Reading Notes Cornell Style

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Reading Notes Cornell Style Powered By Docstoc
					     Welcome to Your 5th
       Grade Reading

The “C” stands for “Cornell”, as in Cornell University,
   where this note taking system was developed…

  Created by T. Mynyk, 2005
       Let’s begin our
     Reading Strategies

In this first 6-weeks, we will discuss, understand, and
         apply the following reading strategies:
                    Reader Response
                       Stop & Jot
                     Summing It Up

                      But first...
                        Name _______________

1. The      The Reading Process helps you think
Reading     critically about a subject by
Process     separating the reading assignment into
            three different areas; things you do
            before you read, things you do during
            your reading, and things you do after
            you read.

               BEFORE             DURING              AFTER

             List everything                      Write a brief
                               Briefly note the
             you know about                       summary of all
                               new information
             a book or                            the things you
                               you are learning
             subject                              have learned
                               as you read.
             BEFORE you                           once you have
             begin to read.                       finished reading.

Explain how the BDA strategy can help you understand
the newspaper article?
    Great stories have a
                 Character Conflict
                    A struggle
                  between two or
                  more characters

             Character vs. Character

Character         Character           Character
vs. Nature       vs. Society           vs. Self
              #11: Conflict Analysis Chart
 Type of                 Side 1                     Side 2
               Mark Chelmsley             Mr. Maxwell
Man vs. Man

               Detail:                    Detail:
               The boy didn’t pay         When Mrs. Stearns told
               attention, didn’t even     Mr. Maxwell the news, his
               pretend to. This one had   attitude toward this new
               a bad attitude.            boy changed instantly. But
                                          it didn’t change for the
                                          better. (P.25)

               Detail:                    Detail:

               Detail:                    Detail:
                            Name _______________

2. Stop and Jot   When you stop during or after reading,
                  take a few minutes to write your ideas as
                  they relate to what you have just read.

                  The following
                  prompts may help you get started.

                  Choose one to write about:
                  I was surprised…
                  I think…
                  I hope…
                  I wonder…
                  I would…
                  I didn’t realize…
                  This reminds me of…
                  I think it is important to remember…
                  I can see…
                  I’m not sure about…
                  In the next part, I predict…

  Choose one prompt to expand your thoughts about the
  newspaper article…
                          Name _______________

            As you read, you will write your personal response
3. Reader   in your reading log. State your feelings, thoughts,
Response    reactions, and questions about situations, ideas,
Journal     actions, characters, settings, symbols, plots,
            themes, and any other elements in the story. You
            can't be wrong in your responses, so take risks and
            be honest. Write about what you like and dislike,
            what seems confusing or unusual to you. Tell what
            you think something means. Make predictions about
            what might happen later. Relate your personal
            experiences which connect with the plot,
            characters, or setting. Don't just summarize the

            Additional Prompts for a reader Response Journal:

            What you liked or disliked and why
            What you wish had happened
            What you wish the author had included
            Your opinion of the characters
            Your opinion of the illustrations, table and figures
            What you felt as you read
            What you noticed when you read
            Questions you have after reading

 Choose two Reader Response prompts to expand your
 thoughts about the newspaper article…
                             Name _______________

          Summing It Up is done after you read, but you must
4.        complete a few BDA activities to make it work.
It Up     Summing It Up can help you capture and remember
          what you have learned.
          Before: Select a purpose for reading by asking what
          “big questions” will be answered in the text.
          During: As you read the text, ask yourself
          questions. These questions help you set a purpose
          for reading (to find answers to your questions).
          After reading: Fill in the chart below.

                   Detail             Detail        Detail

 #5: An Idea Web is a graphic
organizer that helps you develop
   thoughts about a particular
  We are going to start our own
Idea Web to help expand our idea
          of culture…

                good food

               I am
         Russian-American   Kielbasa
   #6: Anticipation Guides are used before and
             after you read a story…
    Anticipation guides help you determine whether or not your
    opinions or predictions change after you have read a story.

Topic                        The Children of the River
 Before Reading        Statements about the topic            After Reading
 Agree   Disagree                                           Agree   Disagree

                    America has a duty to keep its
                        doors open to the world.

                    The only reason people immigrate
                        to America is to earn more
                        money for their family.

