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Westward Movement_ Industrialization and Immigration

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					Politics of the Gilded Age,
  Westward Movement,
   Industrialization and
        Immigration
        1865 to 1914
             The Gilded Age

• Gilded Age – Coined by Mark Twain
• Political parties about the same on all issues
  – Democrats strong support in South
  – Republicans strong support in North and West
• Opens up with election of 1868
Election of 1868
        • Grant becomes president
           – “waving the bloody shirt”
        • First election blacks vote in
          mass
        • Population continues to
          grow
           – Immigration, even with CW
Election 1868
                   Corruption

• Grant’s Admin, from day one, is corrupt
  –   Railroads cheat
  –   Stock investors cheat
  –   Judges cheat
  –   Legislators cheat
Corruption
     • Cornering the gold market
       – Fisk and Gould
       – Try to get Grant to help
         (illegal)
       – Fails
     • Tweed Ring NYC
       –   Bribery of public officials
       –   Graft
       –   Fake elections
       –   Cheats city out of $200 million
       –   “Boss” Tweed
            • Caught and jailed
                    Corruption
• Grant fails to see much of this
   – Even though friends were corrupt, family was corrupt
   – Stays loyal to friends
• Credit Mobilier
   – Gov’t contracted
   – Gets paid huge sums of money to build small railroads
• Whiskey Ring
   – Bribes government not to pay taxes
   – Grant’s Sec. involved
   – Sec. of War steals $24,000
Whiskey Ring
              Public Response
• Start reform Parties
  – Liberal Republican Party
     • Supported by Dems.
• Election 1872
  – Public still does not know all actions
     • Leads to Grant crushing Greeley
         Economics: Panic of 1873
• Causes:                     • People call for more silver dollars
   – Too many railroads,         – Grant refuses
     factories                   – New discoveries push value
   – Over loaning                  down further
      • Jay Cooke and Co.     • Government passes Bland-Allison
        Bank failure            Act (1878)
• People start to demand         – Treasury will coil $2 – 4
  paperback money                  million in silver every month
   – Grant vetoes bill that   • Republican hard currency stance
     would make more            costs them the House in 1874
   – Resumption Act – takes   • Greenback Labor Party started in
     even more out              reaction as well
   – Use gold and silver
                       Election 1876
• Hayes/Tilden Election
  – Republican Hayes wins
• Compromise of 1877
  – Abandons Blacks
  – Allows Whites to
    discriminate against
    blacks by separating
    the races
     • Supreme Court upholds
       this Plessy v. Ferguson
       1896
        Immigration Problems

• As immigrants pour into the country violence
  erupts
  – 1877 – Railroads cut wages
     • Causes competition for jobs
     • Irish and Chinese
         – Government passes Chinese Exclusion Act 1882
             » Bars Chinese from coming to US
          Election 1880 and Reform
• Garfield – Republican
  – Chester Arthur (Stalwart) is chosen as VP
• Democrats choose Hancock – CW Gen.
• Avoids touchy issues
• Garfield wins
  – Killed Sept. 1881 – Charles Guiteau
  – Arthur takes over – calls for reform
     • Pendleton Act 1883
        – Civil Service Commission
  – Solid South
Start of the Solid South
                            Election 1884
• Blaine – Republican
• Cleveland – Democrat
  – Mugwumps – Rep.
    reformers
• Cleveland wins
  – First Dem. since
    Buchanan 1856
  – Supports Laissez-faire
  – Plagued by military
    pensions problem
     • Money given fraudulently
       to supporters
  – Has huge budget
    surplus, 145 million
     • Seeks to lower tariffs
   Grover Cleveland
“Ma, Ma, Where’s my Pa?”
Gone to the White House,
      Ha Ha Ha!
                     Election 1888
• Harrison beats Cleveland
  – “A vote for Cleveland was a vote of England”
    • Tariff issue
       Cleveland as President

• Passed Dawes Act of 1887
  – Assimilate into American Society
• Interstate Commerce Act (1887)
  – Curbs Railroads
• McKinley Tariff Act (1890)
  – Jacks tariffs up
  – Causes Republicans to lose congress
  – Hurts farmers
                  Election 1892

