Age of Exploration and Cultural Diffusion and Integration by zhangyun

VIEWS: 253 PAGES: 84

									Expanding Horizons
   Early Explorations
   Overseas Empires
   Changing ways of Life
Early Explorations
   Early for Europe
       Asia and Africa already exchanging ideas
       Asia and Africa engaged in trade
   Crusades had opened Europe to the luxuries
    available in the East
   Renaissance led to a rebirth in interest in
    science as well as arts
       Questions about accepted ideas of the earth
       Questions about the existence of others
Trade I
   Luxury goods were goods of long distance
    trade
   Silk, precious stones came overland
   Bulkier commodities such as steel, stone,
    coral by sea
   Trading Cities grew up
   Melaka among the famous
       Located at straits between India and Southeast
        Asia
       Kept down pirates, low taxes, low crime
Trade II
   Europe at the mercy of Asian traders
   Islamic groups controlled the spice
    trade from India
   Islamic groups(Mongols) controlled the
    overland silk route to China
   The spread of Islam created a demand
    for Islamic Scholars in India and
    Southeast Asia
Missionary Campaigns
   Sufi mystics and Islamic scholars moved
    along trade routes
       Converted most of Central Asia
       Converted many in South East Asia and Western
        China
       Not strict emphasized piety not obligations
   Catholic missionaries
       Arrived with traders and sometimes were traders
       Not successful in the far east
   Europe began a search began for a sea route
    that Europeans could control in the 1400’s
Technological Advances
   Open water Sailing
       Asian technology aided in navigation
            Magnetic Compass from China
            Astrolabe from Arabs
            Maps from Egyptian Ptolemy
                  showing details
                  Used grid lines for longitude and latitude
            Arab lateen sails put on ships
       Multiple masted ships designed
       Rudder moved to stern
       Caravel incorporated all new designs and carried
        rifles and cannon
Agricultural diffusion
   Muslim traders brought
       Citrus
       Cotton
       Rice
       Sugar cane
            North Africa Portugese took to Azores and Canaries
            Plantation cultivation led to increased demand for slave
             labor
            First use of refined sugar in Europe
   Improved diets led to population explosion
Negative effects of world
travel
   The Black Death
       Bubonic Plague
       Facilitated by
            Great Famine
                 Result of mini Ice age and poor growing seasons
                 Shorter growing seasons less food
       Pax Mongolia
            Mongol troops carried fleas from China to Russia
            Jumped to rats
            Rats jumped to ships
            Ships docked in European and North African Trade
             centers
Recovery from Plague
   China
       Yuan collapsed under financial mismanagement
        and plague
            Mongols left China en masse for the steppes
            Chinese bureaucracy kept order
       In North China famines produced two unusually
        capable rebel leaders
            Kuo Tzu-hsing
                 Father was a peasant that got rich by marrying the blind
                  daughter of a wealthy man
                 When rebellion against the Yuan occurred he gave his
                  wealth to the poor who followed him in battle
                 Joined by Chu Yuan-chang
Ming Dynasty (Brilliant 1368-
1644)
    Chu Yuan-chang - Emperor Hong Wu
         Poor spent youth as a beggar
         Entered Buddhist monastery for food
         Joined forces of Kuo Tzu-tsing and became a brillant
          military general
         Kuo gave him his job as the story goes because he was
          impressed by his looks
              Said to be one the ugliest men alive
              Given an orphan girl as bride
         Success led to his being proclaimed new Emperor
Hong Wu II
   Like Liu Bang (founder of the Han) disliked
    intellectuals
   Believed they should be used but not trusted
   Once he gained power he eliminated his most loyal
    and successful lieutenants
       Feared their success
       Feared their power
   Worried about succession – appoint his grandson
       Gave 3 sons control of north and others positions with titles
        but no power
       3rd Son Chu Ti will take the thrown from his nephew after a
        fire in his palace – he is never found
Yung-lo
   Moves capital to Beijing
   Continues the centralization of power
    begun by his father
   Is most important Ming Emperor
Ming Government
   Emperors ruled directly not through premiers
        ministers of Rites, Finance, Personnel, War,
        Justice and Public Works were directly responsible
        to the Emperor
   Re established the civil service and
    examination system
   Insisted on absolute obedience to the policies
    of the Emperor began policy of capital
    punishment for government officials
   Used Mandarins and eunuchs personally loyal
    to the Emperor to insure local loyalty
The rise of the Eunuch
 The loss of the prime minister
  meant that the later emperors lost
  contact with the people
 Power moved to the Eunuchs and
