Welcome to Your 5th Grade Reading The “C” stands for “Cornell”, as in Cornell University, where this note taking system was developed… Created by T. Mynyk, 2005 Let’s begin our Reading Strategies In this first 6-weeks, we will discuss, understand, and apply the following reading strategies: BDA Reader Response Stop & Jot Summing It Up But first... Name _______________ Date________________ Class________________ 1. The The Reading Process helps you think Reading critically about a subject by Process separating the reading assignment into three different areas; things you do before you read, things you do during your reading, and things you do after you read. BEFORE DURING AFTER List everything Write a brief Briefly note the you know about summary of all new information a book or the things you you are learning subject have learned as you read. BEFORE you once you have begin to read. finished reading. Summary Explain how the BDA strategy can help you understand the newspaper article? Great stories have a conflict Character Conflict A struggle between two or more characters Character vs. Character Character Character Character vs. Nature vs. Society vs. Self #11: Conflict Analysis Chart Type of Side 1 Side 2 conflict Mark Chelmsley Mr. Maxwell Man vs. Man Detail: Detail: The boy didn’t pay When Mrs. Stearns told attention, didn’t even Mr. Maxwell the news, his pretend to. This one had attitude toward this new a bad attitude. boy changed instantly. But it didn’t change for the better. (P.25) Detail: Detail: Detail: Detail: Name _______________ Date________________ Class________________ 2. Stop and Jot When you stop during or after reading, take a few minutes to write your ideas as they relate to what you have just read. The following prompts may help you get started. Choose one to write about: I was surprised… I think… I hope… I wonder… I would… I didn’t realize… This reminds me of… I think it is important to remember… I can see… I’m not sure about… In the next part, I predict… Summary Choose one prompt to expand your thoughts about the newspaper article… Name _______________ Date________________ Class________________ As you read, you will write your personal response 3. Reader in your reading log. State your feelings, thoughts, Response reactions, and questions about situations, ideas, Journal actions, characters, settings, symbols, plots, themes, and any other elements in the story. You can't be wrong in your responses, so take risks and be honest. Write about what you like and dislike, what seems confusing or unusual to you. Tell what you think something means. Make predictions about what might happen later. Relate your personal experiences which connect with the plot, characters, or setting. Don't just summarize the plot. Additional Prompts for a reader Response Journal: What you liked or disliked and why What you wish had happened What you wish the author had included Your opinion of the characters Your opinion of the illustrations, table and figures What you felt as you read What you noticed when you read Questions you have after reading Summary Choose two Reader Response prompts to expand your thoughts about the newspaper article… Name _______________ Date________________ Class________________ Summing It Up is done after you read, but you must 4. complete a few BDA activities to make it work. Summing It Up Summing It Up can help you capture and remember what you have learned. Before: Select a purpose for reading by asking what “big questions” will be answered in the text. During: As you read the text, ask yourself questions. These questions help you set a purpose for reading (to find answers to your questions). After reading: Fill in the chart below. Topic: Detail Detail Detail Summary #5: An Idea Web is a graphic organizer that helps you develop thoughts about a particular subject. We are going to start our own Idea Web to help expand our idea of culture… Pierogies good food I am Russian-American Kielbasa #6: Anticipation Guides are used before and after you read a story… Anticipation guides help you determine whether or not your opinions or predictions change after you have read a story. Topic The Children of the River Before Reading Statements about the topic After Reading Agree Disagree Agree Disagree America has a duty to keep its doors open to the world. The only reason people immigrate to America is to earn more money for their family. It is fair for parents of immigrant children to make their sons or daughters keep their own national customs, culture and language rather than attempt to follow American customs, culture and language. Continued economic growth in America depends upon a liberal immigration policy. Immigrants broaden and enrich our sense of what it means to be an American. It is easier for children to adapt to a new culture than it is for adults. It is our responsibility to