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CULTURE_ CONFLICT_ AND CHANGE

VIEWS: 16 PAGES: 172

  • pg 1
									CULTURE, CONFLICT, AND
CHANGE




  CHAPTER 6
 CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE



 There are two important factors that
  have contributed to the ethnic
  conflicts of Sub-Saharan Africa.
   The cultural values that existed in pre-
    colonial Africa, and,
   The infiltration of European culture.




                                               2
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE



 Almost every major problem in Sub-
  Saharan Africa, be it war, ethnic
  conflicts, land disputes, breakdown in
  the family, bribery and corruption in
  government, can be traced back to
  these two factors.
 Cultural Geographers do study culture
  as it relates to physical and human
  landscapes.
                                      3
 CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE


 They also look at the spatial
  variations that come as a result of
  human behavior and activity.
 In studying people’s cultures, there
  are certain aspects that are
  evaluated.
 The people’s ways of life i.e. how they
  dress (the clothes they wear).
 Their meals (what do they eat?)
                                        4
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE


 Their customary habits
 Their beliefs (what kind of gods they belief
  in and worship)
 Their speech patterns and value systems.
 Geographers also examine how these
  cultural traits manifest themselves in the
  physical landscape.
 An example is how homes are arranged in a
  traditional family compound.

                                            5
6
7
8
9
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE



 These traits could be inherent in a
  patrilineal or matrilineal nature.
 Patrilineal is tracing ones descent
  through the paternal or father side of
  your family.




                                       10
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE


 Matrilineal – tracing once descent
  through the maternal or mother
  side of the family.
 Another important aspect of culture
  is the spatial patterns of crops
  produced.



                                    11
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE


 This cannot be explained solely by
  climate, but could be based on food
  preferences, taboos (based on
  religious beliefs) that in turn affect
  farming practices.
 All of these factors influence crop
  production or the choice of the crops
  to be produced.
                                       12
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE

 Farming practices are influenced by a
  number of factors as well.
 The system of land ownership
 Land tenure which are accepted
  arrangements regarding land
  acquisition and use.
 All of these activities leave an imprint
  on the landscape.
                                        13
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE


 Such an imprint is exploited by
  archeologists at some future date to
  learn how the people in that local
  lived at one point.
 In most patrilineal and matrilineal
  societies the landscape always often
  portrays the impact of cumulative
  successive occupation.
                                     14
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE


 How your g, g, g, grandfather lived to
  how you live today and your children in
  the future.
 In cultural geography this successive
  occupation of a piece of land is known as
  Sequent Occupant.
 In a broader sense Sequent Occupant
  refers to a succession of stages in the
  human occupancy of an area.
                                         15
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE


 As a result, the cultural landscape
  would include and not limited to:
 Sounds, smells, attitudes and tastes
  and all the visual elements that
  reflect that culture.
 Matrilineal and Patrilineal societies
  operate in an interesting way.

                                      16
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE


 In a matrilineal society people trace
  their family tree through their
  mother’s side of the family.
 In such a society FAMILY inheritance
  is by one’s sisters son.
 The reason for this is to let the
  family wealth remain within the
  family blood line. (Explain).

                                      17
                MATRILINEAL INHERITANCE



   FAMILY B                  FAMILY A                FAMILY C




  SON      DAUGHTER       SON       DAUGHTER       SON      DAUGHTER
HUSBAND      WIFE       HUSBAND       WIFE       HUSBAND      WIFE



                                               CHILDREN
          CHILDREN



   SON                DAUGHTER           SON               DAUGHTER
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE

 Cultural Geographers sometimes
  incorporate the term cultural
  integration into their analysis.
 They try to identify the functional
  relationships that exist between
  cultural traits.



                                        19
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE

 For example - relationship between
  land ownership and an ancestral
  spirit.
 The believe in ancestral spirits is
  common in African beliefs.
 The people believe that ancestral
  spirits are capable of giving you a
  healthy harvest and it can curse you
  if your activities are unacceptable to
  the spirits.
                                           20
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE

 So cultural geographers do not ignore
  these kinds of relationships.
 In cultural geography there is what is
  known as a cultural region or culture
  area.
 Cultural region is a unit of geographic
  space occupied by people with one or
  more common cultural traits.


                                        21
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE

 In countries like the DRC (Zaire),
  Zambia and Mozambique, these
  culture regions are defined based on
  multiple related traits such as
  religion, language and social
  organization.
 Cultures do not exist in isolation.


