L by wulinqing



 Sample Curriculum
                   TABLE OF CONTENTS

L.I.F.E. Curriculum Guide……………………………………...…………1-2

L.I.F.E. Introduction Materials……………………………….………….3-10

L.I.F.E. Health Labs, Study Guides, and Exams………………….……11-70

L.I.F.E. Lesson Plans……………………………….....………………71-109

L.I.F.E. Unit Assessments……………………………………………110-119

                                                       L.I.F.E. Curriculum Guide
EXPECTATIONS (2003 Alabama Course of                   INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES                                    ASSESSMENT
Study: Physical Education)
1. Demonstrate movement patterns from a                Use a variety of sports, fitness and dance activities to       Students accountable for
    variety of physical activities that enhance        enhance fitness components. Modified sports with                pedometer count and improvement
    cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength        limited rules and maximum participation.                        of skills.
    and endurance, flexibility, and body
2. Demonstrate competence in at least three            All movement forms will have student choice                    Student participation and
    complex versions of movement forms,                competition levels and partner activities to enhance            pedometer count will be used to
    including aquatics, sports, outdoor pursuits,      enjoyment and skill.                                            measure completion of units.
    self-defense, dance, and gymnastics.
3. Utilize rules and strategies of selected            Students will develop strategies through competition           Students will be observed
    lifetime activities.                               levels to enhance fitness.                                      demonstrating different strategies
                                                                                                                       in sports activities.
4.   Utilize safe practices when participating in      All activities will emphasize safety and correct form in       Students will be observed by
     physical activities.                              performing the skill.                                           teacher and peer for safety
                                                                                                                       practices being demonstrated.
5.   Identify technology used in health and fitness    Pedometers, heart rate monitors, body fat analyzer and         Students will be held accountable
     studies.                                          computer software will be utilized                              for daily use of the technologies in
6.   Identify modifications to activities in           Special needs students participate in all activities with      Students held accountable for
     physical education that allow for                 peer helpers and modifications by the teacher and               pedometer count and daily
     participation by students with special needs.     student.                                                        participation in class.
7.   Contrast goals for attaining fitness with those   Discuss attainable goals with students through                 Student set goals through weekly
     for maintaining fitness.                          individual counseling meetings and how goals will               fitness assessment and
                                                       change throughout life.                                         maintenance programs
8.   Use selected assessments to modify an             Assessments for fitness components used on a daily             Students will demonstrate
     individualized fitness plan.                      and weekly basis                                                knowledge about realistic goals
                                                                                                                       and how to use the results.

EXPECTATIONS                                         INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES                                   ASSESSMENT
9. Identify long-term health-enhancing benefits      Weekly health labs to discuss components of healthy         Portfolio checks every nine weeks
    of physical activity, including lowering heart   living and how to stay healthy for a lifetime. Teacher        with two exams per year to test
    rate, reducing stress levels, increasing         will relate this discussion to physical activity and the      knowledge.
    metabolism, and strengthening the immune         relationship between the components and being
    system.                                          physically active.
10. Apply principles of specificity, overload,       Health lab information will provide the knowledge and         Daily participation and exams.
    frequency, intensity, time, and progression to   students will understand through activities the
    physical activities.                             relationship of it to physical activity.
11. Develop a nutritional program targeting goals    Health lab information will help reinforce activities in      Completion of the health lab.
    for maintaining energy, appropriate levels of    class and nutrition intake on various days in the class.
    body fat, and muscle building.
12. Develop criteria for evaluation of commercial    Investigate fitness products and claims made by the           Completion and participation in the
    fitness and health products and services.        company through a health lab or guest speaker.                 health lab or guest speaker.
13. Identify strategies for positive behavior        Safehouse guest speaker for a week discussing                 Student participation in the
    modification and social interaction among        different forms of abuse.                                      interactive guest speaker’s
    diverse populations.                                                                                            presentation.
14. Discuss the requirements for careers in          Explore and discuss opportunities in the health-related       Student participation in class.
    physical education, health, and fitness.         fields.
15. Explain the influence of participation in a      Through weekly participation and weekly health labs,          Student participation in class.
    physical activity on fostering appreciation of   discuss with students an appreciation for culture,
    culture, ethnicity, gender, and physical         ethnicity, gender and physical activity through
    activity.                                        tolerance and understanding.
16. Demonstrate responsible personal and social      Teams work together to include others and accomplish          Teacher observation and student
    behavior during physical activities.             goals set forth.                                               active participation
17. Accept the responsibility as a leader or         Pedometer team leader chosen each nine weeks to               Observe teams working together
    follower to accomplish group goals.              record daily assessment and be leader during the health        and respecting each other.
                                                     lab recording.
18. Critique a community service project by          American Heart Association Hoops for Heart event in           Students bring in contributions.
    identifying benefits, problems, compromises,     November of each year                                         Students critique the event.
    and outcomes.



                              Physical Education

Course Description
This course is named the LIFE course, which stands for Lifelong Individual
Fitness Education. The purpose of this course is to teach students a variety of
sport skill activities, assess them using technology and offer health-related
information which will enable them to enjoy an active healthy lifestyle now and in
the future. Using heart rate monitors and pedometers, students will be able to
monitor their daily physical activity and meet personal fitness goals as well as
class goals.

Class Needs
    Portfolio—This folder will be used on a weekly basis to record goals met
               through the use of the pedometer or heart rate monitor. Loose
               leaf paper and a pen or pencil should be included.
     Uniforms—Students should be dressed out in a P.E. uniform or a shirt and
               shorts of their own. Tennis shoes and socks are needed for
               safety and comfort.

Class Schedule
   50 minute class
    Dress Out             5 minutes
    Warm-Up/Stretch       5 minutes
    Activity Unit         30 minutes
    Dress In              10 minutes

Class Information
    All students will participate in a moderate weight resistance training
       program twice per week. This will not only improve muscle strength and
       endurance but will also shape and tone the body.
    Body composition tests to measure body fat and resting pulse rate will be
       taken for each student. Personal fitness goals will be set by each student
       with the guidance of the teacher.
    Physical fitness testing will be conducted during the course of the year.
       Proper conditioning for each student will enhance individual success and
       improvement of overall body composition.
    Health related labs are incorporated once a week (Thursday) to give
       students more information on keeping their bodies healthy for a lifetime.
    Lifetime sports and activities will be included to enhance knowledge
       learned in the health lab.

Important Information
    If a student is sick for 1-2 days a note may be brought from home. The
      student will be required to complete written work in class to fulfill the day’s
    If a student is sick for more than a two-day period a signed doctor’s note
      must be presented. That student will then have an extended amount of
      written work to be due at the end of the sick days.
    Students are responsible for locking up their own valuables each day.
      Lost locks will cost the students $5.00 to have it replaced. Please do not
      tell your combination to others.
    Jewelry should not be worn in class at all. Please safeguard these items
      by locking them in your locker.

    70% of a students grade is determined by dressing out and reaching
     pedometer goal for steps for that day
     A. If a student participates but does not dress out, 2 ½ % of that student’s
        daily grade will be deducted from the activity grade.
     B. If a student fails to reach the pedometer step goal for the day, 0 credit
        is given.
    30% of a student’s grade is determined completion of the Portfolio and
     any special project or assignment for that nine weeks
     A. If a student is sick on Thursday, he/she will be responsible for making
        up the lab. All health labs must be completed.
     B. If special assignments or projects are required, they could be worth
        from 100 – 200 points for the 9 weeks.
      Possible points for each 9 weeks = 1000
      Each student will begin with 1000 points each nine weeks

       A Grading Example: Tennis Unit
          1. Students are expected to record 2200 steps or 1 mile on the
             pedometer to keep credit for the day.
          2. Reaching 2200 steps or over will give students extra steps toward a
             reward to be given to the top group of students (in each class) who
             have reached the most steps for the 9 weeks.
          3. Steps will be recorded daily (by team leaders) and scores placed in
             the students’ portfolio on Thursday.

Additional Information
   Students electing not to dress out in active clothing will participate in
       school clothes performing the same activities. If students are wearing a
       dress, a belt will be provided for the pedometer to be used properly. A
       student working out in school clothes IS NOT RECOMMENDED.
   Students will be held accountable for their effort in class and assessment
       taken daily on how they are meeting class goals.
   Students having trouble dressing and participating will participate in a
       teacher- parent conference. This conference will be used to work together
       to facilitate a plan for success in class.
In November of every year, the aerobics and physical education classes
participate in Hoops for Heart, which is a fundraiser for the American Heart
Association. Money raised goes to research (finding cures for heart disease,
heart attack and stroke) and educational materials (to teach young people how to
keep their hearts healthy for a lifetime). This is a completely VOLUNTARY
activity that students can receive 1 hour of ―gimme five‖ credit. Students who
choose NOT to participate will complete regular physical education activities for
that day. No grade penalty is attached to students electing not to participate.
Students choosing to participate WILL:

    1. Raise donations for the AHA
    2. Get to participate in basketball contests and games on the ―event‖ day
       with prizes, t-shirts and gifts given away. The ―event‖ happens during
       the student’s class period.
    3. Get to enjoy healthy snacks and drinks donated by various businesses.
    4. Get 1 hour of ―gimme five‖ credit towards the 5 hours required.

Any questions about the syllabus, please contact Coach ____ at [e-mail address]
or at [phone number].
Please return this sheet as soon as possible.

