE AND HANDLING REQUIREMENTS FOR LIGHT SENSITIVE CHEMICALS: • Store in containers that block out light. • Do not transfer to clear glass or other light-permitting containers. 3.6.9 SHIPPING HAZARDOUS MATERIALS This section is included to: o Help you recognize hazardous materials subject to U.S. and international transportation regulations and, o Direct you to the resources available to assist you in fulfilling your obligations to package them correctly. The Environmental Health and Safety Department serves as a contact for technical and regulatory matters and reviews this subject at appropriate training sessions. The main hospital mailroom addresses business and operational details. Please note: All shipments of Hazardous Materials that from any BIDMC facility must be prepared by employees who have received current training from by the Environmental Health and Safety Department in DOT/IATA regulations. There are stringent regulatory requirements that dictate quantity, packing, labeling, and documentation of these materials prior to shipment. Hazardous materials presented to commercial carriers must be identified, classified, precisely described on shipping papers, and packaged in approved containers, which are marked, labeled and in condition for shipment. However, the specifics of these requirements can vary significantly depending upon the mode of transport, domestic or international destination, and which of several sets of regulations apply. Therefore, the information necessary to properly prepare your package is best obtained directly from your carrier, who may also have their own additional requirements for you to fulfill. Not complying with packaging regulations can result in a carrier's refusing to accept the package for transport or in penalties being imposed by a regulatory authority. Most hazardous materials packages sent from this hospital contain etiologic (infectious) agents. Some of these also contain dry ice, which itself is regulated as a hazardous substance during transport. 3.6.10 RECOGNITION OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS FOR SHIPPING PURPOSES The following general descriptions are intended to provide initial assistance in recognizing hazardous materials subject to transportation regulations. Class 1. Explosives revised Dec 2007 19 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center- Chemical Hygiene Plan 2. Gases: • Flammable gases • Nonflammable, nonpoisonous compressed gases, including liquefied gases, cryogenics and compressed gases in solution • Poisonous gases 3. Flammable and Combustible Liquids 4. Flammable Solids, including: • Spontaneously combustible materials • Materials which are dangerous when wet 5. Oxidizers and Organic Peroxides 6. Poisons and Etiologic Agents: • Poisonous materials other than poisonous gases • Etiologic (infectious) materials 7. Radioactive Materials 8. Corrosives 9. Miscellaneous Hazardous Materials, including: • Magnetized material • Materials with anesthetic, noxious or other properties which could cause annoyance or discomfort to a vehicle operator • Hazardous wastes and materials posing environmental concerns 3.6.11 PACKAGE PREPARATION • Contact the mailroom for help in selecting a carrier and obtaining the necessary paperwork. They can also provide information on rates, drop off locations, etc. • Contact the carrier for detailed instructions and provide the identity of all hazardous materials to be shipped. Be prepared to provide information on quantities. • Notify the Radiation Safety Office (ext. 7-2510) before shipping any radioactive material. • Have the carrier provide you with the following information for each hazardous material in your shipment: o Proper shipping name, including o Packing group, if applicable a technical name if necessary o Label(s) required o Hazard class and, if applicable, o Approved packaging the division o Quantity limitations o Identification number o Special provisions • Complete the required shipping papers with the information and instructions provided by the carrier. • Provide a 24-hour emergency response telephone number on the shipping document. The following may be used in most cases. CHEMTEL EMERGENCY TELEPHONE NUMBER: 1-(800)-255-3924 Arrange, through the Environmental Health and Safety Department, for CHEMTEL to have in its possession, prior to shipment, safety information relative to the hazardous materials being shipped revised Dec 2007 20 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center- Chemical Hygiene Plan which is sufficient to aid in comprehensive emergency response and accident mitigation. In most instances, with chemicals, simply providing CHEMTEL with an appropriate MSDS will suffice. • Mark the package as instructed by the carrier. Packages containing liquid hazardous materials must be packed with closures upward and marked with orientation markings on two opposite vertical sides with arrows pointing in the correct upright direction. • Attach all required labels. 3.6.12 CONTAINERS AND PACKING MATERIALS Shipping containers must meet applicable performance specifications contained in the regulations. Your carrier should be able to provide appropriate containers or direct you to a supplier. Appropriate packagings are also available from standard safety and materials catalogs. 3.6.13 COMPRESSED GASES AND CRYOGENIC LIQUIDS This section is concerned with managing the physical and chemical hazards presented by compressed gases and cryogenic liquids in portable containers. These physical hazards include high pressures; extremely cold temperatures and possibilities for equipment failure while the chemical hazards consist of fire, reactivity, corrosivity, toxicity and/or asphyxiation potentials. The Boston Fire Department, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), and the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) have requirements which apply. Recommendations of the Compressed Gas Association are also used to develop the flowing policies. It is imperative that personnel who work with compressed gases, cryogenic liquids, and associated equipment remain informed about relevant hazards and utilize appropriate safety practices. In addition to applying the general safeguards of this section, users must review departmental procedures (including chemical hygiene plans in labs), material safety data sheets (MSDS) and pertinent manuals from chemical or equipment manufacturers, and implement specific supplementary precautions from these sources. Safety violations relative to these products which are most commonly cited by regulatory groups are: • Unsecured or improperly secured cylinders (the most common by a wide margin) • Excessive quantities in storage • Storage of cylinders without protective caps • Storage together of incompatible gases (such as a flammable and an oxidizer) • Leaving cylinder valves open when the cylinder is not in use (simply shutting the regulator valve is not sufficient) • Fire extinguishers and fire watches not present during welding and burning operations • Using corrosive gases without safety showers and eyewashes nearby • Employing an ignitable gas without an appropriate flashback arrester 3.6.14 GENERAL HANDLING OF ALL COMPRESSED GASES Cylinder Inspections • Visually inspect all cylinders, both upon delivery and periodically while in storage and use. • Refuse acceptance of, or remove from service or storage, any cylinder displaying corrosion, pitting, denting, bulging, cuts, gouges or dings. • Immediately report any defects or problems with any cylinder to the supplier, and follow all instructions. Also notify the Environmental Health and Safety Department. Labels and Signs revised Dec 2007 21 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center- Chemical Hygiene Plan • Assure that legible labels or tags identifying contents are affixed to all cylinders. For gases defined as hazardous chemicals by OSHA's Hazard Communication Standard, the manufacturer's label or tag should also include the supplier's name and address and an appropriate hazard warning. • Do not accept cylinders from vendors if the identification label or tag is missing or illegible or if it differs from what was ordered. • Do not deface, remove, or cover any labels or tags or any of the markings impressed into the cylinder itself. NOTE: "Color coding" of cylinders is not a gas identification system. Cylinders must be accompanied by an appropriate tag or label. • A four color, "NFPA 704 diamond" sign prepared according to Boston Fire Department requirements to indicate the presence of compressed gases and/or cryogenic liquids must be posted at the entry to all sites where these materials are located. Contact the Environmental Health and Safety Department for help with this requirement. Transport • Do not drag, roll or slide any cylinder. • Transport cylinders in suitable carriers. Use the straps or chains provided to secure the cylinder while in transit. • Keep protective caps in place, even if cylinders are empty. • Push cylinder carriers rather than pull them and transport only one cylinder cart per operator. Securing Cylinders • Prevent cylinders from falling by securing them at all times with substantial holding devices. Cylinder carriers may be used for this purpose. • Cylinder holders, which are not freestanding, must be fastened securely to a wall, counter, stretcher (for small, "E size" medical gas cylinders only) or other stable mass. • Individually secure any cylinder, empty or charged, which is in use or which otherwise has its protective cap removed. Individual strap brackets, floor stands and lecture bottle holders are available from standard safety supply catalogs and can be ordered through a purchase requisition. Straps should secure the cylinder at a level approximately 2/3 of the height of the cylinder. • Multitank brackets with one strap or chain may be used for up to six cylinders in storage and with protective caps in place. These brackets can be obtained through Maintenance Operations, by contacting the Service Response Center (ext. 2-0070), with a construction request. • Cylinder stalls with front chains must be used for storage areas with more than six cylinders. These stalls can also be obtained through Maintenance Operations, by contacting the Service Response Center (ext. 2-0070), with a construction request. Be sure to plan for stock rotation with minimum cylinder handling. Protective Valve Caps • Keep valve protection caps in place on all cylinders (empties included), which are not in use. Overpressure Relief Devices revised Dec 2007 22 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center- Chemical Hygiene Plan • Except with gases of high acute toxicity, all cylinders must be equipped with overpressure relief devices. • An overpressure relief device must protect any system supplied by a cylinder where, because of the high pressure and the capacity of the source, the system pressure rating could be exceeded. Use and Storage • Allow handling only by properly informed and trained individuals. • Use and store cylinders only in dry, adequately ventilated areas away from readily combustible materials, corrosive chemicals and other conditions or hazards which could result in cylinder damage. NOTE: Cold rooms are unventilated spaces. • Avoid locating cylinders near exits and in traffic areas where they will obstruct egress or could be hit and damaged. • Keep cylinders away from all sources of heat, including steam or hot water piping. • Do not allow cylinders to become part of an electric circuit. • Do not use any cylinder other than for its intended purpose. Cylinders are not rollers or supports. • Do not spray compressed gas to remove dust from clothing. • Close the cylinder valve and relieve residual regulator pressure whenever a cylinder is not in use and before any regulator is removed. • Minimize compressed gas supplies in labs and other workplaces and observe the limits on cylinder sizes, number of cylinders and aggregate compressed gas volumes as described later in this section for the various types of gases. • Restrict supplies in labs and other workplaces to working quantities (cylinders in use and any allowed backups). Store volumes exceeding working quantities in appropriately designed spaces for bulk storage. NOTE: Cylinders are considered in use when gas is flowing from the container, pressure is being maintained in a supply line or the container is on standby during or between operations. • Segregate full cylinders from empty cylinders. • Label empty cylinders "EMPTY". Regulators and System Connections Pressure regulators are designed to safely reduce high gas cylinder pressure to a working level appropriate to the system in use. All manufacturers’ literature must be read before using these devices in order to familiarize yourself with their safe operation. Follow all manufacturer recommendations. • Pressure regulators must be used to admit gas from cylinders to any system where, because of the higher pressure and the capacity of the source, the system pressure rating could be exceeded. • Use only pressure regulators, fittings and connections designed for the specific gas and cylinder in use. • Do not use adapters or interchange regulators. revised Dec 2007 23 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center- Chemical Hygiene Plan • Prior to attaching the regulator, first open the cylinder valve (pointed away from yourself) for 1-2 seconds to blow any debris from the cylinder valve connection. NOTE: Do not do this with flammable gases. • Never force connections that do not fit. • Do not use oil or lubricants on any cylinder regulator or regulator connection. • Once a regulator is attached, open the cylinder valve slowly, allowing pressure to build up gradually in the regulator. For cylinders without hand-wheel valves, use only wrenches recommended or provided by the manufacturer. • Use suitable traps or check valves where cylinders may be contaminated by feedback from process materials. • Ensure that cylinder connections are not leaking. • Remove regulators on cylinders not in use and replace the protective caps. Waste Gas Disposal Refer to chemical waste disposal procedures described in Section 3.5 of this plan. 3.7 FLAMMABLE GASES Quantity and Storage Restrictions: Liquid Petroleum (LP) Gas: (usually liquid propane) • Use 5-pound containers only. The Boston Fire Department prohibits one pound "disposable" cylinders and those exceeding 5 pounds. • Allow a maximum of one backup for each cylinder in use if both are manifolded, or one backup per lab if backups are not on a manifold system. Other Flammable Gases: • The maximum aggregate volume, maximum cylinder sizes and total number of cylinders of flammable gases in labs are all directly regulated by the Boston Fire Department according to NFPA standards, and are dependent on a number of factors. Consult the Environmental Health and Safety Department prior to flammable gas acquisition to determine allowable quantities and other specific requirements. • No backup cylinders for flammable gases (other than noted above for LP gas) are allowed in labs. • Storage of flammable gases in labs is prohibited. • Storage of flammable gases in approved, non-lab areas must be: o In spaces specifically designed and managed for this purpose o Separated from oxidizing gases by at least 20 feet or by appropriate fire rated construction o Separated from flammable and combustible liquids and accumulations of ordinary combustibles Use of Flammable Gases: • Flammable gases shall be used or stored only with adequate ventilation. • Post appropriate warnings regarding ignition sources. revised Dec 2007 24 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center- Chemical Hygiene Plan • Do not "crack" flammable gas cylinder valves before connecting them to a regulator or manifold since self- ignition of the issuing gas can occur. • Use metal connection tubing and fittings unless an incompatibility exists, in which case polyethylene thermoplastic gas pressure tubing may be used. • Flammable gas cylinders and piping must be electrically bonded to the system before discharging the gas and the system must be grounded. NOTE: Do not ground cylinders used with electric arc welding and do not strike an arc on a gas cylinder. • Protect cylinders in use with appropriate and properly installed flashback arrestors. • Check for leakage after system installation, refitting or cylinder replacement. • Always keep acetylene cylinders upright. 