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July 2005

VIEWS: 16 PAGES: 104

									    SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study




July 2005




    BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                       i
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study




                                     ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Booz Allen Hamilton wishes to thank the South Coast Air Quality Management District for
providing leadership and funding of the project, and the California Air Resources Board for
providing financial and technical support. As one of the host-site operators, the Los Angeles
County Sanitation District also provided substantial technical support, financial assistance, and
in-kind contributions.

Additional technical support and in-kind contributions were provided by the Construction
Industry Air Quality Coalition (CIAQC); C. W. Poss Construction, Inc., West Virginia
University, Sukut Construction, Johnson-Matthey, and Engelhard Corporation.




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                              i
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study



                                             TABLE OF CONTENTS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .......................................................................................................... 1

1.0       INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................... 1-1
   1.1       PROJECT BACKGROUND ................................................................................................ 1-1
   1.2       PROJECT PARTICIPANTS AND ROLES ............................................................................. 1-2
   1.3       STUDY SCOPE AND DATA COLLECTION ........................................................................ 1-3
2.0       PRE-DEMONSTATION ACTIVITIES ...................................................................... 2-1
   2.1      EQUIPMENT SELECTION ................................................................................................ 2-1
   2.2      DEMONSTRATION LOCATIONS AND VEHICLE ACTIVITY ............................................... 2-7
   2.3      FUEL SELECTION AND LOGISTICS .................................................................................. 2-8
   2.4      TRAP SIZING AND PRELIMINARY ENGINEERING ............................................................ 2-9
      2.4.1     Engelhard filters................................................................................................... 2-9
      2.4.2     Johnson-Matthey filters ..................................................................................... 2-10
      2.4.3     Sizing of Traps for Applications........................................................................ 2-11
   2.5      INSTALLATION DESIGN ............................................................................................... 2-12
      2.5.1     Caterpillar Review of Retrofit Designs.............................................................. 2-13
      2.5.2     Backpressure Dynamometer Test by Shepherd Machinery............................... 2-14
      2.5.3     Design Review of Final Installation .................................................................. 2-15
      2.5.4     Installation of Data loggers................................................................................ 2-16
3.0       DEMONSTRATION RESULTS .................................................................................. 3-1
   3.1      HIGH LEVEL SUMMARY OF DEMONSTRATION ACTIVITIES ............................................ 3-1
      3.1.1     Sequence of Events .............................................................................................. 3-2
      3.1.2     Summary of Hours Accumulated by Study Vehicles and Filters ........................ 3-4
   3.2      REVIEW OF FILTER DURABILITY INCIDENTS ................................................................. 3-4
      3.2.1     657E Scrapers ...................................................................................................... 3-5
      3.2.2     651B Scrapers ...................................................................................................... 3-6
      3.2.3     D9 Dozers ............................................................................................................ 3-7
      3.2.4     Dozers at POSS.................................................................................................... 3-8
      3.2.5     Summary of all Filter Durability related Incidents ............................................ 3-10
   3.3      REVIEW OF TRAP INSTALLATION AND MOUNTING INCIDENTS ................................... 3-11
      3.3.1     Scraper Installation Incidents............................................................................. 3-11
      3.3.2     Dozer Installation Incidents ............................................................................... 3-14
      3.3.3     Summary of Installation and Mounting related Incidents.................................. 3-17
   3.4      OTHER INCIDENTS....................................................................................................... 3-17
      3.4.1     Brown exhaust plume on Johnson Matthey LACSD Dozer retrofits ................ 3-17
      3.4.2     Misfueling at POSS............................................................................................ 3-18
      3.4.3     Water in Fuel...................................................................................................... 3-18
      3.4.4     “Varnish” on Engine Parts ................................................................................. 3-19
   3.5      SUMMARY OF ALL INCIDENTS BY VEHICLE ................................................................. 3-19
   3.6      SUMMARY OF EXHAUST TEMPERATURE AND BACK PRESSURE DATA ......................... 3-25
   3.7      FUEL ECONOMY IMPACTS ........................................................................................... 3-27
   3.8      OIL CONSUMPTION IMPACTS ....................................................................................... 3-29
BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                                                ii
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study



  3.9       OPERATOR INTERVIEWS .............................................................................................. 3-30
  3.10      FUEL QUALITY SAMPLING DATA ................................................................................ 3-31
4.0      EMISSIONS TESTING ................................................................................................ 4-1
  4.1      PRE-DEMONSTRATION TEST AT WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY ...................................... 4-1
  4.2      RESULTS OF POST-DEMONSTRATION TESTING .............................................................. 4-3
  4.3      IN-USE EMISSION TESTING ........................................................................................... 4-5
     4.3.1     Opacity Testing Results ....................................................................................... 4-5
     4.3.2     On-Board Testing Results by CARB................................................................... 4-8
5.0      OBSERVATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS.................................................................. 5-1
  5.1      PERFORMANCE AND DURABILITY OF JOHNSON MATTHEY TRAPS ................................. 5-1
  5.2      PERFORMANCE AND DURABILITY OF ENGELHARD TRAPS ............................................. 5-2
  5.3      INSTALLATION AND MOUNTING ISSUES . ....................................................................... 5-3
  5.4      VEHICLE AND ENGINE IMPACTS OF RETROFITTING WITH PARTICULATE TRAPS ............. 5-5
  5.5      COST-BENEFIT ANALYSES ............................................................................................ 5-6
     5.5.1     Capital costs. ........................................................................................................ 5-6
     5.5.2     Operating Costs.................................................................................................... 5-9
     5.5.3     Emission Reduction Benefits............................................................................. 5-10
     5.5.4     Dollars per ton of emissions reduced................................................................. 5-11
  5.6      CONCLUSIONS ............................................................................................................. 5-12

APPENDICES

APPENDIX A: DESCRIPTION OF CARB TEV
APPENDIX B: SUMMARY OF VEHICLE MAINTENANCE ITEMS
APPENDIX C: WVU EMISSIONS TESTING REPORT




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                                               iii
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study



                                                   LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1-1: California Statewide PM10 Emissions, 2003 ..................................................... 1-1
Figure 2-1: D9 Dozers ............................................................................................................... 2-2
Figure 2-2: 824 and 834 Dozers at Poss .................................................................................. 2-3
Figure 2-3: 657E and 651B Scrapers ........................................................................................ 2-3
Figure 2-4: LACSD and Poss Demonstration Sites............................................................... 2-8
Figure 2-5: Engelhard Filters ................................................................................................. 2-10
Figure 2-6: JM Filter ................................................................................................................ 2-11
Figure 2-7: Filter Section......................................................................................................... 2-12
Figure 2-8: Dynamometer test of Johnson-Matthey CRT.................................................. 2-14
at Quinn-Shepherd Machinery ............................................................................................. 2-14
Figure 2-9: Insulated Particulate Trap Installations ........................................................... 2-16
Figure 2-10: Pressure Monitoring Apparatus ..................................................................... 2-17
Figure 2-11: Johnson-Matthey Data Loggers ...................................................................... 2-17
Figure 3-1. Exhaust Backpressure versus Temperature for 651B Scraper #625............. 3-26
Figure 3-2: Example of Variability in Fuel Consumption Data........................................ 3-28


                                                    LIST OF TABLES
Table 1-1: Project Participants and Roles............................................................................... 1-3
Table 1-2: Summary of Task Elements................................................................................... 1-4
Table 1-3: Key Project Research Questions............................................................................ 1-5
Table 2-1: D9 Dozers at LACSD .............................................................................................. 2-2
Table 2-2: 824/825/834 Dozers at Poss.................................................................................. 2-3
Table 2-3: 657E Scrapers at LACSD ........................................................................................ 2-4
Table 2-4: 651B Scrapers at Poss.............................................................................................. 2-4
Table 2-5: Vehicle Statistics...................................................................................................... 2-5
Table 2-6: Engine Statistics....................................................................................................... 2-6
Table 2-7: Overall Summary of Retrofits ............................................................................... 2-7
Table 2-8: Sizes of Particulate Traps..................................................................................... 2-11
Table 2-9: Filter Locations ...................................................................................................... 2-15
Table 3-1: Project Sequence of Events .................................................................................... 3-3
Table 3-2: Vehicles, Filter Types and Hours Accumulated................................................. 3-4
Table 3-3: Summary of Filter Durability-Related Incidents (as of 12/1/2003) .............. 3-11
Table 3-4. Summary of Trap Installation and Mounting Incidents ................................. 3-17
Table 3-5: Incident Summary: LACSD 657E SCRAPERS .................................................. 3-20
Table 3-6: Incident Summary: LACSD 657E Scraper ......................................................... 3-21
Table 3-7: Incident Summary: LACSD D9 Dozers ............................................................. 3-21
Table 3-8: Incident Summary: LACSD D9 Dozers ............................................................. 3-22
Table 3-9: Incident Summary: Poss 651 Scrapers ............................................................... 3-23
Table 3-10: Incident Summary: Poss 824/825/834 Dozers ............................................... 3-24
Table 3-11: Average Exhaust Backpressures During Demonstration ............................. 3-25
Table 3-12. Average Exhaust Temperatures During Demonstration .............................. 3-25
BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                                       iv
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study