Parents and Students Read and Sign

I understand the expectations set for me as the parent and for my child for
Physical Education class.
I understand about the Hoops for heart Event and understand that this activity is
completely voluntary for my child.
I also understand that students electing to participate will be involved in the
activities listed previously and the students not participating will be in regular
physical education class on that day.
I understand that daily grades will be determined by effort in class using the
latest technology available to assess health and fitness levels.
I understand that grades will not be determined solely by whether a student
dresses out or not.


                       The mission statement of the school
                           can be written in this space

                         Guidelines for Use of
                        Group Pedometer Form
                      Individual Pedometer Form

Group Pedometer Form
   1. Students are divided into groups of 6 students. This can be done alphabetically
      which alleviates roll call lines because the teacher can look at the pedometer box
      and name and know who is absent or late. This can get students moving earlier
      toward their step goal for the day.
   2. Sheets are on clipboards sitting by box of pedometers (which can be placed in a
      fishing tackle box for safety).
   3. Each student has their own numbered pedometer every day.
   4. Leaders are chosen by the teacher and change every 9 weeks or 6 weeks
      depending on school schedule.
   5. Leaders must record pedometers for their group at the end of each class.
   6. Pedometers ARE NOT reset and group leaders are held responsible for the
      number they write on the recording sheet.

Individual Pedometer Form
    1. Each student has this form in their portfolio.
    2. Each week, recording of the previous weeks scores are completed on the sheet.
       Group leaders may call out steps or use any method to dispense the information to
       their group. This can be done in conjunction with a health lab.
    3. At the end of the nine or six weeks, all steps are added up for a grand total and
       healthy prizes are given to the ―top 4 or 5‖ steppers in each class. These students
       have probably gone over the minimum requirement and rewarding that challenges
       others to do the same.

Group Numbers_________________ Group Leader_______________________ Period_______________
                Name           Name         Name          Name         Name         Name

Name___________________________              Pedometer #_________

Write Date and Steps taken for each day listed. Start on Friday of the week
before .
   Friday/Date Monday/Date Tuesday/Date Wednesday/    Steps      Total


                            LIFESTYLE APPRAISAL

Lifestyle Appraisal is available through the Institute of Food and Agriculture
Sciences (I.F.A.S.), Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida,
Gainesville, or through UF/IFAS External and Media Relations, (352) 392-0400

                            TARGET HEART RATE
                              TRAINING ZONE

The two places most often used to count pulse are in the neck near the carotid artery and
the wrist near the radial artery. Select which area you can best obtain a pulse using your
index and second fingers.

   1. The carotid artery, located in the neck, is usually easy to find. Place your index
      and middle fingers below the point of your jawbone and slide downward an inch
      or so, pressing lightly. Apply light pressure as excessive pressure may cause the
      heart rate to slow down by a reflex action.
   2. The radial artery extends up the wrist on the thumb side. Place your index and
      middle fingers just below the base of your thumb. Press lightly and count the
      number of beats for 60 seconds. The total is the number of heartbeats per minute.


The true resting heart rate (RsHR) is not taken in a class but when the individual has been
at complete rest, sleeping for several hours and upon awakening. To find your average
RsHR, take your pulse for a full minute when you wake five days in a row, without an
alarm clock. Average the five scores to determine true RsHR. Unusual stress and illness
can sharply elevate a resting heart rate from previous readings.

Your average RsHR figure can now be placed in a formula for determining your target
heart rate training zone.

If you are:                                  Use:
     a non-athletic adult                   50%to begin
     sedentary                              60-69%
     moderately active                      70-75%
     very active and well-trained           80-85%

                        Target Heart Rate Training Zone

1. What are the two places the heart rate can be taken?

2. Define RsHR? When ―ideally‖ should it be taken?

3. What can sharply elevate the resting heart rate?

4. What is one sign of improvement in heart and lung fitness?

5. If you are a moderately active individual, what should be your Target Heart Rate
   Training Zone?

                                    Target Heart Rate Zone

Since three basic factors enter into figuring your estimated safe exercise zone, those must
be established first:

   1. Current Age:________

   2. How active is your life-style?__________________%MHR. If you are:
      a. Non-athletic adult: Use 50% of your maximum heart rate.
      b. Sedentary: Use 60%-69% of your MHR (but only for the first two or three
      c. Moderately physically active: use 70% - 75% of your MHR.
      d. Active and well-trained use 80%-85% of your MHR.

   3. Your average resting heart rate:________________________

Now place your numbers in the formula that follows:

   A. 220      –      _______ = _________ Estimated Maximal Heart Rate.
     (index number)    (your age)

   B. _____________ – ______________ = _____________________ HR Reserve
       MHR                 Resting HR

   C. _____________ x .________________ =_______+Resting HR = _____________
       HR Reserve        Lower end of life-style
                         activity range (#2 above)

   D. _____________ x ______________ =_______+Resting HR = _____________
       HR Reserve        Upper end of life-style
                         activity range (#2 above)

       Range of _______________           This range is your estimate safe exercise zone.
                                          Keep your hear rate working in this range while
                                          you aerobically exercise for approx. 30 min. each
       Your Target_____________

       Re-figure as you ―age‖ and as you can reclassify your ―lifestyle‖ of activity, or as
       you have a marked decline in your resting heart rate.

For example: Susan is 20 years old, a moderately active person (70-75% range), with a
resting heart rate of 62

   A. 220 - 20 = 200 MHR

   B. 200 - 62 = 138 Heart Rate Reserve

   C. 138 x .70 = 96 + 62 = 158*

   D. 138 x .75 = 104 + 62 = 166*           *Target Heart Rate Training Zone

If Susan keeps working (aerobically exercising at the range of 158 to 166 heartbeats per
minute, the heart would be safely working toward the training effect.

                          OR NOT

It has long been thought that stretching muscles during a person’s warm-up would
prepare them for vigorous activities with little chance of injury. Literature suggests that
the use of stretching for most people should be for increasing the range of motion and
should be conducted during the cool-down phase of the workout not necessarily the
warm-up phase. So what are we to believe?

First we must understand a few definitions of terms used when talking about warming up
and cooling down after a workout. Flexibility is the ability of the muscles to be stretched
in a range of motion achievable without injury at a joint or group of joints. This
stretching is done through static and dynamic flexibility. Static flexibility refers to the
actual limits of the range of motion for a joint complex. Dynamic flexibility is defined as
how quickly the resistance or tension in a stretched muscle group increases. By virtue of
the two terms, static is a constant stretch usually held 10 - 30 seconds to allow the
muscles and joints to relax and loosen into the stretch. Dynamic, however is a much
more active stretch with motion incorporated so as to see how suddenly tension returns to
the muscle or groups of muscles.

Stretching does not necessarily guarantee that a person will prevent injury. Improper or
excessive stretching actually creates an unwanted joint instability. Studies have shown
that highly flexible athletes may be prone to injury due to the elasticity of muscles and
joints. However, the long-term benefits of flexibility are very positive in that it helps
decrease muscle and joint stiffness during the aging process.

In conclusion, stretching during the warm-up phase of a workout seems to have benefits
such as warming up muscles and elevating heart rate and body temperature, which is vital
to the body in preparation for more vigorous activity. Studies have not proven that
stretching prevents injuries or enhances performance. However, long-term increases in
static flexibility have been linked with stretching at the conclusion of activity.

                     Stretching and Its Importance or Not

1. Define the term flexibility.

2. Define static flexibility.

3. Define dynamic flexibility.

4. How long should a static stretch be held?

5. Studies have proven that stretching during the warm-up phase of a workout is good
   for two things. What are they?



The only way to improve fitness through training is to do more exercise than you
normally do. The principle of overload involves an increase in exercising, or exercising
more than you normally do. By exercising more, or overloading, you build fitness. If
you do not exercise more than normal on a regular basis, your fitness level will decrease.


The principle of progression involves increasing exercise gradually. After a while, your
body will adapt to your exercise load so that your exercise will become too easy. When
this happens, increase your exercise slightly until you adapt to the new load.

The minimum amount of overload necessary to build physical fitness is called the
threshold of training. Exercising above the threshold of training builds fitness however;
it is possible to exercise too much. If you overload too much, your muscles might
become sore or you might injure yourself.

Ideally, one should exercise in his/her target fitness zone—above ones threshold of
training and below ones target ceiling. When you exercise in your fitness target zone,
you are doing the right amount of exercise to build fitness and you are following the
principles of overload and progression.


The principle of overload states that you must exercise more than normal to build fitness.
The principle of progression says that you should gradually increase your exercise in
order to stay within your fitness target zone. You can use the FIT Formula to help you
determine how much exercise is enough for you to build good fitness.



Frequency refers to how often a person exercises. You must exercise often enough to
build fitness. For exercise to be beneficial, you need to exercise at least three times a
week A person exercising only one day a week will not improve in fitness and will
probably be very sore and stiff after that one day of activity.


Intensity refers to how hard a person exercises. Exercising too easily or not enough will
not improve your fitness. In fact, your fitness might even decrease. Extreme, vigorous
exercise can be harmful, especially if you have not exercised regularly or if you are not in
good health. In addition, too much exercise can make you sore and increase your risk of


Time refers to how long a person exercises. Exercise in your target heart rate zone at
least 15 to 30 minutes at one time to improve fitness. Most parts of fitness are not
improved by exercising for only a few minutes several times per day. Benefits come
from a gradual increase in the time spent exercising.