                                         22
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE

  They interact with other cultures and
   the physical environment.
  Those geographers who study such
   interrelationships are known as
   cultural ecologists.
  What are resources?
  Resources are naturally occurring
   substances in the natural
   environment.
                                      23
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE

 Natural resources are culturally
  appraised.
 This means that each culture
  evaluates natural resources
  differently.
 What one culture might think of as a
  natural resource might not be
  considered a resource by another
  culture.
                                     24
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE

 Example:
 Green Grasshoppers are a delicacy in
  some African tribes.
 However, in some countries
  Grasshoppers can be a nuisance.
 ln Taiwan dogs are a delicacy, but in
  the United States, dogs are man’s
  best friend.

                                      25
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE

 Taiwan/USA/INDIA – COWS AND
  DOGS.
 The relationship between cultures and
  the physical environment has been a
  topic of intense research.
 Some geographers believe that the
  physical environment – climate and
  terrain to be specific determines
  cultural development.
                                     26
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE

 It is also assumed that culture is the
  product of the natural environment
  and that similar environmental
  circumstances will produce similar
  cultures.
 This view point is known as
  Environmental Determinism which
  has been used as basis for explaining
  underdevelopment in Africa.
                                       27
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE

 It has been said that the inhibition of
  technological advancement in Africa
  is as a result of warm climates,
  abundant wildlife and naturally
  occurring foods.
 Alternatively, the extreme of climates
  in North America and other high
  latitude areas has led to technological
  advancement.
                                        28
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE

 In contrast to Environmental
  Determinism is Possibilism.
 Possibilism proposes that humans not
  the physical environment are primary
  determinants of cultural development.
 So culture changes might result from
  the improvement in technology or
  through interaction with other cultures.

                                       29
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE

 Cultural Diffusion:
 This is the spread or the movement
  of a phenomena or innovation over
  space and through time.
 The diffusion of culture in Africa can
  be placed in three categories
  generally known as the Triple
  Heritage – Traditional African,
  Muslim, and European Influence.
                                           30
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE

 Cultural Hearths:
 These are source areas of innovations
  of a culture – Origin of a culture.
 Most areas in history where
  civilization started are cultural
  hearths.
 Examples: Nile valley, Tigris and
  Euphrates, Indus river valley, Huang
  He.
                                      31
 CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE

 In Africa we mentioned the diffusion of
  innovation from the ancient Kingdoms of
  the Kush, Nubia, Axum to the Medieval
  Kingdoms of the Savanna regions.
 The principal religions of Islam and
  Christianity spread throughout Africa
  through the process of diffusion from
  their hearths in the Middle East or Europe
  to their present location.
                                         32
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE

 Expansion or Expansive Diffusion:
 This is the process of transferring
  innovation from one place to another
  in the same neighboring location or
  decision points.
 In expansion diffusion the
  phenomena being diffused remains
  and the number of people using such
  a phenomena increases.
                                     33
EXPANSION LOCATION




      Language
       Hearth




                     34
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE

 There are two forms of expansion
  diffusion.
 Contagious which is an innovation
  that occurs as a result of personal
  contact.
 The spread of a contagious disease is
  a good example.
 AIDS/SARS is a good example of
  contagious diffusion.
                                      35
CONTAGIOUS EXPANSION
CONTAGIOUS EXPANSION
CONTAGIOUS EXPANSION
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE


 Relocation Diffusion:
 This is similar to expansion diffusion
  but the original location is evacuated
  as the innovation moves or relocates
  to new locations.
 The Bantu migrations and language
  innovations are good examples of
  relocation diffusion.
                                       39
RELOCATION DIFFUSION
RELOCATION DIFFUSION
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE

 Hierarchical Diffusion:
 Involves the diffusion of information
  in a hierarchical manner either
  upward or downward – Corporate
  gossips (Layoffs).
 The acceptance of an innovation
  decreases, in some cases with
  distance from the source area
  (Hearth).
                                          42
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE

 The areas located close to the hearth
  usually accept the innovation earlier
  and more thoroughly than distant
  areas (distance decay).
 As a result, time and distance impacts
  diffusion.



                                      43
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE

 This is known as the “Time Distance
  Decay”.
 The diffusion of Islam in Sub-Saharan
  Africa is a good example as the
  impact decreases with distance from
  the hearth area (Middle East).



                                      44
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE

 Obstacles to Cultural Diffusion:
 Cultural diffusion process can be
  inhibited or even retarded by
  Diffusion Barriers.
 Contemporary means of
  communications have eliminated
  some of these barriers.