be aware of the cultural differences found in the diverse American population. #7: Get the Picture “There’s this one scraggly tree behind the little freak’s house, right? Like a stick in the ground with a few whimped- out branches. And there he is, hardly any bigger now than he was in day care, and he’s standing there waving his crutch up at the tree.” Excerpt from Freak the Mighty. Name _______________ Date________________ Class________________ Strategy = Get the Picture 7. When to use = During and After reading Get the Picture The Get the Picture strategy helps the reader visualize what he or she is reading. Visualization means to create a mental image or to picture something in your head as you read. The ability to create pictures in your mind will help lead you to a better understanding (comprehension) of a novel. 8. Word Wall Strategy = Word Wall When to use = Before, During and After reading The Word Wall strategy helps the reader understand unfamiliar vocabulary words as they are encountered within a novel. By understanding the various vocabulary words encountered within a novel, comprehension of the novel as a whole will increase. Strategy = The T-Chart 9. T-Chart When to use = Before, During, or After reading The T-Chart strategy helps the reader organize original thoughts about what he or she is reading. To create a T-Chart, you simply draw a big T on a sheet of paper. Your “big idea” should go at the top of the page. Big idea Wearing uniforms in school Your thoughts about the big idea Pros Cons Literary elements 10. Conflict is the fight or struggle that takes place Conflict during a novel. It creates plot. The conflicts we encounter can usually be identified as one of four kinds. Man versus Man Conflict that pits one person against another. Man versus Nature A run-in with the forces of nature. Man versus Society The values and customs by which everyone else lives are being challenged. Man versus Self Internal conflict. Not all conflict involves other people. Sometimes people are their own worst enemies. Often, more than one kind of conflict is taking place at the same time. In every case, however, the existence of conflict enhances the reader’s understanding of a character and creates the suspense and interest that make you want to continue reading. #11: Conflict Analysis Chart “Called me Kicker for a time – this was day care, the year Gram and Grim took me over – and I had a thing about booting anyone who dared to touch me. Because they were always trying to throw a hug on me, like it was a medicine I needed.” Excerpt from Freak the Mighty. Literary elements ELEMENTS OF PLOT 12. Plot All fiction is based on conflict and this conflict is presented in a structured format called PLOT. Exposition The introductory material which gives the setting, creates the tone, presents the characters, and presents other facts necessary to understanding the story. Foreshadowing The use of hints or clues to suggest what will happen later in the story. Inciting Force The event or character that triggers the conflict. Conflict The essence of fiction. It creates plot. The conflicts we encounter can usually be identified as one of four kinds. (Man versus…Man, Nature, Society, or Self) Rising Action A series of events that builds from the conflict. It begins with the inciting force and ends with the climax. Crisis The conflict reaches a turning point. At this point the opposing forces in the story meet and the conflict becomes most intense. The crisis occurs before or at the same time as the climax. Climax The climax is the result of the crisis. It is the high point of the story for the reader. Frequently, it is the moment of the highest interest and greatest emotion. The point at which the outcome of the conflict can be predicted. Falling Action The events after the climax which close the story. Resolution (Denouement) Rounds out and concludes the action. #13: This is the Witch’s Hat plot diagram… (because it looks like a witch's hat, that’s why…) Climax Rising Action Falling Action Exposition Conclusion •Beginning is where everything in the story starts (on a dark stormy night). •Rising Action is when things start to get interesting (the car runs out of gas on the side of the road). •The Climax is the most interesting part of the story (everyone in the car has to run for their life from an evil scarecrow). •Falling Action is when the story starts to wind down and we all know who-did-what-to-whoever (everyone escapes and ends-up on a bus ride home). •Conclusion is when everything is wrapped-up and we know it was old man Johnson in the scarecrow mask all along… C – Notes 14. Plot A Plot Relationship Chart looks like this: Relationship Chart Who Wanted But So Then The plot relationship chart helps you figure out the story’s plot. The plot relationship chart helps you keep track of important characters and