• Cleveland defeats Harrison
  – Populist Party makes appearance
     • Farmers alliance, free coinage of silver, income tax,
       government control of utilities, direct election of
       Senators, 1 term presidency
     • Out reach to southern Blacks
        – Later shunned, because it hurt vote with whites
  – Election marks turning point for Blacks
     • Southern whites pass lit. tests, poll taxes and Jim Crow
       laws, including “grandfather clause”
Election 1892
      Cleveland and Depression
• Homestead Steel Strike - 1892
• Depression 1893
  – First panic of modern era
  – 8000 businesses collapsed 6 months
  – Country losing money down to $40 million at one
    point
     • Makes Populists push for free silver even more
        – William Jennings Bryan
     • Nearly sinks international trade
     • J.P. Morgan loans gov’t $65 million in gold
Industry, Monopolies, Labor, and
             Cities
           1865 – 1900
              Leading Factors

• 7 things
  –   Immigration
  –   Invention and new ideas
  –   Laissez-faire policy
  –   Natural resources and rivers
  –   Westward movement
  –   Industrial growth
  –   $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
     Stitching the Nation Together

• Railroads do this
  – Aided by land grants
  – Lay nearly 200,000 miles in 35 yrs.
  – Give land value
• Union/Pacific – first transcontinental RR (1869)
  – Helped by Chinese and Irish
  – Credit Mobilier involved in huge profit taking
         Stitching the Nation Together
• 4 other transcon. By 1900
   –   Northern Pacific
   –   Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe
   –   Southern Pacific
   –   Great Northern
• Financed by large eastern railroad
  owners like Cornelius Vanderbilt
• Changes allow these items to
  occur
   –   Air Break
   –   Telegraph
   –   Pullman Palace Car
   –   Block signals
Stitching the Nation Together
Stitching the Nation Together
                  • RR economic impact
                    – Jobs
                    – Markets
                    – Mining
                    – Industry
                    – Agriculture
                    – Helped people settle
                      the west
                    – Millionaire class
                    – Time zones
              RR Wrong Doing

•   Besides Credit Mobilier…
•   Stock embezzling
•   “Stock watering”
•   Bribed judges, legislators
•   Abused the public – high rates
•   Beginnings of trusts – called pools
         Public/Government Reaction
• Farmers setup Grange
• States try to stop RR, but SC issues Wabash ruling
  – States can’t regulate interstate commerce
• Congress passes Interstate Commerce Act 1887
  –   Bans rebates, pools
  –   Publish rates
  –   Short/Long hauls cost same
  –   Sets up Interstate Commerce Commission
  –   First attempt to regulate business in societies interest
• Sherman Anti-Trust Act 1890
  – Prevent monopolies
  – Restraining trade and competition is illegal
  – Weakness wording was too vague
            US Industrial Growth
•   1860 US 4th largest Manufacturing power; by 1900,
    its #1
    – $$$$$$$$$$$$
    – Natural resources
    – Immigration
    – Laissez-faire capitalism
    – Land grants to railroads
    – US inventions
      • Cash register, stock ticker, typewriter, refrigerator
        car, electric railway
      • Graham Bell – Telephone
      • Edison – Light bulb
Industrial Maps
Eliminating Competition

           • Andrew Carnegie
             – Steel
             – Pittsburgh, PA
           • Produces ¼ of nations steel
             – Bessemer Process
           • Uses Vertical Integration
Eliminating Competition

         • John D. Rockefeller
           – Standard Oil industry
         • Controls 95% of the oil
           refined by 1880’s
         • Used first for lamps
         • Monopoly: Used Horizontal
           Integration
           Eliminating Competition

• J. P. Morgan
   – Banking and Financing
• Bought Carnegie Steel, turned
  it into US Steel
   – First Billion Dollar company
      in the world
• Loaned Federal Government
  $65 million
• Monopoly: Used in
  “Interlocking directorates”
  “The
Public Be
Damned”
           Southern Industry

• James Duke
  – American Tobacco Company
• Birmingham, AL
  – Many textiles
• Southerners saw employment as a blessing
  even though northerners kept rates low
           Impact of Industry

• Standard of living rose
• Increased immigration
• Women found new opportunities
  – Factory work – hard work for low wage
  – “Gibson Girls”
• Nation of farmers became wage earners
  – Fear of unemployment, illness of bread winner
    plagued the country
         Unions to the Rescue?