                                      45
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE

  Distance and Space is now being
   talked of in terms of time which has
   minimized diffusion barriers.
  This is now known as Time Space
   Convergence.
  In the past, barriers to diffusion
   were created by the physical
   landscapes, mountains, oceans,
   rivers and valleys.
                                      46
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE

 Even with the innovation in
  communication – Air travel, water
  travel, internet, telephone, there are
  still certain places on our planet that
  are completely isolated from the
  outside world.
 The Khoisans and the Pygmies of the
  Congo Basin and the Bushmen of the
  Kalahari are examples.
                                        47
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE

 Political institutions have also in a
  way hindered cultural diffusion and
  advancement.
 The previous Apartheid regime in
  South Africa had a detrimental effect
  on the majority of blacks in south
  Africa.
 They were isolated and placed in
  homelands.

                                          48
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE

 In Africa today cultures are blending
  with certain aspects of African
  Customs and Traditions.
 A complete assimilation or
  acculturation is absent.




                                          49
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE

 In many parts of Africa, Pidgin
  English – An African Lingua Franca -
  is a blend of English and African local
  languages.
 African dance forms and instruments
  have been modified to include African
  as well as western.


                                        50
ELEMENTS OF AFRICAN
CULTURE
Elements of African Culture
 Elements of African Culture:
 It has been difficult to identify
  an authentic African culture
  because of the diffusion of
  European and Middle Eastern
  cultures.


                                      52
  Elements of African Culture

 There is wide disparity in
  African Culture despite cultural
  unity in the aspects of ethnic
  linguistic and religious
  activities.



                                     53
 Elements of African Culture
 An example is how Africans
  view their relationship with
  nature as opposed to some
  parts of the world.
 Africans believe that spiritual
  forces do manifest themselves
  everywhere in the environment.

                                54
Elements of African Culture
 Major elements of the physical
  environment such as mountains,
  lakes rocks or rivers are associated
  with gods and spirits (Pantheism).
 Pantheism is a doctrine that equates
  god with forces of the universe.



                                         55
Elements of African Culture
 Sometimes misfortune or good
  fortune is associated with the wrath
  or generosity of these gods.
 In the African society the religious
  landscape is varied.
 The landscape is punctuated with
  shrines where traditional religious
  worship take place.

                                         56
Elements of African Culture
 There are also Christian Churches and
  Mosques.
 The oldest religion in Sub-Saharan
  Africa is Christianity where it existed
  in Ethiopia around the 4th Century
  A.D. After the baptism of the
  Ethiopian Eunuch by Phillip (See Acts
  8:27)

                                       57
Elements of African Culture
 Christianity has flourished in Ethiopia
  in the form of the Coptic Church.
 The Coptic church served as a
  diffusion barrier to the spread of
  Islam
 to the south.
 Islam came to Africa after the death
  of Mohammad in 632 AD.

                                        58
Elements of African Culture
 Christianity in Africa is associated
  with Colonialism.
 The Europeans on arrival in Africa
  educated the people in the 3Gs.
 Gold, God and Glory but their main
  emphasis was on God.



                                         59
Elements of African Culture
 God was for the natives, Gold for the
  Europeans, and all of this done for
  the Greater Glory of Europe – The
  Crown.
 Christianity in Africa is made up of
  many different denominations.
 Sometimes some of the
  denominations crash with each other.

                                      60
Elements of African Culture
 In Africa religious organizations
  include – Catholics, Protestants such
  as Methodists, Presbyterians, Baptists
  Seventh Day Adventist, Pentecostal
  and a large amount of independent
  churches.
 The way the churches are built
  resemble or mimic European style
  architecture.
                                       61
Elements of African Culture
 Characteristics of these churches are
  the Phallic symbols that characterizes
  – Male Domination.
 These models are in concrete or
  gothic.
 Church decorations have been
  Africanized as well as ways of
  worship.

                                       62
PHALLIC SYMBOL




                 63
OUR NATION’S PHALLIC
      SYMBOL
PHALLIC SYMBOL
Mare’s Favorite ride




                       67
68
Elements of African Culture
 In Cameroon and Uganda carvings
  have been substituted for church
  decorations.
 During service there is a great deal of
  drumming and dancing.
 In Catholic churches, church bells
  have been substituted with drums.


                                        69
Elements of African Culture
 Independent churches are different in
  that they are a fusion of more than
  one form of worship (syncretistic) – a
  combination of different forms of
  beliefs.
 Some of these independent churches
  permit polygamy, most of them use
  the bible and teach the Christian
  doctrine.
                                       70
Elements of African Culture
 Many are founded around a prophetic
  figure (somebody they belief was a
  prophet or is a prophet).
 Many of these independent churches
  stress faith healing and baptism by
  immersion.