  palace concubines they worked for
       Emasculated males
            No families
            Believed not a force to challenge the power of the
             emperor
            Fortunes directly tied to fortunes of the Emperor
Ming Works
   Rebuilt irrigation systems
   Promoted making of export goods
       Porcelain
       Lacquer ware
       Silk and cotton textiles
   Sponsored a rebirth of Chinese culture
Ming control of Trade
   Viewed trade as tribute
   Hong Wu sent out emissaries to foreign governments
    allowing them to send “Tribute”
   Carefully control ports of entry
       Limit number of foreigners
       Control collection of taxes
   Encouraged Chinese traders to venture out of China
    and explore the Indian Ocean Basin
       1405-1433 Zheng He , Muslim court Eunuch from Yunnan
        embarked on voyages
       Huge expeditionary force with largest ships of the day
Reasons for expeditions
   To try and find the emperor Ming Hui-ti
       Grandson of first emperor believed hiding
        in SE Asia
   To bring world into Tribute system
   Emperors believed selves to be “sons of
    Heaven” and representatives of all men
   Overpopulation drove people to leave in
    search of jobs and land
Ming ended Explorations
   New Mongol attacks
   New irrigation systems needed
   Money required for home not show
   China was land centered and against
    commerce
   Believed themselves self sufficient and
    superior
   1433 expeditions ended
Reasons for Ming Decline
   Japanese pirates
       Disrupted trade
       Camped in Taiwan and attack commercial shipping lanes
       Most pirates actually Chinese
   Eunuch power grew with
       Seclusion of Emperors from outside world
       Emperors unlimited power and unchallenged policies
       Great size of harem
       The general acceptance by the people
       Led to corruption and abuse
Overseas Chinese
   Chinese merchants moved to trade ports
   Most goods transported to trade cities by
    Chinese junks
   Cities had Chinese quarters with elected
    headman
   Go betweens able to gain access to Chinese
    goods when Europeans were not welcome
   Frequently illegal and members of anti-
    emperor groups and secret societies (tongs)
European Recovery
   Europe moved into Atlantic and Indian
    Oceans with 2 goals
       Spread of Catholic Church
       Trade
   Age of Bibles, Bullets and Balance
    sheets
   Led by the Portuguese –sugar cane
   Exploration sponsored by Governments
    and merchant companies
Government incentive
   Needed precious metals
       Gold mines in Ireland and Silver mines in
        Germany were exhausted
       Needed bullion –metal to mint coins and
        pay for goods
   Spices needed to make meat edible
       Most meat salted or spoiled
       No refrigeration
       Used for drugs, incense and aphrodisiacs
Governments lost interest
when
   Had found gold and silver
   Mines and trade routes were protected
   Spices were abundant
   1602 –Pero Fernandes de Queiros
       Request for sponsorship by Spain turned
        down
       Told king had sufficient lands for his needs
Increasing Knowledge of
World
   The ability to determine latitude and direction
    led to increased knowledge of the oceans and
    winds
       Mapped currents and wind systems
       Used to plan trips
       Required use of indirect routes
            Volta do mar
            Sail away from contrary winds or currents to find good
             ones
            Longer but faster
Portugal to the lead
   Search the west coast of Africa
   Country of experienced fisherman
   Knowledge of Arab mathematics,
    cosmography and geography
   Located to take advantage of Atlantic
    wind currents
       Spring blew southwest into Atlantic
       Autumn blew home northeastward
European Misconceptions of
globe
   Christian doctrine stated that Jerusalem
    was at the center of the earth
       Maps drawn to show this
       3 known continents drawn in this
        configuration –Asia, Africa, Europe
   Knowledge based on tales of travelers
    and few traders best account not
    published because it was written by a
    non Christian
 Prince Henry the Navigator
1421-1460
    Never sailed himself
    Brought together sailors and map makers
    Sponsored trips and scientists with funds
     from Italy and Germany
    Goal was to find direct route to the gold,
     pepper, and ivory in Africa
    Also wanted to drive out Moslems and
     replace Islam with Christianity
Slow pace of discovery
   Superstition said that life was impossible at
    the equator, that long exposure to sun
    burned skin black
       Portuguese moved slowly along coast and as they
        moved cape by cape found tales to be false
       1473 crossed the equator and no one burst into
        flames
       Spain entered exploration and Portugal turned to
        the Pope to give them exclusive rights to Africa
Portuguese began to colonize the
Atlantic Islands off the coast of
Africa
     Built Sugar Cane Plantations
     Began exporting Slaves
The Explorers
   Bartholomeu Diaz 1487
       Found the southern tip of Africa
       Cape of Good Hope
       Proved Asia could be reached by sailing around
        Africa
   Vasco da Gama 1497
       Sailed around Africa to India