The principle of specificity states that you must do specific activities to build specific
parts of fitness. An exercise to improve strength may not improve flexibility or agility.
A specific type and amount of exercise is needed to develop each of the eleven parts of
fitness; each exercise puts different demands on your body.

F        I        T
Part of Fitness        Frequency              Intensity              Time

Cardiovascular         Threshold: 3 days      Teens: 135-165         Threshold:15 min.
Fitness                per week               beats per min.         Target: 30 min.
                       Target: 5-6 days
                       per week

Muscular               Threshold: 3 days      Lift more weight       Threshold:Repeat
Strength               per week               than you normally      each exercise 3-8
                       Target: every other    lift, build slowly     times
                       day                                           Target: 3 sets of 3
                                                                     reps. each exercise

Muscular               Threshold: 3 days      Increase number        Threshold: Repeat
Endurance              per week               of times you repeat    exercises using only
                       Target: 5-6 days       an exercise, build     certain body parts for
                       per week               slowly                 one minute.
                                                                     Target: Several min.
                                                                     for exercise using
                                                                     only certain parts.

Flexibility    Threshold: 3 days   Stretch muscles       Threshold: 10-15 sec.
               per week            longer than usual,    stretch and hold
               Target: daily       do it slowly          Target: 3 times repeat
                                                         rest muscles between.

Body Fatness   Threshold: 3 days   Exercise enough        Threshold: 15-30 min.
               per week            to burn extra calories Target: 30 min or
               Target: daily       and lose weight        more.


Part 1

1. A sound exercise program is built on three basic principles. What are they?

2. Define principle of overload.

3. Define principle of progression.

4. Define threshold of training.

5. What happens if you overload too much in a workout?

6. Define target fitness zone.

Part 2

1. Define frequency.

2. Define intensity.

3. Define time.

4. Define principle of specificity.

5. Why is the old saying ―no pain, no gain‖, completely untrue? What does it mean?


Stress-O-Graph is available through the Institute of Food and Agriculture
Sciences (I.F.A.S.), Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida,
Gainesville, or through UF/IFAS External and Media Relations, (352) 392-0400


While exercise will not keep you from getting all diseases, many doctors agree that
people with a low resistance are more likely to develop infections. Exercise and staying
fit helps boost ones resistance to infections and some research indicates that people who
exercise have less risk of certain types of cancer. Rest is most often recommended for a
person fighting an infection, and vigorous exercise should be avoided if possible when
sick with a cold or flu.
Most times, teenagers are not concerned with their health and feel that health problems
only affect older people. Unfortunately that is not true as scientist have found that heart
disease can begin early in life. Many older people wish they had known about the value
of exercise when they were young. Following the FIT formula, teenagers can reduce
their risk of many health problems, enjoy life more, and look and feel better.


A risk factor is anything that increases the chance of something occurring. A controllable
risk factor is something you can act upon to change. Read the list of risk factors below.
Find your total score on the rating chart. If your score is high, it will be important for
you to change your controllable risk factors and contact your physician before making
decisions about diet and other risk factors.


      Age—As you get older, your risk of heart disease increases
      Sex—Females have a great risk of heart disease than males
      Heredity—People whose parents or grandparents have had heart disease have a
       greater chance of developing heart disease.


      Smoking—Smokers have twice the risk of heart disease.
      Fatness—Overweight individuals have an increased risk of many types of
       illnesses including heart disease.
      Diet—People who eat a high-fat diet are at a greater rate of heart disease and/or
       digestive diseases.
      Stress—Heart disease affects individuals in high stressful jobs.
      High Blood Pressure—High blood pressure increases the risk of heart attack and
       other cardiovascular diseases.
      Other Diseases—Diabetics or people with ulcers have increased chance for heart
      Inactivity—Lack of physical activity increases the risk of heart disease.



Exercising too much or too hard can cause health problems. A hyperkinetic condition is
a health problem caused by doing too much exercise.

       Exercising to much that your bones, muscles and other tissues are injured or
       damaged is known as an overuse injury. These injuries can also be caused by
       doing too much exercise without sufficient rest of the body between intense
       exercises. Stress fractures, shin splints and blisters are common overuse injuries.

       A neurosis is a condition that occurs when a person is overly concerned or fearful
       of something. To be overly concerned about getting enough exercise is an
       activity neurosis. Individuals who suffer from this are very upset if they miss an
       exercise workout and often continue working out even if they are sick or injured.

A hypokinetic condition is one associated with or caused by a lack of physical activity or
exercise. Many problems are associated with this condition including cardiovascular
diseases and many lower-back problems. A physically fit person is less likely to develop
and experience a hypokinetic condition.

      OBESITY
       Too much body fat increases the risk of heart disease. Obesity is a condition in
       which a person has a high percentage of body fat. Being ―overfat‖ increases your
       risk of other diseases besides cardiovascular disease. Regular moderate exercise
       and diet helps to reduce excess body fat.

       A condition in which the bones become porous and weak is called osteoporosis.
       Older people, especially women, are susceptible to this disease. A history of
       osteoporosis in a person’s family puts an individual at greater risk for the disease.
       Bone type is determined by the exercise and nutrition received in the childhood
       and teenage years. A diet rich in calcium along with moderate exercise are the
       best ways to lower your risk of osteoporosis in the future.

       People who have trouble getting to sleep and staying asleep are suffering from
        insomnia. This sleep disorder can contribute to physical, mental, and emotional
        problems. Research speculates that exercise can help prevent insomnia and
        studies show that people who exercise regularly sleep better than those
        individuals who do not exercise.



Part 1

1. What type of persons is most likely to develop infections?

2. Define risk factor.

3. Define controllable risk factor.

4. Define noncontrollable risk factor.

5. Name 3 noncontrollable risk factors for heart disease.

6. Name 7 controllable risk factors for heart disease.

Part 2

1. Define hyperkinetic condition.

2. Define overuse injuries.

3. Define activity neurosis.

4. Define obesity.

5. Define osteoporosis.

6. Define insomnia.

                       ABOUT THE HEART
The heart is a strong muscle about the size of a fist. It lies in the center of the
chest and is tilted slightly to the left. The heart pumps blood, oxygen, and
nutrients to the entire body.

A thick band of muscle tissue called the septum divides the heart into 2 sides—
the right side and the left side. In the hearts pumping action, each side has a
different job. The right side of the heart only pumps blood to the lungs while the
left side pumps blood to all other parts of the body. Because of the extra work for
the left side, the heart muscle is thicker on the left side of the heart.

Blood returns from the organs of the body and enters the right side of the heart.
The right side then pumps the blood to the lungs. Oxygen is picked up at this
point and carbon dioxide is breathed out. Carbon dioxide is a waste product.
The oxygen-rich blood flows back to the left side of the heart and is pumped out
through the aorta to the body. The aorta is the main blood vessel.

Oxygen and nutrients are supplied to the heart muscle after it passes through the
coronary arteries. Coronary arteries contain three major branches which circle
the heart.

The right coronary artery brings blood to the right side and back of the heart.
The left coronary artery is divided into two branches—the circumflex and the left
anterior descending. Blood is carried by these branches to the septum and left
side of the heart.



1. What is the size of your heart?

2. What 3 things does the heart pump to all parts of the body?

3. Where does the right side of the hear pump blood? To what part of the
   body does the left side of the heart pump blood?

4. What are the coronary arteries?

                 WHAT IS A HEART ATTACK?
A heart attack is when the blood flow to the heart muscle is slowed or stopped for 15 to
30 minutes or longer. At this point, damage has been done to the heart muscle. This
attack can happen if any of the coronary artery branches develop:
     Atherosclerosis, which is a buildup of fat in the artery walls. This is the medical
        term for ―hardening of the arteries‖
     A blood clot, which is sometimes called thrombosis. When a lot of fat builds up
        in an artery, it can stick to the walls and blood flow slows down. Once the clot
        closes off the artery, blood flow stops and a heart attack begins.
     A spasm, which is a sudden unexplainable stoppage of blood flow to the heart
        muscle. Spasms can happen to any person, whether healthy or unhealthy, and
        usually last only a few minutes. Researchers believe that nicotine or hard drugs
        may possibly lead to a spasm.

Whichever of the above conditions happens, the same result occurs. If blood and oxygen
are cut off from the heart muscle, the heart muscle will begin to die. Typically, fatty
layers will naturally build up over time within the body due to age, nutrition, and stress.
If 75% or more of an artery is blocked, the heart muscle may not get enough oxygen.
When this happens, a person feels pain in the chest, pain down one arm, and/or tightness
or squeezing in back or chest. This is known as angina. Angina is most often felt when
the heart is pumping harder than usual. Nitroglycerin and rest are the quickest ways to
relieve angina. Angina symptoms do not always mean a heart attack will occur however
if it occurs often, a doctor should be consulted immediately. Some people only have
angina once in a while. They may never have enough artery blockage to have a heart



1. What is a heart attack?

2. What is atherosclerosis?

3. How much of the artery has to be blocked before we know the heart is
   not getting enough oxygen?

4. List the symptoms of angina. Does angina mean you will have a heart
   attack? Why or why not?

5. How do blood clots form?

6. What do scientists believe leads a person to a coronary artery spasm?

                        ABNORMAL HEART RHYTHMS
                         WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW

The number of times the heart beats each minute is called the heart rate. In an older child
or teenager who’s resting the heart beats about 70 times a minute. It beats about 140
times a minute in a newborn. Usually the heart rhythm is regular which means that the
time from one beat to the next is about the same. Exercise can make the heart speed up
and during sleep the heart slows down. If the heart isn’t beating regularly, it has an
arrhythmia. The most common but normal heart rhythm irregularity occurs during
breathing. When a child breathes in, the heart rate speeds up for a few beats and when
the child breathes out, the heart rate normally slows down again. This variation is called
sinus arrhythmia and is normal. If a child continues to have arrhythmia which isn’t
normal, a doctor may recommend a child be seen by a pediatric cardiologist who
specializes in children’s heart problems.