                                    71
RELIGIONS
Religions in Sub-Saharan Africa
 Islam:
 A dominant religion in northern Africa
  and located to the northern sections
  of most West African Nations.
 Islam has diffused to many large
  cities and towns in Sub-Saharan
  Africa.


                                       73
Religions in Sub-Saharan Africa
 Evidence of this religion is spread
  over the landscape in the form of
  mosques and minarets.
 A minaret is a small slender tower
  which is attached to a mosque.
 A minaret resembles a Phallic
  Symbol.


                                        74
A MOSQUE IN DJENNE MALI WEST AFRICA




                                      75
MINARET
IN IRAQ




     76
GIRALDA TOWER   KUTUBIYYAA
                MINARET




                             77
Minaret and Fountain of IbnTulun Mosque - Egypt




                                            78
Religions in Sub-Saharan Africa
 In most of Africa, the type of Muslim
  religion is Sunni and the Koran is
  used as the only truthful word of
  Allah (God).
 Traditional African Religions:
 Very common in both large cities and
  towns and villages throughout Sub-
  Saharan Africa.

                                      79
Religions in Sub-Saharan Africa
 In African Traditional religions, deities
  and Ancestral spirits are honored in
  Sacrificial Ceremonies.
 Most of the worshiping occurs in
  Shrines where it is believed that the
  deities or ancestral spirits exist.



                                          80
Religions in Sub-Saharan Africa
 (Things Fall Apart – Chinua Achebe).
 These spirits and ancestors are
  represented by carvings such as
  stools or animals or human figures or
  sculptures.
 These goods are placed in some kind
  of hierarchy from the highest to the
  lowest and are termed (Spiritual
  Beings).

                                      81
Religions in Sub-Saharan Africa
 A prominent activity with such a
  religion is Divination and fortune
  telling.
 Priest in such religious settings do
  expose those who are actively
  involved in witchcraft.



                                         82
Religions in Sub-Saharan Africa
 They also claim to have powers
  to protect people from being
  cursed by witches and wizards
  and can cure people who have
  been bewitched.



                                   83
Religions in Sub-Saharan Africa
 The activities of witches have
  been characterized as having
  the capability of leaving their
  bodies under the cover of
  darkness to inflict pain and
  suffering on their victims.


                                    84
Religions in Sub-Saharan Africa
 This might lead to sickness and
  eventual death.
 Most activities of these Sorcerers
  are to invoke the spirits to neutralize
  the impact of witchcraft on their
  victims.



                                       85
KINSHIP
KINSHIP
 An African family consist of a
  husband, wife or wives and
  Children.
 The family goal is to work
  together in the maintenance of
  the household.
 This can be termed an economic
  unit and it is the simplest form
  of the African Family.
                                 87
KINSHIP
 Quite frequently the family includes
  several other members usually
  called the (Extended Family).
 All of these family members have
  ties to the main family.
 So kinship in its simplest terms in
  sub-Saharan Africa relates to family
  ties or relations both dead and alive.

                                       88
KINSHIP
As if the simple family form
 is not complicated enough,
 there is the bilateral kinship
 system.
In this system, family
 descent is traced through
 both the mother and father
 side of the family.              89
KINSHIP
 In a unilineal system, family
  lines are traced through either
  mother or father side of the
  family.




                                    90
KINSHIP
 In north America, the bilateral
  system is used to trace family
  ties.
 In Africa, the unilineal system is
  common in which kinship is
  either traced through the line of
  male parent (Patriliny) or female
  parent (Matriliny).
                                  91
KINSHIP
 In a patrilineal society lines of
  descent and authority are linked to
  husband or father.
 The wife is gradually incorporated
  into her husbands descent group.
 Examples are the Masai and Kikuyu
  in Kenya, Yoruba in Nigeria and
  Ganda of Uganda.

                                        92
KINSHIP

 In such a case wife and husband
  become like brother and sister.
 Matriliny or matrilineal relationship
  which is descent through mother side
  is also common.
 In matrilineal societies the link to
  father side of the family is secondary
  and inheritance through the father
  side is secondary as well.
                                      93
                MATRILINEAL INHERITANCE



   FAMILY B                  FAMILY A                FAMILY C




  SON      DAUGHTER       SON       DAUGHTER       SON      DAUGHTER
HUSBAND      WIFE       HUSBAND       WIFE       HUSBAND      WIFE



                                               CHILDREN
          CHILDREN



   SON                DAUGHTER           SON               DAUGHTER
                PATRILINEAL INHERITANCE



   FAMILY B                  FAMILY A                FAMILY C




  SON      DAUGHTER       SON       DAUGHTER       SON      DAUGHTER
HUSBAND      WIFE       HUSBAND       WIFE       HUSBAND      WIFE



                                               CHILDREN
          CHILDREN



     SON              DAUGHTER           SON               DAUGHTER


                                                                95
KINSHIP
 In addition to the types of kinship
  already mentioned is Patrilocality and
  Matrilocality.
 After marriage a woman leaves her
  home and family to live NEAR her
  husband’s family.
 This is called Patrilocality.