3.8 NONFLAMMABLE GASES Includes oxidizing, non-reactive, corrosive and toxic materials. Many gases, both flammable and nonflammable, fall into more than one of the following groups. Oxidizing Gases Quantity Limits and Use • For gases with a NFPA health hazard rating of 3 or 4, maximum cylinder size will be 0.1 cubic feet, water volume. For those with a NFPA health hazard rating of 0, 1 or 2: maximum cylinder size will be 2.0 cubic feet, water volume. Consult the product MSDS or the Environmental Health and Safety Department for NFPA ratings. • The number of cylinders and maximum aggregate volume per lab varies with a number of factors. Consult the Environmental Health and Safety Office if multiple cylinders are needed. In addition, volumes of corrosive or toxic oxidizing gases must be restricted to those necessary for immediate needs only and they must be used in a functioning exhaust hood. • Do not allow contact with oil, grease or other readily combustible materials. • Avoid storage in labs and other workplaces. • Separate oxidizing gases in storage from flammable gases by 20 feet or appropriate construction. Avoid accumulations of flammable and combustible liquids and ordinary combustibles. Consult the Environmental Health and Safety Office if guidance is needed. Non-reactive Gases Quantity Limits and Use • The total volume of non-reactive gases in any one lab may not exceed 2,000 cubic feet or 6 cylinders, each of 2 cubic feet, water volume. • Within a lab, non-reactive gases may be supplied from a manifolded compressed gas system of not more than 6 cylinders. • Manifolds larger than 6 cylinders require storage in specially designed rooms. • Use with adequate ventilation. revised Dec 2007 25 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center- Chemical Hygiene Plan Corrosive Gases Quantity Limits and Use • Purchase only for immediate needs in the smallest practical cylinder size. • Avoid all contact. Use with goggles or face shields and gloves. Protect all bare skin. • Use and store only in a functioning fume hood. • In case of accidental release, leave the area immediately, close door and notify the Environmental Health and Safety Department. • Use only in proximity to an eyewash/drench shower. Toxic Gases Quantity Limits and Use • Purchase only for immediate needs in the smallest practical cylinder size. • Use and store only in a functioning fume hood. • Become familiar with all relevant hazards and protection methods before using these materials. • Avoid all contact. Use with personal protection methods outlined in the MSDS. • In case of accidental release, leave the area immediately and notify the Environmental Health and Safety Department. 3.9 CRYOGENIC LIQUIDS o Cryogenic liquids (normal boiling points below -150 C) include liquid nitrogen, oxygen, helium and argon. Liquid o carbon dioxide (boiling point above -150 C) is usually not considered to be a cryogenic material but it does present similar hazards and should be handled with many of the same precautions. Major hazards include: • Extremely low temperatures Even the "boil off" vapors can rapidly freeze tissue and cause steel, plastics and rubber to become brittle and shatter. • High expansion ratios A given volume of a liquid cryogen is equivalent to a much larger volume of gas at room temperature and pressure. For example, one volume of liquid neon, which has the highest expansion ratio, is 1445 volumes at room temperature and one atmosphere pressure. Even in the best-insulated containers, a liquid cryogen must eventually vaporize. This expansion can lead to tremendous pressures in sealed containers and requires that all containers for cryogenics be protected with pressure relief devices. • Displacement and condensation of atmospheric oxygen In unventilated or enclosed spaces, asphyxiation is a major concern. Large quantities of gas are involved and containers are designed to continually vent in order to maintain safe pressures within the vessel. This venting can easily result in displacement of atmospheric oxygen. In addition, cryogens with lower boiling points, such as nitrogen and helium, can actually condense oxygen right out of the atmosphere. This condensed oxygen also represents a severe fire hazard. The fog revised Dec 2007 26 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center- Chemical Hygiene Plan that one sees when cryogenic vapors contact air should be considered a warning property indicating the presence of cryogenic materials in the surrounding atmosphere. • The severe fire hazard presented by liquid oxygen • While it will not burn itself, liquid oxygen will make ignition much easier and will support accelerated and violent combustion. Use of Cryogenic Materials • Restrict use to properly trained personnel. • Avoid all eye and skin contact with cryogenic liquid, vapors and associated metallic equipment and piping. Wear goggles, a face shield, loose fitting, insulated gloves and an apron. • Remove all jewelry, including watches, when handling cryogenics. • Avoid breathing vapors. • Do not drop solids or liquids into cryogenic liquids. • Use tongs to withdraw objects from the liquid. • Keep all containers in an upright position at all times. • Work slowly when charging containers or immersing warm objects. This minimizes boiling and splashing and helps to avoid rapid contraction and possible shattering of warm objects. • Use only containers designed or recommended by the manufacturer for any specific cryogen. Do not mix containers. Do not use household thermos containers. • Transfer cryogenic liquids using lines designed for the purpose. • Cryogen containers shall be equipped with pressure relief devices. • Store and use all cryogenic materials only in well-ventilated areas. NOTE: Cold rooms are not ventilated spaces. • Liquid helium and liquid neon must be transferred under positive pressure to avoid infiltration and solidification of air and other gases. • Keep all combustible materials and sources of ignition away from liquid oxygen. • Prohibit the use of flammable cryogenics. • Follow all Department of Transportation regulations when shipping cryogenics (for example, specimens frozen in liquid nitrogen). IN CASE OF SPLASH: • Remove any clothing that may restrict circulation to the frozen area. • Do not rub affected areas. • Obtain medical assistance as soon as possible. • o Re-warm with warm water (at least 105 F). revised Dec 2007 27 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center- Chemical Hygiene Plan 4.0 GENERAL LAB SAFETY PRACTICES This section primarily focuses on managing the non-chemical hazards involved in laboratory work. Other information pertinent to safe laboratory practice will be found on the BIDMC Intranet Portal entitled “Organizational Policies, Plans and Guidelines”. Such material is incorporated here by reference to complete this core lab safety and chemical hygiene plan. Until the full integration of documents made necessary by the merger is completed, the Environmental Health and Safety Department should be used as a gatekeeper for finding what you need. Other pertinent documents from the BIDMC Organizational Plans, Policies and Guidelines portal (policy manual) will include those that address: Fire Safety Electrical Safety Accident Reporting and Follow Up Hazard Surveillance Safety Education Hazardous Waste Disposal Emergency Response 4.1 WORKING ALONE When working alone: A task is performed out of the audio or visual range of another person for more than a few minutes at a time, No one is aware that you are alone, and No one is informed of the nature of your task or the time necessary to complete it. • Avoid work involving hazardous materials, hazardous equipment or isolated areas when working alone and whenever appropriate emergency aid is not available. • It is the responsibility of the principal investigator or lab director to assure that emergency aid systems are compatible with the degree of exposure and the nature of the hazards involved in the work. • Do not cover windows in laboratory doors. 4.2 UNATTENDED PROCEDURES A procedure is considered to be unattended if there is no one present who is knowledgeable of the operation and the shutdown procedure to be followed in the event of an emergency. • Use overriding controls which automatically shut down the system to prevent failures due to loss of cooling water, overheating, flooding, pressure buildup etc., especially with any unattended experiments which could result in fire or explosion. • Post signs warning of the specific toxic chemicals or hazardous conditions present. 4.3 GENERAL EQUIPMENT SETUP • Whenever possible, purchase and use equipment, which has been tested and labeled by nationally, recognized testing laboratories such as Underwriter's Labs, Factory Mutual, etc. revised Dec 2007 28 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center- Chemical Hygiene Plan • Use equipment that is clean, dry, designed for the intended purpose, safely located and placed and, if necessary, firmly clamped or otherwise secured. • Do not use equipment with frayed wires or belts, missing guards or other obvious defects. • Use shielding to protect against potential projectiles when employing positive pressure or vacuum apparatus and supplement this with personal eye protection. • Choose experimental vessels which allow 20% extra volume space. • Secure stirrer motors and other equipment subject to displacement while in operation. • Keep equipment that has been secured to a ring stand directly over the base plate to assure maximum stability. • Examine glassware in strong light prior to use and discard pieces that are cracked, chipped or otherwise defective. • Use catch pans under glass containers and funnels to confine liquids in case of vessel leakage or breakage. • Keep addition and separatory funnels freshly lubricated and firmly supported. Orient stopcocks so that they are not loosened by gravity and use retainer rings or springs on stopcock plugs. • Support condensers firmly and secure attached water hoses with wire or clamps. • Use heating mantles in place of gas burners whenever possible. • Never use burners, hot plates or sparking motors in proximity to flammable gases. • Provide container venting for chemicals that are to be heated. Use boiling stones and, if heating with a burner, distribute the heat with wire gauze. Monitor the temperature. • Work in a fume hood whenever hazardous vapors will be evolved. 4.4 SPECIFIC EQUIPMENT AND PRACTICES BUNSEN BURNERS These represent a serious potential for flash fire. Old and cracked tubing, inadvertent turning on of the gas supply or a flameout when left unattended are serious concerns. • Use approved electrical heating mantles whenever possible. • Inspect all tubing and connections prior to use and replace as necessary. • Keep the connecting tubing between the burner and the room gas supply to a practical minimum length and not in excess of 6 feet. • Do not extend tubing from one room to another or pass it through any walls, partitions, ceilings or floors. Under no circumstances shall gas hoses be concealed from view or used in a concealed location. • Use only heavy walled butyl rubber tubing. • Turn off Bunsen burners, leave them in a safe condition when work is completed and never leave a Bunsen burner on while the area is unattended. revised Dec 2007 29 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center- Chemical Hygiene Plan • Locate Bunsen burners in use so that the open flame or heat from the burner is not in proximity to combustible materials. PIPETTING There are a variety of devices on the market which accomplish pipetting with superior convenience, speed and accuracy. Mouth pipetting is dangerous and the use of cotton plugs, or short pieces of rubber or plastic tubing on a pipette does not remove the potential hazards from this practice. Do not pipette by mouth. • Use mechanical devices for all pipetting. HEATING EQUIPMENT • Use electrical heating equipment (i.e. ovens, constant temperature baths, etc.) which is provided with automatic, over temperature shutoff controls in order to avoid overheating and fire. • Locate burners, induction heaters, ovens, furnaces etc. away from areas where temperature sensitive and flammable materials are handled. • Avoid using oil baths. • Use only fan cooled heating equipment that is equipped with an interlock arranged to disconnect current to the heating elements when the fan is inoperative. When electrical heating equipment is used with flammable or combustible liquids, its electrical components shall be explosion proof, intrinsically safe, or ventilated in a manner that will prevent accumulation of flammable atmospheres under normal operating conditions. • Operate automatic equipment employing flammable or combustible reagents (i.e. tissue processors) at least 5 feet from the storage of combustible materials. • Protect mercury thermometers in all equipment against breakage. 