Table 3-13: Summary of Fuel Economy Data for Study Vehicles .................................... 3-28
Table 3-14. Dynamometer Fuel Economy Test Data.......................................................... 3-29
Table 3-15: Summary of Oil Consumption Data for Study Vehicles............................... 3-30
Table 3-16. Fuel Sample Results ( sulfur content ppm) ..................................................... 3-31
Table 4-1: Pre-Demo Dynamometer Emissions Test Results.............................................. 4-2
Table 4-2: Post-Demo Dynamometer Emissions Test Results ............................................ 4-4
Table 4-3: Comparison of Pre- and Post-Demo .................................................................... 4-4
Dynamometer Emission Testing............................................................................................. 4-4
Table 4-4: Exhaust Opacity Readings Summary, Part 1 of 2............................................... 4-6
Table 4-5. Exhaust Opacity Readings Summary, Part 2 of 2............................................... 4-7
Table 4-6: CARB On-Board Particulate Matter Removal Efficiency.................................. 4-8
Table 5-1: Summary of Filter Incidents for Johnson-Matthey ............................................ 5-1
Table 5-2: Summary of Filter Incidents for Engelhard ........................................................ 5-3
Table 5-3. Summary of Trap Installation and Mounting Incidents ................................... 5-4
Table 5-4. Particulate Trap Capital Costs ............................................................................. 5-8
Table 5-5: Annualized Capital Costs for Particulate Traps................................................. 5-8
Table 5-6. Annual Operating Costs for Particulate Trap Installations ............................ 5-10
Table 5-7. Total Annualized Capital plus Operating Costs for Trap Installations........ 5-10
Table 5-8. Annual Emission Inventory Reduction from Trap Installation ..................... 5-11
Table 5-9. Cost Effectiveness of Particulate Trap Retrofits ............................................... 5-11




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                                          v
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study




               Demonstration of Diesel Particulate Filter Technologies
             on Existing Off-Road Heavy-Duty Construction Equipment
                                          EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Current California Air Resources Board (CARB) emission models estimate that construction
equipment vehicles generate 38 percent of the total off-road PM10 emissions in California, or
about 21 tons per day. This study sought to evaluate the durability and effectiveness of passive
diesel particulate filter (DPF) technology as applied to existing off-road compression-ignition
construction equipment.

The study consisted of engineering and retrofitting a dozen vehicles and monitoring their
operation for one year. The study measured the effectiveness and durability of the filters and
their installation hardware. The study also conducted laboratory dynamometer emission testing
of an off-road diesel engine under various steady-state and transient conditions using filters
before and after being used for a year.

1. Who conducted the study?

The South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) and CARB jointly administered
the project. CARB conducted in-field emissions testing. Significant in-kind contributions,
engineering, and financial support was also provided by Los Angeles County Sanitation District
(LACSD). Additional support came from the Construction Industry Air Quality Coalition
(CIAQC), and in-kind contributions from C. W. Poss Construction, Inc. (Poss) and Sukut
Construction. Johnson-Matthey (JM) and Engelhard Corporation provided particulate traps.
Booz Allen Hamilton provided project management services. West Virginia University (WVU)
conducted emissions testing.

2. Where was the study conducted?

Poss and LACSD provided the vehicles and the two host demonstration sites. LACSD operates
the Puente Hills Landfill 13 miles east of downtown Los Angeles. Poss prepares sites for new
home construction. The Poss study vehicles were employed on a tract two miles north of
Newport Beach.

The project focused on the installation of 21 particulate matter (PM) filters onto 15 engines used
on 12 heavy-duty construction vehicles (some vehicles use 2 engines—and certain engines
required 2 filters). Engelhard supplied 12 filters JM provided the other 9. Shepherd Machinery,
the local Caterpillar dealership (now Quinn-Shepherd), installed the filters on six bulldozers and
six scrapers.

3. What vehicles were selected for the study?

Equipment selection was a balance between using like-model vehicles to compare performance
among differing DPFs, and using vehicles of various ages typically used in the construction
industry.


BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                             -ES–1-
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study



The six LACSD vehicles were 1996 vintage 657E scrapers and 2000 vintage D9 dozers (one of
the dozers was a 1996 model. The operators fueled the study vehicles with ultra-low-sulfur diesel
(ULSD) from BP-Arco. LACSD also operated four “control” vehicles (i.e., standard vehicles
without traps installed) throughout the test period: two 657E scrapers and two D9 dozers. One
scraper and one dozer operated on CARB diesel fuel; the remaining scraper and dozer operated
on ULSD. The primary purpose of this control fleet was to establish a baseline for fuel economy,
oil consumption, and reliability performance against which the vehicles fitted with traps could be
compared.

The six Poss study vehicles were manufactured between 1971 and 1983 and consisted of three
Caterpillar 651B scrapers and three Caterpillar 824/825/834 series dozers. Poss did not operate
any “control” vehicles due to limited equipment availability.

4. What was the condition of the engines?

All of the engines used were in good condition and maintained according to Caterpillar service
guidelines. All the Poss engines were certified rebuilt within the last three years, and checked to
assure they met performance specifications. All of the LACSD 657E scraper engines were 1996
vintage. The one mechanical D9 bulldozer #6621 was 1998 vintage, and the two electronic D9
bulldozers were 2000 vintage.

5. What kinds of particulate traps were used?

JM and Engelhard provided both 15" and 20" traps for the study depending on engine size.
Engelhard used DPX 20X15 filters on all applications, except for one 15X15 used on an 825C
dozer with a Caterpillar 3406 engine. JM also used 20X15 CRT (continuously regenerating
technology) filters on most applications. JM’s 15X15 CRT filters were installed on the Poss
bulldozers, and on the front engine of the 657E scrapers.

6. How was filter performance monitored?

JM installed data loggers connected to temperature and pressure sensors upstream of the filters.
These data loggers continuously monitored exhaust temperature and pressure and thus provided
valuable insight into the performance of the various installations. These data loggers proved
useful in predictive diagnosis of trap problems. They also provided a warning light to the
operator if backpressure exceeded a pre-determined threshold. Engelhard also installed
backpressure-warning devices but did not install continuous monitoring data loggers. However,
the LACSD purchased five additional data loggers to continuously monitor performance of the
Engelhard filters.

In addition to the data loggers, filter performance was monitored daily by equipment operators
and maintenance staff at host site locations. Any incidents, failures, or other observations related
to the filters were recorded on incident reports and logged by maintenance staff. Filter
performance was also periodically tested using on-board emissions testing equipment, and
opacity tests were completed regularly throughout the study (see Question 8).



BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                             -ES–2-
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study



7. How were filters mounted onto the vehicles?

The trap manufacturers provided installation designs and some of the mounting hardware to
retrofit the filters to the vehicles. Filters were mounted using metal brackets and large band
clamps often fabricated and welded on-site by Shepherd Machinery technicians. Customized
and/or flexible piping was used to adapt the exhaust system for the traps (in replacement of the
muffler). For all dozer applications, as well as scrapers at Poss, the filters were placed on the
Rollover Protection Structure (ROPS), but stakeholders acknowledged that this location was not
ideal and unlikely to be fielded in a commercial product. In the absence of other alternatives, and
due to time limitations, the study proceeded with the ROPS-based designs. For scrapers at
LACSD, the filters were placed in various locations on the fenders (see Section 2.5.3, Table 2-9,
for additional detail).

Shepherd installed the JM filters beginning in November 2002, and the Engelhard filters in
February 2003.

KEY STUDY FINDINGS

In-service data collection included exhaust opacity, exhaust backpressure and temperature, fuel
and oil consumption, vehicle maintenance, filter efficiency, filter durability, bracket durability,
and operator perceptions.

8. How well did particulate filters perform in reducing particulate emissions?

In October 2002, both an Engelhard and JM filter were tested at the WVU Engines and
Emissions Research Laboratory (EERL). WVU conducted dynamometer tests on a Caterpillar
engine (3408) using both transient and 8-mode steady-state duty cycles.

The JM traps demonstrated highly effective PM emission reductions on the dynamometer tests
conducted by WVU. Both pre- and post-demonstration testing by WVU of the JM filter showed
greater than 98 percent reduction in PM emissions. Engelhard filters also demonstrated highly
effective PM emission reductions. Pre-demonstration testing of the Engelhard filter showed
greater than 98 percent reduction in PM emissions, while post-demonstration testing yielded
about 91 percent PM emission reduction efficiency.

9. Was trap PM reduction sustained throughout the demonstration?

Testing of emissions in actual service (on vehicles at LACSD) was also completed using
CARB’s portable Trap Efficiency Verifier (TEV). Testing was completed on both JM and
Engelhard DPFs. PM emission reduction measured between 91 and 98 percent at various points
throughout the demonstration (see Section 4.3.2, Table 4-6, for additional detail). At the official
end of the project in December 2003, most traps had accumulated in excess of 500 hours of
operation. At the time of this writing, some of the traps had accumulated well over 2,000 hours
of operation with no reported problems related to high backpressure or fouling. Exhaust from
study vehicles was also tested for smoke opacity using the snap acceleration protocol. After
filters were installed, all vehicles gave opacity readings below 1 percent. Also, visual inspection
of the exhaust plume shows remarkable improvement on vehicles equipped with filters.

BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                            -ES–3-
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study



10. How well did the particulate traps perform in reducing other criteria emissions?

WVU quantified the PM, CO, HC, and NOx emissions based on steady-state and transient
emissions testing both with and without traps, and using both CARB and ULSD fuel. (Note:
CARB and ULSD sulfur content was approximately 200 ppm and 15 ppm, respectively.) Neither
the JM filter nor the Engelhard filter affected the levels of total NOx significantly. However, the
NO2 portion of NOx increased significantly (three to four times baseline levels) with the
particulate filters installed. The increase in NO2 emissions appeared to be particularly noticeable
at lower engine power levels, and was somewhat more pronounced with the JM traps. Such
increase in NO2 levels is expected with these catalyzed DPFs since these systems generate NO2
(by oxidation of engine out NO) as the means for passive filter regeneration.