       Found Portuguese goods to be inferior and trade
        refused
Spain
   Christopher Columbus 1492
       Had tried to interest others to no avail
       Isabella of Spain backed him
       Sailed west
            Longest sail without sighting of land
            Sailors on point of mutiny when land sited
       Bahamas and Hispanola
       Died thinking he had discovered a way to
        China
Dividing the World between
Spain and Portugal
   Columbus discovery resulted in Spain’s appeal
    to Pope for exclusive trading and colonization rights
    to the West Indies
   1494 Line of Demarcation set by the Treaty
    of Tordesillas
   Split new lands between Spain and Portugal
   Line ran from North to South through the
    Atlantic
   Spain got lands to west
       Americas and Philippines
   Portugal lands to east
       Africa, Asia, Brazil
Ferdinand Magellan 1519
   Portuguese but sailed for Spain
   5 ships 260 men sailed across Atlantic
   Sailed down South American
   Sailed around tip –Straits of Magellan
   Sailed Pacific – 4 months without sight of land, eating
    rats and leather by the time the find Guam
   Philippines-Magellan killed
   Survivors circumnavigated the world and returned to
    Spain 3yrs at sea
   1 ship and 18 of original men made the full trip
James Cook 1728-1779
   Pacific Explorer
   Charted Eastern Australia, New
    Zealand, New Caledonia, Vanuatu, and
    Hawaii
   Studied people and languages of
    Hawaii, Tahiti, and Tonga
Trade, Power, Wealth
   The explorations were NOT carried out in the
    pursuit of knowledge
   They were financed by businessmen,
    speculators and governments whose goal was
    to make money
   They were frequently accompanied by priests
    and clergy whose goal it was to convert souls
    and establish trade relations
Trading Companies and
Colonies
   Portuguese built first Trading post empire
       Vasco De Gama got permission for the first in 1498 in
        Calicut, India on Southwest, Malabar Coast
       Alfonzo d’Alboquerqe established Portuguese Pattern
            Seized important cities
                  Hormuz
                  Melaka
                  Goa
            Never managed nor desired complete control of territory
            Controlled the shipping lanes with key cities that controlled
             traffic through the Straits of Malacca and the Sunda Straits
       Portuguese battled Moslems for control
Nature of Expansion

   Spice Trade
   Plantations in Brazil
   Development of Slave Trade
   Each city had a
       Captain of the fortress
       Captain of ships
       Manager of trade
       Royal judge
       Governor of the natives
       Representative of the Catholic Church
   Distance from Capital led to power struggles and
    corruption
Portuguese Politics
   To few in number for military control
   Allied themselves with local leaders
   Entered into local politics and wars
   Acted as mercenaries and pirates
   At end to few, to disorganized and too
    uncompromising in crusade against the
    Moslems to win
Portuguese in China
   1514 Sailed to an island in SW China outside
    of Canton
   Sent gifts to the Chinese Emperor
       Chinese viewed as Tribute
       Chinese gave gifts in return
   Next mission arrived in 1517 and began
    building a fort on the island
       Gave a canon salute – Chinese viewed as bad
        taste
       Took children as slaves – rumor began that they
        ate children
Macao
   Became a Portuguese trade center in 1557
       Chinese walled in the city to isolate them from the
        country
       Given autonomy
       Chinese officials collected taxes
       Still Portuguese today
       Became its center for trade with China and Japan
       Portuguese sent silver to china – got silk- sold silk
        to Japan for even more silver- got more silk and
        returned to Portugal
Spanish/Portuguese Rivalry
   All was well after Treaty of Trodesillas
   Magellan gets to Philippines
       Pope had set Western boundary but not Eastern
       1565 Spanish sailors discovered how to sail between Mexico
        and the Philippines both ways
       Manila is established and governed by way of Mexico City
       Spanish colonial system transplanted from Mexico to
        Philippines
       Areas given to individuals who were responsible for the
        welfare of the people and missionaries, also to collect royal
        tribute – forced labor and exploitation resulted
Role of the Catholic Church
   400 missionaries in Philippines by 1601
   No other organized religion except
    Islam in the south
   Most forced to convert
   Only Christian people in the far east
   Spanish unable to expand, used as a
    base of trade
English and Dutch East India
Companies
   Independent investors financed the trade
    empires on England and Holland
   Fast, cheap, powerful ships
   Joint stock companies shared risk and profit
   No government oversight
   Concentrated on trade and profits
   Even supported their own private armies
Dutch in Asia
   After Holland won its independence from Spain in the
    late 1500’s and Spain took control of Portugal
   Holland was excluded from the Lisbon Spice Markets
   Young Dutchman returned home from Goa where he
    had worked for the Portuguese with maps and sailing