                    It is fair for parents of immigrant
                           children to make their sons
                           or daughters keep their own
                           national customs, culture and
                           language rather than attempt
                           to follow American customs,
                           culture and language.
                    Continued economic growth in
                         America depends upon a
                         liberal immigration policy.
                    Immigrants broaden and enrich
                        our sense of what it means to
                        be an American.
                    It is easier for children to adapt to
                           a new culture than it is for
                    It is our responsibility to be aware
                           of the cultural differences
                           found in the diverse
                           American population.
          #7: Get the Picture

“There’s this one scraggly tree behind
the little freak’s house, right? Like a
stick in the ground with a few whimped-
out branches. And there he is, hardly
any bigger now than he was in day care,
and he’s standing there waving his crutch
up at the tree.”

                            Excerpt from Freak the Mighty.
                           Name _______________

            Strategy = Get the Picture
            When to use = During and After reading
 Get the
            The Get the Picture strategy helps the reader visualize
            what he or she is reading.

            Visualization means to create a mental image or to
            picture something in your head as you read. The
            ability to create pictures in your mind will help lead you
            to a better understanding (comprehension) of a novel.

Word Wall   Strategy = Word Wall
            When to use = Before, During and After reading

            The Word Wall strategy helps the reader understand
            unfamiliar vocabulary words as they are encountered
            within a novel.

            By understanding the various vocabulary words
            encountered within a novel, comprehension of the
            novel as a whole will increase.
             Strategy = The T-Chart
9. T-Chart
             When to use = Before, During, or After reading

             The T-Chart strategy helps the reader organize
             original thoughts about what he or she is reading.

             To create a T-Chart, you simply draw a big T on a
             sheet of paper. Your “big idea” should go at the
             top of the page.
              Big idea
                           Wearing uniforms in school
 Your thoughts
 about the big idea      Pros                    Cons
                              Literary elements

10.        Conflict is the fight or struggle that takes place
Conflict   during a novel. It creates plot. The conflicts we
           encounter can usually be identified as one of four
           Man versus Man
           Conflict that pits one person against another.
           Man versus Nature
           A run-in with the forces of nature.
           Man versus Society
           The values and customs by which everyone else lives are
           being challenged.
           Man versus Self
           Internal conflict. Not all conflict involves other people.
           Sometimes people are their own worst enemies.

           Often, more than one kind of conflict is taking place at
           the same time. In every case, however, the existence of
           conflict enhances the reader’s understanding of a
           character and creates the suspense and interest that
           make you want to continue reading.
      #11: Conflict Analysis Chart

“Called me Kicker for a time – this was day
care, the year Gram and Grim took me over
– and I had a thing about booting anyone
who dared to touch me. Because they were
always trying to throw a hug on me, like it
was a medicine I needed.”

                               Excerpt from Freak the Mighty.
                                 Literary elements

12. Plot
           All fiction is based on conflict and this conflict is presented in a
           structured format called PLOT.

           The introductory material which gives the setting, creates the tone,
           presents the characters, and presents other facts necessary to
           understanding the story.

           The use of hints or clues to suggest what will happen later in the

           Inciting Force
           The event or character that triggers the conflict.

           The essence of fiction. It creates plot. The conflicts we encounter can
           usually be identified as one of four kinds. (Man versus…Man, Nature,
           Society, or Self)

           Rising Action
           A series of events that builds from the conflict. It begins with the
           inciting force and ends with the climax.

           The conflict reaches a turning point. At this point the opposing forces
           in the story meet and the conflict becomes most intense. The crisis
           occurs before or at the same time as the climax.

           The climax is the result of the crisis. It is the high point of the story
           for the reader. Frequently, it is the moment of the highest interest
           and greatest emotion. The point at which the outcome of the conflict
           can be predicted.

           Falling Action
           The events after the climax which close the story.

           Resolution (Denouement)
           Rounds out and concludes the action.
 #13: This is the Witch’s Hat plot diagram…
         (because it looks like a witch's hat, that’s why…)


        Rising Action                           Falling Action

 Exposition                                             Conclusion

•Beginning is where everything in the story starts (on a dark
stormy night).
•Rising Action is when things start to get interesting (the car
runs out of gas on the side of the road).
•The Climax is the most interesting part of the story (everyone in
the car has to run for their life from an evil scarecrow).
•Falling Action is when the story starts to wind down and we all
know who-did-what-to-whoever (everyone escapes and ends-up on
a bus ride home).
•Conclusion is when everything is wrapped-up and we know it was
old man Johnson in the scarecrow mask all along…
                      C – Notes
14. Plot              A Plot Relationship Chart looks like this:
Chart                  Who     Wanted        But       So       Then