HC and CO levels were also greatly reduced with the use of the traps—about 79 and 65 percent,
respectively, for the Engelhard filter, and 93 and 97 percent, respectively, for the JM filter.

WVU also performed testing of the engine using Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuel both with and
without a filter (the JM filter was used for this testing). With the filter installed, the FT fuel
produced emission reduction results almost identical to testing with ULSD. Without a trap, the
NOx emissions with FT fuel increased significantly compared to ULSD.

11. How durable and reliable were the filter elements themselves?

JM traps at LACSD performed well initially, but within 400 to 500 hours of operation, the
backpressure began to rise on all units equipped with the larger (20x15 CRT) filters. Inspections
showed that the ceramic trap elements had ”shifted” out of the canister on all of the larger units,
thus partially blocking exhaust flow and causing backpressure to increase sharply. Investigation
by the canister manufacturer (Donaldson Co.) showed that incorrect filter “banding” (affixing of
the ceramic filter element inside the CRT can), combined with high vibrations in the application
resulted in this problem. JM and Donaldson replaced or re-canned the problem systems.
Following this, the JM traps yielded low and stable backpressure and successfully completed the
rest of the demonstration. The smaller-sized (15x15) filter elements did not show this problem
and also successfully completed the demonstration.

The equipment at Poss was early 1970s vintage with pre-chamber combustion diesel engines.
These engines are known to exhibit extremely high PM emission rates. On these engines, the
current JM traps were not able to successfully regenerate and demonstrated high backpressures.
The increasing backpressures as well as internal inspections of the filters led JM to conclude that
these older engines produced more PM emission than the traps could reliably handle. Thus, these
older engines were deemed a problematic application for JM’s current CRT filter technology.

Approximately five months after the official end of the demonstration in May 2004, LACSD
staff found that the smaller (15") JM traps had also “shifted” within their canister housing, and
there were also concerns about the re-canned larger units. A thorough investigation ensued and
again this problem was diagnosed to be a result of issues with filter banding and canning. All
filters were removed and sent back to JM and Donaldson for analyses. JM and Donaldson
completely redesigned the filter modules and installed additional reinforcements. The updated
systems will be installed at LACSD for further durability evaluation. JM has continued to
BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                           -ES–4-
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study



support these installations and has indicated their intent to support retrofit particulate trap
products for 1995 vintage and newer engines used on such heavy-duty construction equipment.
JM noted that the valuable experience gained in this project would be utilized to improve and
optimize the trap designs.

The Engelhard filters showed excellent durability and reliability throughout the demonstration
period with only a single “failure” on a D9 dozer at LACSD. The ceramic filter inside the
canning shifted and was broken up, thus causing excessive backpressure and loss of power, a
problem similar to the JM filters. A preliminary examination suggested that the filter was likely
installed incorrectly. The filter did not appear to have cracked or melted due to high
temperatures, but rather due to vibration. (See Section 3.2.3 for additional details.) Engelhard
decided not to replace this filter, thus the use of the Engelhard filter was discontinued on this
dozer, and a comprehensive assessment of the failure mode of the Engelhard filter was not
completed.

12. Did traps cause excessive backpressure?

The operators perceived a loss of power if the filter(s) became clogged with soot and caused
excessive backpressure. The JM units at LACSD demonstrated stable and acceptable
backpressure under normal operation. However, when the filter system became defective due to
mechanical slippage of the ceramic filters, high backpressure was observed. In Poss applications
with older engines, the JM filters could not successfully regenerate with the high engine-out PM
and exhibited high filter backpressure. The Engelhard units installed at both Poss and LACSD
showed generally stable exhaust backpressure and did not experience loss of power (with the
exception of the single D9 dozer cited above).

13. How durable and reliable were trap mounting and installation hardware?

Filters from both JM and Engelhard experienced various incidents at both Poss and LACSD.
Incidents included: loose and failed seal rings and band clamps, torn flex pipes, fractured
brackets, loose or broken support brackets, and cracked and broken welds. Most of these failures
were related to the placement of the filters on the ROPS.

The tracked dozers at LACSD suffered the most incidents related to the trap mounting hardware.
Rubber-tired dozers at Poss as well as the rubber-tired scrapers at LACSD, on the other hand,
fared quite well with little or no installation issues. The scrapers at Poss also experienced several
incidents related to installation and mounting hardware—possibly because of the severe duty
cycle these units experience.

It should be recognized that OEM trap engineers (as well as Shepherd who assisted with
installation) had limited time to design brackets and other mounting hardware once the overall
installation configuration was approved. Moreover, these designs were essentially a first pass at
how to retrofit these vehicles. Retrofit piping was generally not routed in a compact, efficient
fashion as it might be in a production situation. Rather, the piping tended to be routed in simple
“right angle” configurations that stuck out from the vehicle (see various installation pictures in
Chapter 2). Such designs tended to exacerbate vibration. A location closer to the engine exhaust
manifold is preferred, but a location that does not block the operator’s visual field, or block
BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                            -ES–5-
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study



service access, was not apparent for the vehicles used in this study. Caterpillar noted that routine
placement on the ROPS would require OSHA rollover studies.

It should be noted that while several of the test vehicles experienced significant and repeated
problems with the trap hardware installations, nearly half of the installations experienced few or
no issues—including the scrapers at LACSD and the dozers at Poss. (These units did require
periodic maintenance such as tightening and adjusting brackets, but did not experience any
significant failures.) Given that installation designs were developed under tight time constraints
and were modified in the field, and that several of the installations experienced no failures, it is
reasonable to assume that designs could likely be improved, and that commercially viable
installation hardware and mounting systems could be developed for these heavy-duty
construction equipment applications.

14. Did traps have an impact on driver-machine performance?

Drivers did not report any noticeable impact on vehicle operation from DPF filters. Where filters
blocked a portion of the visual field, operators were able to adapt with no loss in efficiency.

15. Were traps found to be a hazard to equipment operation?

None of the engines were damaged during the course of the demonstration. When excessive
backpressure developed, the backpressure alarms were activated as intended and corrective
actions pursued. No incidents of excessive oil leakage or any other engine problems were
observed due to high filter backpressure.

16. Did traps cause a significant change in fuel consumption?

LACSD operations recorded fuel and oil consumption along with hours of operation for both the
test and control fleets. This data did not reliably demonstrate a change in fuel or oil consumption
as a consequence of filter retrofits, or from the use of ULSD. The data suggest that driver style
had a much larger effect on fuel consumption. Additionally, the fuel consumption data
accumulated by West Virginia University during controlled dynamometer testing also showed no
significant change in fuel economy with the particulate filters installed.

CONCLUSIONS

The prototype traps from Engelhard completed the demonstration with only a single failure out
of a total of 12 traps. This single failure was caused from slippage of the ceramic trap element,
which could be related to the banding design or vibration. However, the use of the Engelhard
filter on this dozer was discontinued and a full investigation of the failure mode was not
completed. A preliminary investigation by Engelhard suggested that the failure was due to poor
assembly quality during manufacturing. The traps from Engelhard, as of this writing, continue to
operate successfully at LACSD, and several traps have accumulated over 2,000 hours of
operation. The Engelhard traps installed on the older, high-PM-emitting (pre-combustion
chamber) engines at Poss also performed very well, with no instances of high backpressure
and/or failed filter elements. These results indicate that duty cycles (and overall operating
conditions) of high-horsepower diesel construction equipment are sufficient to support the
BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                            -ES–6-
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study



regeneration required by the Engelhard traps, and therefore represent a reasonable application for
retrofit with self-regenerating style particulate filters.

The JM traps performed well on 1996 vintage and newer diesel engines, but were deemed not
compatible with the 1970s vintage Poss diesel engines. Although the JM traps exhibited some
“canning” issues associated with affixing the ceramic trap element within the canister housing,
newer designs and assembly methods are expected to correct this largely mechanical problem. At
the time of this writing, the new filters with the new banding design have accumulated
approximately 1,000 hours of operation, and the original filters that were “re-canned” using the
new banding design have accumulated approximately 2,500 hours. It is important to note that the
JM traps on these engines did not have any failures due to lack of regeneration.

Although basic particulate trap technology (the self-regeneration process) was validated for use
on heavy-duty diesel construction equipment, significant challenges still remain regarding
installation and mounting of the very large particulate filters on these types of equipment. The
problem is exacerbated by the fact that the higher horsepower engines (Caterpillar 3412s and
D346s) required two very large filter sizes to adequately handle the high-volume exhaust flow
from these engines. The heavy filters, combined with severe vehicle vibration that is typical of
large off-road construction equipment, likely led to mechanical issues with filter canning and
mounting on many of the installations.




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                          -ES–7-
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study




                                          1.   INTRODUCTION

1.1   PROJECT BACKGROUND

This study sought to evaluate the effectiveness and durability of diesel particulate filters (DPFs)
on heavy-duty off-road construction equipment. California Air Resources Board emission
models estimate off-road equipment generated about 34 tons per day of particulate matter (PM)
10 in 2003 (the single largest contributor of all mobile sources including on-road cars and
trucks), and that construction equipment is by far the largest single source within the off-road
equipment category—generating about 21 tons per day (tpd) of PM10 in 2003 (see Figure 1-1).