A person’s heart when normal is slightly larger than that person’s clenched fist. The
normal heart is strong and a hard working pump which is divided into right and left sides
and a upper and lower chamber on each side. The right and left atria (upper chambers)
receive blood from the body and the lungs. The right and left ventricles (lower
chambers) are the muscular chambers. They pump blood out of the heart to the lungs and
body. The blood travels through a series of valves which open and close to the let the
blood flow in one direction only.

Arrhythmias can occur at any age and sometimes a child is not aware of the occurrence.
A child’s family history or history of the problem can be very helpful in determining the
severity of the possible heart problem. Questions such as:
     Is the child aware of unusual heartbeats?
     Does the child feel weak, lightheaded or dizzy?
     Has the child ever fainted?
Arrhythmias often occur with no symptoms, and some medicines may make the condition
worse. It’s important to inform the child’s doctor if the child is prescribed other drugs or
has taken an over-the-counter medicine.

The heart’s activity must be recorded on an electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) to identify
an arrhythmia. Each time the heart beats it sends out an electric-like signal that the ECG
machine can record. To record the ECG, small patches or stickers called electrodes are
placed on different parts of your chest to measure the heart’s electrical activity. This
record is recorded permanently on paper or in a computer.

Three major waves of electric signals appear on the ECG. Each one shows a different
part of the heart beat. P wave is the first wave and it records the electrical activity of the
heart’s two upper chambers (atria). The second and largest wave is the QRS wave. This
wave records the electrical activity of the heart’s two lower chambers (ventricles). T
wave is the third wave and it records the heart’s return to the resting state. By studying
the shape and size of the waves and the time between the waves, a doctor can learn the
rate and regularity of the beats and therefore understand a person’s heart and its rhythm.



1. How many heart beats are normal for a teen that is resting? For a new

2. The normal sized heart is how big?

3. Define sinus node.

4. Define an ECG? How does it differ from an EKG?

5. Three major waves of electrical signals appear on a ECG. Name them
   and what they represent.


Q. What is a congenital heart defect?
A. These are structural defects and problems with the heart that is present at birth. These
   problems usually occur before the mother knows she is pregnant and it occurs during
   the heart development period, soon after conception.

Q. Is all heart disease in children congenital?
A. No, but most is. Defects are usually diagnosed early in life but can occur during
   childhood after heart damage from an infection. Children can also be born with heart
   rate problems which are known as arrhythmias.

Q. How many people in the United States have a congenital heart defect?
A. Approximately 35,000 babies are born with a defect each year. Estimates suggest that
   about 1,000,000 Americans have a congenital heart defect.

Q. How do you know if a child is suffering from a congenital heart defect?
A. Babies are sometimes blue or have low blood pressure shortly after birth. Feeding
   problems, breathing difficulties or low weight gain are also symptoms of the defect.
   Minor defects rarely cause symptoms and most heart murmurs in children are normal.

Q. Are these defects a serious problem with a lot of children?
A. Congenital heart defects are the number one cause of death from birth and are the
   most common of all birth defects. Twice the number of children die from congenital
   heart defects as compared to all forms of childhood cancers combined.

Q. Can children with defects live and function as adults?
A. Nearly all children with simple defects survive into adulthood. Most people lead
   normal lives with some physical capacity limitations.

Additional information
The American Heart Association can give additional information by calling them at 1-
800-AHA-USA1 (1-800-242-8721) or over internet at www.americanhear.org/children.



1. How does a congenital heart defect happen?

2. Define arrhythmias.

3. How can I tell if my baby or child has a congenital heart defect?

4. How serious is the problem?

5. Where can I get additional information?

                          Sports-Related Injuries
              Prevention Tips, Risk Factors, and Wellness Tips

Our muscles grow stronger with use. To function properly, a muscle must be relaxed and
flexible. Tension and tautness reduce the flexibility of a muscle. A tight muscle, over
time, becomes shortened and may be tense and painful. A muscle in this condition is
vulnerable to tearing.

1. Always warm up and stretch before physical activity. Cold, stiff muscles are more
   prone to injury. Warm up with stationary cycling or by running or walking for three
   to five minutes. Slowly and gently stretch holding each stretch for 15 to 30 seconds.
   Always cool down following activity.
2. Work up to intensity. Increase intensity and duration of a physical activity over time.
   As your fitness level improves, you will be able to work out with greater intensity
   without risking muscle injury. Use the 10% rule by increasing your activity level by
   no more than 10% per week.
3. Don’t be a ―weekend warrior‖. Don’t try to fit all of your physical activity into two
   days on the weekend. You will be setting yourself up for injury and this pattern of
   working out does not increase fitness levels. Try to do at least 30 min. of moderate
   activity a day and if that is impossible break it up into 10 min. sessions. Moderate
   activity includes walking the dog, working in the garden, and taking stairs whenever
4. Take lessons and invest in good equipment. Lessons and/or coaching are a
   worthwhile investment if you are interested in playing a sport. Learning proper form
   and technique will enhance your fitness levels and reduce a chance for overuse
   injuries. Select proper shoes for your particular activity and replace them often.
5. Listen to your body. Flexibility lessens with age and you may find that activities you
   once participated in are now causing you pain. Toning down your activity to
   accommodate your body’s needs is very important as you age.
6. Develop a balanced fitness program. You can benefit from a balance program of
   activity including cardiovascular exercise, strength training, and flexibility. Avoid
   being bored with exercise by developing your own unique plan for exercise.
7. Don’t ignore aches and pains. Pain should not be apart of any exercise or activity. If
   you feel pain, rest or reduce your activity for a few days to avoid serious injury



1. What are two things that reduce the flexibility of a muscle?

2. List 3 ways you can help prevent muscle injuries?

3. What is the 10% rule?

4. By listening to your body what could you do to accommodate your
   body’s needs?

5. What are some of the types of exercises you can incorporate into your
   program to keep it balanced?

                        METHODS TO INCREASE


Purpose: To gain a better understanding of the various methods to increase overload.

Procedure: Complete the following as directed.
The various systems of the body become stronger and function better when increased
demands (overload) are placed upon them. The principle of overload may be
accomplished by increasing one of three variables: frequency, intensity, time.

1. The letters F.I.T. can be used to remind you how the principle of overload may be
   increased. Match each word on the left to it meaning on the right. Write the letter of
   the meaning in the space provided.
       F—Frequency _________                 A. How long you exercise
       I—Intensity _________                 B. How often you exercise
       T—Time           _________            C. How hard you exercise

2. Check whether each exercise listed below relates to frequency, intensity or amount of
   time the exercise is performed.
                                                   Frequency      Intensity      Time
           A. Stretching further                   ________       ______         ____
           B. Stretching more often                ________       ______         ____
           C. Running faster                       ________       ______         ____
           D. Running a longer distance            ________       ______         ____
           E. Running five days a week instead
              of three a week                      ________       ______         ____
           F. Increasing number of sets            ________       ______         ____
           G. Making the heart beat faster         ________       ______         ____
           H. Increasing number of repetitions     ________       ______         ____
           I. Increasing amount of weight lift     ________       ______         ____
           J. Increasing the pace of your run      ________       ______         ____
           K. Holding the stretch longer           ________       ______         ____
           L. Lifting weight three days per
              week instead of two                  ________       ______         ____
           M. Playing two games of racque tball
              instead of one game                  ________       ______         ____
           N. Playing tennis five days per week
              instead of three days a week         ________       ______         ____

[Name of Coach]

I.   The test will be in two parts
      25 vocabulary words to define
      25 multiple choice questions to answer

II. Part A will be from the list of vocabulary words below. Your assignment is to define
    all the words on the study guide using your portfolio work and study the definitions

III. Part B will come directly from the portfolio and everyday work that we do in
     physical education such as the use of pedometers, heart rate chart, etc.

IV. The following items are to be brought to the test:
     2 clean sheets of paper and a pencil
     Something to work on after the test

V. All students will stay the entire exam time until the bell rings.

VI. Vocabulary words to define

     1. FITT formula                                  14. Blood clots
     2. Cardiorespiratory endurance                   15. Coronary artery spasm
     3. Progression                                   16. Frequency
     4. Overload                                      17. Congenital heart defect
     5. Threshold of training                         18. Arrhythmias
     6. Aerobic exercise                              19. American Heart Association
     7. Anaerobic exercise                            20. Hoops for Heart
     8. Static stretching                             21. Target heart rate training zone
     9. Ballistic stretching                          22. Intensity
     10. Resting heart rate                           23. Obesity
     11. Coronary arteries                            24. Time
     12. Heart attack                                 25. Warm-up
     13. Atherosclerosis

[Name of Coach]

I.   The exam will be made up of two parts:
      38 matching
      37 multiple choice
         (Total of 75 questions)
     Each question will be worth 1 1/2 pts.