                                       96
KINSHIP
 In Matrilocality, it is the husband
  that moves, his wife still living with
  her relatives.
 The groom leaves his family to live
  with or near the wife’s matrikin.




                                           97
KINSHIP
 After several years of the husband
  living and providing for his wife and
  children he may request permission
  to move to his maternal uncle’s
  village to establish residency there.
 The practice is known as
  “Avunculocality”.


                                          98
                  AVUNCOLOCALITY


Before Marriage
Husband of wife

                                   Maternal Uncle’s
                                      Location
KINSHIP
 As mentioned earlier, Marriage in
  Africa is not only a union between a
  man and a woman or women
  (Husband and Wife/wives) but a
  Union of two extended families.
 Marriage becomes a contract which
  calls for the transfer of goods or
  money or both.

                                         100
KINSHIP
 This transfer in most cases is from
  the bridegrooms family to the brides.
 This is contrary to western beliefs
  that women are sold.
 This transfer of wealth is a
  recompense to the bride’s family for
  the loss of the services of their
  daughter.

                                      101
KINSHIP
 It could also be a validation of the
  legality of the marriage or a gift to
  seal this contract.
 It could also be a goodwill gesture
  on behalf of the bridegrooms family
  to the bride’s family for their ability
  to bringing up his bride.


                                        102
 KINSHIP
 In some cases, if the amount is not
  satisfactory to the bride and her family,
  the bride might give her husband-to-be
  a hard time.
 The bride’s price/wealth as it is called
  could assumes various forms.
 Firewood, Palm Wine, Cattle and Sheep
  or goats, Some money, food stuff etc.
  or all of the above.

                                        103
KINSHIP
 Dowry is usually paid by the bride’s
  family to the family of the
  bridegroom.
 The price differs with the various
  cultures and wealth.
 It varies from very little to very
  expensive depending on how wealthy
  the girls family is. (India a very good
  example).
                                       104
KINSHIP
 In some tribes there is no time limit
  as to when these gifts are going to
  end.
 The bridegroom’s family continues to
  bring the gifts until the bride’s family
  indicates that they have had enough.
 It is important to note that paying
  bride price is an ongoing process.

                                         105
KINSHIP
 Polygamy is a permitted form of
  marriage accepted both traditionally
  and Legally.
 However, some jealousies could occur
  when one of the wives is barren.”La
  Vie est Belle”.
 In many cases there are more
  advantages than disadvantages.
 Some benefits of Polygamy are:
                                    106
KINSHIP
   The sick are always attended to
   Orphaned children are often taken
    care of.
   Single parenting is not a problem
   Prostitution is rare
 Divorces are infrequent and when
  they are unavoidable they can be
  granted for a number of reasons such
  as:                               107
KINSHIP
 Adultery
 Barrenness
 Unharmonious relationship with a
  mother-in-law
 Impotence (a case in which a
  women can seek a divorce)


                                     108
 KINSHIP
 Divorce is only granted when attempts
  at counseling and family intervention
  has failed.
 Because in these kinds of settings the
  girl is absorbed into her husband’s
  family, if there is a problem with the
  marriage and the wife happens to run
  away, she runs to the house of her in-
  laws – her husband’s father and
  mother.
                                      109
LANGUAGE AND SOCIETY
LANGUAGE AND SOCIETY
 The geography of languages in Sub-
  Saharan Africa is intriguing.
 It is estimated that more than 1,000
  languages are spoken in Sub-
  Saharan Africa.
 Most of these languages do not have
  a written tradition.


                                    111
LANGUAGE AND SOCIETY
 About 40 of these languages are
  spoken by more than 1 million people.
 There are 4 major language families
  that have been identified by linguists
  for Sub-Saharan Africa.
     Niger Kordofanian
     Nilo-Saharan
     Khoisan
     Afro-Asiatic

                                       112
 LANGUAGE AND SOCIETY
 The Niger-Kordofanian is the largest
  language family group in Sub-
  Saharan Africa.
 It falls within two distinct categories:
   Kordofanian
   Niger-Congo
 The Kordofanian is spoken by a small
  group in the Nuba hills of the Sudan.
                                        113
 LANGUAGE AND SOCIETY
 It consists of about 20 languages.
 The Niger-Congo is spoken by more
  than 150 million people.
 The spatial extent of this group is more
  than ½ of Sub-Saharan Africa.
 Within the Niger-Congo language
  family the Bantu Sub-family constitute
  the largest.