                      Figure 1-1: California Statewide PM10 Emissions, 2003

This project was jointly administered by South Coast Air Quality Management District
(SCAQMD), the California Air Resources Board (CARB), and the Los Angeles County
Sanitation Districts (LACSD). The Construction Industry Air Quality Coalition (CIAQC) also
assisted with a variety of program coordination activities.

The study involved a total of 12 heavy-duty construction vehicles: 6 bulldozers and 6 scrapers. A
total of 15 engines were retrofitted with filters since three of the six scrapers were equipped with
two engines, one in the front and one in the rear. Also, the larger (front) engines on the scrapers
required two particulate filters (configured in parallel), therefore the demonstration included a
total of 21 separate filters.

Engelhard Corporation supplied 12 filters and JM provided the other 9. Shepherd Machinery, the
local Caterpillar dealership, installed the filters on six dozers and six scrapers.

The demonstration included two “host-site” operators: the Los Angeles County Sanitation
Districts (LACSD), and C.W. Poss Construction Inc. The LACSD tested vehicles at the Puente
Hills Landfill 13 miles east of downtown Los Angeles. This is one of the largest landfills in the
country and is characterized by typical “cover and compacting” operations associated with
landfills.


BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                               1-1
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study



C. W. Poss Construction Inc. provides site preparation services for homebuilders. The Poss study
vehicles were employed on a tract about two miles north of Newport Beach. Home site
preparation represents a comparatively severe duty cycle.

Sukut Construction also supplied a separate “loose” engine (a Caterpillar 3408) to support
dynamometer emissions testing by West Virginia University. The Cat 3408 model is used in
several pieces of construction equipment included in the test program (both scrapers and dozers).

Project objectives included:
      Evaluate the durability of PM filters (traps) under normal in-service operating conditions on
      large heavy-duty construction equipment for a period of 1,400 hours, or one year, whichever
      came first
      Evaluate any changes in PM filter effectiveness (as measured by in-service PM emission
      reduction percentage) throughout the demonstration
      Assess any differences in performance (durability and/or effectiveness) among filter
      technologies from different manufacturers
      Determine if and how varying duty cycles of different types of construction equipment
      impact filter durability and effectiveness (by operating several pieces of equipment at
      different host sites)
      Determine how trap durability and/or effectiveness is impacted by engines with inherently
      different engine-out PM emission levels
      Determine if the filters have any impact on engine durability, fuel economy, and/or oil
      consumption
      Evaluate any impacts on the operator including safety, performance, and efficiency of the
      equipment (vehicles)
      Gauge operators’ overall impressions and comments on the filters
      Quantify the costs to retrofit and maintain PM filters for this demonstration project.


1.2     PROJECT PARTICIPANTS AND ROLES

Table 1-1 lists the project participants and their roles.




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                               1-2
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study



                               Table 1-1: Project Participants and Roles
        Organization                   Role                                 Staff and Role
  South Coast Air Quality
                                                     •     Adewale Oshinuga, Project Officer
  Management District         Project Manager
                                                     •     Drue Ramirez, Contract Administrator
  (SCAQMD)

                              Co-sponsor, On-board   •     Jim Shears, Engineering Manager
  California Air Resources    PM emission            •     Keshav Sahay, Air Resources Engineer
  Board (CARB)                measurement, fuel      •     John Karim, Staff Pollution Specialist
                              analysis               •     Juan Osborn, Sr. Engineer

                                                     •     Jeb Stuart
  Construction Industry Air
                              Industry Association   •     Mike Lewis
  Quality Coalition (CIAQC)
                                                     •     Clayton Miller

                                                     •     Frank Caponi, Engineering Supervisor
  Los Angeles County          Heavy equipment
                                                     •     Monet Wong, Engineer,
  Sanitation District         owner-operator, co-
                                                     •     Patrick Feenan, Sr. Mechanic for all LACSD sites
  (LACSD)                     sponsor
                                                     •     Larry Isenberg, Puente Hills Maintenance Manager

                                                     •     Charlie Poss, Owner
  C. W. Poss Construction, Heavy equipment
                                                     •     Wayne Kriehn, Purchaser
  Inc., Gen. Eng. Contractor owner-operator
                                                     •     Bob Ischerwood, Lead Mechanic, Newport Coast

                              Provided engine for    •     Rick McCourt, Safety/Risk Manager
  Sukut Construction
                              WVU testing            •     Mike Ortiz, Sr. Mechanic Engineer

                                                     •     Dr. Sougato Chatterjee, Engineering Manager
  Johnson-Matthey, Inc.                              •     Boyd Peart, Installation and Project Manager
                              Trap manufacturer
  (JM)                                               •     Todd Jacobs, Installation Engineer
                                                     •     Marty Lassen, Commercial Development

                                                     •     Richard Zurbey, Technical Service Engineer
  Engelhard Corporation       Trap manufacturer
                                                     •     John Macaluso, West Coast Retrofit Manager

                              Engine Dynamometer     •     Prof. Mridul Gautam, Ph. D. Professor of Mechanical
  West Virginia University
                              Testing and Emission         Engineering
  (WVU)
                              Analysis               •     Vinay Nagendran, Engineer

                                                     •     Bob Shepherd
                              Trap installation,
  Shepherd Machinery Co.                             •     Bruce Burlew, Supervisor
                              maintenance,
  (now Quinn-Shepherd)                               •     Tom Barr, Components Manager
                              dynamometer testing
                                                     •     Mike Correll, Weld Shop Supervisor
                                                     •     Bob Kreeb, Project Manager
  Booz Allen Hamilton         Project Management
                                                     •     Howard Paris, Deputy Project Manager


1.3   STUDY SCOPE AND DATA COLLECTION

This section reviews the task elements completed during the demonstration, the key
questions/issues addressed by the project, and the types of data collected to support the analyses.

Table 1-2 lists the predefined tasks and their elements.




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                                  1-3
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study



                                   Table 1-2: Summary of Task Elements
     Task Number and
                                                        Summary of Task Elements
       Description
                               •    Assist equipment owners to obtain and store fuel.
   1. Procure Fuel and PM
                               •    OEM’s procure data to design traps and brackets.
      Traps
                               •    Ensure equipment is properly fueled using sulfur content testing.
   2. Baseline Emission        •    Determine suitable vehicles for study based on vehicle status and history.
      Testing                  •    Check exhaust opacity values.
                               •    Transport engine and filters to be tested.
                               •    WVU conducts dynamometer testing of filters to quantify changes in principal
   3. Baseline
                                    emission components. WVU uses 8-mode steady state and transient duty
      Dynamometer
                                    cycle.
      Testing
                               •    WVU compares emissions using CARB, ULSD and Gas-to-Liquid (GTL,
                                    Fischer-Tropsch, FT) fuels.
   4. Retrofit Equipment       •    Obtain operating permits for modified equipment.
      with PM filters          •    Coordinate retrofit of vehicles.
                               •    CARB staff installs equipment to measure PM emission reductions during
   5. On-Board PM
                                    vehicle operation.
      Emission Testing
                               •    Opacity testing completed periodically.
                               •    Document incidents and coordinate stakeholder interests.
                               •    Drivers are polled to see if filters change vehicle performance.
   6. Demonstration
                               •    Record fuel and oil use by study vehicles.
      Monitoring
                               •    Routinely monitoring fuel samples for sulfur content
                               •    Filters and brackets are inspected, and backpressure monitored.
                               •    Transport engine and traps to WVU.
   7. Final Dynamometer        •    WVU conducts 8-mode steady state and transient duty cycle testing of filters
      Test                          after 1 year of field operation. Emission constituents are quantified to determine
                                    trap efficiency.



Table 1-3 summarizes key questions and issues addressed in the Project as well as the associated
tasks and/or data needed to address those questions.




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                                     1-4
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study



                                Table 1-3: Key Project Research Questions

        Questions / Issues
                                                        Tasks completed and Data Collected
           Addressed

                                        Maintenance history, equipment statistics, operating characteristics, and oil
  What is condition of engines prior
                                        consumption data collected by maintenance staff. Opacity testing of the
  to beginning the Project?
                                        engine exhaust was measured before and after filter installation.
  How well do the traps reduce PM
                                        On-board testing conducted by CARB, and periodic opacity testing.
  in real world operation?
  How well do the traps reduce PM
                                        Dynamometer testing conducted by West Virginia University.
  and other emission constituents?
  How can the traps be mounted to       Equipment dimensions and engine configuration recorded by trap
  the equipment?                        manufacturers. Discuss with Caterpillar.
  Will retrofitting an engine with
                                        Prior to filter installation on the demonstration vehicles, Shepherd
  traps cause excessive
                                        conducted a dynamometer test with each filter (one from each
  backpressure on the engine? Will
                                        manufacturer) mounted to a 3408 engine. A typical duty cycle was
  higher backpressure impact
                                        simulated to obtain temperature and backpressure curves.
  engine operation?
  The effect of DPFs and/or ULSD
                                        Fuel consumed and hours of operation recorded by operations and
  fuel on the rate of fuel
                                        maintenance staff.
  consumption?
  Are the rigs retrofitted with traps
  consistently fueled with Ultra Low    Sulfur content analyzed by CARB staff chemists.
  Sulfur Diesel?
  How quickly do the filters foul,
                                        Data loggers were used to record engine-out exhaust temperature and
  and do they become a hazard to
                                        pressure during the demonstration.
  the engine?
  Are the filters continuing to
                                        Opacity of exhaust emissions was tested periodically throughout the
  remove particulate during the
                                        demonstration.
  demonstration?
  Do the filters impact how well the
                                        Drivers were interviewed regarding vehicle performance.
  vehicles can be operated?
  How much does it cost to install      Installation and major repair costs were logged, and, additional fuel costs
  and operate equipment retrofitted     were calculated from fuel usage. Minor repair costs were incurred but not
  with traps?                           consistently logged.
  Are manufacturers ready to
  retrofit vehicles with PM traps?      Problems with the installations were logged as they occurred.