4.5 DISTILLATION PROCEDURES Distillation procedures are inherently dangerous. A distillation system's proper setup, operation, and shutdown are critical to conducting these procedures safely. Distillation at Standard Pressure • Assemble distillation apparatus inside an exhaust hood. • Do not fill distilling flasks to more than two-thirds full. • Always use boiling stones of carborundum or some other porous mineral or an ebullator to prevent the liquid in a boiling flask from superheating and becoming too turbulent. • Always clamp a boiling flask onto a ring stand and support and use a wire gauze platform under the flask. • Carefully fit and clamp apparatus sections so that joints fit together snugly without tension. Lightly grease all joints to ensure a tight fit. • Check for a clear vent opening before and throughout distillation to prevent pressure buildup and possible explosion. revised Dec 2007 30 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center- Chemical Hygiene Plan • Test ethers, alkenes, and other peroxide-forming chemicals prior to distilling to assure that they are free of peroxides. Peroxides can explode on heating. Rapid test dipsticks are commercially available. • Do not use Bunsen burners and hot plates for flammable liquid distillations. Only electric heating mantles or hot water and steam baths are permissible. • Leave the coolant on in the condenser throughout the distillation procedure. • Always stop distillations before the flask becomes completely dry. • When shutting down a distillation: 1. Shut off the heat source. 2. Turn off the coolant only after the system has cooled down and all vapors have condensed. 3. Employ fail-safe controls for unattended or overnight distillations to protect the system from the failure of the cooling water supply or overheating of the still pot. Vacuum Distillation Vacuum distillation requires the following additional safeguards. • Reduce system pressure with an aspirator or pump before heating is begun. • Maintain steady boiling by allowing a slow stream of inert gas such as nitrogen to flow into the liquid. • Do not use cracked, scored, or badly scratched glassware that may implode easily. • Set up a protective, shatterproof shield in front of the experiment. • When shutting down a vacuum distillation: 1. Shut off the heat source. 2. Turn off the coolant after the system has cooled down and all vapors have condensed. 3. Relieve vacuum slowly. Sudden pressure changes cause breakage and spills. 4.6 ELECTROPHORESIS APPARATUS High and low voltage electrophoresis apparatus present electrical hazards that require certain safeguards to be incorporated into the equipment. Low voltage is not necessarily safer because it is the amperage, or quantity of current flowing, that is the determining factor in electrical shock severity. Low voltage paper and gel electrophoresis units can be particularly hazardous because they are frequently operated in cold rooms where personnel unfamiliar with such apparatus may come into contact with it. • Place the apparatus in a grounded enclosure and render current carrying parts inaccessible. • Equip the unit with a leakage current detection device that detects faults in current flowing from either positive or negative output terminals to ground. • Interlock the power supply with the cover so that the apparatus is de-energized when the cover is removed. • A unit should have a warning sign or light to indicate when it is in use. 4.7 COLD TRAPS revised Dec 2007 31 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center- Chemical Hygiene Plan Cold traps provide low temperature surfaces for condensing vapors or liquids from a system. Cold traps present hazards when they are improperly employed. The slush mixtures can contain toxic or flammable chemicals. In order to reduce risks, charcoal or molecular sieves should be substituted whenever possible. • Observe all appropriate precautions when using cryogenic fluids. • Do not cool the trap until a vacuum is obtained. Cool only the tip of the trap until ultimate vacuum is reached, at which time the trap can be immersed in the coolant to full depth. This is especially important if using liquid nitrogen as the coolant. If the trap is immersed before the system is pumped down, a considerable amount of liquid oxygen could condense. In addition to creating or intensifying a fire hazard, the liquid oxygen can re-volatilize and result in an explosion. • Thermal transfer fluids that are toxic or flammable should only be used in a fume hood. 4.8 COOLING SYSTEMS When ice water is not sufficient, consider a salt and ice bath. Even lower temperature may be achieved by dry ice in an organic liquid. While no organic liquid is ideal from a safety point of view, ethylene glycols, propylene glycols, butanone, isopropyl alcohol, and certain glycol ethers are usually recommended. • Use cryogenic materials with great caution. Never use liquid nitrogen, helium or air to cool a combustible material in the presence of air. • Do not handle dry ice with bare hands, especially if the hands are wet. • Avoid using dry ice, cryogenic nitrogen and helium, liquid carbon dioxide and other oxygen displacing materials in any unventilated area, including cold rooms. These are asphyxiation hazards. Also use caution in removing dry ice from storage chests. • 4.9 GLASSWARE • Any sizeable, non-spherical glass equipment to be evacuated should be specially designed with heavy walls. • Tape, screen or shield Dewar flasks and vacuum vessels to protect personnel from the hazards of implosion. • Do not substitute thermos bottles for Dewar flasks. • Bottles and jars of hazardous chemicals must be protected from breakage. 4.10 ACID CLEANING OF GLASSWARE A solution formed by adding sulfuric acid to sodium dichromate is used by some laboratories as a cleaning agent for glassware. This solution is a very strong oxidizing agent and can react violently on contact with organic matter or reducing agents. It will ignite with alcohol or acetic acid and containers may explode violently when involved in fires. In addition, both sulfuric acid and sodium dichromate are extremely irritating and toxic to tissues. The cleaning solution can cause severe skin burns that are slow to heal. Sodium dichromate is also a carcinogen. • Wear chemical splash goggles and a face shield. • Wear an acid resistant apron. • Wear acid resistant gloves. revised Dec 2007 32 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center- Chemical Hygiene Plan • Set up the cleaning operation where emergency eyewash and deluge showers are readily accessible. • Consider substituting a chromate free, commercial cleaning compound formulated specifically for laboratory glassware. • Never dispose of sulfuric/chromic acid solutions down the drain. The solutions are regulated as a toxic hazardous waste, and must be handled as such. 4.11 GLASS TUBING AND STOPPERS • Purchase glass tubing in required lengths whenever possible. Should glass tubing need to be sectioned, use established safety practices. (Procedures for safely breaking glass tubing are available from the Environmental Health and Safety Department). • Confine breaking to glass tubing of one centimeter or less in diameter. Larger tubing must be cut. • Fire polish all freshly cut glass tubing and rods and allow to cool. Bevel sharp edges with a file or emery board when unable to fire polish. • Use pre-drilled stoppers whenever possible. Should hand boring of stoppers become necessary, use established safety practices. (Procedures for safely boring stoppers are available from the Environmental Health and Safety Department). • When inserting glass tubing or rods, use lubricant and protect the hands. Use a slight twisting motion and avoid excessive pressure and torque. • Stoppers should fit glassware so that 1/3 to 1/2 of the stopper is inserted into the neck or joint. Cork stoppers should be softened first by rolling and kneading. • Twist stoppers into place gently but firmly, working with the hands close together to minimize the chances of getting cut if the vessel breaks. • Avoid exerting pressure on glass tubing inserted into stoppers. • Avoid glass stoppers and glass jointed containers for chemical storage, especially with picric acid. • Discard stoppers and tubing that will not separate easily after use. 4.12 VACUUM OPERATIONS • Vacuum desiccators should be shielded for protection from implosion hazards and have atmospheric pressure restored before opening. • Water aspirators for vacuum should consist only of equipment approved for this purpose, should not be applied to a flat-bottomed flask (unless it is very small or is a heavy walled filter flask designed for the purpose) and should have a trap and check valve between the aspirator and the apparatus. • Vacuum pumps should be used with a cold trap between the pump and an apparatus (to prevent volatiles from getting into the pump oil or out into the lab), should have their exhaust vented into a fume hood, and have their belts guarded. 4.13 CENTRIFUGES • Locate units so that vibration does not disturb surrounding equipment or cause displacement of materials from nearby shelves and benches. revised Dec 2007 33 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center- Chemical Hygiene Plan • Provide shielding to retain parts that may disintegrate under centrifugal force. • Place prominent warning signs on older centrifuges which may not be interlocked to prevent them from being opened while in motion. • Securely anchor tabletop models. • Balance all loads. • Use floor model units with interlocked doors so that they cannot be opened until spinning stops. • Do not centrifuge flammable liquids unless the unit is designed for use in flammable atmospheres. • Use safeguards to contain infectious materials in case of breakage. 4.14 TISSUE MACHINES • Use them within a fume hood whenever possible. • Protect from all ignition sources. 4.15 AUTO ANALYZERS • Collect any waste acid and cyanide salts separately for disposal as hazardous waste, and never mix. • Points of release of perchloric acid vapors and nitrogen oxides must be vented. • Wear eye protection at all times while operating an auto analyzer, unless a department-specific plan exists that breaks down which functions (such as opening of caps and flushing of lines) require eye protection while others do not. 4.16 FRACTION COLLECTORS • Use only with proper ventilation. 4.17 CHROMATOGRAPHY • Ventilate whenever flammable or toxic vapors or gases are released. 4.18 BLENDERS, SHAKING EQUIPMENT AND LYOPHILIZED MATERIAL • Use in biological safety cabinets to control potentially infectious aerosols. • Clean/disinfect and/or autoclave as necessary after use. 4.19 ULTRAVIOLET LAMPS • Consider all wavelengths less than 3500 angstroms to be dangerous. • Wear safety glasses with ultraviolet absorbing lenses and protect the skin. • Use and discard according to all manufacturer instructions. • Assure that ultraviolet sources are adequately cooled and operated within suitable enclosures. revised Dec 2007 34 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center- Chemical Hygiene Plan 4.20 LASERS The Director of the Radiation Safety Department is BIDMC’s Laser Safety Officer. Laser units must be registered with the state through the Environmental Health and Safety Department and they must be included in the hospital's laser safety program. • Use in accordance with the American National Standard Institute's Z136 standards for lasers. This standard is the basis of the hospital's laser safety program. • Notify the Environmental Health and Safety Department of all laser locations. 5.0 STANDARD LABORATORY FACILITY REQUIREMENTS 5.1 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT Maintaining a safe laboratory environment is the responsibility of the P.I., but all employees play a role in observing safety guidelines. Personal protective devices and safety equipment must be provided under the appropriate circumstances and employees have the responsibility of properly using such equipment. The MSDS will provide some information on the personal protective equipment and safety procedures recommended for a given chemical, though the MSDS may not provide sufficient information concerning the specific type of safety equipment required (for example, it may say “use gloves” but not list the best glove to use). 5.1.1 Eye and Face Protection: General Description Notify the Environmental Health and Safety Department before selecting any equipment intended for personal protection of the eyes or face. The design and use of protective eyewear and face shields must comply with the American National Standard Institute's standard Z87.1-1989, Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection. This will assure that minimum criteria for protection, comfort, durability, equipment care and user training are met. If the protective device for eye or face protection is not marked with this stamp, it is unacceptable. Equipment that complies with this standard will be imprinted with a "Z87" mark. In cases where lenses are non-prescription and shaded or are special purpose lenses, an appropriate shade designation will also be imprinted. 1) Safety glasses with side shields offer minimal protection against flying fragments, chips, particles, sand and dirt. When a splash hazard exists, other protective eye equipment must be worn. 2) Safety goggles (impact) offer adequate protection against flying particles. These should be worn when working with activities that generate by product that is capable of flying or projecting towards the user of the equipment. 3) Chemical splash goggles (acid) have indirect venting to ensure splashes do not drip into the goggle itself. Chemical splash goggles offer the best protection from chemical splashes. Impact goggles should not be worn when a danger of a splash exists. 