                                        114
LANGUAGE AND SOCIETY
 This sub-group stretches through
  the equatorial region to South
  Africa.
 The origins of the Bantu language
  has been traced to the southeast
  margins of the Congo rainforest.
 Other linguistic studies suggest a
  linkage to the West African forest
  and savanna regions.
                                       115
LANGUAGE AND SOCIETY
 About 10 million people speak the
  subfamily Bantu language.
 Among the Bantu language
  subfamily are:
   Lingala spoken in the Congo,
   Swahili spoken in East Africa,
   Bemba spoken in Zambia, and
   Luba spoken in The Democratic
    Republic of the Congo (Zaire).
                                      116
LANGUAGE AND SOCIETY
 The Nilo-Saharan stretches from
  the Songhai area in West Africa to
  East Africa.
 The Khoisan family group is
  confined to the Kalahari desert
  region.
 Prominent within this group are:
   the Bushmen,
   the Nama and
   the Hottentots.
                                       117
LANGUAGE AND SOCIETY
 The Afro-Asiatic (Semitic-Hamitic) is
  found around Mauritania and the
  Horn of Africa.
 Languages of non-African origin are
  the Malay-Polynesian family group
  that was introduced in Madagascar
  about 2,000 years ago.
 The Afrikaans introduced by the
  Dutch in 1602.
                                     118
LANGUAGES IN
SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA




               119
 LANGUAGE AND SOCIETY

 It is of the Indo-European origin and
  was introduced by the Boers when they
  arrived South Africa.
 In East Africa, Swahili is a Lingua
  Franca.




                                    120
 LANGUAGE AND SOCIETY

 In West Africa, Hausa is a Lingua
  Franca and spoken by more than 50
  million of the population.
 The most common language spoken in
  Sub-Saharan Africa is Pidgin English.




                                     121
LANGUAGE AND SOCIETY
 Pidgin English is a mixture of
  European and African Languages.
 In Cameroon, there are about 276
  different languages and therefore the
  people use Pidgin English to
  communicate as a lingua-franca.



                                      122
LAND TENURE
LAND TENURE
 Land Tenure constitutes the rights
  and obligations that make up
  relationship between human customs
  land and society.
 Land Tenure can be considered as a
  set of prescribed customary or
  procedural rules concerning people’s
  rights to land including the
  institutions that administer these
  rights be it social or political. 124
LAND TENURE
 Land tenure in Africa is broken into
  different categories depending on
  use.
 There are at least 5 main categories:
     Family Land
     Communal Land
     Stool Land
     State Land
     Individual Land

                                      125
LAND TENURE
 Family Land:
 This is land that is passed down
  through the lineage.
 It could be passed down through
  either the matrilineal or patrilineal
  lineage.
 The rights to this land is jointly held
  by a number of heirs (Brothers).

                                            126
LAND TENURE
 The heirs have a right to this piece
  of land and is not sold to the heirs.
 However, with the very high
  demand for land some family
  members have sold family land
  without consulting other heirs.
 This has also led to excessive land
  fragmentation which is becoming a
  major problem.
                                          127
LAND TENURE
 Fragmentation has led to congestion
  in villages.
 Fragmentation occurs because of
  population expansion.
 Another problem is the iniquities
  associated with matrilineal
  inheritance.
 Communal Land:
 This land is owned by a following
  either a lineage, Village or
  Community (Park Land)             128
LAND TENURE
 Each of the members of the society
  has as much right to this land.
 There is no landless class and selling
  the land is prohibited.
 The village head or clan head is the
  sole person with the responsibilities
  and jurisdiction over the land.


