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English language teaching and learning. classroom management, parts of speech, TEFL learning.
Teaching English as a foreign language (TEFL) Task 1 - Which four teaching methods do you think have most influenced current TEFL practice? Give a brief summary of each and give reason(s) for your choice. 1. Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) This method of teaching stresses the importance of language functions i.e. agreeing, suggesting etc. as opposed to dependence only on vocabulary and grammar. This approach emphasis on that student should be given enough exposure of language and opportunity to use it, then the learning process would be effective. In CLT students are put in real time situation. Therefore role play and simulation play important part in this method. CLT focuses more on completion of the task as compared to the correct usage of language. In my opinion, the Communicative approach does a lot to expand on the goal of creating communicative competence compared to other methods that professed the same objective. Teaching students how to use the language is considered to be at least as important as learning the language itself. 2. Task-Based Learning In this method the focus is on task rather than language. The students are given a task to complete. When they have completed the task, if necessary the teacher can point out the mistakes of the students. In this method students have the freedom to think and express themselves. They are focused on the task, which will enhance their capacities to learn english language. This method is useful where students already have some knowledge of the english language in order to complete the task. 3 The Lexical Approach In this approach words and phrases are given more importance to learn language than grammatical structure. This approach could be more effective with young learners. Children and young learners are more interested in knowing new words and phrases than grammar. They also have sharp memory than adults, therefore they can learn new words easily. 4. Grammar - Translation This is the oldest way of teaching language. This method is still practiced in many institutions. As the name suggests, learning about a language through finding equivalents in students own language and the foreign language is being learned. It is, in fact, a system of translation. There are some drawbacks of this method: i. It prevent the students to get the natural language input that will help them to acquire the language. ii. The student may learn about the language rather than the language itself. iii. In this method the teachers should also be proficient in the native language of the students. In my opinion inspite of the drawbacks it still produces the results. It is effective in certain circumstances. It is is quite useful with adult learners, who are new to english language and can learn the language when the grammatical structure and meanings are told in their native language. This method is more effective in the circumstances, where the teacher and students have the same native language in order to understand the complicated grammatical structure and meanings in their native language. However, it will be beneficial for the TEFL teachers to work with 2 or 3 teaching methods in order to get good results. Task 2 - State five „engage‟, five „study‟ and five „activate‟ stage activities (also give the probable language level of the students): Engage 1- Showing the pictures, drawings, mime or video to the students and asking the students about them. These may be suitable elementary and pre-intermediate level students. 2- Simply writing a prompt on the board and ask the students to introduce themselves with their names and information regarding themselves. This activity may be suitable for pre-intermediate level students. 3- Another way of engaging the students is to set them up in pairs and get them to find out about each other and report back to the class what they have found out. This may be suitable for intermediate level students. 4- You can ask the students to name 10 things in the room. Other suitable category could be naming of such animals which eat plants or leaves, things we can give as a gift to our friends etc. The level of students could be pre-intermediate. 5. It could be a general discussion without prompts. If the students will going to read a text about Jesus Christ in the study phase, then the teacher may ask the students that what they know about Jesus or what they want to know about him. This may be suitable for intermediate or advance level students. Study 1- Pronounciation- Language drills, tongue twisters, mouth diagrams to show how we make particular sounds. This may be suitable for pre-intermediate level students. 2- Spelling - This include crosswords, hangman, word searches. This may be suitable for pre-intermediate and intermediate level students. 3- Meaning- Matching exercises like matching pictures to definitions, matching answers to questions, true or false activities, gap fills (students fill in missing words in the sentence). This may be suitable for elementary and pre-intermediate level students. 4. Word order- Inserting words in the sentences in correct place and unscrambling jumbled sentences into the correct sentence order. Such activities may be suitable for pre-intermediate or intermediate level students. 5. Analysis- looking at texts/dialogues and analyzing the typical construction. This may be useful for intermediate or advance level students. Activate 1- Role Play- Students act out real life roles e.g. customer and shopkeeper, doctor and patient, customer and hotel manager etc. Enough time should be given to students to prepare plan their roles and what to say. This may be suitable for intermediate level students. 2- Producing Material- Students work in groups or pairs to produce material like brouchers, advirtisements etc. in relation to language. This may be suitable for intermediate or advance level students. 3- Debate/Discussion- This could be a whole class or group debating/discussing on a particular topic. This may be suitable for intermediate or advance level students. 4- Story Building- Students write stories based on different topics, headlines or pictures. This may be useful for intermediate and advance level students. 