                        The plot relationship chart
                        helps you figure out the
                        story’s plot.
                        The plot relationship chart
                        helps you keep track of
                        important characters and

Create a Plot Relationship Chart to help analyze the
relationship between Max and the daycare “critters”
from the early chapters of Freak the Mighty…
   Who      Wanted             But          So                Then
 Day care   To hug        Because of     Maxwell       Maxwell becomes
   kids     Maxwell        Maxwell’s     began to       even more of an
                             family       hit and      outcast. He earns
                          history, he   kick all the   the name “Kicker”
                            shunned      children        because of the
                         contact with   and all the        way he acts
                          others. He    workers at        around other
                           called the       his          people who are
                         hugs “phony”    daycare.       trying to be nice
                         or not real…                        to him.
                             Literary elements

                   Similarities are traits or characteristics we
15. Similarities
                   share with someone else.
and Differnces
                   Differences are traits or characteristics
                   that we do not share with someone else:
                   Consider some of the following character
                   traits and compare and contrast amongst
                   your classmates:
                   •Hair color
                   •Sense of humor
                   •Likes and dislikes

                   In an upcoming exercise, we will begin to
                   compare and contrast our character traits
                   with those of our Novel’s main and
                   supporting characters.
                   We will also compare our individual
                   descriptions of setting against setting as it
                   is described in the novel.
                           Literary elements

          Setting is when and where a story takes place.
Setting   •If the time or place setting of the story changes,
          we should consider how those changes alter the
          outcome of the story.
          Setting can influence the entire novel and the
          readers' response to that novel . If the author
          describes the setting brilliantly , we can picture it
          without ever having been there . Magic occurs. Once
          we are in the midst of the setting , we are in the
          midst of the story.

          The setting may suggest:
          - The atmosphere or mood of the novel
          - Internal and external conflicts
          - Potential contrasts between characters or ideas
                          Literary elements

        Theme is the writer’s main idea or message that he
        or she is trying to convey to the reader.
        When you understand the story’s theme, you
        understand the underlying idea or message in the
        Finding the Theme
        Here are some ways to uncover the theme in a story:
        Check out the title. Sometimes it tells you a lot about
        the theme.
        Notice repeating patterns and symbols. Sometimes these
        lead you to the theme.
        What allusions are made throughout the story?
        What are the details and particulars in the story? What
        greater meaning may they have?
        Remember that theme, plot, and structure are
        inseparable, all helping to inform and reflect back on
        each other. Also, be aware that a theme we determine
        from a story never completely explains the story. It is
        simply one of the elements that make up the whole.
        In Freak the mighty, we are looking for examples
        Courage, Acceptance, and Individualism, all of which are
        themes within the novel.
      Children of the River by Linda Crew

      Ravy                   Jonathan

  Ravy and Jonathan are similar because
  they are both boys and they both like

Ravy was born in              Jonathan was
Cambodia.                     born in America
Ravy is related               Jonathan knows
to Sundara                    Sundara from
Fort Worth, TX                ???

   (remember that setting includes both
   when and where a story takes place)
                            Literary elements

         Cause and Effect
Cause    An event which happens first (known as the cause)
         produces a result (effect).
         Basically, we are talking about what happens and why.
         Michael, Phillip, Tina, Juan, Cynthia, and James all
         decided to squeeze into the rollercoaster seat designed
         to fit just three people. “what was the big deal?” though
         Juan. A few more friends would just make the ride that
         much more fun, right? The six friends cheered as the
         rollercoaster roared down the first large hill and into
         the sharp right-hand turn.
         Excitement quickly turned to terror as the rollercoaster
         began to sway and groan under the heavy burden of its
         thrill-seeking passengers. As the ride screamed through
         the turn, Cynthia found herself being crushed against
         the door. How much more could she take?
         The noise from the runaway coaster grew and grew until
         the sounds of splintering wood and twisting metal filled
         the air. Then, silence. For an instant, Cynthia and her
         five friends hung weightless in mid air. Perhaps they
         thought of their families. Maybe they thought of their
         friends. Or maybe, just maybe, they thought of the sign
         that read “3 Passengers Per Car”.
         Whichever thought went through their minds, it was
         their last.

                 Cause                           Effect
                            Literary elements

            Once we have studied conflict, character traits,
            and plot development, we are ready to analyze the
Character   changes that take place within our main and
Changes     supporting characters.

            A character that undergoes some kind of
            important change is called a dynamic character.
            In Children of the River, Sundara Sovann is a
            dynamic character.