    directions
   Dutch sent 28 ships – Portuguese had only send 4 a
    year to the far east
   Dutch took over most of Portuguese ports
   Missionaries didn’t dominate
Dutch in China
   Failed to establish trade relations
   Tried to set up post on Taiwan
   Driven out by Cheng Ch’eng-kung
    (Coxinga) a Japanese pirate
   Did not get into China until the Ch’ing
    Dynasty
Trade Wars –Seven Years War
   Dutch had the most ships and dominated
    spice trade of SE Asia
       Expelled Portuguese from Malaysia
       Prevented English from setting up trading posts
   Cotton and Tea from India and Ceylon
    became more important then spices
       English and French dominated Indian Ports
       French grabbed Madras (Chennai) and War broke
        out
Yo Ho, Yo Ho it’s a Pirates Life
   The Seven Years War 1756-1763
   European governments gave ship’s
    captains “letters of Marquee”
       Gave captains rights to any goods captured
        on enemy ships
       Legalized piracy
       One countries hero was another’s pirate
       French and English Caribbean possessions
        raided and pillaged
Great War for Empire
   Europe
   India
   Caribbean
   North America
       French and Indian War
British evolved as the major
power
   Kicked Spanish out of Florida
   Kicked French out of Canada and India
   Solidified control of Caribbean Islands
   Made England the dominant naval
    power until WWI
Columbian Exchange
   What was given/ What was got
   Good vs. Bad
   Good to Good
   Bad to Bad
Global diffusion of
   Plants
   People
   Animals
   Crops
   Disease
   From Americas to the World
   For the World to Americas
Americas and Oceana
   Had evolved separately from Europe, Asia
    and Africa
   Native populations had no inherited or
    acquired immunities to
       Small pox
       Measles
       Mumps
       Diphtheria,
       Whooping cough
       Flu
Death and Disaster
   Aztec 1519 hit with smallpox
       Population when from 21 million to 1 million
       Spain conquered Mexico and culture disappear
        with death of leaders, priests and teachers
   Hawaiians -Measles l
   Between 1500 and 1800
       100 million people in Americas and Oceana died
Food Exchange
   Resulted in more people
   Higher nutrition
   From Europe
       Wheat
       Vines
       Horses
       Cattle
       Pigs
       Sheep
       Goats
       Chickens
From Americas and Oceania
   Maize
   Potatoes
   Beans
   Tomatoes
   Peppers
   Peanuts
   Manioc
   Papayas
   Guavas
   Avocadoes
   Pineapples
   Cacao
   Tobacco
Population growth
   1500 Eurasia 425 million people
   1600 545 Million
   1800 900 Million
Transoceanic migration of
people
   Voluntary immigration
   Involuntary
       Slavery
       Indenture
       Criminal deportation
Origins of Global Trade
   England Triangular Trade
        guns and trinkets -Slaves-Sugar, tobacco and cotton
   Manila Galleons
        Chinese products for Mexican Silver
   Dutch
        Sugar-Cowry Shells-Slaves
   US
        Beads, pots and pans-Hawaiian Sandalwood-Chinese tea,
         silk and ceramics
        Beads, pots and pans-Alaskan Seal Furs-Chinese goods
   England-Asia
        English goods-Indian Opium-Chinese goods
IBERIAN WOMEN 1492
Islamic impact
   The ideal
       Cloister women
       Protect women
       Keep in home or the harem
   Reality
       Rural peasant women greater
        independence
       Many more legal rights then the rest of
        Europe
Patriarchal society
   View of women
       Less intelligent
            Should be taught enough to read religious
             works
            Should be taught to write
       more prone to error
       Unbridled carnal appetites
            unable to govern their own passion
            Corrupter of men
            Danger to families honor if not cloistered
       Need man’s guidance and protection
Women’s role
   Defined by her relationship to men
       Wife
       Daughter
       Sister
       Mother
Catholicism
   Defined male and female honor
       Female virginity before marriage
       Female chastity after marriage
       Women had the right to demand sex with their
        husbands
       Virgin Mary idea
            Pure
            Perfect mother
            Stoic suffering
            Sacrifice for family
   Women were virtuous or shamed no in-
    between
Purity of Blood – noble
requirement
   Became a requirement after the
    reconquista and counter Reformation
       No Moorish ancestors
       No Jewish ancestors
       No African ancestor
Legal Rights
   Iberian Women because of Isabel of Castile had more
    legal rights then most European women
       Inheritance depended on legitimacy and nearness to relation
       Inheritance did not depend on gender
       All children inherited equal shares
       A wife inherited ½ of her husbands estate
       A woman’s estate was shared equally among her children
       If she died childless her dowry went to her parents or
        relations not to her husband
       If a women felt her husband was wasting her dowry she
        could sue him to get her money back
       Children took both parents name because they shared in
        both families wealth
       If she never married she controlled her inheritance
Marriage