events. Create a Plot Relationship Chart to help analyze the relationship between Max and the daycare “critters” from the early chapters of Freak the Mighty… Who Wanted But So Then Day care To hug Because of Maxwell Maxwell becomes kids Maxwell Maxwell’s began to even more of an family hit and outcast. He earns history, he kick all the the name “Kicker” shunned children because of the contact with and all the way he acts others. He workers at around other called the his people who are hugs “phony” daycare. trying to be nice or not real… to him. Literary elements Similarities are traits or characteristics we 15. Similarities share with someone else. and Differnces Differences are traits or characteristics that we do not share with someone else: Consider some of the following character traits and compare and contrast amongst your classmates: •Hair color •Sense of humor •Likes and dislikes •Gender •Ethnicity Note: In an upcoming exercise, we will begin to compare and contrast our character traits with those of our Novel’s main and supporting characters. We will also compare our individual descriptions of setting against setting as it is described in the novel. Literary elements Setting is when and where a story takes place. 16. Setting •If the time or place setting of the story changes, we should consider how those changes alter the outcome of the story. Setting can influence the entire novel and the readers' response to that novel . If the author describes the setting brilliantly , we can picture it without ever having been there . Magic occurs. Once we are in the midst of the setting , we are in the midst of the story. The setting may suggest: - The atmosphere or mood of the novel - Internal and external conflicts - Potential contrasts between characters or ideas Literary elements Theme is the writer’s main idea or message that he Theme or she is trying to convey to the reader. When you understand the story’s theme, you understand the underlying idea or message in the work. Finding the Theme Here are some ways to uncover the theme in a story: Check out the title. Sometimes it tells you a lot about the theme. Notice repeating patterns and symbols. Sometimes these lead you to the theme. What allusions are made throughout the story? What are the details and particulars in the story? What greater meaning may they have? Remember that theme, plot, and structure are inseparable, all helping to inform and reflect back on each other. Also, be aware that a theme we determine from a story never completely explains the story. It is simply one of the elements that make up the whole. In Freak the mighty, we are looking for examples Courage, Acceptance, and Individualism, all of which are themes within the novel. Children of the River by Linda Crew Ravy Jonathan Ravy and Jonathan are similar because they are both boys and they both like football. Ravy was born in Jonathan was Cambodia. born in America Ravy is related Jonathan knows to Sundara Sundara from school Fort Worth, TX ??? (remember that setting includes both when and where a story takes place) Literary elements Cause and Effect 17. Cause An event which happens first (known as the cause) produces a result (effect). and Basically, we are talking about what happens and why. Effect Michael, Phillip, Tina, Juan, Cynthia, and James all decided to squeeze into the rollercoaster seat designed to fit just three people. “what was the big deal?” though Juan. A few more friends would just make the ride that much more fun, right? The six friends cheered as the rollercoaster roared down the first large hill and into the sharp right-hand turn. Excitement quickly turned to terror as the rollercoaster began to sway and groan under the heavy burden of its thrill-seeking passengers. As the ride screamed through the turn, Cynthia found herself being crushed against the door. How much more could she take? The noise from the runaway coaster grew and grew until the sounds of splintering wood and twisting metal filled the air. Then, silence. For an instant, Cynthia and her five friends hung weightless in mid air. Perhaps they thought of their families. Maybe they thought of their friends. Or maybe, just maybe, they thought of the sign that read “3 Passengers Per Car”. Whichever thought went through their minds, it was their last. Cause Effect Literary elements Once we have studied conflict, character traits, 18. and plot development, we are ready to analyze the Character changes that take place within our main and Changes supporting characters. A character that undergoes some kind of important change is called a dynamic character. In Children of the River, Sundara Sovann is a dynamic character. Old character Change New character 13 year old Sundara is 17 year old Sundara a happy child living now lives in America. with her family in Her family has been Cambodia. She has a torn