            Old character
                                      Change        New character
            13 year old Sundara is              17 year old Sundara
             a happy child living               now lives in America.
              with her family in                Her family has been
            Cambodia. She has a                torn apart by war and
            boyfriend and loves to             she worries about their
            spend time playing by                safety. She works
            the river and listening              constantly to save
            to music on the radio.              money for her family.
                    Literary elements

On the page below, we will analyze the changes that take
place within Jonathan McKinnon’s Character from Children of
the River:

    Old character         Change          New character
                           Literary elements

                    Characterization is the act of creating and
                    developing a character.
                    •A writer uses "direct characterization"
                    when stating or describing a character's
                    •A writer uses "indirect characterization"
                    when showing a character's personality
                    through his or her actions, thoughts,
                    feelings, words, and appearance, or through
                    another character's observations and

                   Example A:
                   The man in the doorway was about 7 feet
                   tall with broad shoulders and dark, curly
                   hair. There was a tattoo of a dagger on
                   his left forearm. I decided to walk the
                   other way.

                   Example B:
                   As the cars pulled up to a stoplight,
                   Charlie watched the woman frantically
                   digging through her purse. She began
                   throwing various items in the backseat of
                   her car without so much as hesitating in
                   her search. He could tell she was yelling
                   and cursing the invisible passenger sitting
                   next to her.

                   Now, describe each character…
                              Literary elements

                        Inference: The act of combining information
                        you already know with new information you
Inference               have read.
(Drawing Conclusions)   Once you have combined this information
                        you develop an educated guess that will help
                        you answer a question correctly.

             Can you infer what the author of this
             cartoon is trying to tell us?
   Drawing Conclusions and Making Inferences

After reading the following cartoon, can you infer what
opinions the artist is attempting to express. Remember to
include your reasoning (proof).

   Comic 1         Comic 3     Comic5

  Comic 2        Comic 4
                            Literary elements

              Symbol. Something that on the surface is its literal
              self but which also has another meaning or even
Symbolism     several meanings.
              For example, a sword may be a sword and also
              symbolize justice.
              A symbol may be said to embody an idea. There are
              two general types of symbols: universal symbols that
              embody universally recognizable meanings wherever
              used, such as light to symbolize knowledge, a skull to
              symbolize death, etc., and constructed symbols that
              are given symbolic meaning by the way an author uses
              them in a literary work, as the white whale becomes a
              symbol of evil in Moby Dick.

 Read the following excerpt from Chapter 19 and determine what
 symbolism is taking place.
 •What does the author use as a symbol?
 •What does it symbolize?

 With each shirt she folded, with each sweater, with every pair of
 jeans, she found herself saying goodbye. Over and over, the
 silent goodbyes echoed in her heart, a goodbye to each and every
 thing, because she had never gotten the chance to say it on that
 fateful morning in July.
 (Swallowing Stones, Pg. 193)

 Please respond in complete sentences:
 “In chapter 19, the author uses _____________ to symbolize
 __________ etc…”
                  Name _______________

1. The    The Writing Process helps you create
Writing   interesting, well thought, and
Process   convincing papers. The process
          includes the following steps:
Prewriting   How do I get ideas in the first place?
             •conduct an interview based on your topic
             •media - radio, tv, internet
             •film - movies and documentaries
             •visual art - observing or creating
             •discussion and brainstorming
             •responding to literature
             •role playing
             •personal interest inventories
             •class interest inventory

              What ways can I prewrite?
             •free writing
             •image streaming (transplant yourself
             to another place or time and describe
             from a first person point of view)
             •brainstorming - individually or as a group
             •graphic organizers
             •topic or word chart

           Whatever you call it, it is still the same
           thing. Get a working copy of your paragraph
           or paper so that you have something to work

           1. Be selective in the ideas
              that you include. You don't have to include
              everything that was in your prewriting! Pick
              your best ideas.
              Make sure they relate to each other and
              your topic.

           2.   WRITE! WRITE! WRITE!
                Don't stop once you start writing. Revising
                and editing
                come later. Just let the ideas flow.

           3.   Don't count words, ask your teacher how
                long it should be or when
                it is done. When YOU feel that you have
                completed your ideas,
                you are then ready to go to the next stage.

           4.   HOLD IT! Before going to the next stage,
                make sure you have
                enough content to work with. If you feel
                that you are lacking content,
                go back to your prewriting for more ideas
                and details.