                                       129
LAND TENURE
 Stool Land:
 This is land held by the king, chief or
  skin in trust for the people.
 In such an arrangement the subjects
  can use the land for building or
  farming.
 In return they must pay homage to
  the Chief or King (Not Bribery).
 They in addition have to provide
  customary services.
                                       130
LAND TENURE
 Individual (Private Ownership):
 This is land which is privately owned
  by individual families.
 A piece of family is sometime sold to
  obtain cash to solve a pressing
  problem (Sickness, Education or the
  payment of Bride Price).
 The decision to sell such land rest
  with the family or clan.
                                      131
LAND TENURE
 If authorization is not given by the
  family head, the violator can expect
  the wrath of the gods or ancestral
  spirits.
 Individuals are also allowed Freehold
  rights which is outright ownership or
  leasehold rights ranging from 49-99
  years.
 This type of an arrangement is
  discouraged because it reminds many 132

  people and governments of
ADORNMENT DRESS FORMS
AND SYMBOLISM
 ADORNMENT DRESS FORMS AND
        SYMBOLISM
 Dressing like in any culture is a form
  of expression.
 Sub-Saharan Africa is not an
  exception.
 Dress forms and symbolism vary
  through out the region and in most
  cases displayed in the form of
  dressing.
                                      134
135
136
137
138
 ADORNMENT DRESS FORMS AND
        SYMBOLISM
 From the way somebody dresses
  you can deduce the person’s status
  in the society.
 It is also possible to tell or fairly
  predict the person’s role, age, and
  mood.
 In some tribes in Ghana, colors are
  very symbolic of certain occasions.
                                          139
ADORNMENT DRESS FORMS AND
SYMBOLISM
 For example: During mourning in the
  Akan tribe in Ghana, Red, Brown and
  Dark Brown is worn.
 White dress symbolizes victory, joy
  and success.
 In many tribes the chief portrays his
  authority by his regalia (emblems,
  Royal right and prerogatives, symbols
  or paraphernalia.
                                     140
ADORNMENT DRESS FORMS AND
SYMBOLISM
 His attendant’s clothing similarly
  portray subordination.
 The symbols and designs in
  African fabrics are not just a
  random mix of colors.
 They have certain significance.

                                  141
COLONIALISM AND THE DIFFUSION
OF NON-AFRICAN CULTURE
COLONIALISM AND THE
DIFFUSION OF Non-African Culture


 The greatest influence on African
  cultural development resulted from
  colonialism.
 Most of European culture was
  imposed on Africans.



                                   143
COLONIALISM AND THE
DIFFUSION OF Non-African Culture
 European languages, Religion,
  social organizations and their
  values.
 Nowadays, indigenous African
  languages have been replaced
  by European languages such as
  English, French, Portuguese etc.

                                 144
COLONIALISM AND THE
DIFFUSION OF Non-African Culture
 The two leading religions are
  foreign.
 Another impact of colonialism
  was the fact that most of African
  culture was discouraged by the
  colonialist.
 Such things as traditional
  names, music dance, art,
  religion, marriage and systems
                                 145
COLONIALISM AND THE
DIFFUSION OF Non-African Culture
 When the Europeans instituted
  schools these facets of African
  culture were not taught and
  were absent.
 Worst of all, dressing to work in
  African attires were
  unacceptable and even in some
  cases banned.
                                  146
 COLONIALISM AND THE
 DIFFUSION OF Non-African Culture

 Colonial education viewed the African
  Culture as primitive and discourage
  such practices.
 This has resulted in the loss of African
  Art, Dignity and Respect for African
  Culture.
 There are some disparities between
  African and European cultures.
                                        147
     AFRICANS              EUROPEANS
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN EUROPEANS AND AFRICANS

Emphasizes cooperation and     Emphasizes Competition and
       community.                    Individuality.


   Sharing and giving and       Accumulation of wealth and
accommodation of strangers.             hoarding.


Land as the property of the   Land as capital to be traded and
 living, dead, and unborn.        use as a commodity to
                                 accumulate more wealth.


                              Wherever the Europeans found
                              good land they opted to settle.
COLONIALISM AND THE
DIFFUSION OF Non-African Culture
 Today many westerners that have
  discovered these hidden talents in
  the African culture have excelled
  rapidly in their profession or have
  become recognized.
 Examples: Paul Simon – Graceland
 Hillary Clinton – It Takes a Village to
  Raise a Child.

                                       149
COLONIALISM AND THE
DIFFUSION OF Non-African Culture
 One of the legacies of colonialism in
  Sub-Saharan Africa has been the
  super-imposition of political
  boundaries over existing lineage and
  clan or tribal group boundaries.
 The result has been ethnic and tribal
  disputes (ethnic cleansing).


                                     150
COLONIALISM AND THE
DIFFUSION OF Non-African Culture
 In many cases these disputes have
  been deadly.
 Bakongo is an area that is now
  divided by or shared by four
  countries – Congo, DRC (Zaire),
  Angola, Gabon.
 Hutu’s and Tutsi’s share Zaire,
  Burundi, Rwanda, Uganda,
  Tanzania.
                                      151
COLONIALISM AND THE
DIFFUSION OF Non-African Culture
 In West Africa the Akan is
  shared by Ivory Coast and
  Ghana.
 The Senufo live in three
  different countries – Mali, Ivory
  Coast, and Burkina Faso.