4) Face shields protect the face and neck from flying particles and splashes. Face shields should be worn in addition to safety glasses or goggles. If the hazard is from a potential from a splash, indirect venting goggles should be worn with a face shield. Ultra-violet-light face shields should be worn when working over UV light sources. Contact the Environmental Health & Safety office for assistance in determining the appropriate shade. Selecting Appropriate Eye and Face Protection in Laboratories Eye and Face Protection: Eye protection must be made available to all employees or visitors to laboratories where chemicals are used and stored. Protective eye and face equipment must be used where there is reasonable probability of injury from hazardous chemicals that can be prevented from such equipment. The P.I. revised Dec 2007 35 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center- Chemical Hygiene Plan or laboratory supervisor should establish the level of eye protection needed per laboratory activity based on the guidelines below. When selecting eye and face protection for uses not covered in ANSI Z87.1-1989, such as eye protection for use with lasers, follow the product manufacturer's recommendations and consult with Environmental Health and Safety personnel. NOTE TO CONTACT LENS WEARERS Contact lenses are not protective devices and actually add to injury potential by inhibiting proper emergency irrigation of the eye. They can be difficult to remove, even for the wearer under the best of conditions. Additionally, first aid providers may not be immediately aware that they are being worn or may not know how to remove them. Avoid wearing contact lenses in areas where eye hazards exist. If, for practical reasons, they must be worn, use approved protective eyewear at all times. Safety Glasses Required When: An impact hazard exists or when working with low hazard chemicals, or when a low probability of splash exists. Examples: • Pipeting • Handling closed bottle of injurious chemical • Mixing solutions • Opening centrifuge tubes Chemical Splash Goggles Required when: Working with smaller amounts of corrosive or injurious chemicals and a reasonable probability of splash exists. Examples: • Pouring acid out of a 1 pint bottle • Pouring methylene chloride from a 1 liter bottle • Working with liquids under pressure Face shield and Chemical Splash Goggles (indirect venting) Required when: Working with larger quantities of corrosive chemicals and / or high probability of eye and face injury exists. Examples: • Working with an acid bath • Pouring four liters of acid into a container • Handling highly reactive chemicals that may spatter Note: Ordinary prescription glasses do not provide adequate protection against eye injury. Eye protection must meet be ANSI Z87 approved. For more information on Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center’s Eye and Face Protection policy, contact the Environmental Health & Safety Department for help and assistance. 5.1.2 HEARING PROTECTION While noise levels exceeding established OSHA limits are rarely encountered in hospitals, levels are occasionally experienced which seem to affect comfort or interfere with communication and/or the ability to complete certain tasks. As always, it is more effective to use feasible engineering, work practice and administrative controls before applying personal protective equipment. Personal hearing protection devices come in several basic types but the two most practical ones are ear inserts and earmuffs. The Environmental Health and Safety Department should be consulted before selecting and using this equipment. revised Dec 2007 36 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center- Chemical Hygiene Plan 5.1.3 HAND PROTECTION Gloves are the most commonly used form of hand protection. They come in a variety of materials and designs for protection against an assortment of hazards, including chemicals, cryogenic fluids, and physical hazards. Compatibility with the hazard, permeability, and wear or breakthrough characteristics are critical in choosing a protective glove. Even when there is minimal danger of skin contact with an extremely hazardous substance, gloves should always be worn to protect against the unforeseeable accident. The Environmental Health and Safety Department can provide additional selection guidelines and recommendations if needed. 5.1.4 PROTECTIVE CLOTHING Protective clothing consists of a wide variety of items such as protective suits, footwear, leggings and headgear. It is available in a wide assortment of materials and offers protection from many physical, biological and chemical hazards. Among the characteristics one may need to consider in choosing a fabric or other material are permeability, flame resistance, static electrical conductivity, launder ability and comfort. • Avoid loose clothing. It can catch in equipment or furniture and may be susceptible to catching fire from ignition sources in the work area. • Long sleeves and pants under a protective over garment must be used whenever a chemical splash hazard exists. • Sandals or other open footwear must not be worn while working in the laboratory. Wear footwear appropriate to the task. 5.1.5 RESPIRATORS Respiratory protective equipment is never a substitute for adequate exhaust ventilation or other primary hazard controls and its use is severely restricted and regulated by law. ALL RESPIRATOR USE MUST BE APPROVED BY THE ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY DEPARTMENT AND MUST BE IN FULL COMPLIANCE WITH THE HOSPITAL'S RESPIRATOR PROGRAM. This will assure the provision of required medical clearance and proper selection, fit testing, training and record keeping. Respirators are available in numerous designs, each with a very particular application. Their uses include: • Protection in oxygen deficient atmospheres • Protection from toxic gases • Protection from toxic particulates • Protection from both toxic gases and toxic particulates • Avoidance of exposure to nuisance dusts • Avoidance of exposure to contaminants present at concentrations below toxic levels Contact the Environmental Health and Safety Department if more technical details or a copy of the respirator program are desired. 5.2 SAFETY EQUIPMENT 5.2.1 REFRIGERATORS AND FREEZERS Ordinary Household Type Refrigerators and Freezers Storage of flammable liquids in ordinary household type refrigerators and freezers is a significant fire and explosion hazard. Many common solvents vaporize at temperatures below those maintained by these units and any explosive solvent vapor-air mixture generated within the storage compartment could be ignited by sparks or heat from internally located thermostats, light switches, heater strips, fans or door switches. In some frost-free domestic revised Dec 2007 37 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center- Chemical Hygiene Plan designs, internally generated vapors have direct access to the compressor, which is another potential ignition source. • Never use ordinary household refrigerators or freezers to store flammable liquids. • Attempts to modify such refrigerators or freezers to accommodate storage of flammable liquids is prohibited. • Label all units with an appropriate hazard-warning label available from the Environmental Health and Safety Department. Explosion-Safe ("Lab Safe") Refrigerators and Freezers These appliances are designed for a typical lab environment. Potential ignition sources are outside of the storage compartment thus allowing for the limited storage of flammable liquids. • Purchase only units specifically designed, manufacturer labeled and "UL listed" for storage of flammable liquids. • Limit storage to manufacturer recommended volumes in securely sealed containers. Explosion-Proof Refrigerators and Freezers These are designed with potential ignition sources contained within a special housing that prevents them from igniting flammable vapors originating from inside or outside of the unit. They would be required where an explosive atmosphere is capable of being generated in the room where the unit is located. • The requirements for explosion-safe units also apply to explosion-proof appliances. 5.2.2 FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID STORAGE CABINETS Even a few gallons of flammable or combustible liquids represent a serious fire load. These cabinets provide a safe storage place for limited quantities of such materials. The cabinets are designed to protect containers from physical damage and insulate the liquids from heat generated by a fire originating outside of the cabinet, thereby preventing their involvement. • Purchase cabinets that comply with National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) code 30 specifications and are Factory Mutual (FM) approved. • Observe all storage volume limitations. These will vary with respect to the square footage of the room and the types of liquids stored, as shown in table 15-3 in Section 15 of this manual. • Keep all storage containers securely sealed. • Maintain the self-closing doors in proper working order and keep them closed. • Keep the cabinet side openings sealed with the threaded bungs provided by the manufacturer. Not doing so negates the fire protection capability of the cabinet. Note: Venting these cabinets for fire protection purposes is not required. If for some reason a cabinet is to be vented however, the manufacturer's specifications must be used to avoid compromising the cabinet's protection rating. 5.2.3 CHEMICAL EXHAUST HOODS (FUME HOODS) revised Dec 2007 38 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center- Chemical Hygiene Plan Chemical exhaust hoods provide for containment and safe removal of hazardous chemical vapors and help prevent personal exposure, workplace contamination and accumulation of potentially ignitable vapor/ air mixtures. They are far less effective in containing projected aerosols, particulates and high-pressure gases. Chemical Hood User Guidelines • Use of chemical hoods is recommended for all chemical work but is required when flammable and toxic materials are utilized. Users of carcinogens, materials of high acute toxicity, reproductive hazards, high-risk radioisotopes and high hazard microorganisms should consider using a glove box for added protection. • Perchloric acid users are referred to the Environmental Health and Safety Department for conditions requiring the use of a wash down hood. • Avoid cross drafts commonly caused by foot traffic, portable fans or open windows near the hood. • Avoid thermal loads in the hood caused by Bunsen burners and other significant heat sources. • Do not obstruct intake or exhaust openings. • Do not use the hood for general storage purposes. • Exert care with lightweight materials like tissue paper that can lodge in exhaust slots and obstruct airflow. • Avoid blocking lower exhaust slots. Keep equipment and containers to the sides of the hood. • When using especially large equipment, set it on riser blocks and position it deep in the hood. • Avoid obstructing airflow your-self by placing work at least six inches into the hood while standing back and working with arms extended. • Keep the hood sash down when the unit is not in use and as low as possible when work is being conducted. A lowered sash will also offer some physical protection to the operator in the event of an incident in the hood. Sashes, however, are not explosion barriers and when working with reactive materials, properly anchored shielding of sufficient strength may be needed. • Monitor the hood's airflow indicator if the hood is so equipped and, if a problem arises, immediately stop and secure the work. Notify Maintenance Operations through a work request to the Service Response Center (ext. 2-0070). Maintenance Operations must also be consulted if an explanation of an airflow indicator is needed. • Report all cracked or broken sash glass and other hood problems to Maintenance Operations through a work request to the Service Response Center (ext. 2-0070), for repair or replacement. 5.2.4 LAMINAR FLOW CLEAN BENCHES ("Product Protection Hoods") These "benches" are used to protect sterile products on the work surface from unfiltered room air. THEY ARE NOT BIOLOGICAL SAFETY CABINETS AND ARE NOT SAFETY HOODS. HEPA filtered room air is directed in a horizontal laminar flow over the work surface and out toward the operator and the environment, thus affording no protection from contamination generated within the hood. These benches must be employed only with non- hazardous materials. 5.2.5 BIOLOGICAL SAFETY CABINETS Biosafety cabinets are not designed to protect against chemical hazards, and should not be used for this purpose. revised Dec 2007 39 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center- Chemical Hygiene Plan These safety cabinets are available in several designs and provide varying degrees of protection to personnel, the product and/or the environment. Great care must be exercised in choosing a cabinet that is appropriate for a particular task. A risk assessment with safety and manufacturer's personnel should be performed before choosing a unit. The National Sanitation Foundation classifies this equipment into various classes and types whose major characteristics are summarized as follows. Class I Unfiltered room air is drawn into the cabinet and over the workspace much like in a chemical fume hood. The air is then HEPA filtered before it is vented to the outside. There is no re-circulation of air back to the room. Protection from contamination is afforded to personnel and the environment but not to the product or work in the cabinet. They are used where containment of low to moderate risk biological agents is needed. Face velocity into the hood is usually maintained between 100-200 feet per minute. Class I hoods lack the protective air curtains of class II hoods and their performance can be severely compromised by cross-drafts and other factors. For this reason, these cabinets are considered to offer only partial containment. Class II There are two types of class II hoods, types A and B, and both afford protection to operating personnel, the ambient room environment and the product in the cabinet. Both types also operate in the same basic manner whereby air is distributed over the workspace in a laminar flow from above. The air then splits at the work surface with portions exhausted from both the front and rear grilles. Intake air at the front opening also provides a protective air curtain and results in containment that is superior to class I cabinets. The major difference between these two types of class II cabinets is how they handle exhaust and re-circulated air, as explained in more detail for each individual type. Class II, type A 70% of the air flowing through these cabinets is re-circulated back to the workspace through a HEPA filter while the remaining 30% is exhausted from the cabinet to the room through a second HEPA filter. Because HEPA filters trap only particulates and the filtered exhaust ends up back in the room, these cabinets must not be employed for work with volatile, hazardous chemicals and radionuclides. Note that if this cabinet type is installed so that the exhaust air is vented directly to the outside rather than back to the room, it becomes reclassified as a class II, type B3 unit. Class II, type B These cabinets differ from type A units in that all air exhausted from type B cabinets must be vented directly to the outside and the three subtypes are distinguished from one another by the amount of air which is recirculated to the workspace. While manufacturers state that class II, type B units may be effectively used with limited quantities of volatile hazardous materials, including certain carcinogens and radio nuclides, safety personnel should be consulted before using these materials in your unit. Class II, type B1 70% of the air flowing through these cabinets is exhausted through a HEPA filter directly to the outside. 