   A legal contract
   A sacrament
   Church set rules
        1 spouse at a time
        Could not marry father, god father, brother
        Could only marry first cousin with special permission
        Began with engagement – legally binding agreement
        Followed by a ceremony
             Early 1500 it only required 2 witnesses and could be performed by the couple
              themselves
             After Council of Trent 1545
                   Required posting of banns
                   Required marriage by priest
        Many couples began living together as soon as they were engaged
        Marriage gave a man exclusive sexual rights over his wife
        Adultery by the women was the only justifiable reason for a man to
         abandon his wife or fiancée
   Women were promised material support for their total obedience
Concubinage
   Common practice in Spain in early
    1500’s
   Single people – frequently Widows
   Live together without marriage
   Notarized contract spelled out
    obligations of both parties and
    inheritance rights of any children born
    of the union
   Relationship could be ended by another
    notarized document
Iberian law distinguished the
degree of illegitimacy
   Children born of concubinage
   Children born of adultery
   Children born of prostitutes
   Children born of a concubine with another man
   Children born of an incestuous relationship
   Children born of bigamists
   Children fathered by priests
   Inquisition tried to end these relationships by
    punishing the women
   Adultery by a women was punishable by death but
    they were usually sent to a convent if they repented
Women in Colonial Latin America
   White women seen as virtuous
   Women of color as being evil
Pre Columbian Indigenous
Women
   Little is known
   What is known is about noble women
   Mexico and Central America
       Elite women had high status and sometimes ruled
        city states
       Maya traced male ruler’s right to power through
        female members of a family
   Andean America
       Only pottery by Moche showing women as
        weaving or engaged in sex
Marriage
   For noble women it was a matter of state
   Many rules governing relations between men
    and women
   Aztecs expected unmarried women to be
    virgins
       Chaperones
       Loss of virginity was viewed as a loss of honor
   Concubinage
       Both men and women were punished under Aztec
        law
Inca
   Condoned and encouraged premarital
    relations
   Only Virgins of the Sun (priestesses)
   Believed premarital sex was necessary
    to find compatible partner
Marriage
   Was seen by both groups as ideal state
    for women
   Most women married as soon as they
    reached puberty
   95% of all Aztec women were married
   Aztec did allow divorce
   Nobles of both groups allowed multiple
    wives
   Adultery by women was not allowed
Inheritance
   In Central America inheritance was through
    father
   Inca
       Boys inherited from father and belonged to
        father’s family
       Girls inherited from mother and belonged to
        mother’s family
       Land was held only by men
       Women’s property
            Domestic animals
            Household objects
            Beehives
            Clothing
Women’s role
   Seen as hard workers
   Domestic work
   Spinning and Weaving
       Important source of family income
       Aztec girls given spindles and tiny shuttles
        at birth
       Aztec boys given weapons
Sexual division of labor
   Producers of cloth
   Market traders
       Did not travel
       Hired men to move and carry goods from
        other sources
   Midwives
   Healers
   Prostitutes
War
   Women were booty – prizes
   Women were given to allies to cement
    relationship
   Women clearly second class
African women
   Too diverse to categorize
       Islam
       Urban
       Rural
       All different
   Limited to 1 husband
   Husbands purchased wives (bride
    wealth)
Female Circumcision
   Mutilation or removal of the female
    outer genitals
   Done so women would not enjoy sex
   Theory was if they didn’t enjoy it they
    would remain faithful to their husbands
Division of Labor
   Women’s work
       Labor intensive
            field work
             building
            mining
       Less desirable
            Crafts
            trading
       Lower status
            Child rearing
            Domestic chores
Men’s work
   Hunting
   Fishing
   Cattle raising
   Weaving
Slavery
   Universal institution
       Captured men usually killed
       Women and children enslaved
       Worked for owners
   Increased burden on women as fewer
    men after 1450
Women’s rights
   Many could own and control their own
    property
   Angola and Kongo had female rulers
   But in most places women were viewed
    as inferior
   Women feared because of their ability
    to produce children
Similarities in all 3 groups before
they met
   All believed in sexual division of labor
   All enforced female virginity and
    monogamy
   All had patriarchal societies giving men
    power over women
   Limited women to the home
   Men controlled female sexuality
   All viewed women as unmanageable
    and dangerous

								
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