II. The exam will count 20% of your final semester grade. The exam will not affect
    your 9 weeks average.

III. On the day of your final, bring the following items to the exam;
      One clean sheet of paper
      Pen or pencil
      Extra reading material or something to study until the end of the period.
     Note: Do not bring food or electronic devices to the exam.

IV. Thirty eight (38) of the following words will be on your exam. Your task is to define
    these words on the study guide for easy study for the exam.

       1.    Pedometer                                 21.   Heart disease
       2.    Cardio                                    22.   Arteries
       3.    EKG                                       23.   Cholesterol
       4.    Arrhythmia                                24.   Heart rate monitor
       5.    Congenital heart defect                   25.   Overuse injuries
       6.    Physical activity                         26.   Side stitch
       7.    Heart attack                              27.   Sprain
       8.    AHA                                       28.   Ligament
       9.    Cool down                                 29.   Strain
       10.   Warm up                                   30.   Heat exhaustion
       11.   THR training zone                         31.   Heat stroke
       12.   Risk factors                              32.   Frostbite
       13.   Obesity                                   33.   Hypothermia
       14.   Underfat                                  34.   HIV
       15.   Muscular strength                         35.   AIDS
       16.   Muscular endurance                        36.   STD
       17.   RsHR                                      37.   Anorexia
       18.   Cardiovascular fitness                    38.   Bulimia
       19.   Static stretching                         39.   Food Pyramid
       20.   Ballistic stretching                      40.   Chewing tobacco

[Name of Coach]

Do not write on the exam copy. Put all answers on your answer sheet.

The exam will consist of Part 1 and Part 2.

Identify the definition in letters A – Y that correspond to the numbered word in 1-24.
Write only the letter on your answer sheet.

   1.    Aerobic exercise                              13.   Sprain
   2.    HDL                                           14.   Ligament
   3.    LDL                                           15.   RSHR
   4.    anaerobic exercise                            16.   Isokinetic exercise
   5.    Isotonic exercise                             17.   Heart attack
   6.    Cardiovascular fitness                        18.   Muscular strength
   7.    FITT                                          19.   Warm-up
   8.    Overuse injury                                20.   Lactic acid
   9.    Side stitch                                   21.   Cardio
   10.   Flexibility                                   22.   Target Heart Rate training zone
   11.   Static flexibility                            23.   Body composition
   12.   Isometric exercise                            24.   AIDS

   A. An organization that raises money for AIDS awareness in the city of Birmingham
   B. When the heart completely stops due to complete blockage of the arteries or some form
      of trauma
   C. The intrinsic property of body tissues, which determines the range of motion achievable
      without injury at a joint of group of joints
   D. Stands for frequency, intensity, time and type of exercise done
   E. From the Greek word for heart
   F. The ability of muscles to exert force on an object to move it in specified ranges of
   G. An injury to ligaments and muscle
   H. State in which the body’s demand for oxygen is greater than what is available during
   I. Exercise in which a muscle is tightened for about five to eight seconds and there is no
      body movement
   J. The ability of the circulatory and respiratory systems to supply oxygen during sustained
      physical activity
   K. When a muscle, tendon or ligament is stretched or overworked beyond its capacity
   L. A preparation for the body and its muscles before heavy work begins in the exercise
   M. Exercise using special machines that provide weight resistance through the full range of
   N. When muscles in the diaphragm contract with breathing and heavy exercise
   O. Resting heart rate
   P. Bands of tissue that connect bones to each other
   Q. Produced by muscles during vigorous exercise; one of the factors that cause cramps

    R. Exercise in which large amounts of oxygen are required continually for an extended
       period of time
    S. A routine in which a muscle or muscles move a moderate amount of weights eight to
       fifteen times
    T. A series of motions held for 15 to 20 seconds that is used to increase flexibility
    U. The rate at which the heart must beat within a minute to have a conditioning effect,
       which makes the heart work better
    V. Form of fat, known as ―bad cholesterol‖, which stays in the arteries and can cause heart
    W. The relationship of a body’s fat content compared to the muscle content
    X. A disease that happens after HIV has killed the immune system of a human
    Y. A form of cholesterol that forms in the blood stream and is considered ―good
       cholesterol‖ since it breaks down easier in the system

Write the correct letter response to the numbered question on your answer sheet.

    26. Which of the following ranges of heart rate is the average heart rate for an adult?
        A. 90-100 beats a minute
        B. 80-90 beats a minute
        C. 70-80 beats a minute
        D. Depends on each individual

    27. One sign that a person is getting in better aerobic shape is that their heart is beating.
        A. Faster
        B. Slower
        C. Doesn’t change
        D. There is no way to know without a doctor’s exam

    28. Which system in the body is the one that can keep your heart healthy and the rest of your
        organs working properly?
         A. Respiratory system
         B. Cardiovascular system
         C. Muscular system
         D. None of the above

    29. All of the following are ways to prevent injuries EXCEPT:
        A. Stop doing exercise that is difficult
        B. Warm up and stretch
        C. Start slowly
        D. Use moderation

    30. New research has told us that warming muscles first with light movement and then
        stretching is the correct way to prepare for exercise. Why is that?
         A. There is no proof that this is correct way
         B. Always stretch before any jogging or strenuous movement
         C. Warmer muscles stretch better and with less injury
         D. This is only good in the spring and summer time when muscles are already warm.

31. All of the following are ways to keep your cardiovascular system healthy
     A. Reduce the amount of fat in your diet
     B. Exercise every now and then
     C. Avoid using tobacco products
     D. Maintain a healthful weight

32. What are the pager looking devices called that we use each day in class?
    A. Thermometer
    B. Digital calorie counter
    C. Pedometer
    D. None of the above

33. Which of the following plays a part in determining the percentage of body fat a person
     A. Heredity
     B. Childhood
     C. Adolescence
     D. All of the above

34. Too much body fat can lead a person to a greater risk of
    A. High blood pressure
    B. Diabetes
    C. Alcoholism
    D. A and B only

35. Each of the following is a component of health-related fitness EXCEPT one.
    Choose the one that does not belong:
    A. Flexibility
    B. Muscular endurance
    C. Frequency
    D. Muscular strength

36. Benefits of regular exercise include all of the following EXCEPT:
    A. Reduces problems with family
    B. Reduces the risk of dying prematurely
    C. Reduces risk of colon cancer
    D. Helps maintain healthy bones, muscles and joints

37. Approximately how many steps equal a mile using our technology in class?
    A. 1800
    B. 2000-2200
    C. 3000
    D. Depends on stride length

38. The following are ways to prevent injury in exercise EXCEPT:
    A. Warm-up and stretch
    B. Start slowly
    C. Exercise as fast as you can
    D. Workout doing the exercises correctly

39. A healthful range of body fat for a female teenager should range from
    A. 25-30%
    B. 15-25%
    C. 10-15%
    D. Depends on the person

40. HIV can be contracted in all of the following body fluids EXCEPT:
    A. Saliva
    B. Vaginal secretions
    C. Blood
    D. Semen

41. A sedentary lifestyle is defined as
    A. Running 5-8 miles every other day.
    B. Doing less than 3 days a week of moderate exercise.
    C. Participating in only league sports on the weekend.
    D. Is different for everybody.

42. In the United States, up to 25% of the children and 40-50% of the adults are over fat.
     A. True
     B. False

43. If your parents and grandparents are overweight, you to will have the predisposition or
    high probability to also be overweight.
     A. True
     B. False

44. What is a way of continuing activity after physical education class is over?
    A. Pick an activity you like and make a plan
    B. Get a friend to workout with you
    C. Make it apart of your daily routine just like brushing your teeth or brushing your
    D. All of the above

45. What is the FITT formula?
    A. A scientific look at sport and activity
    B. A formula for determining to obtain fitness benefits
    C. An aerobic exercise or walk
    D. Used in physical education class to determine a student’s grade

46. All of the following are examples of aerobic exercise EXCEPT
    A. Running sprints
    B. Roller blading for 30 minutes
    C. Walking in the neighborhood for 45 minutes
    D. Bike riding 5 miles

47. The formula for weight loss is
    A. Eat less food at breakfast
    B. Do not eat breakfast
    C. Exercise vigorously after dinner
    D. Eat fewer calories and increase activity

48. Greater health benefits can be achieved by increasing the amount of
    A. Duration of the activity
    B. Frequency of the activity
    C. Intensity of the activity
    D. All of the above

49. Target heart rate zone is determined by two things; they are:
    A. Height and weight
    B. Age and color of skin
    C. Age and activity lifestyle
    D. Both A and B

50. A disease in which the arteries walls thicken making the artery smaller with less blood
    flow is:
     A. Cardiovascular disease
     B. Arteriosclerosis
     C. Osteoporosis
     D. Amenorrhea

               [You may write a personal note to the students.]

                     THE TRUTH ABOUT FAD DIETS

                         HOW DO YOU SPOT A FAD DIET?
Fad diets have been around for many years. Weight-loss advice comes in hundreds of disguises
such as ―revolutionary diets‖, ―secret-formula diets‖, or diets with special ingredients that cause
instant weight loss. Unfortunately, these diets do not teach a person how to eat healthy nor how
to form habits that help avoid gaining all the weight back following the diet. No one wants to
drink a milkshake or eat the same packaged food for the rest of his/her life!