30% is HEPA filtered and re-circulated back to the workspace. Class II, type B2 100% of the air flowing through these cabinets is exhausted through a HEPA filter directly to the outside. Class II, type B3 This is essentially a class II, type A cabinet where the 30% of the air that is exhausted is HEPA filtered and vented to the outside rather than back into the room. Class III These are gas tight enclosures for work with high-risk agents, which offer "absolute" protection of personnel, product and the environment. They are specialized pieces of equipment which are usually custom built. Operations are revised Dec 2007 40 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center- Chemical Hygiene Plan performed through arm length gloves attached to a sealed front panel of the unit. All air into the cabinet is HEPA filtered as is the exhaust air, which is vented directly to the outside with no recirculation back into the enclosure. 5.2.6 BIOLOGICAL SAFETY CABINET GENERAL USER GUIDELINES • Use of this equipment must comply with internal infection control policies and CDC/NIH recommendations. • Use only cabinets with current certification labels. Cabinets must be performance certified after installation, whenever moved and at least annually. Since equipment placed into a cabinet can seriously compromise performance, certification testing must be completed with routinely used items in place. • Decontaminate cabinets before re-certification. If the Biological Safety Cabinet is to be professionally moved, an outside certification company must be brought in to decontaminate the cabinet. • Avoid locating cabinets near turbulent ventilation sources and high traffic areas. Also avoid open flame burners for routine culture work since they create turbulence within the unit, increase the potential for cross contamination and present a fire hazard. • Do not block exhaust filter ports. Avoid storage on top of cabinets. • Avoid rapid movements, especially of one's hands into and out of the cabinet. • Segregate clean and dirty materials within the cabinet. • Manage infectious wastes inside the cabinet wherever possible but avoid large containers, which can disturb airflow patterns. With good work practices and a properly designed and functioning hood, cross contamination should not be a concern since laminar flow minimizes the lateral movement of particulates. • Keep all hoses, flasks, filters etc. used on vacuum systems inside the cabinet. • Keep cabinets running when not in use, with the sash at an 8-10 inch height. • Limit disruptions of the air curtain by keeping the front and rear grilles uncluttered. • Dedicate items such as forceps and pipetting aids for use in the cabinet and decontaminate them and the work surface before and after working in the unit. • Do not rely on UV lights as germicidal devices in lieu of routine decontamination with appropriate cleaning agents. UV lights are of limited effectiveness and present potential for harmful exposure to UV radiation. Use UV lights in strict accordance with manufacturer's instructions. 5.2.7 SAFETY SHIELDS Safety shields are required in many situations to provide protection where the risk of explosion, implosion, ruptures, spray, splashing or exposure exists. These shields must be specifically designed for use with physical, infectious, radiological or chemical hazards. Examples of cases where safety shields may be required include where X-rays and certain radioisotopes are used, for chemical procedures involving reactive materials, for work with pressurized or evacuated systems and in areas where blood specimens are processed. Effective personal protective devices such as safety eyewear and garments may also be required but must not be used as a substitute for shields when they are necessary. revised Dec 2007 41 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center- Chemical Hygiene Plan • Safety shields must be employed where required and specifically designed for the given situation. • Train all appropriate personnel to properly utilize any required shielding and to wear associated personal protective equipment. • Use shields which are designed and of sufficient strength to absorb the anticipated shock, impact or emitted energy. Always follow product manufacturer's recommendations and consult with Environmental Health and Safety personnel when help is needed. • Firmly anchor shields when circumstances warrant. Movable shields offer limited protection from kinetic physical hazards. • The following are some of the properties of a shield which should be considered before making a choice: • Strength • Rigidity/flexibility • Conduction (thermal, electrical) • Presence of openings • Cost • Ease of fabrication • Visual opacity/transparency • Bulkiness • Liquid absorption • Corrosion properties • Generally, metal shields should be employed for metal projectiles while transparent plastics are usually effective for fragmented glass. Other shielding materials include lead blocks, wood and certain fabrics such as leather. 5.2.8 MACHINE GUARDS Machine guards must be employed for operator protection from point of operation hazards such as ingoing nip points, rotating parts, flying chips and sparks. (A point of operation is that area on a machine where work is actually performed on process material). These guards include barrier guards, two-handed tripping devices, electronic, presence sensing safety controls, etc. Appropriate personal protection equipment must also be employed in conjunction with machine guards. • Follow all equipment manufacturers’ recommendations and consult Environmental Health and Safety personnel as needed. Devices requiring specific point of operation guarding include guillotine cutters, shears, power presses, power saws, jointers, and portable power tools. • All points of operation that expose workers to injury must be guarded. • Machine guards must be affixed to the machine where possible or secured elsewhere when attachment to the machine is not possible. • Any guard must not create a hazard itself. • Safety guards must either conform to applicable standards or, where no standard exists, must prevent the operator from having any body part in the danger zone during the machine's operating cycle. • Special hand tools for placing and removing materials must be used only to supplement required guarding and must permit easy handling without placing a hand in a danger zone. • Train personnel to properly utilize all required machine guarding and associated personal protective devices. 5.3 EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT 5.3.1 SAFETY SHOWERS, HAND HELD DRENCH HOSES AND EYEWASHES revised Dec 2007 42 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center- Chemical Hygiene Plan The latest edition of the American National Standard Institute's ANSI Z358.1 standard is the source of requirements for this equipment. These facilities provide readily accessible sources of clean water for rinsing an individual who has been splashed with corrosive chemicals, cryogenic fluids and other injurious substances. Safety showers and eyewashes are often installed without drains to eliminate infrequently used plumbing whose traps tend to dry out and which then act as sources of obnoxious building odors and other undesirable effects. The absence of drains must not deter anyone from using this equipment when needed in an emergency. It is also important to remember that anyone requiring the use of this equipment may be under extreme duress and will require immediate assistance. 5.3.2 SAFETY SHOWERS These are often installed in combination with an eyewash fountain because safety showers are not designed to be used as eyewashes. The stream may not provide enough water to the eye and the pressure of the falling water can intensify any eye damage. When immediately available, these showers can also be used to extinguish a clothing fire. Remember however, that the recommended way to extinguish a clothing fire is to drop to the floor immediately and roll. Running to a shower can fan the flames and make a bad situation much worse. 5.3.3 HAND HELD DRENCH HOSES Hand held drench hoses complement the protection afforded by emergency safety showers and eyewash units through wider installation at locations closer to hazardous work areas. They are particularly effective where the user is in an awkward physical position or must reach body areas inaccessible to the fixed stream of a shower or eyewash. They are not substitutes for safety showers and eyewashes. 5.3.4 EYEWASHES Eyewash fountains complying with the ANSI standard supply clean water to both eyes simultaneously without causing physical damage and while allowing both hands to remain free. Some units are designed to wash the face at the same time. The hands are available to hold open the eyelids and assure that the water stream reaches the eyes. Plastic squirt bottle units are not substitutes for approved eyewash equipment. 5.3.5 SAFETY SHOWER, EYEWASH AND DRENCH HOSE USER GUIDELINES • Never obstruct this or any other safety or emergency equipment. • Control the risks of contact with hazardous substances by utilizing appropriate primary hazard controls and personal protective wear. • Conduct work with potential for contact with hazardous chemicals as close as possible to safety shower, eyewash and/or drench hose equipment. Generally, safety showers and eyewashes must not be more than 10 seconds and 100 feet from the hazard but adjustments must be made to account for variation in the severity and probability of the exposure risk. For example, work with highly corrosive substances (strongly acidic or basic solutions, primary irritants such as formalin.) and/or the use of procedures with a significant risk of contact (via splashes, spills.) require the work to be performed within 10 feet of an eyewash and 10-20 feet from a safety shower. • Personnel at risk of contact with hazardous material must be trained by their management to locate and properly use this equipment. (Consult Environmental Health and Safety personnel if needed). • Equipment locations must be identified with highly visible signs. • Maintenance will periodically activate and inspect showers and eyewashes, affect any necessary repairs and prevent unauthorized shutoff of the water supply. • Individual users should periodically activate any drench hoses in their areas to flush the lines and verify operation. revised Dec 2007 43 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center- Chemical Hygiene Plan 6.0 CHEMICAL SPECIFIC PROCEDURES 6.1 SODIUM AZIDE Sodium azide reacts with copper, lead, and brass to form explosive heavy metal azides. The effluent from automatic blood analyzers in which 0.01-0.1% sodium azide solutions are used may lead over several months to the formation of these salts in brass, copper or lead plumbing lines. Sodium azide used as a preservative in constant temperature water baths can also form these compounds in exposed parts, such as the metal thermostat. Explosions in contaminated systems may be initiated by heat, friction or concussion. Explosions in plumbing lines and lab equipment have occurred during repair activities. Sink drains in laboratories in the hospital are either glass or polyvinyl chloride and will not become contaminated. • Chemically treat any system or equipment believed to be potentially contaminated with azide salts prior to any maintenance. • Decontaminate by soaking the system for 16 hours with a 10% weight to volume sodium hydroxide in water solution followed by a 15-minute water flush 6.2 PICRIC ACID (2,4,6-TRINITROPHENOL) EXPLOSION HAZARDS OF PICRIC ACID Picric acid explodes when rapidly heated or subjected to percussion. In a moist condition (minimum, 10% water) it is less dangerous and is therefore commercially available only as a water-wet paste or saturated solution. Its explosive potential increases with decreasing moisture content. Picric acid forms salts with metals, such as lead, mercury, copper and zinc, which are very sensitive to heat, friction or impact. Contact of picric acid with concrete floors may form the friction sensitive, calcium salt. PURCHASING RESTRICTIONS ON PICRIC ACID: • Purchase and use picric acid only as a saturated solution. The water-wet paste is prohibited. • Never allow a solution to dry out and crystallize. This is a dangerous situation and requires special handling. Alert the Environmental Health and Safety Department. Special order picric acid solutions that are not listed in supply catalogs, such as acetone, ethanol, acetic acid and formalin solutions with various percentages 6.3 PERCHLORIC ACID EXPLOSION HAZARDS OF PERCHLORIC ACID Anhydrous perchloric acid is unstable and decomposes spontaneously with explosion; hence perchloric acid is marketed only in a mixture with water up to 72% by weight. Perchloric acid reacts violently with bases, water extracting (hygroscopic) compounds and organic compounds. Dehydration of aqueous perchloric acid by contact with dehydrating agents such as concentrated sulfuric acid, phosphorus pent oxide or acetic anhydride can cause a fire and explosion by the formation of the anhydrous acid. Perchloric acid at elevated temperatures displays increased oxidizing power. Contact with combustible material at elevated temperatures can cause fire or explosion. Reaction of perchloric acid with organic compounds can lead to the formation of unstable materials. Combustible materials such as, sawdust, wood, paper, cotton, grease, oil and other organic materials contaminated by perchloric acid or its vapor are highly flammable. Additionally, such materials may explode upon heating, impact or friction, or may ignite spontaneously. PURCHASING REQUIREMENTS FOR PERCHLORIC ACID revised Dec 2007 44 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center- Chemical Hygiene Plan • Plan to purchase the lowest percent concentration practical and specify this concentration in the procedures. Many suppliers will make up special orders for diluted concentrations, i.e. 1.2N. No perchloric acid solution whose concentration exceeds 60% may be ordered. • The principal investigator or clinical lab manager will ensure that all personnel working with perchloric acid have reviewed the hospital's policy and that they understand its hazards and required use restrictions. • The principal investigator or clinical lab manager will be responsible for ensuring that policy on perchloric acid use is followed. STORAGE REQUIREMENTS FOR PERCHLORIC ACID • Store perchloric acid in metal cabinets, (not flammable liquid storage cabinets), with bottles placed in glass beakers or porcelain or ceramic trays in order to contain drips or leaks. • Keep the bottles separated from organic chemicals, combustibles (such as paper, plastic, wood, cork, rubber or cardboard) and reducing agents. • Store perchloric acid away from sources of heat. • Do not allow perchloric acid to freeze. • All bottles of perchloric acid should be labeled. Also label the storage cabinet, indicating that perchloric acid is stored within it. • Limit the number of bottles of 60% perchloric acid to 1, one pound bottle. The number of containers of weaker concentrations should be kept to a minimum. • Perchloric acid that shows signs of discoloration or contamination should be disposed of through the