  How well do the traps and             Traps and installations were periodically inspected during the
  brackets stand up to the rigors of    demonstration.
  heavy-duty equipment operation?




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                                       1-5
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study


                             2.    PRE-DEMONSTRATION ACTIVITIES

2.1     EQUIPMENT SELECTION

Project participants (including SCAQMD, CARB, host-site operators, and CIAQC) employed a
variety of criteria to select vehicles used in the demonstration. The vehicles selected were to:
      Represent a cross-section of heavy-duty construction equipment used in California
      Allow for comparison of traps from a particular manufacturer operating on like equipment but
      at different sites (and therefore different duty-cycles)
      Allow for comparison of traps from different manufacturers operating on the same type of
      equipment at the same site
      Allow for comparison of a particular trap design (i.e., same size, manufacturer) operating on
      different types of equipment
      Be capable of completing the demonstration without requiring major repair.

Engelhard Corporation and JM were selected to participate in the demonstration based on their
significant experience in the design, manufacture, and servicing of particulate traps for heavy-duty
vehicles. Both companies also submitted acceptable technical proposals regarding specific trap
designs, available sizes (capacity), and required schedule delivery and cost-sharing criteria.

The inventory of vehicles owned and operated by both host sites (CSD and Poss) defined which
models were candidates for the study. Both LACSD and Poss operate dozers, scrapers, off-road
trucks, and numerous other types of diesel equipment. LACSD’s operations are “permanent” in
that all equipment involved in the study was located and maintained at the Puente Hills Landfill.
The Poss operation represented special challenges because any particular construction site under
development by Poss was by definition “temporary”. A typical site development project for Poss
might be for just a month, or more than a year for large projects. Equipment used at a particular
site could be moved when workloads shift among the various sites under development, or due to
schedule and other contract changes. As it turned out, the Poss site to be used for the study
changed twice while the traps and brackets were being prepared, thus, the original Poss vehicles
nominated for the study were unavailable. Poss management worked closely and cooperatively
with SCAQMD and other project participants to select vehicles that that would most closely meet
the overall study needs while minimizing disruptions to operations.

Dozers and scrapers were selected as the two types of construction equipment on which the traps
would be installed and tested. Dozers and scrapers were available at both sites, both employed
Caterpillar equipment, and both of these types of units were heavily utilized—operating about 8 to
10 hours each day.

Dozers

There were two primary types of dozers involved in the demonstration: Caterpillar D9s and older-
style 824/825/834 Series.

Caterpillar D9 Dozers: These units were used exclusively at the LACSD site. A total of three units
were retrofitted, two with JM filters and one with an Engelhard filter.

BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                             2-1
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study


Two of the units were model year 2000 and were equipped with Caterpillar electronic unit injector
(EUI) 3408 engines rated at 405 hp. The third unit was built in 1996 and equipped with a
Caterpillar mechanical unit injector (MUI) 3408 engine rated at 400 hp. There were also two
control vehicles included in the demonstration. Fuel economy, oil consumption, and engine
maintenance were tracked for these control vehicles (as well as the test vehicles) throughout the
demonstration in order to establish a credible performance baseline by which the test vehicles
could be compared (see Table 2-1) .

                                      Table 2-1: D9 Dozers at LACSD
                            Equip #        Rig Yr.          Engine       Trap
                             6621           1996           3408 MUI       JM
                             6654           2000           3408 EUI      ENG
                             6655           2000           3408 EUI       JM
                             6620           1998           3408 MUI      none
                             6653           2000           3408 EUI      none

The D9 dozers are fitted with extra-large blades in front that are specifically designed to compress
the landfill debris. The steel treads also compact debris and provide good traction on mixed
materials. Debris occasionally becomes entangled in the tread and gears, and requires periodic
removal (see Figure 2-1).




                       D9 dozer                                       Large blade of D9 dozer
                                          Figure 2-1: D9 Dozers

The D9 dozers are considered very large at about 110,000 lbs total weight. The filter units were
installed on top of the Roll-Over Protection System (ROPS). (See Section 2.5 for details on
installation.)

824/825/834 Dozers: These units were used exclusively at the Poss site. A total of three units were
retrofitted, two with JM filters, and one with an Engelhard filter. The 824B (1977 model year) and
825C (1983 model year) are smaller rubber-tired dozers weighing about 67,000 lbs. The 824B was
equipped with a Caterpillar D343 engine. This engine (rebuilt in 2001) is an older-style, 893 cubic
inch, pre-chamber combustion design rated at 315 horsepower. The 825C was equipped with a
similarly sized but newer (1983) 3406 direct injection engine (EUI) that was rebuilt in 2002 and
rated at 375 horsepower. The 834 dozer is a larger (102,000 lbs) rubber-tired dozer equipped with
BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                                  2-2
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study


a Caterpillar 3408 direct injection engine, rebuilt in 2002, and rated at 450 horsepower. The Poss
site did not include a dozer control fleet (see Table 2-2).
                                  Table 2-2: 824/825/834 Dozers at Poss
                    Model          Equip #      Rig Yr.      Engine          Trap
                    824B             407         1977       D343 MUI          JM
                    825C             415         1983       3406 EUI         ENG
                    834B             409         1971       3408 MUI          JM

The Poss dozers are fitted with normal-sized front blades used for earthmoving. Poss used the 824B
dozer to pull a “sheep’s-foot,” which is a heavy roller with large protruding studs that compresses
and textures the surface of deposited soil (see Figure 2-2).




               824B dozer with filter                              834 dozer with filter
                                 Figure 2-2: 824 and 834 Dozers at Poss

Scrapers

A scraper is a two-axle mounted tractor that pulls a bin with a hydraulically actuated blade along
the bottom leading edge. The tractor pulls the bin, and the blade is lowered to scrape up a layer of
earth, which piles up in the bin. When this bin is full, the scraper goes to the deposition area.
Another hydraulic scoop at the back of the bin pushes the load to the front, where it falls out over
the blade in a layer. LACSD uses 657E scrapers and Poss mainly uses 651B scrapers (see Figure
2-3).




            657E scraper without filter                         651B scraper without filter
                                   Figure 2-3: 657E and 651B Scrapers

BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                               2-3
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study




657E Scrapers: These units are very large, dual-engine machines weighing about 167,000 lbs
each. A total of three units were retrofitted, two with Engelhard filters and one with JM filters. The
657E scrapers (all were identical) were built in 1996 and equipped with a Caterpillar 3412 MUI
engine in the front rated at 550 horsepower (1650 cubic inch) and a Caterpillar 3408 MUI engine
in the rear rated at 400 horsepower (1100 cubic inch). The front engine (3412) was sufficiently
large that the largest available filter from either manufacturer was still not sufficient to handle the
exhaust flow volume. Therefore, these engines required two filter units to be configured in parallel
in the exhaust system in order to accommodate backpressure and flow requirements. Each 657E
therefore operated with a total of three particulate traps. There were also two “control” 657E
scrapers included at the demonstration site at LACSD (see Table 2-3).

                                   Table 2-3: 657E Scrapers at LACSD
                      Equip #         Rig Yr.                 Engine                Trap
                       6604            1996             3408 MUI, 3412 MUI           JM
                       6605            1996             3408 MUI, 3412 MUI          ENG
                       6606            1996             3408 MUI, 3412 MUI          ENG
                       6607            1996             3408 MUI, 3412 MUI          none
                       6608            1996             3408 MUI, 3412 MUI          none

651B Scrapers: The 651B scrapers were used only at the Poss site. These are older-style scrapers
weighing about 127,000 lbs and utilizing a single Caterpillar D346 engine. These engines are
identical in displacement to the 3412 engine (1,650 cubic inch) and are rated at 575 horsepower.
They utilize the older pre-chamber combustion design. The 651B scrapers were built in the early
1970s, but the engines were recently rebuilt (2000 to 2002). A total of three 651B scrapers were
retrofitted with traps, two with Engelhard and one with JM. The Poss site did not include a scraper
control fleet (see Table 2-4).

                                      Table 2-4: 651B Scrapers at Poss
                            Equip #         Rig Yr.         Engine           Trap
                             605             1973            D346             JM
                             625             1973            D346            ENG
                             628             1976            D346            ENG

[Note: While Poss primarily used 651B scrapers for its work, no single type of dozer dominated.
Moreover, the changing needs of the POSS sites dictated that vehicles be transported from one site
to another. Poss transported one 651B to the final location (Newport), but the study used the
dozers that were already stationed at Newport when the retrofits were conducted.]

General Notes on Equipment Selection

CIAQC members sought to provide equipment that would represent a cross-section of the heavy
duty vehicles used in the construction industry in California. Stakeholders acknowledged that the
final equipment selection was not ideal, but represented a good compromise given the cost,
schedule, and location logistics issues that were in play.



BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                                   2-4
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study


JM expressed concern about the high PM emissions from older 1970s pre-chamber diesel engines
included in the study. Project stakeholders, however, felt that studying older equipment would
provide an interesting “worse case” application for the particulate traps.