• National Labor Union 1866
• Knight of Labor – 1869
  – Started by Powderly
  – Secret
  – Win several strikes for higher wages, shorter
    hours
  – No gambling, alcohol, lawyers, bankers etc
  – Taken out by Haymarket Square Riot 1886
            Company Reactions

• In reaction to unions…
  –   Hire strikebreakers
  –   Get court orders
  –   Bring in troops
  –   Blacklist workers
  –   Lockout workers
• Middle class grows deaf to the workers plight
AFL and More Support for Labor

• 1886 – American Federation of Labor
  –   Founded by Gompers
  –   Better wages, hours, working conditions
  –   Composed of skilled workers only
  –   Not concerned with politics
• 1900 – most rights are given to workers
• 1894 – Labor Day legal holiday
Women’s Labor Unions

          • Industrial (International)
            Ladies Garment Workers
            Union
          • Involved in the Triangle
            Shirtwaist Company Fire
               Urbanization

• As the nation industrializes and unionizes it is
  also Urbanizing
• American population doubled, cities tripled
  – Why: electricity, plumbing, telephones,
    department stores
  – Impact: more trash and no garbage pick up,
    impure water, smelly, unsanitary, and housing
    shortages
Urbanization

      •   Cities rapidly as
          manufacturing and
          transportation centers
          –   Chicago
          –   Detroit
          –   Cleveland
          –   Pittsburgh
          –   New York
          –   Public transportation
              needed
              • New York, early
                 1900’s, started the
                 subway system. Other
                 cities build trolley or
Impact of Industrialization on cities
                 •    Why did they grow?
                     – Factories provided jobs
                     – New inventions like…
                         • Elevator
                         • Street car
                         • Stores (Sears, Macy’s)
                 •    Living conditions were poor.
                     – Workers and families lived in
                         tenements and slums
                 •    “New morality”
                     – Sexual freedom, Birth
                         control, Divorces
                     – Comstock wages war on
                         immoral behavior
Boston
Shift to
the City
Old Immigration before 1880’s
           (1870)
               •   Traditionally,
                   Immigrants came from
                   Northern and Western
                   Europe
               •   From countries like:
                   –   Germany
                   –   Great Britain
                   –   Norway
                   –   Sweden
         New Immigration after 1880’s
•   Immigrants came from
    Southern and Eastern
    Europe as well as Asia
•   Countries like:
    –   Italy, Greece, Poland,
        Russia, Hungary,
        Yugoslavia, Japan, and
        China
•   Come here because no room in
    Europe
•   Can eat everyday
•   Freedom, opportunity
•   Try hard to retain culture
    –   Children reject old world
•   Birds of Passage
New and Old Compared
Immigration

     •   Many enter through Ellis
         Island in New York
         Harbor.
     •   Their first view of
         America was the Statue of
         Liberty (1886 gift from
         Fr.) from their ships.
         –   "Give me your tired, your poor,
             Your huddled masses yearning to
             breathe free, The wretched refuse
             of your teeming shore. Send
             these, the homeless, tempest-tost
             to me, I lift my lamp beside the
             golden door!"
               Immigration
• Began to assimilate into the “Melting Pot”
• Settled in ethnic neighborhoods in cities.
• Many attempted to keep their culture, but they
  worked hard to learn English, adopt American
  customs and become citizens.
Immigration 1860 – 1997
Schools

    • Little help from Federal
      Government
    • Schools help in
      Assimilation
      – Why?
          • Children involved with
            other students
          • Learned English
          • Learned American
            customs and culture
          • Able to function in
            society
             American Reaction