hospital's chemical waste disposal system (see the appropriate section of the BIDMC Administrative Manual). HANDLING PRECAUTIONS FOR PERCHLORIC ACID • Use glass apparatus and not plastic. Utilize glass-to-glass joints and polytetrafluorethylene (Teflon) stopcocks. Do not use rubber tubing, rubber stoppers, plastic stopcocks or cork stoppers. • Use fluorocarbon lubricants rather than greases or silicone lubricants. • Transfer perchloric acid over the sink into a glass graduate and then into the digestion or reaction flask. • Rinse the reagent bottle after each use. • Place a deep ceramic or glass tray under laboratory apparatus in order to contain perchloric acid in case the glassware breaks. • Use pneumatically driven stirrers rather than the electric motor type. Repeated exposure of a motor interior to perchloric acid vapor could result in a fire, unless the motor is an explosion proof type. • Procedures involving 60% or greater perchloric acid are no longer permitted in BIDMC laboratories. • Procedures which involve the heating of perchloric acid are no longer permitted. • Use heat resistant glassware when heating perchloric acid. revised Dec 2007 45 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center- Chemical Hygiene Plan • Use electric hot plates or electrically or steam heated sand baths to heat perchloric acid. Direct flame heating or oil baths are prohibited. • Wear acid resistant gloves, aprons and splash goggles when working with perchloric acid. • Remove and rinse thoroughly with water any clothing that has become contaminated with perchloric acid. Such contaminated clothing is considered flammable. PERCHLORIC ACID SPILL CLEAN UP PROCEDURE To clean the spill safely, follow these steps: • Put on acid-resistant gloves, apron and splash goggles. • Neutralize the acid, using a commercially available acid spill clean up kit, which specifies that it can be used on perchloric acid. Follow the kit's procedures. • Use sand or another inert absorbent to contain and absorb the acid if an appropriate commercial kit is not available. Collect the sand or inert absorbent into a glass container, rinse the area with water and wash out the mop or towels used to absorb the rinse water. • Dilute the acid with water and then use a floor mop and a generous amount of water to clean up the acid if sand or an inert absorbent is not available. Continually rinse the mop thoroughly when cleaning up the acid. When the area is clean, soak the mop in water. Until the mop is thoroughly rinsed, it could spontaneously ignite. Keep the mop head wet and seal it in a plastic bag. The Environmental Health and Safety Department will dispose of all materials used in cleaning up the spill i.e. absorbents, and mop head. 6.4 MERCURY Initial symptoms of chronic mercury exposure include tremors, gingivitis and personality changes. They give clear warning of overexposure and are reversible upon termination of exposure. Acute overexposures are rare, even in industrial settings, but can result in digestive system and kidney involvement. All symptoms arise from exposures exceeding, in magnitude, duration and frequency, those normally encountered in hospitals. The following information is included to help assess mercury exposure, respond to spills, and appropriately dispose of wastes. MERCURY EXPOSURES People are naturally exposed to small amounts of mercury from air, water and food with additional exposure possible from sources such as dental fillings, medicines, products treated with mercurial germicides, mercury containing paints, and many common electrical devices. Since the body is capable of absorbing and excreting some mercury, these limited exposures usually occur without symptoms. Sometimes however, exposure to mercury in certain occupational settings can become excessive and of significant health concern. This is especially true in industries where daily exposure can cover full work shifts at mercury levels consistently exceeding OSHA permissible exposure limits. Fortunately, both acute and chronic mercury exposures in hospitals typically involve much smaller quantity, shorter duration and less frequency when compared to those of most other work settings. While elemental mercury (the familiar shiny silver-gray liquid) and a variety of mercury compounds (inorganic and organic lab reagents, medicinals, germicides...) are encountered routinely throughout the hospital, appropriate handling, use of protective equipment (exhaust hoods, skin protection etc.), and proper disposal also make it unlikely for these exposures to exceed established permissible exposure limits during such controlled use. During acute episodes, such as a typical spill from breaking a thermometer or sphygmomanometer, overexposure is again unlikely because of the relatively small amounts of mercury involved, mercury's slight vapor pressure under ordinary room conditions, the general ventilation normally provided and the short time spent in cleaning up. These revised Dec 2007 46 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center- Chemical Hygiene Plan factors all act to prevent vaporization and/or limit exposure to mercury vapors. Indeed, air sampling at such mercury spills has consistently shown no detectable presence of mercury vapor in the employee-breathing zone before, during or after cleanup. The major concern where mercury is spilled is to clean it up quickly and thoroughly and to avoid the buildup of a "pool" from successive spills. Pooling allows for continuing vaporization and the possibility of producing significant air levels in areas experiencing frequent spillage. MERCURY SPILL PROCEDURES FOR ALL MERCURY SPILLS, REGARDLESS OF SIZE OR LOCATION: Remove or protect all jewelry when handling mercury. Mercury will amalgamate with most other metals, including gold and silver. Therefore, jewelry must be protected. It will tarnish or pit in the presence of mercury. • Attend to spills promptly and clean thoroughly. • Notify the Environmental Health and Safety Department and provide spill details. Mercury spill activity will be monitored by the Environmental Health and Safety Department for magnitude and frequency. Areas with large spills and/or frequent and successive incidents may need to have the absence of mercury in their air confirmed through air monitoring. • If delay in responding to a spill is unavoidable, cover spillage with wet towels. Wet paper towels form an effective vapor barrier since the elemental mercury is not water-soluble. Standing mercury also forms a "skin", presumably composed of its oxides, which form on reaction with air and help to minimize vaporization. • On the East and West campuses, notify Environmental Services, through the Service Response Center (ext. 2-0070). They will respond to your location with a mercury-vacuuming device. FOR SPILLS: • INVOLVING SMALL QUANTITIES (SEVERAL MILLILITERS...THERMOMETERS, MANOMETERS IN PATIENT CARE AREAS...) AND, • WHICH ARE ACCESSIBLE AND ON SMOOTH SURFACES (LINOLEUM TILE FLOOR, LAB BENCHTOP...) AND, • WHICH ARE INCIDENTAL AND INFREQUENT EVENTS AT THE SPILL SITE: 1. Wear gloves. Pick up all broken glass. Avoid spilling additional material. 2. Place broken glass in a puncture resistant container. 3. Have the spill vacuumed up by Environmental Services using equipment designed and dedicated for this purpose. In the absence of this service at your location, carefully gather visible mercury droplets. An index card works well for gently pooling them in one or several locations from which they may be collected. Do not use a broom or brush to dry sweep the material. Droplets can also stick to vertical surfaces so pay attention to baseboard moldings, sides of furniture, etc. 4. Carefully pick up the mercury and place it into the disposal container, such as a plastic specimen container with a screw cap lid. A syringe or a pipette with a bulb or other mechanical suction device are among the commonly available items, which can be employed to collect the mercury. (Remember! No mouth pipetting). A folded piece of paper or a plastic dustpan may also be employed as a scoop. Small droplets may also be picked up on the sticky side of cellophane tape. 5. Label the waste with appropriate “Hazardous Waste Sticker”, and bring it to the chemical waste accumulation site serving your location for disposal. revised Dec 2007 47 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center- Chemical Hygiene Plan FOR SPILLS: o INVOLVING LARGER QUANTITIES (CENTRAL PROCESSING, LABS...) OR o INVOLVING CARPETING, OTHER HARD TO CLEAN OR INACCESSIBLE SURFACES OR o WHICH ARE FREQUENT EVENTS AT THE SPILL SITE: 1. Notify the Chemical Spill line “Code Orange” (ext. 2-1212). 2. Have the spill vacuumed up by Environmental Services using equipment designed and dedicated for this purpose. In the absence of this service at your location, follow general spill procedures and clean the spill area thoroughly. 3. Notify Maintenance Operations through the Service Response Center (ext. 2-0070), to remove and replace any contaminated sections of carpeting. 4. Dispose of contaminated carpet and other debris as hazardous chemical waste. MERCURY DISPOSAL Mercury in any form is a hazardous waste and cannot be disposed of into the sewer system in any concentration. The Massachusetts Water Resources Authority (MWRA) periodically monitors the hospital's effluent and checks for mercury, among a host of other chemicals. o Be especially careful about handling mercury near sinks. In addition to contaminating wastewater, elemental mercury can accumulate in the sink trap and either plug the trap or produce significant air levels in the immediate vicinity. o All mercury waste, elemental or combined, solid or in solution, must be collected and disposed of as chemical waste. 7.0 REVISION HISTORY Revised By: Date: BIDMC Research Safety Committee December 2007 BIDMC Environmental Health & Safety Department John McDonald, Pathology Gary Schweon, Luis Collado, Christopher Neal (EH&E) December 2006 Jeanette McGillicuddy October 2005 Chemical Hygiene Officer: Luis Collado, 617-667-5146 revised Dec 2007 48 Hazard Communication Program Hazard Communication, or "HazCom", is the title of a federal safety law, the purpose of which is to assure the communication of chemical hazard information from product manufacturers and suppliers to end-users. The law utilizes chemical inventories, container labels, material safety data sheets (MSDS), and employee training to meet its objective. HazCom is of primary importance to employee safety, and compliance with its requirements receives close attention from regulatory and accreditation agencies. This fact sheet briefly reviews the HazCom program requirements for most Medical Center areas. (Clinical and research laboratory personnel should continue to follow the slightly different HazCom requirements described in their lab's Chemical Hygiene Plan.) Chemical Inventories Effective chemical hazard communication begins with an up-to-date written inventory of chemical products used within your department. Managers must assure that their written inventories are complete and current. The department manager shall review and update the department inventory annually and whenever new products are introduced to the work area. The Environmental Health & Safety Department periodically reviews department inventories, assures the identification of those materials considered to be hazardous, and work with managers to keep the department's material safety data sheet file collection and current. The inventory should list the product name and manufacturer. Inventories may also include the hazardous ingredients, health effects/target organ, routes of entry, and any protective equipment an employee may be required to utilize. Container Labeling Manufacturers make use of container labels and material safety data sheets to transmit hazard information. Managers must assure that each product containing hazardous chemicals (all containers, including secondary ones (chemicals transferred to secondary container), shall be received properly labeled to meet the following requirements: • Identity of the contents (must match MSDS) Appropriate hazard warnings (including routes of entry and target organs) • Name and address of manufacturer, importer or other responsible party. • Labels on incoming containers of hazardous chemicals shall not be removed or defaced. If an existing label is damaged it shall be immediately replaced by the department manager. • Containers received without appropriate labels shall not be accepted into the workplace. (Inappropriately labeled containers shall be returned to the manufacturer.) • Labels must be legibly written in English. Additional languages may be added and prominently displayed on the container. • Secondary containers, into which hazardous chemicals have been transferred, must be labeled with appropriate hazard information (identity of contents matching MSDS; appropriate hazard warnings; routes of entry and target organs). Employee Training Managers must assure that employees received appropriate training prior to initial assignment with a hazardous chemical product, whenever a new hazard is introduced in their work area, before an employee is expected to carry out a non-routine task, and annually. Training must be documented and must include: • An overview of the requirements contained in the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard; • Identification of any operations in the work area where hazardous chemicals are present; • The location and availability of Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center written Hazard Communication program; • The physical and health hazards of the chemicals in the work area; • Methods and observations/techniques that may be used to detect the presence or release of a hazardous substance in the work area; Hazard Communication Program (from 2005 rev).doc -1- • Personal protective measures employees can take to protect themselves from hazards in the work place, including specific procedures implemented to prevent exposure to hazardous chemicals, such as engineering controls, work practices, emergency procedures, and use of personal protective equipment; • Explanation of labeling requirements; • Explanation of MSDS and how employees can obtain and use this information to protect themselves. All program requirements are covered in much further detail in the medical center's Hazard Communication Policy. Please review chemical use and training in your areas, and follow up to assure and document compliance with these important safety responsibilities. Do not hesitate to consult with the Environmental Health & Safety Department if you have any questions. Visit the EHS webpage to the view the written OSHA Hazard Communication Standard Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) contain detailed safety and emergency information from the supplier and are quite useful for training and designing or choosing safe handling procedures. An MSDS must be available in each department for each hazardous chemical product present and must be accessible to chemical users upon request. BIDMC maintains MSDS for all chemicals used at the medical center. MSDS’s are available in a hard copy format from the EHS office; they are located in the Public Safety office in the Farr Building for 24- hour access. Any questions regarding MSDS’s or chemical hazards, please contact the Environmental Health & Safety Office at 617-667-3088. Research & Clinical Laboratories Laboratories are required to have MSDS’s available per OSHA and the Chemical Hygiene Plan. If you would like a copy of an MSDS for a chemical in your laboratory, we suggest requesting the very latest from the manufacturer. The following lists manufacturers that are common distributors/providers for the Medical Center as well as extensive search engines for MSDS databases: Fisher Scientific (Fisher, Arcos Chemicals Only) http://www.fisherchemicals.co.uk/pages/msds.htm Sigma Aldrich (Sigma, Aldrich, Supleco, Fluka Chemicals Only) http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/Area_of_Interest/The_Americas/United_States.html Emedco (Products & Chemicals) http://www.emedco.com/emed2/resource/msds/default.asp OHS Reference System (Chemicals) http://www.uos.