Stakeholders also wanted the equipment to be tested for as long as possible. This meant selecting
equipment that would not likely need extensive repairs during the test period (i.e. engines should
not be scheduled for rebuilding. In the case of LACSD, the study vehicle or engines were all
manufactured in 1996 or 2000, and were therefore not due for a major overhaul during the
demonstration.

Also, while Poss’s equipment was much older, they had recently rebuilt many of the engines on
their dozers and scrapers—and all engines were examined by Shepherd prior to the demonstration
to ensure they were in good working order. These examinations included checking timing, fuel
flow, backpressure, and rack (throttle) operation.

Both LACSD and Poss follow Caterpillar guidelines for scheduling preventive maintenance.
Twice a year, the oil is tested and the hydraulic fluid meter is replaced. Four times a year, staff
replace the water filter and transmission oil filter. Six times a year, the fuel and air filter are
replaced. Once every 500 hours, the transmission oil is replaced, and once every 1,000 hours the
hydraulic oil is replaced. Once a month, oil and oil filters are replaced and a 150-hour maintenance
checklist is followed.

Tables 2-5 and 2-6 provide statistics on the filters, vehicles, and vehicle engines used in the study.

                                          Table 2-5: Vehicle Statistics
                     Eq#      Equipment Type     Rig Year      RigWeight    Trap     Fuel used

                                                              CSD
                     6604    657E scraper          1996      167,270 lbs    JM        ULSD
                     6605    657E scraper          1996      167,270 lbs    Eng       ULSD
                     6606    657E scraper          1996      167,270 lbs    Eng       ULSD
                     6607    657E scraper          1996      167,270 lbs   Control    CARB
                     6608    657E scraper          1996      167,270 lbs   Control    ULSD
                     6655    D9N dozer EUI         2000      109,180 lbs    JM        ULSD
                     6621    D9N dozer MUI         1996      109,180 lbs    JM        ULSD
                     6654    D9N dozer EUI         2000      109,180 lbs    Eng       ULSD
                     6620    D9N dozer MUI         1998      109,180 lbs   Control    CARB
                     6653    D9N dozer EUI         2000      109,180 lbs   Control    ULSD
                                                            POSS
                     407       824B dozer          1977      66,975 lbs     JM        ULSD
                     409        834 dozer          1971      102,195 lbs    JM        ULSD
                     415       825C dozer          1983       66,975 lbs    Eng       ULSD
                     605      651B scraper         1973      126,880 lbs    JM        ULSD
                     625      651B scraper         1973      126,880 lbs    Eng       ULSD
                     628      651B scraper         1976      126,880 lbs    Eng       ULSD

                            vehicles retrofitted with traps




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                                         2-5
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study


                                                    Table 2-6: Engine Statistics
                                                                   Year     Engine Hrs                      Displ.
                            Engine                 Type of fuel                            Rated   Rated
 Eq#       Equip Type                     Filter                  engine     at start of                    (cubic           Notes
                             Type                   injection                               HP     RPM
                                                                  rebuilt      Demo                        inches)

                                                                       CSD
 6604     657E scraper     3412 (F)        JM         MUI         1996        12,124       550     2100     1649      Original engine.
                           3408 (R)        JM         MUI         1996        12,124       400     2100     1098      Original engine.
 6605     657E scraper     3412 (F)       ENG         MUI         1996        12,991       550     2100     1649      Original engine.
                           3408 (R)       ENG         MUI         1996        12,991       400     2100     1098      Original engine.
 6606     657E scraper     3412 (F)       ENG         MUI         1996        12,818       550     2100     1649      Original engine.
                           3408 (R)       ENG         MUI         1996        12,818       400     2100     1098      Original engine.
 6607     657E scraper     3412 (F)       none        MUI         1996        12,542       550     2100     1649      Original engine.
                           3408 (R)       none        MUI         1996        12,542       400     2100     1098      Original engine.
 6608     657E scraper     3412 (F)       none        MUI         1996        13,538       550     2100     1649      Original engine.
                           3408 (R)       none        MUI         1996        13,538       400     2100     1098      Original engine.
 6655      D9N dozer         3408          JM         EUI         2000         4,864       405     2100     1098      Original engine.
 6621      D9N dozer         3408          JM         MUI         1996         9,158       400     2100     1098       Certified rebuilt
 6654      D9N dozer         3408         ENG         EUI         2000         5,456       405     2100     1098       Certified rebuilt
 6620      D9N dozer         3408         none        MUI         1998         9,401       400     2100     1098     Certified Rebuilt 9/97
 6653      D9N dozer         3408         none        EUI         2000         4,598       405     2100     1098       Certified rebuilt
                                                                      POSS
 407       824B dozer        D343     JM           pre-chamber    2001          NA         315     2100      893     Rebuilt. no aftercooler
 409        834 dozer        3408     JM               MUI        2002          NA         450     2100     1098        Certified rebuilt
 415       825C dozer        3406     Eng              EUI        2002          NA         375     2100      893      Repowered with EUI
 605      651B scraper       D346     JM           pre-chamber    2000          NA         575     2000     1649             Rebuilt
 625      651B scraper       D346     ENG          pre-chamber    2002          NA         575     2000     1649             Rebuilt
 628      651B scraper       D346     ENG          pre-chamber    2001          NA         575     2000     1649             Rebuilt
                                                                      SUKUT
 Dyna     657E scraper     3408 (R)                   MUI         2002           --        418     2100     1098     Rebuilt, 1st WVU test
 Dyna     657E scraper     3408 (R)                   MUI         2003           --        418     2100     1098     Rebuilt, 2nd WVU test

        vehicles retrofitted with traps


The final selection of equipment, and the assignment of traps to specific vehicles resulted in an
overall good mix of test platforms. A total of 12 vehicles were retrofitted in the study: 6 with
Engelhard traps and 6 with JM traps; with 6 of the test vehicles located at LACSD and 6 at Poss.
A total of 15 engines were retrofitted: 8 with Engelhard and 7 with JM, with 9 located at LACSD
and 6 at Poss. A total of 21 filters were involved in the program: 12 from Engelhard and 9 from
JM, with 12 located at LACSD and 9 located at Poss. The overall distribution of filters is
summarized in Table 2-7.




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                                                  2-6
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study




                                Table 2-7: Overall Summary of Retrofits




2.2   DEMONSTRATION LOCATIONS AND VEHICLE ACTIVITY

Trap installations were demonstrated at two sites: the Puente Hills landfill and the Newport Coast
site. The LACSD operates the Puente Hills landfill, which is the largest landfill operation in the
country. The operation consists of waste haulers unloading their contents. The dozers compress
and form the material into 30-foot-high zones called cells. Scrapers remove earth from a nearby
hill and deliver it either on or next to municipal solid waste. The dozers then form and compress a
minimum one-foot layer of earth over the solid waste. Poss Construction was performing home site
preparation on a steeply hilled area about 2 miles north of Newport Beach. This location was the
second test site, and was referred to as the Newport Coast site (see Figure 2-4).




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                              2-7
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study




               CSD Puente Landfill                           C. W. Poss Newport Coast Project

                          Figure 2-4: LACSD and Poss Demonstration Sites

The Newport Coast site included preparations for roads, utility installation, and home settings. The
site itself consisted of sandy soil, sandstone, and some rock. The scrapers often needed one or two
dozers to help push as they cut the sandstone and rock out of place.

2.3   FUEL SELECTION AND LOGISTICS

LACSD normally fueled its vehicles with BP-Arco brand CARB diesel, and the C.W. Poss
vehicles were fueled with Phillips-brand CARB fuel. The study “control” vehicles receiving
CARB fuel continued to use this fuel throughout the demonstration. Control vehicles (those
without traps) that were slated to operate on ULSD during the demonstration period received BP-
Arco ECD-1 brand diesel fuel.

During the study, BP-Arco was the only refiner in the Los Angeles basin selling ULSD
commercially. For the purpose of this study, BP-Arco made red-dyed ULSD available to LACSD
and Poss at $0.055 above the CARB rack price. Refiners add red dye to off-road diesel fuel to
designate that no highway taxes are paid on it.

For ULSD fuel, the specification is 15 parts per million (ppm) of sulfur instead of the 500 ppm
sulfur for CARB diesel. (CARB specifications are listed in the California Code of Regulations,
Title 13, Mobile Sources and Fuels, Chapter 5, Standards for Motor Vehicle Fuels, Article 2,
Standards for Diesel Fuel.) However, routine sampling of the CARB fuel at LACSD indicates the
sulfur level is much lower than the 500 ppm specification—and is usually around 50 ppm.

This study designated all traps to use ULSD throughout the test period. Sulfur in diesel fuel
“poisons”, or otherwise renders ineffective, the catalytic precious metal coatings on the filters that
are needed to lower regeneration temperatures. In addition, sulfur contributes to PM formation.
(see Section 2.4 for additional detail on trap design). California mandates the sale of ULSD in the
state in beginning 2006 for all diesel equipment.

Before the program, LACSD fueled its vehicles with CARB diesel from six 5,000-gallon tanks
located on-site at the Puente Hills landfill. LACSD designated one of the six tanks, and added
another tank (totaling two), to store the ULSD for this program. LACSD had an ongoing contract
with BP-Arco and amended it to truck in the ULSD. LACSD staff painted the study vehicles with
BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                              2-8
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study


green paint at strategic locations and painted “ULSD only” to identify these vehicles to the fueling
contractor.