                    WHY ARE FAD DIETS SO ATTRACTIVE?
Fad diets are usually popular due to the sensational guarantees made by the creator of the diet.
Famous people advertise for the product, and we think, ―If I use it, I will look like them!‖
Remember, movie stars get paid to do these commercials whether they use the product or not. Is
the diet safe, effective or practical? These are questions you need to ask yourself before
beginning a diet of any kind.

Fad diets promise no exercise and tremendous weight loss when in truth, exercise should be a part
of any weight loss plan. Unfortunately, increasing physical activity and eating healthy is
unappealing to dieters seeking quick easy results.

Profit is always the bottom line for any commercial weight loss program. Companies are in
business to make money, and whether or not an individual keeps the weight off is not necessarily
the concern of the company. There are programs, such as Weight Watchers, L.A. Weight Loss
and E-Diets, that focus on what works for the long term and encourages combining a balanced
healthy diet with increased exercise.

                       WEIGHT LOSS AND MAINTENANCE

            Eat a balance, healthy diet rich with fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean meats and
             low fat dairy products.
            Do not skip meals
            Keep a check on portions of food.
            Avoid eating for reasons other than hunger.
            Exercise at least three times per week.
            Learn from setbacks and get back on track.

         All foods can fit into a healthy eating plan.
         Behavior change must last past the weight loss.

The Truth About Fad Diets


1. Define the term ―fad diet.‖

2. Why are fad diets so attractive to so many people?

3. Are there some weight loss programs that really work? Why do they work?

4. List 4 tips for weight loss and maintenance.

5. Why is it important not to skip meals during the day?

                          Part 1 and Part 2

Source: Williams, Charles S., Emmanouel G. Harageones, Dewayne J. Johnson, and
Charles D. Smith. Personal Fitness: Student Activity Handbook. Dubuque, IA:
Kendall/Hunt, 2000.

                            FOOD FOR THOUGHT
Sound Familiar?
Breakfast, if you have it, is juice and a donut. Your lunch might be a bag of potato chips,
a handful of cookies, and a soda from the school’s vending machine. There’s no way
you’re eating cafeteria food! Sound familiar? If it does, you’re a typical teen, with
hardly enough time to do anything let alone eat a meal!

Did You Know?

 It has been reported that only one in five kids ate five or more servings of fruit and
  vegetables in a day as recommended by the Food Guide Pyramid.
 Studies have shown that skipping breakfast reduces attention levels, concentration,
  and performance in school. By eating breakfast, which doesn’t have to be ―breakfast
  type foods‖, you will be more alert for those early morning classes.
 If you are an athlete, it is especially important to get the proper nutrients and calories
  to sustain you through practices and games. These can come from fruits, vegetable,
  pasta, and whole grains which help to build muscle and supply energy.
 If you eat too much fat and too many calories, you will gain fat and not muscle.
  Eating a low-fat diet can help lower your risk of obesity and cholesterol levels which
  are both risk factors for heart disease. Heart disease, unfortunately, is becoming
  more of a risk factor for children than ever before.
 Many teenage girls are at serious risk of osteoporosis due to not getting enough
  calcium in their diet. Calcium helps build strong bones and is extremely important
  for all children when they are young.

It’s never too early to start eating right. You will look and feel better and your body will
thank you in many ways.

                             HEALTHY EATING BASICS

1. Fake out the fat. Drink skim milk and other reduced fat items while trying to skip
   fried snacks like chips and fries. Go for baked instead.

2. Give me five for calcium. Try to have five servings of calcium rich food everyday.
   Calcium is in milk, yogurt, broccoli and other dark green vegetables.

3. Go for five. Try to have five servings of fruits and vegetables everyday. Look for
   the brightest color fruits and vegetables as they are rich in nutrients that help prevent
   heart disease and some cancers.

4. Grab the grains. This should be your greatest amount of your daily diet. Pasta, rice
   and other whole grain foods are low in fat and full of nutrients.

5. Fiber it up. If you eat a variety of fruits, vegetables and whole grains, you are
   probably receiving adequate fiber, but check the color. Eat whole wheat bread and
   dark green leafy vegetables to add additional fiber to your diet.


1. Stock up the pantry. Get your parents to help you stock quick but healthy foods you
   like and enjoy. Baby carrots, non-fat yogurt, cold cereal and skim milk are a few

2. Take your lunch. Pack a lunch at night so you can grab it on the way out in the
   morning. This way you can choose what you want and won’t be tempted to pick a
   high fatty food or even from the vending machine.

3. Start with Breakfast. Gets your brain working quickly with something for breakfast.
   Fruit and cereals are low in fat and convenient to grab on the way out.

4. Fast food doesn’t have to include fat. Choose fast foods that are baked or broiled and
   stay away from fried and processed foods. Even fast food salads can be high in fat
   with meat, cheese and sour cream piled on top.

As a person’s body changes and grows, some of us become self-conscious about how we
look or how we think we look to others. If you are not happy with your appearance,
remember that the best way to keep an ideal weight is to eat healthy foods and to get
regular exercise. Diets might work for a while but to keep ones weight moderated a
lifestyle change must occur and behaviors must be modified. If you are seriously
considering going on a diet, consult your parents and doctor.




1. How does breakfast help you in school?

2. What does eating healthy foods such as fruits, vegetables, and pasta do
   for your body?

3. How does eating a low-fat diet help your body?

4. What risk does getting enough calcium lower?


1.   List the five changes in diet which are important to health.

2.   How can you eat healthier even when you are pushed for time?

3.   Are fast food salads healthy for you? Why or why not?

4.   What is the best way to stay at a healthy weight?

                              Teen Nutrition
Adolescence is the period of life between childhood and adulthood. You and others are
in this part of the life cycle. The body undergoes an important transition where many
changes take place. Good food habits started in childhood need to be continued as your
body continues to develop.

Growth Patterns

Puberty is the time during which a person develops sexual maturity. This is the time
when females begin menstruating and hormonal changes cause secondary sexual
characteristics to appear. Males voices deepen, shoulders broaden, and facial and body
hair appears. For females, breast development and growth of body hair are among the
changes. Growth rates vary but most adolescents experience a growth spurt which is a
period of rapid physical growth. Bones grow, muscle development occurs and weight is
increased. Well-nourished females develop a layer of fatty tissue while well-nourished
males increase in lean body mass which gives them a muscular appearance.

Daily calorie needs in adolescence are higher than they are in late childhood. An active
female adolescent needs 2,300 calories per day while an active male adolescent needs
3,100 calories. Males need more because they carry a higher percentage of lean body
mass. The body functions better when it receives supplies of energy and nutrients at
regular intervals throughout the day. A busy school, work, and social schedule may
make you feel you do not always have time for regular intervals of food. Irregular
patterns can cause teens to be tired, irritable, drowsy, and distracted. Eating a good
breakfast replenishes your energy supplies after a night of sleep. Breakfast should
provide about one-fourth of your daily nutrient and calorie needs.


Part 1

Fill in the blanks to complete these statements about teen nutrition.

1. ___________________is the period of life between childhood and adulthood.

2. ___________________is the time during which a person reaches sexual maturity.

3. Most adolescents experience a period of rapid physical growth that is known as a

4. Body ___________changes during adolescence as females develop a layer of fatty
   tissue and males develop more lean body mass.

5. A teen’s daily calorie needs are ________than they were in late childhood.

Part 2
6. The average teen female needs ____________calories per day.

7. Teen males need more calories than teen females because they have more _________.

8. Teens need to replenish supplies of energy and nutrients at ____________intervals
   throughout the day.

9. __________________eating patterns can cause teens to be tired, irritable, drowsy, and

10.Breakfast should provide ______________of a teen’s daily nutrient needs.

                        POWER OF 3 PLANNER
                 HAVE YOU HAD YOUR 3-A-DAY OF DAIRY?

Available handouts from www.3aday.org


Deborah Lowery
Southern Marketing Manager
Cabot Creamery
(205) 980-1118

                  3-A-DAY OF DAIRY

OBJECTIVE: To make students aware of the need for
calcium in their diet and to give them suggestions on how
to incorporate it in everyday eating habits.

1. Acquire dairy labels and give to small group of students.
   Students ages 9-18 need 1300 mg of calcium a day.
   Have them add up the mg in a serving of the product
   figuring how this would fit into their dairy diary
2. ―Power of 3‖ planner handout, have students circle
   which food each day is their favorite and have them add
   a snack they think could give them more calcium and
   one that they enjoying eating.

                                MYTHS AND FACTS
Myth: Osteoporosis is only for old people.
Fact: Being female, having a mother or other relatives with osteoporosis, having
      blonde hair, being small boned, having fair skin, having had a pregnancy during
      teen years and curvature of the spine are all risk factors that put you at an
      increased risk of the disease.

Myth: My lifestyle and the behaviors I engage in do not affect the prevalence for the
Fact: Lack of exercise, excessive exercise and smoking link a person to a greater
      chance for the disease.

Myth: Women who take hormones are protected from Osteoporosis.
Fact: Estrogen therapy is appropriate for women at high risk for the disease.

Myth: I don’t need to worry about osteoporosis because I’m young.
Fact: It is never too late to build healthy bones; however, while you are young, this is
      the best prevention for the disease. Bone is living matter and needs nutrients to
      continue to grow. Eating a well-balanced diet with lots of fruits and vegetables
      helps your body absorb calcium. The best source of vitamin D, which maintains
      blood levels of calcium and aid in the absorption of calcium, is sunlight and
      vitamin D fortified milk. Exercise with weight bearing activities, should also be
      apart of your daily life.