5- Surveys- Students conduct surveys and gather information regarding other students. This may be useful for pre-intermediate level students. Task 3 - Structure an ESA (straight arrow pattern) based lesson for an elementary level class in which the learners would learn the vocabulary of clothes and be able to use it when describing what people wear and are wearing: Engage - In this phase pictures of people wearing different dresses are shown to students. The students will tell the dresses, which they know, like or dislike. The teacher may ask the students that which dresses they like to wear and why or which dresses people wear in their countries? Study - In this phase the teacher may ask the students ´what occasion and season people wear which clothes?´ The students may answer with example sentences like People wear sweater in winter, T-Shirt in summer, people normally wear suits in parties or in offices. The teacher makes sure that the sentences are used with correct grammatical rules and corrects the mistakes if there are any. A brief explanation of the structure of language may follow the pronounciation of different words used during this exercise. Activate - Students work in groups and design their dresses on the basis of their likes and dislikes. Then they give the presentation of their designed dresses to the class and tell them their advantages, colour selection, style, which age group can wear their clothes and in whichh season or weather conditions they are suitable etc. Task 4 - Structure an ESA (boomerang pattern) based lesson for a pre-intermediate class, teaching language commonly used for shopping, so that students can ask for, find the price for and purchase everyday food and clothing items: Engage - The students and teacher discuss about shopping of commonly used items like food and clothes. What factors should be taken into consideration i.e. quality, price etc. Activate 1 - The students act out the roles of shopkeeper and customer. One of students in each pair take the role of a shopkeeper and other as a customer. Before starting the task, enough time should be given to students for their preparation. The possible conversation between customer and shopkeeper could be like this: Customer: Good morning. Shopkeeper: Good morning sir, what can I help you? Customer: I need some good quality cheese and a dozen eggs. Shopkeeper: How much cheese do you need,sir? Customer: How much 250g of cheese cost? Shopkeeper: It will cost you 5 euros. Customer: Ok, you can give me 250g of cheese, please. Shopkeeper: Anything else, sir? Customer: Do you have fresh milk? Shopkeeper: Yes sir, how much you need? Customer: How much it cost for 1 litre? Shopkeeper: It cost 1 euro per litre. Customer: Give me 3 litres, please. Shopkeeper: That´s all, sir? Customer: Yes, what is the total bill? Shopkeeper: 5 euros for cheese, 2 euros for eggs and 3 euros for milk, so the total bill is 10 euros. Customer: Here is your 10 euros. Shopkeeper: Thank you, sir. Customer: Good bye. Shopkeeper: Good bye. The teacher should make notes of the mistakes and problems faced by the students while doing this exercise. Study - When the role - play is over then the teacher works with the students on the language difficulties they faced during the role-play. They work on thier language problems so as to improve on them. Activate 2 - Students role-play another customer/shopkeeper dialogue. This time the shopkeeper could be from garments shop. Here they will incorporate some of the new language from the study section. Task 5 - How, what and when would you correct mistakes/errors made during the following stages: Engage stage - In this stage you must ensure that every student should speak some english. Students should not be corrected at this stage, but their repeated mistakes should be noted and dealt during the study stage. The main purpose in this stage is to provide enough talk time to every student in the class. Study stage - In this stage students learn new english language concepts. Always avoid them giving too much or telling them too much. When the exercise is handed over to students, then do not interrupt them. The teacher should monitor the students so as to ensure that students are working according to the instructions. One minute warning should be given to students prior the end of the exercise. After finishing the exercise all the students should listen to the feedback of the teacher carefully. During feedback if mistakes are made, before the teacher make correction, opportunity should be given to other students to make the correction. Activate stage - During the briefing stage, students should be involved in the demonstration and they should tell the teacher what they will going to do. During the exercise the teacher should monitor them without interruption, unless the teacher get involved in the activity. After the activity is finished, the teacher should give feedback and correct the mistakes. The teacher should make sure that there is enough time for all students participation. The feedback helps the teacher to know that the students have understand the lesson or further clarification is required for future lessons. Task 6 - Create or find a short sample piece of writing that a student might produce containing at least five of the errors mentioned in the page 23 table, and annotate the text using the codes in the table. (Here is an example of how a student may write “Fred went to London with Jenny last week” and how you should correct it: Fred has gone(t) to l(p)ondon with ^ last week.) Here is the sample piece of writing: France is a developed country. It is the most visited country in the world, receiving 82 million foreign tourists annually. France is one of the founding members of the European Union and has the largest land area of all members. France is also a founding member of the United Nations. It is one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council. Here is the example, how a student may write: France is a developed country. It is the most visit(V) country in the world, receiving ^ foreign tourists annually. France is one of the founding members of the Europien (S) Union and has the largest land area of all members. France is founding member also a of the United Nations (WO). It is one of the five permanent member(S/P) of the United Nations Security Council. V- wrong form of the verb ^ - Something is missing S - Wrong spelling WO - word order S/P - Wrong usage of singular/plural form By: S. Qureshi visit: http://toponlineenglish.yolasite.com
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