Poss purchased an additional 10,000-gallon above-ground fuel tank for the Newport Coast site and
dedicated it for ULSD storage. Poss subcontracts a wet-hose service to fill its vehicles during the
evening hours (after the end of the work day). However, dozers often require a top-off of fuel
during the noon lunch break to work through the entire day. The Poss lubrication/fuel truck
technician performs this noon top-off. For this study, Poss agreed to fill the test vehicles (those
with traps) with ULSD using the lubrication/fuel truck both at the noon top-off as well as for the
main fueling operations in the evening. This arrangement avoided the need to have a third-party
wet-hose supplier involved in the fueling—thus reducing costs and improving quality control
related to fueling.

2.4     TRAP SIZING AND PRELIMINARY ENGINEERING

A diesel particulate filter, or trap, positioned in the exhaust stream is designed to collect a
significant fraction of PM emissions—normally above 85 percent. The most common type of
particulate filter is the wall-flow monolith made of either cordierite (a synthetic ceramic material),
or silicon carbide (SiC). Cordierite has a low thermal expansion coefficient, which makes it
resistant to temperatures up to 1200ºC, and has good mechanical strength. Wall-flow monoliths
made of silicon carbide have temperature resistance even higher (up to 1800ºC), and are less
affected by long-term thermal cycling. SiC is generally considered the filter material of choice for
future PDFs.

Particulate matter that is trapped on the filter will oxidize, or burn and transform into carbon
dioxide, at temperatures of about 550º to 650ºC or higher. Unfortunately, these temperatures are
rarely encountered with diesel engines. Most heavy-duty diesel engines have exhaust temperatures
in the range of 300º-450ºC1. As such, a frequent means of removing the trapped particulate from
the filter must be provided, as the volume of such particulates generated by a diesel engine could
otherwise be sufficient to plug the filter in a matter of hours.

With passive regeneration, the required oxidation temperature of the particulate matter is lowered to
allow for auto-regeneration to occur during regular vehicle operation. One way to accomplish this is
to apply a base or precious metal catalytic coating directly to the filter surface. Another option is to
place a separate catalyst layer near the filter unit. In the presence of such catalytic material, the
temperature required for particulate oxidation is typically brought down to 250º-350º C.

2.4.1     Engelhard Filters

Engelhard filters are designated as “DPX Catalyzed Diesel Soot Filter.” The Engelhard version of
this technology consists of a single ceramic monolith encased in a stainless steel shell. Cones on
each side make the transition between the 6-inch exhaust piping and the diameter of the monolith.
Two retaining rings hold the monolith in place. The shell is vee-clamped to stainless steel cones
over the retaining rings. Ring clamps attach cone-shaped end-pieces to the catalyst can (see Figure
2-5).


1     DieselNet Technology Guide, Diesel Filter Regeneration section. DieselNet, May 1999
BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                                        2-9
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study




                                          Figure 2-5: Engelhard Filters


The monolith is a matrix of square channels, half of which are blocked off on one face and the
other half blocked off on the opposite face. The blocking is done in a symmetric diagonal or
checkerboard pattern. The DPX is a “wall-flow filter,” which means that the long channels allow
exhaust gases to diffuse through the porous ceramic walls. The surfaces are coated with
catalytically active metal. Above 7000 F, the metals convert the carbon-based particulate into CO2.

 The volume percent of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon vapors are also catalytically reduced.
Inorganic particulate ash is removed by reversing the filter or by blowing it out with compressed
air. Engelhard recommends reversing the filters every 1,000-2,000 hours of operation.

2.4.2   Johnson-Matthey Filters

The diesel particulate filter from JM (Figure 2-6) is commercially known as Continuously
Regenerating Technology or CRT® filter system. The device is composed of two primary sections,
where the oxidation step in the first is                                             Outlet
                                                                           Filter
followed by the soot collection/combustion                   Catalyst      Section
                                                                                     Head
process in the second. As shown in the               Inlet   Section
figure, the CRT filter comprises four                Head
modules, which include an inlet head,
catalyst section, filter section and an outlet
head. The catalyst section contains an
oxidation catalyst consisting of a ceramic
honeycomb substrate coated with a
proprietary highly active platinum group
metal. Aside from oxidizing a portion of
                                                                      Oxidation    Wall-flow
the NO for soot combustion, the catalyst                                           Filter
                                                                      Catalyst
also oxidizes CO, HC and the SOF portion
of the PM.                                                  Figure 2-6: JM Filter

In the filter section (see Figure 2-7), the exhaust gas flows through a bare ceramic wall-flow filter.
The filter is also a honeycomb design with alternate channels blocked at each end forcing exhaust


BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                                  2-10
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study


to flow through the walls of the filter where gaseous
components pass through and the soot is trapped. The
trapped soot is then combusted by the NO2 generated by
the catalyst.

The substrate for the oxidation catalyst and the
particulate filter were manufactured by Corning Inc.
The DOC and the filter sections are connected using
bolted flanges and a gasket. Manifolds convert the
exhaust from 6-inch piping to the larger diameter
elements. These manifolds are flange bolted on each
end.

2.4.3   Sizing of Traps for Applications                                  Figure 2-7: Filter Section
Both Engelhard and JM sized their filters based on engine displacement and the exhaust flow rates
of the specified equipment, (see Table 2-8).

                                   Table 2-8: Sizes of Particulate Traps

                           Equip Type     Eq#   Engine Type    Trap      DPF Type

                                              CSD
                       657E scraper   6604 3412 (Front)       JM      15X15 CRT (2)
                                           3408 (Rear)        JM      20X15 CRT
                       657E scraper   6605 3412 (Front)       Eng     DPX 20X15 (2)
                                           3408 (Rear)        Eng     DPX 20X15
                       657E scraper   6606 3412 (Front)       Eng     DPX 20X15 (2)
                                           3408 (Rear)        Eng     DPX 20X15
                       D9N dozer elec 6655 3408               JM      20X15 CRT
                       D9N dozer mech 6621 3408               JM      20X15 CRT
                       D9N dozer elec 6654 3408               Eng     DPX 20X15
                                             POSS
                       824B dozer     407 D343                JM      15X15 CRT
                       834B dozer     409 3408                JM      15X15 CRT
                       825C dozer     415 D3406               Eng     DPX 15X15
                       651B scraper   605 D346                JM      20X15 CRT (2)
                       651B scraper   625 D346                Eng     DPX 20X15 (2)
                       651B scraper   628 D346                Eng     DPX 20X15 (2)


For the front engines of the 657E scrapers (3412) and the single engines on the 651B (D346)
scrapers, Engelhard specified the use of two DPX 20X15 traps (the largest available from
Engelhard). A single DPX 20X15 was specified for the rear engines of the 657E scrapers, as well
as for the D9 dozer. For the 825C dozer with a 3406 EUI, Engelhard specified a single DPX 15 X
15 filter.

JM specified the use of two filters (15 x 15 CRTs) on the 3412 engines, but used twin 20 x 15
CRTs on the older D346 engine at Poss. For the 3408 engines in 657E scrapers and D9 dozers, JM
specified a single 20 x 15 CRT. On the dozers at Poss, JM specified 15 x 15 CRTs for both the
D343 engine in the 824B, as well as the 3408 engine used in the 834B. [Note: The 3408 engine
used in the 834B dozer at Poss was essentially identical in design to the 3408 engines used in
BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                                2-11
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study


dozers and scrapers at LACSD, therefore, it is unclear why JM specified a slightly smaller filter
(15 x 15) for the Poss installation versus a 20 x15 filter for 3408s at LACSD.]

2.5     INSTALLATION DESIGN

The PM filter manufacturers (OEMs) were responsible for designing the brackets, piping, clamps
and other fittings needed to mount the PM filters on the vehicles and configure them into the
exhaust system. Bracket design required a detailed understanding of numerous issues including
vibration, safety, visibility, ergonomics, operating temperatures, exhaust flow, and other vehicle-
specific factors.

In addition to reducing particulate emissions, the filter also acts as a muffler—and the “going-in”
strategy was to replace the existing mufflers with the PM filters. However, a typical muffler for
the engines in the demonstration may weigh about 40 to 50 pounds and is significantly smaller
than the PM filters. The Engelhard filters weighed about 100 to 125 pounds and the JM filters
weighed nearly 300 pounds.

The PM filter brackets must be sturdy enough to withstand the vehicle vibration while supporting a
comparatively large and heavy filter unit. The piping leading to and from the trap must also resist
vibration. The exhaust piping must conduct the exhaust gases from the engine to the catalyst
without losing too much heat. If too much heat is lost, the regeneration process may not be able to
keep up with the accumulation of soot. If too much soot accumulates, when regeneration
eventually does occur, the ceramic matrix can overheat causing cracking or melting.

Also, on the 657E scrapers and D9 dozers at LACSD, and the 651B scrapers at Poss, the muffler
incorporates an “aspirator” to draw larger dust particles away from the air filter intake and reduce
the rate of filter plugging. This line must be replaced and re-routed when the trap is installed. Low-
line aspirators are an exhaust pipe that has dimples or welded inserts to function like a nozzle. The
nozzle generates a low-pressure zone using the Venturi effect. Equipment suppliers do not
normally stock exhaust aspirators because they are usually integrated into the OEM mufflers.
Caterpillar and Donaldson manufacture exhaust aspirators. Shepherd staff located these parts for
this study. Shepherd technicians plumbed the low-line aspirators into the exhaust stream and the
low-line coming from the air filter.