• City “Bosses” provide work and shelter for
  political support
• Churches support immigrants
• People start private shelters
  – Jane Addams – Hall House
    • Teach children and adults how to survive in US
  – Wald’s Henry Street Settlement
• Cities provide jobs – single women
         American Reaction

• Nativism comes back
  – People feared and resented them
    • Different culture, religion, blood, taking jobs
    • Blamed for hurting urban government (Socialism)
  – Setup anti-foreign organizations
    • American Protective Association
                  Congressional Reactions


•       The Congress started to limit immigration
    –        Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
         •     Also blocks paupers, convicts, criminals
         •     First law against immigration
    –        Immigration Restriction Act 1921
  Why is
  this up
   here?
http://immigrants.harpweek.com/Chine
seAmericans/4ItemsByIndex/AntiChine
            seTopPage.htm
              Immigrant Contributions


•       Helped the industrial growth of the Country
    –    Provide cheap labor
    –    Chinese and Irish helped to build the
         Transcontinental Railroad
    –    Slavs, Italians and Poles worked in textile and
         steel mills in the Northeast and the clothing
         industry in New York
    –    All worked for low pay and in dangerous
         conditions to help build the countries strength.
Why is
this up
 here?
  Religious Reaction to Urbanization

• Churches step up to help urban poor
• Like…Dwight Lyman Moody
  – Adapts old-time religion to the facts of city life
  – Starts Moody Bible Institute
• Salvation Army; YMCA
• 1890 – over 150 religions to choose from
• Darwin helps to create a split between
  Modernists and Fundamentalists
                       Education
• Public schools grew
• Americans have new faith in education
• South lags behind
  – Booker T. Washington argues for Education for Blacks –
    heads Tuskegee Institute
     • Believes social separation is OK
• W.E.B. Du Bois – first Black w/Ph.D. from Harvard
  demands equality now, education is meaningless w/o
  it
  – Sets up NAACP
  – Shows difference between North and South experiences
                  Education

• George Washington Carver
  – Peanut discoveries
• Ida B. Wells
  – Helps women – National Association of Colored
    Women
  – Worked for better treatment of Blacks – Anti-
    Lynching Crusade
             Higher Education
• Universities pop up
   – All Black schools
      • Howard Uni.
      • Atlanta Uni.
   – All male or female schools
• Government involved
   – Morrill Act 1862
      • Land grants
• Private colleges
   – Cornell
   – Uni. of Chicago
                            Families
•   Life stressful
•   Everyone works
•   Less children
•   Feminism
     – Charlotte Perkins Gilman – “Women and Economics”
         • Women should be more productive to society
         • Wants day-care centers, centralized nurseries
     – Suffrage movement in full swing
         • National American Woman Suffrage Association
             – Stanton and Anthony
         • 1900 – new leaders
             – Carrie Chapman Catt
                 » Give women the vote; they will continue to work
         • Wyoming: women vote 1869
                  Reform

• Women also move against Alcohol
  – National Prohibition Party 1869
  – Women’s Christian Temperance Union
  – Anti-Saloon League
• Stop cruelty to animals
• American Red Cross – Burton
                    Writing

• Press embraces “yellow journalism”
  – Pulitzer and Hearst
• Magazines
  – Harper’s, Atlantic Monthly
• Looking Backward (1888)
  – Edward Bellamy – criticized social injustices want
    nationalize big business for public good
                  Writing

• Post-war: people want romance and wild west
  – Wallace – Ben Hur
  – Walt Whitman
  – Emily Dickinson – poems
                   Writing

• Other Famous Writers
  – Kate Chopin – adultery, suicide, women’s
    ambitions
  – Mark Twain
  – Stephen Crane – Red badge of Courage
  – Jack London – Call of the Wild
        Art and Entertainment

• Art does not take hold until late 1800’s
  – Mary Cassatt
  – Augustus Saint-Gaudens – Robert Gould Shaw
    memorial
• P.T. Barnum and Bailey “Greatest Show on
  Earth”
• “Buffalo Bill” Cody
• Basketball invented
Westward Movement