apart by war and boyfriend and loves to she worries about their spend time playing by safety. She works the river and listening constantly to save to music on the radio. money for her family. Literary elements On the page below, we will analyze the changes that take place within Jonathan McKinnon’s Character from Children of the River: Old character Change New character Literary elements Characterization is the act of creating and 19. developing a character. Characterization •A writer uses "direct characterization" when stating or describing a character's traits. •A writer uses "indirect characterization" when showing a character's personality through his or her actions, thoughts, feelings, words, and appearance, or through another character's observations and reactions. Example A: The man in the doorway was about 7 feet tall with broad shoulders and dark, curly hair. There was a tattoo of a dagger on his left forearm. I decided to walk the other way. Example B: As the cars pulled up to a stoplight, Charlie watched the woman frantically digging through her purse. She began throwing various items in the backseat of her car without so much as hesitating in her search. He could tell she was yelling and cursing the invisible passenger sitting next to her. Now, describe each character… Literary elements Inference: The act of combining information 20. you already know with new information you Inference have read. (Drawing Conclusions) Once you have combined this information you develop an educated guess that will help you answer a question correctly. Can you infer what the author of this cartoon is trying to tell us? Drawing Conclusions and Making Inferences After reading the following cartoon, can you infer what opinions the artist is attempting to express. Remember to include your reasoning (proof). Comic 1 Comic 3 Comic5 Comic 2 Comic 4 Literary elements Symbol. Something that on the surface is its literal 21. self but which also has another meaning or even Symbolism several meanings. For example, a sword may be a sword and also symbolize justice. A symbol may be said to embody an idea. There are two general types of symbols: universal symbols that embody universally recognizable meanings wherever used, such as light to symbolize knowledge, a skull to symbolize death, etc., and constructed symbols that are given symbolic meaning by the way an author uses them in a literary work, as the white whale becomes a symbol of evil in Moby Dick. Read the following excerpt from Chapter 19 and determine what symbolism is taking place. •What does the author use as a symbol? •What does it symbolize? With each shirt she folded, with each sweater, with every pair of jeans, she found herself saying goodbye. Over and over, the silent goodbyes echoed in her heart, a goodbye to each and every thing, because she had never gotten the chance to say it on that fateful morning in July. (Swallowing Stones, Pg. 193) Please respond in complete sentences: “In chapter 19, the author uses _____________ to symbolize __________ etc…” Name _______________ Date________________ Class________________ 1. The The Writing Process helps you create Writing interesting, well thought, and Process convincing papers. The process includes the following steps: Prewriting How do I get ideas in the first place? •magazines/newspapers/periodicals/CD-ROM •conduct an interview based on your topic •media - radio, tv, internet •experiences •film - movies and documentaries •music •visual art - observing or creating •dreams •memories •discussion and brainstorming •responding to literature •role playing •research •imagination •personal interest inventories •class interest inventory •other What ways can I prewrite? •free writing •journaling •image streaming (transplant yourself to another place or time and describe from a first person point of view) •lists •visualization •brainstorming - individually or as a group •webbing/mapping/clustering •graphic organizers •topic or word chart Writing WRITING. . . ROUGH DRAFT . . . ROUGH COPY Whatever you call it, it is still the same thing. Get a working copy of your paragraph or paper so that you have something to work with. WHEN GOING FROM PREWRITING TO WRITING 1. Be selective in the ideas that you include. You don't have to include everything that was in your prewriting! Pick your best ideas. Make sure they relate to each other and your topic. 2. WRITE! WRITE! WRITE! Don't stop once you start writing. Revising and editing come later. Just let the ideas flow. 3. Don't count words, ask your teacher how long it should be or when it is done. When YOU feel that you have completed your ideas, you are then ready to go to the next stage. 4. HOLD IT! Before going to the next stage, make sure you have enough content to work with. If you feel that you are lacking content, go back to your prewriting for more ideas and details.