Myth: Smoking really isn’t considered a risk factor for osteoporosis.
Fact: Smoking is a serious risk factor for osteoporosis. Smoking, by itself, can predict
      serious bone loss. Studies have shown that heavy smokers have significantly
      lower wrist and vertebral bone mineral and have decreased hip bone mineral
      density in old age which increases the risk of hip fracture or more serious types
      of fractures.



1. Name 3 risk factors that increase a person’s chance for Osteoporosis.

2. What type of physical activity is best for preventing Osteoporosis?

3. Why is smoking such a serious risk to contracting Osteoporosis? Name
   two other risks smoking carries with it besides Osteoporosis?

4. What is the best strategy for a teenager to help prevent the possibility of
   Osteoporosis some day?

                         CALCIUM INTAKE INFO Handout
                         AMOUNT OF CALCIUM Handout
                           CALCIUM IN FOOD Handout

Information available from:

Deborah Lowery
Southern Marketing Manager
Cabot Creamery
(205) 980-1118



Everything you need to be successful in your life is within your grasp. The only
thing that holds a person back from that path is a person’s belief and feelings
about themselves. Self-esteem is how persons feel about themselves. If you are
healthy in your self-esteem, you will make decisions that can lead you down the
path of a successful life.

How we act or react, the values we choose, the goals we set and how we meet
the new challenges put before us everyday are a reflection of our own self-
esteem. A person’s self-esteem can even affect the body’s natural immune
system. A negative or low self-esteem makes a person’s resilience when facing
a problem in life somewhat impaired. However, a positive self-esteem allows a
person’s immune system to work at full capacity and provides empowerment,
energy and motivates us to continue to achieve and be successful. The more
solid our self-esteem, the better equipped we are to cope with the troubles that
arise in our careers and personal lives. Everyone will have low moments in
his/her life, but how well a person recovers from those moments reflects on that
person’s positive self-esteem.


1. Being involved in sports and physical activity has a tremendous potential to
   enhance a girl’s sense of competence and worth. To help assure these
   feelings, incorporate cooperative and competitive activities when learning
   physical skills.

2. Exercise and sport promotes psychological well-being. Research shows that
   exercise improves the mental health of adolescents thereby helping to
   alleviate self-esteem issues.

3. Girls’ motives for participating in sports and physical activity are not always
   the same as boys’ motives. Boys’ enjoy the benefits of being physically fit but
   tend to be more competitive than girls. Girls’ participate not only for
   competitive reasons, but also to get in shape, be social, improve skills and
   have fun.

4. Being active through daily physical activity has been shown to be a mood
   enhancer and helps to reduce anxiety.


    Crime and violence
    Eating Disorders
    Depression and suicide
    Alcohol, drugs and tobacco use
    Pregnancy

Low self-esteem is the common universal thread between people who
experience the problems listed above. Research proves that teenagers who
experience a low self-esteem, lack basic skills and are looking for love or to be
loved by something. Frequently, teenagers experiencing low esteem issues
come from a dysfunctional family or have been sexually abused.


1. Ignore and stay away from people who put you down or treat you badly.
2. Do things that you enjoy or that make your feel good.
3. Do things you are good at.
4. Reward yourself for your successes.
5. Develop your talents
6. Treat yourself well and do things that are good for you.
7. Take responsibility for yourself, your choices, and your actions.
   Respect other people and treat them right.
8. Set goals and work to achieve them.


1. Define self-esteem.

2. What does positive self-esteem do for you?

3. What are five different things that are usually associated with low self-

4. What effect does physical activity have on self-esteem?

5. Give 5 ways you can enhance your self-esteem.

                                   TOBACCO FACTS

Q:   What happens when a person smokes?
A:   Every time a smoker inhales, chemicals in the smoke pass from the lungs to the
     bloodstream and are carried throughout the body. Because it is a stimulant, it alerts the
     body and there are feelings of mild pleasure.

Q:   What is nicotine?
A:   Nicotine is the main drug in cigarettes. Nicotine raises blood pressure and constricts the
     arteries. This puts a strain on the heart and carbon monoxide replaces some of the oxygen
     in the bloodstream. At the same time, tar and smoke particles are trapped in the lungs.
     They cling to the delicate linings of the lungs air chambers. If use persists, tar and particles
     can lead to emphysema and other cardio-respiratory diseases.

Q:   Can smoking cause cancer?
A:   Smoking is known to have a direct link to many cancers such as lung, throat, mouth, larynx,
     and stomach cancer.

Q:   Can you smoke without inhaling?
A:   Some of the smoke is inhaled even if a person is not trying to inhale. Tobacco smoke
     affects every part of the body and can damage the lips, mouth, and throat.

Q:   How addictive are cigarettes?
A:   Very addictive. The U.S. Surgeon General has stated that nicotine is in the same class as
     heroin and cocaine when it comes to how addictive the substance can be.

Q:   How does second hand smoke affect non-smokers?
A:   ―Secondary smoke‖ can cause many dangers to non-smokers. Because of the outcry from
     non-smokers, many restaurants have smoking sections or are completely smoke free.

Q:   Can I safely smoke a low-tar cigarette?
A:   These cigarettes reduce some of the risks of smoking, but will not eliminate them. Low-tar
     cigarette smokers tend to inhale more deeply and get less tar but more of the other
     chemicals which are contained in cigarettes.

Q:   Is smokeless tobacco safe?
A:   Chewing tobacco and ―snuff‖ are the two types. Chew comes loose-leafed and can be
     placed between the cheek and gum of the mouth. Snuff is place between the cheek and
     gum but is not chewed on. Both chew and snuff have very dangerous side effects related to
     the use. Cancers, removal of person’s lips, tongues and teeth have been the result of long
     term use of this type of tobacco.

                                       F.Y.I. ON TOBACCO

        Most adults who smoke, started before the age of 20
        Smoking suppresses apetitite and some justify smoking as a weight loss prescription.
        More toxic chemicals are in pipes and cigars than in cigarettes.
        Life and health insurance plans cost more for a smoker.
        Heart disease, stroke, uterus, and cervix cancers are increased for women who smoke
         and take birth control pills.
        Babies born to smokers tend to have low birth weight and carry nicotine in their blood
         passed from the mother.

                       TOBACCO: WHAT DO YOU KNOW?
  I.   Fill in the blanks.

   1. The main drug in tobacco smoke is ______________.
   2. Other harmful substances in tobacco smoke are _______and ______________.
   3. When a smoker inhales, chemicals in the smoke pass from the lungs to the
      _____________________and are carried throughout the body.
   4. Name two diseases that smoking can cause:______________________________
   5. The effect that smoking has on blood pressure is to ___________it.

 II.   Mark each item True or False.

   T    F   1.   Smoking cigarettes is not addictive.
   T    F   2.   Most adults who smoke began as teenagers.
   T    F   3.   Low-tar cigarettes significantly reduce the risks of smoking.
   T    F   4.   ―Smokeless tobacco‖ is not a safe substitute for cigarettes.
   T    F   5.   The smoke from pipes and cigars contains the same amount of toxic chemicals
                 as cigarette smoke.

III.   For each item, mark the correct answer or answers that apply.

   1. Babies of mothers who smoke:
             A. Tend to be smaller.
             B. Are born addicted.
             C. Experience reduced oxygen supply in the womb.
             D. All of the above.
   2. The main drug in tobacco acts as:
            A. A stimulant.
            B. A depressant.
            C. A hallucinogen.
   3. Smokers who try not to inhale:
            A. Avoid all health risks from cigarettes.
            B. May suffer damage to mouth and throat.
            C. Do not become addicted to cigarettes.
   4. Women who smoke run greater risks of
           A. Heart disease
           B. Strokes
           C. Cancer of the uterus and cervix
           D. All of the above
   5. Exposure to ―secondary smoke‖:
            A. Can lead to addiction in non-smokers
            B. Can cause health problems in non-smokers
            C. Has little or no effect on non-smokers

[Name of Coach]

MATCHING—Match the correct word with the definition on the other pages.
Please mark a capital letter on your answer sheet. There is only one best definition
for each word. Extra definitions are on the test.
    1. pedometer                                  21. Hoops for Heart
    2. cardio                                     22. tar and carbon monoxide
    3. self-esteem                                23. Gatorade Sports Science Institute
    4. osteoporosis                               24. Resting heart rate
    5. overuse injuries                           25. congenital heart defect
    6. physical activity                          26. smokeless tobacco
    7. heart attack                               27. aerobic
    8. muscular strength                          28. anaerobic
    9. THR training zone                          29. FITT
    10. principle of overload                     30. isotonic exercise
    11. cardiovascular fitness                    31. HIV
    12. sprain                                    32. AIDS
    13. obesity                                   33. anorexia nervosa
    14. principle of specificity                  34. bulimia
    15. muscular endurance                        35. isokinetic exercise
    16. flexibility                               36. AHA
    17. atherosclerosis                           37. isometric exercise
    18. heart disease                             38. nicotine
    19. Safehouse                                 39. cardiorespiratory fitness
    20. risk factors