    1865 to 1900
Moving After the War

            • West untouched
            • Growth west of the
              Mississippi increases
              after war
              – White and Black
                Southerners move west
            • US population growing
              – 31 Million 1860
              – 76 million 1900
              – Reasons include,
                natural growth and
                Immigration
          Moving After the War

• Whites and Blacks head     • Gov’t tries to pacify with
  west                         treaties
  – Move to Cities and          – Fort Laramie
    Ranches                     – Fort Atkinson
• Many immigrants               – Never follow treaties
  push west                     – Smaller reservations
• Indians caught in          • All leads to Indian
  middle                       Wars 1868 – 1890
  – Those push west,
    fight with those
    already there
  – Killed off by disease,
    try to hunt bison
                                http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-
bin/query/I?ngp:1:./temp/~ammem_ZKt8::displayType=1:m856sd=ndfahult:m856sf=c156:@@@ng
                      Western Schools
                                http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-
bin/query/I?ngp:2:./temp/~ammem_OdAa::displayType=1:m856sd=ndfahult:m856sf=b358a:@@@
                           North Dakota
http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/ngp:@field(SUBJ+@band(Parades+++processions--
                              North+Dakota--Inkster--1890-1899+))
                                Impact on the Indians

                                                                          • Indian Wars
                                                                            – Sand Creek Battle
                                                                            – Red River
                                                                            – Custer’s Last Stand
                                                                              (Little Big Horn)
                                                                          • Treaties are made
                                                                            and broken by both
                                                                            sides

http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-
bin/query/S?ammem/hawp:@field(SUBJ+@od1(Indians+of+North+America--War--
1900-1910+))
Why Indians Were Easy to Tame


• Railroad section
  land off
  – Breaks up buffalo
   trails; Indian lands
• Diseases
• Extermination of
  the buffalo
  – 15 million before
    CW
  – 1000 by late 1800’s
            Government/People’s Reaction to War
                                                        • Dawes Act of 1887
                                                          – Indian assimilation
                                                          – Lasts until 1934 – Indian
                                                            Reorganization Act
                                                        • Banning of Sun Dance and
                                                          Ghost Dance
                                                        • Sympathy
                                                          – Helen Hunt Jackson: A
                                                            Century of Dishonor
                                                          – Want to help Indians walk
                                                            “Whiteman’s” road
http://photoswest.org/cgi-bin/imager?10033741+X-33741
What do you see?
           Pulling People West
• Railroad – faster travel
• Gold and Silver
  – California (1848)
  – Nevada, Montana, South Dakota
     • Causes societal change: Women get voting rights, seen
       as more valuable – WY, UT, CO, ID
• Land
  – Homestead Act
     • 160 acres of land – $30
     • Causes fraud
            Pulling People West
• Jobs
  – Cowboy and Ranchers
     • Pushes cattle on the “long drive”
     • Makes “Cow” towns along transcon. RR – Dodge City, Abilene,
       Cheyenne
     • Railroad, barbed wire hurt cowboys as well as bad weather
  – New farms – past 100th Meridian
     • Grow wheat
     • Develop new techniques – Dry farming
         – Help cause dust bowl
     • Dam Missouri and Columbia Rivers for irrigation
Cattle Drives
         Impact on the American Plains
•   Western states
    populated by 1900
    with farms, ranches
    and towns
•   Early 20th Century all
    continental states
    admitted
               American Plains
• The American
  Frontier thing of
  the past (1900)
  – Safety-Valve
    Theory
  – Turner Thesis
  – Starts National
    Forest movement
• By 1900, American
  and Hispanic
  cultures collided
  Moving Toward Agri-business
• Farms producing single crop
• Farmers want to by manufactured goods
• New inventions help
  – Steam engine pulled plow, seeder, combine
  – Speeds up work, less men needed
  – Bigger farms
• Problem: Farmers blame banks, RR for their
  problems
  – Leads to reform groups and movements

				
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