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/msds/ohsqform.pl Cornell MSDS Server (Chemicals) http://msds.ehs.cornell.edu/msdssrch.asp MSDS Provider (Custodial/Trade Products) http://www.msdsprovider.com/Site/msdsprovider.nsf/about Hazard Communication Program (from 2005 rev).doc -2- TRAINING REQUIREMENTS The following Environmental Health & Safety training programs are required for all employees who work with hazardous substances including: chemicals, infectious agents, or human source material. Introductory programs are offered monthly. (Dates of all trainings) For more information on these programs or to request a training program on safety or health topics for your department, please contact EHS office by calling 617-667-3088 or by sending email to Iris Bradley at email@example.com. There is a required pre-registration for these training courses. INTRODUCTION TO LABORATORY SAFETY – UPON HIRING This new combined training program provides a comprehensive overview of safe work practices in a biomedical research laboratory, including chemical safety, biosafety, radiation safety, animal care and use, bloodborne pathogens and research compliance. This course familiarizes the employee with the Institution’s Chemical Hygiene Plan, Biosafety Manual and Exposure Control Plans. All faculty, staff and students at the Medical Center who work in a laboratory must attend this training. Please arrive early. Sign-in is from 9:15 - 9:30 am. No admittance to the course after 9:30. Note: All Staff and Faculty must attend a session of Introduction to Laboratory Safety Training as soon as possible after hire. Annual update training can be completed on-line, but only after first attending this introductory session. LABORATORY SAFETY - ANNUAL UPDATE This course is required annually for all laboratory employees who have previously attended "Introduction to Laboratory Safety (Chemical Hygiene Training)." Topics include chemical risk assessment, recommended work practices, engineering controls and personal protection as well as an update of waste disposal and emergency procedures. Staff who work with human source materials, HIV or hepatitis viruses must also take the "Bloodborne Pathogens Annual Update." BLOODBORNE PATHOGENS – ANNUAL UPDATE This course is required annually for all staff that work with human source material, HIV or hepatitis viruses and have previously attended a bloodborne pathogens training. Issues in general laboratory safety and bloodborne pathogens are discussed. Topics include bloodborne diseases, risk assessment, recommended work practices, engineering controls and personal protection as well as an update of waste disposal and emergency procedures. HAZARD COMMUNICATIONS Required for ALL non-laboratory Medical Center employees who may be occupationally exposed to hazardous substances. This program provides information on the hazards and safe handling of chemicals. Hazard Communication Program LASER SAFETY Required for ALL faculty, staff and students who operate lasers. Topics discussed include the laser medical surveillance program, the laser safety manual, exposure incidents, hazard analysis and control measures. For details, contact Nick Kielbania by phone at 617-667-5141 or by email at firstname.lastname@example.org SHIPPING & PACKAGING INFECTIOUS & BIOLOGICAL SUBSTANCES Infectious and biological substances are classified as Dangerous Goods. International and national regulations require that personnel who prepare and package these substances for shipping must be trained every two years to ensure compliance. Contact Yu-Rong Chu at 617-667-5148 or via email at email@example.com for more information about training options and availability. Radiation Safety Training Radiation Safety Training is required for all personnel using radioactive materials or radiation producing equipment at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and affiliated institutions. All training for employees working with radiation must contact the Radiation Safety Office at 7-2510. Chemical Spill Response Program (Code Orange) The Chemical Spill Response Program is designed to expedite the proper clean up of any and all hazardous chemical spills that may occur at BIDMC. The program is managed by the Environmental Health & Safety department, and provides Emergency Response 24 hours a day, 7 days per week. For questions regarding this program, please call the Environmental Health & Safety Department at 617-667-3088, or for a chemical spill follow procedures below. Procedures for “Code Orange” In the event of a chemical spill at any of the Medical Center Locations: East Campus, West Campus, Research East, Research North, & 21-27 Burlington, dial: 2-1212 (MASCO operators will answer the phone). Inform the operator that you’re calling to report a "CODE ORANGE" (Chemical Spill), and give them the following information: • The identification of the spilled material (Chemical name) • The quantity spilled • Location of spill (Building & Room #) • Your name and call back number • REMEMBER! Injuries needing medical assistance are a priority, request ambulance transport if necessary for injured persons. The Emergency Response team will arrive shortly to properly clean and contain the spill. While waiting the arrival of the emergency responders, close all doors to area, evacuate anyone in the immediate area of the spill, do not allow anyone to enter the room until the Emergency Response team arrives. At that time, they will provide you with instruction. Chemical Spill Cart Locations • East Campus – Flammable Storage Room (SL-B03) -- (330 Brookline Avenue) • West Campus – Deaconess Basement -- (1 Pilgrim Road) • Research East – Basement Receiving Area -- (41 Louis Pasteur Avenue) • Research North – First Floor Receiving Area -- (99 Brookline Avenue) • 21-27 Burlington Avenue – 5th Floor, Room 571 E Chemical Splash to Skin or Eyes In the event of a chemical splash to your self, or someone in your lab, it is important to use the emergency eyewashes and showers. Each contaminated person should remove all contaminated clothing, flush the area for at least 15 minutes, and seek medical attention (request an ambulance when calling in code for injured persons by dialing 2-1212, report a Medical Emergency) PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT Personal protective equipment is supplied for employee use and protection from possible chemical or infectious exposure, injuries or illnesses. If Personal Protective Equipment is used in your area, you should be familiar with it's location and when and how to use it. For more information refer to the Chemical Hygiene Plan (Laboratories) and the institution wide PPE policy (EC#10). For more guidance on properly selecting and wearing PPE in clinical settings, please refer to the Infection Control Manual or contact the Infection Control office at 617-667-2631. EYE & FACE PROTECTION Eyes and face protection such as safety glasses or face shields are designed to minimize or eliminate exposures from chemical and infectious splashes that may cause injury. Eye protection, and/or face protection, is required wherever the potential for eye injury exists. The need for adequate eye protection is fundamental to the use of chemicals, including housekeeping materials such as wax strippers, detergent and toilet bowl cleaners, and operations such as grinding, drilling, sawing with power tools. Areas where eye protection must be worn are laboratories, and machine shops or any area where active or automated work with chemicals is conducted. It is crucial to wear proper eye and face protection when working in a laboratory setting in the event that a chemical or infectious splash occurs in your face. A chemical could cause irreversible damage to your eyes or skin, and infectious material could create a serious health risk depending on the materials worked with. Eye protection must be made available to employees and visitors, at no cost to them, when the potential for eye injury exists. GLOVES There are several types of gloves on the market, and it can be hard to determine the appropriate type of glove for the applications you wish to use them for. Before purchasing gloves you must first take the following steps to assess which glove will be appropriate for the job they will be used for. It is a general recommendation from the EHS department that, all laboratories and clinical areas that use chemicals have nitrile gloves available in all sizes. Nitrile gloves provide the most universal chemical protection. Latex gloves should not be used; they provide little to no chemical resistance. For use of Infectious materials, nitrile gloves can also be used, but many people prefer vinyl gloves. Refer to the glove resistance chart for more information on glove compatibility. The following are designed to help aid in the selection of appropriate gloves in different situations: Hazard Assessment A hazard assessment begins with knowing what chemicals or combination of chemicals the task or job requires. Take into account the degree of dexterity is needed for the task, the length of exposure to the chemical, chemical concentration and temperature. Remember gloves are never a substitute for safe work practices or proper engineering controls. Choosing a Glove Material No one glove is suited for all chemical exposures. Base your glove material selection on the manufacturer's chemical resistance guide. Another factor to consider is chemical combinations. You should base your selection on the chemical component with the shortest breakthrough time. Thickness and Length Thicker gauge gloves are heavier and have better chemical resistance. The manufacturers generally state that doubling the thickness of a glove quadruples the breakthrough time of a chemical. Finishes and Linings Gloves have a variety of finishes and linings. Textured finishes are applied to gloves to give you a better grip on wet objects. Flock, knit and cotton linings are applied for basic perspiration absorption as well as offering a small amount of temperature protection. Inspection and Care Before each use, inspect all gloves for signs of chemical degradation. Inspect for signs of swelling, cracking, shrinking, holes or discoloration of the gloves before wearing them. Personal Protective Equipment (from 2005 rev).doc -1- Glove Material Applications A synthetic rubber material that offers the highest permeation resistance to gas and water Butyl vapors. Especially suited for use with esters and ketones. A synthetic rubber material that provides excellent tensile strength and heat resistance. Neoprene Neoprene is compatible with some acids and caustics. It has moderate abrasion resistance. A synthetic rubber material that offers chemical and abrasion resistance- a good general- Nitrile duty glove. Nitrile also provides protection from oils, greases, petroleum products and some acids and caustics. A synthetic thermoplastic polymer that provides excellent resistance to most acids, fats and PVC (Polyvinyl chloride) petroleum hydrocarbons. Good abrasion resistance. A water-soluble synthetic material that is highly impermeable to gases. Excellent chemical PVA (Polyvinyl alcohol) resistance to aromatic and chlorinated solvents. This glove cannot be used in water or water-based solutions. A fluoroelastomer material that provides exceptional chemical resistance to chlorinated and Viton® aromatic solvents. Viton is very flexible, but has minimal resistance to cuts and abrasion. a lightweight, flexible laminated material that resists permeation from a wide range of toxic SilverShield® and hazardous chemicals. It offers the highest level of overall chemical resistance, but has virtually on cut resistance. A light weight, patented plastic laminate that protects against many chemicals. Good 4H dexterity. EYE WASHES & SHOWERS Emergency eye washes and showers are placed throughout areas where the risk of receiving a potentially dangerous splash to your eyes or skin is high. Emergency wash stations are the first line of defense to permanent damage in the event a splash occurs. Eye washes and showers should be checked regularly to be sure they are properly functioning and locations are not obstructed. In the event of a chemical splash to the skin or eye it is recommended to flush the affected area for at least 15 minutes prior to seeking medical attention. PROTECTIVE CLOTHING Protective clothing such as lab coats, gowns, coveralls, ty-chem suits and sleeves are designed to add a layer of protection. Protective clothing should be worn when working with chemicals or potentially infectious materials as an aid in keeping contaminants off personal clothing. Chemical protective clothing in the form of disposable work suits should be provided for the rare instances where body contact is anticipated or when extremely toxic chemicals are handled. Employees working in laboratories must wear lab coats while in a lab where chemicals or infectious materials are being handled. Lab coats should not be worn outside of the lab. The employer (principal investigator) must provide lab coats and lab coat laundering services at no cost to all employees who work in the lab. Shorts and sandals should not be worn under a lab coat. Glove Resistance to Common Chemicals Glove Type Chemical Groups Natural Butyl Neoprene Nitrile Polyvinyl Chloride Polyvinyl Alcohol Rubber Rubber Acids - Inorganic Good Good Excellent Excellent Poor Good Acids - Organic Good Good Good Excellent Poor Good Alcohol's Good Good Excellent Excellent Poor Excellent Aldehydes Fair Good Fair Good Poor