   A.    The ability of the muscles of the body to move within a range of motion without
   B.    Organization dedicated to preventing, educating and finding a cure for heart
         disease, heart attack and stroke
   C.    An injury to ligaments and muscles
   D.    People with a high percentage of body fat and who are prone for health
   E.    The number one killer of Americans age 25-40…causes include obesity, poor
         nutrition and a lack of exercise
   F.    A fatty buildup inside the walls of the arteries which slows blood flow
   G.    How a person feels about themselves
   H.    A condition in which the bones become porous and start to lose their strength.
   I.    Technology devise used to measure steps taken, miles walked and calories
   J.    Health and fitness of the heart, lungs and blood vessels
   K.    The fitness principle of progressively loading the muscle with more resistance
         or weight
   L.    The rate at which the heart must beat to have a conditioning effect

M.  The main addictive drug in a cigarette
N.  The fitness principle of working particular muscle areas or groups of muscles
O.  Anything that increases a chance of something happening
P.  Greek word for heart
Q.  When a persons heart stops beating due to trauma or blockage
R.  An agency that aids women and children of domestic abuse
S.  An event held by schools to help educate, raise awareness and raise money to
    fight heart disease, heart attack and stroke
T. Physical work which increases heart rate and raises the respiratory system to
    work at a higher rate
U. Harmful substances in tobacco smoke
V. A company interested in maximizing fitness levels and training efforts for all
W. Chewing tobacco and snuff, for example
X. The ability of a muscle or group of muscles to work, lift, or move a resistance
    over a period of time
Y. The ability of a muscle to work, lift, or move a weight or resistance
Z. Using large volumes of oxygen over a workout
AA. Found in the neck or wrist and recorded best upon awaking in the morning
BB. The syndrome of opportunistic diseases that ravage the body and keep someone
    sick and in and out of the hospital
CC. A condition in which a person starves and then gorges themselves with
    incredible amounts of food in which later they throw up
DD. A formula for increasing the body’s overall fitness level through frequency,
    intensity, time and type of activity
EE. A heart problem that is usually discovered at birth and for which surgery is
FF. A short exercise or activity that doesn’t require large amounts of oxygen to
GG. An exercise where muscle is tightened for 5-8 seconds with no body
HH. The virus that kills a person’s immune system
II. A non-profit organization in Birmingham which educates and researches the
    treatment and cure for AIDS
JJ. Ability of the heart and lungs to work over a period of time to complete an
    activity or exercise which elevates the heart rate
KK. Exercises in which muscles move a moderate amount of weight 8 to 15 times in
    a repetition
LL. A condition in which a person starves themselves and exercises vigorously
    because of a false perception of their obesity
MM. These exercises use special machines that provide weight resistance through the
    full range of motion
NN. These injuries occur when you do more exercise than your body can handle

MULTIPLE CHOICE—Place the letter of the correct answer on the answer sheet.
There is only one best answer for each question

1.   What is the average resting heart rate for a teenager?
          A. 90 – 100
          B. 50 – 60
          C. 60 – 70
          D. 70 – 80

2.   Which activity is more aerobic in nature and burns more calories?
         A. Aerobic dance
         B. Horseback riding
         C. Walking
         D. Studying

3.   What is the zone of maximum heart rate that an individual needs to work in to be
     conditioning their heart?
           A. 505-60% of maximum
           B. 25%of maximum
           C. 90% of maximum
           D. 70%-85% of maximum

4.   To find your maximum heart rate, which of the following calculations is used?
           A. 200 – age
           B. 220 – age
           C. 180 – ½ age
           D. Age + 22

5.   Each year that a person grows older, his/her maximum heart rate
          A. Increases 1 beat.
          B. Drops 2 beats.
          C. Stays the same.
          D. Drops 1 beat.

6.   The pulse is best located in
          A. The neck.
          B. The head.
          C. The chest.
          D. The arm.

7.   Increased activity produces all of the following psychological effects EXCEPT
           A. Higher self-esteem
           B. Feeling of accomplishment
           C. Increased stress
           D. Relief from anxiety

8.   To increase my level of fitness, generally I need to engage in sustained activity
           A. 3-4 times a week for 30 minutes
           B. 4 times a week
           C. 2 times a week for 1 hour
           D. It depends on the person

9.   All of the following are necessary to achieve a high level of health and fitness
           A. Flexibility
           B. Good at sports
           C. Muscular strength
           D. Cardiovascular conditioning

10. The cardiovascular system is made up of
         A. The heart
         B. Blood, blood vessels, and the heart
         C. Nutrients and blood
         D. Plasma, hemoglobin, and blood

11. All of the following are aerobic activities EXCEPT
          A. Bicycling
          B. Hockey
          C. Football
          D. Jumping rope

12. All of the following are non-aerobic or anaerobic activities EXCEPT
          A. Soccer
          B. Softball
          C. Golf
          D. 50-yard. Sprint

13. Which system in the body is the one that can keep your heart healthy and the rest of
    your organs working properly?
         A. Respiratory system
         B. Cardiovascular system
         C. Muscular system
         D. None of the above

14. All of the following are ways to prevent injuries EXCEPT
          A. Stop doing exercise that is difficult.
          B. Warm-up and stretch.
          C. Start slowly.
          D. Use moderation.

15. Regular exercise benefits two vital body systems. They are:
         A. Digestive system
         B. Cardiovascular system
         C. Respiratory
         D. B and C

16. The heart benefits from which of these exercises?
         A. Weight lifting
         B. Playing sports
         C. Jogging, hiking
         D. B and C

17. Causes of ―hardening of the arteries‖ are all of the following EXCEPT
         A. Not enough exercise
         B. Fat deposits
         C. Eating healthy foods
         D. Eating red meat

18. The best sign a heart is being conditioned and in better working order is for the
    resting heart rate to
          A. Increase over time.
          B. Decrease over time.
          C. Stay the same.
          D. None of the above

19. Which sex is at the highest risk for heart disease?
        A. Female
        B. Male

20. The condition known for brittle bones and usually found in older women is called
         A. Congenital heart problems.
         B. Osteoporosis.
         C. Murmur.
         D. Cancer.

21. Babies of mothers who smoke:
         A. Tends to be smaller.
         B. Are born addicted.
         C. Experience reduced oxygen supply in the womb.
         D. All of the above

22. The main drug in tobacco acts as a:
         A. A stimulant.
         B. A depressant.
         C. A hallucinogen.

23. Smokers who try not to inhale:
        A. Avoid all health risks from cigarettes.
        B. May suffer damage to mouth and throat.
        C. Do not become addicted to cigarettes.

24. What is the number one way that HIV is passed from one person to another?
         A. Kissing
         B. Sex
         C. Drug needles
         D. All of the above

25. What are the two ways that HIV can pass from mother to child?
         A. Breast milk
         B. Birth
         C. A and B
         D. A women always passes HIV to their child.

26. What is the best way to prevent getting HIV?
         A. Stop participating in dangerous sports.
         B. Cover your mouth when coughing.
         C. Don’t touch someone who looks sick.
         D. Don’t have sex.

27. What is the fastest growing age group of people with AIDS?
         A. Teenagers
         B. 20 – 30
         C. 25 – 40
         D. 60 – 69

28. The organization which educates young people on the dangers of domestic violence
    and date rape is called
         A. Safeguard.
         B. Safestation.
         C. Department of Education
         D. Safehouse

29. All of the following are considered domestic violence EXCEPT
          A. Rape
          B. Sexual assault
          C. Date rape
          D. Spouse rape
          E. none of the above

30. What is the biggest problem with society and victims of rape?
         A. The victim is usually blamed.
         B. The rapist never serves prison time.
         C. Society things rape is just apart of dating.
         D. None of the above

31. A women dressed in a halter top with fish net hose and high heels, is asking to have
    someone assault her.
         A. True
         B. False

32. Which of the following states has the highest number of obese adults?
        A. Alabama
        B. Tennessee
        C. Georgia
        D. California

33. Which of the following states has the highest number of adults with diabetes?
        A. Alabama
        B. Mississippi
        C. Texas
        D. California

34. The surgeon general’s last report to the US was on:
         A. Heart disease
         B. Physical activity and health
         C. Cancer
         D. AIDS

35. When exercising this summer, what is the most important thing to remember?
        A. Wear the right shoes
        B. Stay hydrated with water or sports drink
        C. Wear loose clothes
        D. Don’t exercise at night

FREE RESPONSE—Answer the following questions on the back of your paper. Be
sure to number your answers.

36. Which of the following activities that you participated in this year did you enjoy the
    most? Why?
         Flag football                                      Kick boxing
         Soccer                                             Creating your own aerobics
         Speedball                                          routine
         Physical fitness testing                           Games unit
         Ultimate Frisbee                                   Health labs/portfolio
         Basketball                                         Abdominal workouts
         Hoops for Heart event                              Pickle ball
         Floor hockey                                       Softball
         Step aerobics                                      Archery
         Floor aerobics                                     Fitness stations

37. Which activity did you enjoy the least? Why?

38. Looking at your yearlong resting heart rate, how did you heart perform on the
    graph? What do you think affected it the most?

39. What do you think about monitoring your steps on your pedometer this year? Did
    you learn anything about your abilities or something for your future health?

40. What did you learn about checking you body fat periodically over this past year?
    Was it a good thing? Why or why not?

41. If you could make one or two statements that would sum up what you learned in
    Physical Education this year, what would it be?

42. Overall, did you enjoy the year in physical education? Why or why not? What
    would have made it better?


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