                                  152
COLONIALISM AND THE
DIFFUSION OF Non-African Culture
 In Eastern Africa, the Somalis
  live in Ethiopia, Kenya and
  Djibouti.
 All of these distribution has led
  to conflicts such as those in
  Somalia – Clan Warfare.


                                      153
COLONIALISM AND THE
DIFFUSION OF Non-African Culture
 In Liberia a persistent problem is
  that of indigenous Africans and the
  Ex-slaves liberated by Abraham
  Lincoln.
 They call themselves Americo-
  Liberians.
 In the Sudan, the problem is
  religious – Muslim North versus
  Christian South.
                                        154
MODERNIZATION AND
THE AGED
 SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
 MODERNIZATION AND THE AGED
 The aged in Sub-Saharan Africa
  are viewed with dignity and
  respect.
 It is assumed that old people
  form the foundation of village
  life.


                               156
 MODERNIZATION AND THE AGED
 It is also assumed that the older
  you are the wiser you become.
 In Sub-Saharan Africa, old age
  is a desirable stage in the
  evolution of humans.



                                 157
 MODERNIZATION AND THE AGED
 It is a time of honor and
  teaching.
 The extended family in Africa
  becomes a very important
  source of care providing for the
  old or elderly.


                                 158
 MODERNIZATION AND THE AGED
 The elderly in turn provide child-
  care (nannies) because your
  child with your mother is safe.
 The elderly also help with other
  chores but still maintaining their
  status in society.


                                  159
 MODERNIZATION AND THE AGED
 The elderly in return get food,
  clothing accommodation and
  above all love – something
  which is very abstract in
  western societies.



                                    160
 MODERNIZATION AND THE AGED
 The elderly feels that they belong,
  that they have security and that
  they are able to play an important
  function in the society even though
  they are old.
 Unfortunately, modernization is
  rapidly changing all this.
 Nursing homes are being
  constructed.
                                        161
 MODERNIZATION AND THE AGED
 Many young men who get employed
  in the cities rarely return to the
  villages and those who go abroad
  rarely return home.
 Their sense of responsibility has
  been interrupted by changing times
  and distance.
 As a result, the elderly are left
  without any means of support.
                                   162
 MODERNIZATION AND THE AGED
 Institutional care would have
  been the best alternative but it
  is not well accepted in Sub-
  Saharan Africa.
 Africans have constantly argued
  against institutionalization as a
  way of caring for the elderly.

                                  163
 MODERNIZATION AND THE AGED
 A representative from Cameroon to
  the World Assembly on Aging argued
  that Africans should resist making the
  mistakes of the industrialized nations.
 Despite resistance to
  institutionalization there are still
  some African countries that practice
  institutional care.

                                       164
 MODERNIZATION AND THE AGED
 Countries that are engaged in
  institutional care are Ethiopia, Malawi,
  Rwanda, and Zambia.
 In Kenya, a planned integrated
  community is being initiated.
 In such an arrangement, elderly
  persons will live with persons of other
  age groups.

                                        165
AFRICAN CULTURAL VALUES
CULTURAL VAUES
 Another area of cultural conflict
  is Bribery, Corruption, nepotism
  and misappropriation (Theft).
 In many African Societies, what
  is called bribery in the West, is
  actually prior-appreciation.


                                  167
       CULTURAL VAUES

 It is an act of reciprocity in the
  act of serving.
 It is always assumed that the
  beneficiary of a favor should
  give something back in return.



                                   168
        CULTURAL VAUES
 Bribery is a gift in anticipation of
  asking for a favor later.
 This is considered bribery and
  corruption in western tradition.
 Nepotism occurs when people are
  hired for employment not through
  qualification but through relation
  (maybe the good old boys).

                                         169
         CULTURAL VAUES
 Finally theft or misappropriation of
  government funds is a common
  practice.
 It was assumed that the colonial
  governments were not legitimate and
  therefore could not be respected or
  trusted.
 They were a scam, scamming the
  countries that they colonized.

                                     170
 CULTURAL VAUES
 Scamming the scam was an act of
  heroism.
 This activity has continued even into
  present day independent governments.
 This has led to the kind of corruption
  which has almost bankrupted many
  African Nations.
 Examples: Mobutu of Zaire, Bokosa of
  Central African Republic.
                                      171
End of Lecture

								
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