Excellent Amines Poor Good Fair Fair Poor Excellent Acetates Poor Fair Good Good Fair Excellent Personal Protective Equipment (from 2005 rev).doc -2- Bases - Inorganic Good Good Excellent Excellent Poor Excellent Bases - Organic Good Good Good Excellent Poor Excellent Ethers Poor Good Good Good Excellent Fair Esters Poor Good Good Poor Excellent Fair Halogenated Poor Poor Poor Fair Excellent Poor Compounds Ketones Fair Poor Poor Poor Excellent Excellent Natural Fats/Oils Poor Excellent Excellent Good Fair Good Organic Solvents Poor Poor Good Fair Excellent Good Butyl Specific Chemicals Natural Rubber Neoprene Nitrile Polyvinyl Chloride Polyvinyl Alcohol Rubber Acetaldehyde Good Good Fair Fair Fair Excellent Acetic Acid* Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Poor Good Acetone Good Good Fair Poor Fair Excellent Acrylonitrile Poor Poor Poor Fair Good Excellent Ammonium Hydroxide Good Excellent Excellent Excellent Poor Excellent Benzene Poor Fair Fair Fair Excellent Fair Calcium Hypochlorite Poor Fair Good Fair Good Good Chloroform Poor Fair Fair Fair Excellent Poor Chromic Acid* Poor Fair Fair Excellent Poor Good Diethyl Ether Fair Good Excellent Fair Excellent Fair Dimethyl Phosphite Fair Good Good Good Fair Excellent Dimethyl Sulfoxide Good Good Good Good Fair Excellent Ethyl Alcohol Good Excellent Excellent Excellent Poor Good Ethyl Ether Fair Fair Excellent Poor Excellent Good Ethylene Oxide Poor Poor Poor Good Fair Excellent Formaldehyde Fair Excellent Excellent Good Fair Excellent Formic Acid* Good Excellent Excellent Excellent Poor Good Hexane Poor Good Excellent Fair Excellent Poor Hydrochloric Acid* Good Good Excellent Excellent Poor Good Hydroflouric Acid* Good Good Excellent Excellent Poor Good Hydrogen Peroxide Good Good Good Excellent Poor Excellent Nitric Acid* Poor Fair Fair Excellent Poor Good Oxalic Acid* Good Good Good Excellent Poor Good Perchloric Acid* Good Good Good Excellent Poor Good Phenol Good Excellent Excellent Good Fair Good Phosphoric Acid* Good Excellent Excellent Excellent Poor Good Potassium Hydroxide Good Good Good Excellent Poor Good Sodium Cyanide Good Good Excellent Excellent Fair Fair Sodium Hydroxide Good Excellent Excellent Excellent Poor Good Sodium Hypochlorite Good Fair Fair Good Fair Fair Sulfuric Acid* Good Good Good Excellent Poor Good Toluene Poor Fair Fair Poor Excellent Poor Xylene Poor Fair Fair Poor Excellent Poor Key: Glove Resistance Levels Excellent= Highest level of protection against chemical breakthrough. Good= Moderate levels of protection against chemical breakthrough. Fair= Slight levels of protection against chemical breakthrough. Poor= Minimal to no level of protection against chemical breakthrough. RESPIRATORY PROTECTION PROGRAM The respiratory protection program is designed to assure compliance with the requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s (OSHA) general industry standard at 29CFR 1910.134 entitled Respiratory Protection. The use of respiratory equipment for protection against Tuberculosis transmission is covered by separate policy. This program’s objective is to assure protection of personnel from recognized respiratory hazards presented by air contaminated with harmful vapors, gases, particulate matter, and other agents. It applies in situations where engineering Personal Protective Equipment (from 2005 rev).doc -3- and administrative (work practice) controls are not feasible, not totally effective, or are in the process of being implemented. These situations include maintenance, repair work, and emergencies. CHEMICAL RESPIRATORS Most occupational exposures do not require respiratory protection. If you think that you need a respirator contact Environmental Health & Safety. An EHS representative will conduct a health hazard assessment to determine your potential exposure. EHS will determine if engineering controls, a change in work practices or the substitution of less hazardous chemical can be used to reduce your exposure. If your exposure cannot be reduced, you will be provided a respirator. If EHS determines that your work requires the use of a respirator, we will specify the type and model respirator that your supervisor will purchase for you and provide you with special training to assure that you can safely wear a respirator. Do not purchase or use any respiratory protective equipment until you have received training from EHS. You may not provide your own respirator (or any other personnel protective equipment) unless EHS has completed a hazard assessment for your work. If you would like more information about respirator protection please refer to the Respiratory Protection Policy, or contact Jim Giordani, by calling 617-667-5146 or by sending e-mail to: firstname.lastname@example.org. Personal Protective Equipment (from 2005 rev).doc -4- EMPLOYEE INJURY & ACCIDENT REPORTING Immediately notify your supervisor, no matter how minor, the incident. Employees must report all accidents, injuries, and exposures. All blood/body fluid exposures must be seen immediately to ensure source testing and prophylactic medication if indicated. Managers will complete an accident form with the employee, reviewing potential causes and identifying prevention measures. Contact Employee/Occupational Health at 632-0710 to arrange an evaluation (use the Emergency Department at 754- 2400 for off shift and weekends.) This will ensure the employee receives appropriate medical attention and referral to a specialist if required. PREVENTING EMPLOYEE INJURIES & ACCIDENTS Statistics show that the majority (60 percent) of falls are results of a slip or trip. The remaining 40 percent are falls from a height. It is important for employees to understand how to prevent accidents and injuries, but understanding how these injuries occur. Hazard surveillance is key to eliminating potential injuries to employees as well as patients and visitors. By surveying our work environment daily for items such as loose carpeting, slippery floors and loose railings we can help to eliminate the causes of these injuries. Slips: Slips happen where there is too little friction or traction between the footwear and the walking surface. Common causes of slips are: wet or oily surfaces, occasional spills, weather hazards, loose, unanchored rugs or mats, and flooring or other walking surfaces that do not have same degree of traction in all areas. Trips: Trips happen when your foot collides (strikes, hits) an object causing you to lose the balance and, eventually fall. Common causes of tripping are: obstructed view, poor lighting, clutter in your way, wrinkled carpeting, uncovered cables, bottom drawers not being closed, and uneven (steps, thresholds) walking surfaces. Both slips and trips result from some a kind of unintended or unexpected change in the contact between the feet and the ground or walking surface. This shows that good housekeeping, quality of walking surfaces (flooring), selection of proper footwear, and appropriate pace of walking are critical for preventing fall accidents. Housekeeping Good housekeeping is the first and the most fundamental level of preventing falls due to slips and trips. Without good housekeeping practices, any other preventive measures such as installation of sophisticated flooring, specialty footwear or training on techniques of walking and safe falling will never be fully effective. Some practices include: cleaning all spills immediately, marking spills and wet areas, mopping or sweeping debris from floors, removing obstacles from walkways and always keeping them free of clutter, securing (tacking, taping, etc.) mats, rugs and carpets that do not lay flat, always closing file cabinet or storage drawers, covering cables that cross walkways, keeping working areas and walkways well lit, replacing used light bulbs and faulty switches. Flooring Changing or modifying walking surfaces is the next level of preventing slip and trips. Recoating or replacing floors, installing mats, pressure-sensitive abrasive strips or abrasive-filled paint-on coating and metal or synthetic decking can further improve safety and reduce risk of falling. However, it is critical to remember that high-tech flooring requires good housekeeping as much as any other flooring. In addition, resilient, non-slippery flooring prevents or reduces foot fatigue and contributes to slip prevention measures. Footwear In workplaces where floors may be oily or wet or where workers spend considerable time outdoors, prevention of fall accidents should focus on selecting proper footwear. Since there is no footwear with anti-slip properties for every condition, consultation with manufacturers' is highly recommended. Properly fitting footwear increases comfort and prevents fatigue, which in turn, improves safety for the employee. Injuries, Accidents & Ergonomics (from 2005 rev).doc -1- ERGONOMICS PROGRAM The incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), tendonitis, musculoskeletal complaints (sore neck and shoulders, headache) and eye strain related to workstation and computer use continues to increase. BIDMC has a program in place to assist with ergonomic related injuries/complaints. Employees that spend a majority of their day at a workstation and have developed musculoskeletal injuries related to their workstation, should report the occurrence of pain, numbness or tingling in the hand, wrist or arm to their supervisor as soon as it is noticed. Advanced symptoms include a decrease in grip strength, loss of hot and cold sense in the hands and trouble performing simple manipulations, such as tying shoelaces. Supervisors should refer all employees experiencing symptoms of musculoskeletal problems and workstation related injuries to Employee Occupational Health Services, Deaconess 1, 2-0710. For ergonomic assistance and workstation evaluations contact Jim Giordani at 617-667-5146, or send email to: email@example.com for more information. ADJUSTING WORKSTATIONS TO REDUCE ERGONOMIC INJURY Proper adjustment of the workstation and good work practices are extremely important in injury prevention. Adjust the chair height to facilitate proper hand position on the keyboard and mouse to avoid awkward wrist positions that can lead to musculoskeletal disorders and injuries. 1) MONITOR POSITION: The position of the computer monitor contributes largely to eye and neck strain in employee spending most of their time on the computer. There are two of the contributing factors to eye and neck strain: Viewing Distance and Viewing Angle. OSHA recommends that monitors be at least 20 to 40 inches away from the face, with a 15 to 20 degree viewing angle below the horizontal eye level. Viewing distances that are too long can cause an employee to lean forward and strain to see small text, and viewing distances that are too short can cause your eyes to work harder to focus, and may require you to sit in awkward postures. Periodically refocus the eyes on distant objects or close them tightly for a few seconds to reduce eyestrain. 2) KEYBOARD/MOUSE POSITION: The keyboard trays used at each workstation should be fully adjustable in height and tilt, provide adequate foot and leg clearance, and allow for both the keyboard and mouse to be on the same tray. 3) WORKING POSITIONS: Some common working positions/practices designed to provide the most comfortable and ergonomic solutions are listed below. OSHA also has made seated position diagrams to help educate employee's on of the proper ergonomic computer positions. (LINK) 1) Hands, wrists, and forearms are straight, in-line and roughly parallel to the floor. 2) Head is level, or bent slightly forward, forward facing, and balanced. Generally it is in-line with the torso. 3) Shoulders are relaxed and upper arms hang normally at the side of the body. 4) Elbows stay in close to the body and are bent between 90 and 120 degrees. 5) Feet are fully supported by floor or footrest. 6) Back is fully supported with appropriate lumbar support when sitting vertical or leaning back slightly. 7) Thighs and hips are supported by a well-padded seat and generally parallel to the floor. 8) Knees are about the same height as the hips with the feet slightly forward. 4) CHAIR POSITIONS: Chairs for workstations should have the following adjustments: 1) Pneumatic height adjustment 2) Adjustable height arms (small "T" style) 3) Adjustable arm width (preferred) 4) Independently adjustable and lockable seat and back tilt 5) Adjustable lumbar support Adjustable seat pan depth (preferred) Regardless of how ergonomically correct your working posture is, working in the same posture or sitting still for prolonged periods is not a good idea. You should change your working position frequently throughout the day in the following ways: make small adjustments to your chair or backrest; stretch your fingers, hands, arms, and torso; stand up and walk around for a few minutes periodically. Injuries, Accidents & Ergonomics (from 2005 rev).doc -2- SELECTING NEW OFFICE FURNITURE The purchase of furniture is an important decision for an office because of its cost and impact on employee productivity and health. The EHS office is available to assist individuals and departments with ergonomic assessments, new furniture, chair, and ergonomic accessory selection. Contact Jim Giordani at 617-667-5146, or send email to: firstname.lastname@example.org for more information. We offer the following information to guide you in the selection of new furniture for general office work. These guidelines may not be applicable to all office environments. Workstations A standard office desk should not be selected as a computer workstation. A typical office desk is 29 -30 inches high and this places the keyboard at a typing height that is too high for a large number of office workers. We recommend adjustable height furniture or furniture accessories for computer workstations because the placement of the keyboard at the proper height for typing is critical for proper ergonomic positioning. Other Selection Criteria to Consider The work surface must be large enough so that the keyboard and monitor can be placed directly in front of the worker. A 30- inch deep typing surface is usually adequate for a 17" monitor and keyboard. Do not purchase 24-inch deep work surfaces for computer workstations. If you currently have a large (>17") monitor, or anticipate upgrading to one, select a deeper work surface. Work surfaces with rounded edges are preferable to those with sharp edges. The layout of the workstation is important and may impact chair selection. Chair arms may bump into the desk with workstation layouts that are "L" or "U" shaped. Furniture purchases are important investments for departments. If you plan to buy multiple workstations insist on seeing an actual unit along with the chairs you have selected. Do not order out of a catalog sight unseen. Injuries, Accidents & Ergonomics (from 2005 rev).doc -3-
"Laboratory Safety Manual"