All of the initial designs submitted by the OEMs placed the traps either on the driver cab or on the
ROPS. The ROPS and the driver cab are integrated as one structure on all the study vehicles
except the D9 dozers, where they are two separate structures. However, several design
modifications occurred during the retrofit. Challenges encountered during installation included:
      The OEMs could not mount the traps where they would block access to the engine, or to other
      areas that needed frequent servicing. For example, on the 657E scrapers, the exhaust piping (as
      originally designed) blocked the area needed to remove the rear engine air filter. In another
      case, LACSD worked with OEMs to reposition the filters on the right front fender of the 657E
      scraper to improve the driver’s side vision. It was also necessary to adjust the stop on the 657E
      scraper yoke to prevent the yoke from turning so far that it would damage the filter.
      The OEMs could not place the filters under the hood of the engine because the filters were too
      large to fit. The Engelhard filter was almost small enough to fit under the hood of the D9, but


BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                              2-12
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study


    LACSD staff believed the filter would obstruct the fan’s cooling stream and the resulting heat
    might damage the nearby electronics.
    The visual range of the operator limited the placement of the traps from being in front or to the
    side of the driver’s cab. Caterpillar placed and oriented its mufflers to minimize blocking the
    visual range of the operator. Although most filters were placed above the cab, filters were also
    placed on the right front fender of the 657E scraper. The two 20-inch diameter filters reduced
    some of the driver’s visual field but drivers appeared to successfully adapt to their presence.

2.5.1         Caterpillar Review of Retrofit Designs

Before proceeding with the installation of the particulate traps, the LACSD requested that
Caterpillar review the proposed designs. Caterpillar noted two primary concerns: a potential
compromise of structural integrity and increased backpressure.

Structural Integrity. Caterpillar has tested its ROPS structures extensively to comply with OSHA
regulations and intended applications. Off-road vehicles are subject to possible rollover since they
are often used on very steep inclines and the ROPS structure is designed to withstand such an
event. Caterpillar was asked to review installation proposals since a 100- to 300-pound mass of
ceramic at 450 degrees Fahrenheit poses a potential hazard to the driver in the event of a rollover.

Caterpillar engineering staff indicated that adding the filters to the ROPS structure would likely
drop its natural vibration frequency. Over a prolonged period, this vibration could cause fatigue
cracking (according to Christine Hoecker, Caterpillar D9 dozer ROPS engineering specialist), but
that such symptoms would likely occur gradually/incrementally, and could be detected if an
inspection program was in-place. Caterpillar indicated that significant finite element analysis and
prototype testing would need to be completed to determine the likelihood and extent to which
durability and reliability of the ROPS structure might be compromised. Further, Caterpillar
engineers believed it unlikely that Caterpillar could approve the ROPS location for commercial
trap retrofits. Caterpillar staff suggested that having the filter above the ROPS could also increase
the risk of rollover, although probably only slightly.

Backpressure. One of the main concerns relating to the trap installation was the effect on engine
performance and reliability. Substituting a trap for the muffler may increase engine backpressure,
particularly as ash builds up on the surface of the catalyst. If the exhaust flow is restricted, more
heat remains in the engine, increasing wear and decreasing durability. Caterpillar’s comments
related to backpressure issues are summarized as follows:
1. Caterpillar off-road design guidelines specify 1.84 inches Hg (25 inches of water) as an
   optimal backpressure for the exhaust system.
2. Caterpillar engines are certified up to 2.94 inches Hg (40 inches of water), and 2.94 inches Hg
   is the recommended limit.
3. Exceeding the recommended backpressure is expected to have the following effects:
    a. Reduced output torque and engine response.
    b. Increases in stack temperature of approximately 20.4 degrees Fahrenheit for 1 inch Hg (or
       1.5 F for every 1 inch of water)
    c. Loss of turbocharger sealing

BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                             2-13
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study


    d.   Piston-ring-liner wear
    e.   Fatigue cracking of exhaust system components including exhaust valves
    f.   Loss of fuel economy by approximately 0.5 percent per 1 inch Hg (13.6 inches of water)
    g.   Soot deposits or smoke from exhaust joints

2.5.2    Backpressure Dynamometer Test by Shepherd Machinery

Equipment owners expressed concerns about the backpressure estimates provided by the trap
manufacturers. LACSD staff noted that heat is the worst enemy of these diesel engines. These
engines run relatively hot, so increasing temperature would potentially burn valves or drop pistons.
The backpressure estimates from Engelhard were within the limits recommended by Caterpillar
with expected flow rates below 1 inch of mercury (0.67 to 0.89 inches Hg). However, Engelhard
backpressure estimates did not include all of the modified piping for the new installations.
Backpressure estimates from JM (which did include the redesigned exhaust system piping)
exceeded limits for some of the installation designs. The JM estimates ranged from 2.41 to 3.80
inches Hg, and as noted, Caterpillar set its guideline at 2.94 inches Hg for off-road vehicles.

Given these estimates, stakeholders agreed to test the backpressure on a dynamometer mounted
test engine with each trap configured into the exhaust system to simulate its intended placement on
the vehicle. On August 7, Shepherd reinstalled the LACSD 3408 engine onto the dynamometer,
(see Figure 2-8). The Shepherd engineers tested the engine exhaust backpressure with 20X15-size
filters from Engelhard and JM, as well as with a stock muffler. The backpressures measured from
the muffler, the JM trap and the Engelhard trap were 1.98 inches, 1.03 inches, and 1.1 inches of
Hg, respectively. This test indicated that installed traps would not generate excessive backpressure
when clean.




   Figure 2-8: Dynamometer test of Johnson-Matthey CRT at Quinn-Shepherd Machinery




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                           2-14
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study


2.5.3   Design Review of Final Installation

Host site operators (as well as other project participants) sought near-commercial designs for this
demonstration. After considerable discussion, the stakeholders acknowledged that for the primary
purposes of the demonstration, a commercial design could not be developed in a timely manner.
The stakeholders agreed to allow the OEMs to design brackets supported by the cab ROPS if no
alternative was apparent, and that locating filters on the ROPS was an acceptable design since the
demonstration was to be for a period of only 1 year, and any signs of fatigue could be quickly
addressed. For most front-mounted engines, the OEMs designed brackets that mounted the filters
on top of the ROPS.

The location above the ROPS however had one additional drawback. When transporting these
vehicles, owners load them onto a flatbed truck. A filter mounted on the ROPS may exceed the
height limitation for some highway overpasses.

Rather than install the filters on the ROPS of the 657E scrapers, LACSD staff offered to work with
Shepherd technicians to reinforce the right side front fender and mount the twin filters for the 3412
engines at that location. Similarly, LACSD chose to mount the filter for the rear engine of the
657E scrapers on the left rear fender. The technicians positioned the filters on the fenders to
minimize the loss of operator side vision. The final locations of the filters are listed in Table 2-9.

                                          Table 2-9: Filter Locations
                                                                                     Filter
                Equip Type        Eq#     Engine Type     Trap      DPF Type
                                                                                    Location
                                         CSD
            657E scraper         6604 3412 (Front)      JM       15X15 CRT (2)    rt. front fender
                                      3408 (Rear)       JM       20X15 CRT       left rear fender
            657E scraper         6605 3412 (Front)      Eng      DPX 20X15 (2)    rt. front fender
                                      3408 (Rear)       Eng      DPX 20X15       left rear fender
            657E scraper         6606 3412 (Front)      Eng      DPX 20X15 (2)    rt. front fender
                                      3408 (Rear)       Eng      DPX 20X15       left rear fender
            D9N dozer            6655 3408 EUI          JM       20X15 CRT              ROPS
            D9N dozer            6621 3408 MUI          JM       20X15 CRT              ROPS
            D9N dozer            6654 3408 EUI          Eng      DPX 20X15              ROPS
                                        POSS
            824B dozer           407 D343               JM       15X15 CRT           ROPS
            834B dozer           409 3408 MUI           JM       15X15 CRT           ROPS
            825C dozer           415 3406 EUI           Eng      DPX 15X15           ROPS
            651B scraper         605 D346               JM       20X15 CRT (2)       ROPS
            651B scraper         625 D346               Eng      DPX 20X15 (2)       ROPS
            651B scraper         628 D346               Eng      DPX 20X15 (2)       ROPS



To protect staff from the hot surfaces, LACSD required filters to be insulated. The ceramic
elements retain heat for several hours after shutoff. Thermal Energy Products of Brea designed and
manufactured insulating pads constructed of fiberglass and silicon rubber backing. Also, the 651B
scraper at Poss that had been retrofitted with a JM filter was insulated in an attempt to improve
regeneration.


BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                                     2-15
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study


Engelhard literature cautions against insulating the body of their filters, but Engelhard project
engineers did not object to the insulating of the filters at LACSD, and no adverse effects were
observed. Examples of insulated retrofits are shown in Figure 2-9.




 .
         657E scraper front with JM filter               657E scraper front with Engelhard filter




                D9 dozer with filter                     657E scraper rear with Engelhard filter

                         Figure 2-9: Insulated Particulate Trap Installations

2.5.4   Installation of Data Loggers

Equipment owners expressed concern that the particulate traps would generate a higher
backpressure than the muffler. As previously noted, Caterpillar’s guidelines advise against
backpressure increasing above 2.94″ Hg.

The manufacturers installed pressure sensors that activated warning lights when the backpressure
increased beyond a preset limit. JM provided CRTdm™ data loggers programmed to generate
pressure alarms at 5 and 7 inches of Hg. The alarms register as red warning LED lights on the front
panel of the CRTdm™, and on an indicator box attached to the drivers’ dashboard. The high
backpressure alarms were programmed to latch on if the pressure was exceeded for a sum total of
three minutes within a one-hour period.

For the Engelhard pressure monitor kits, when backpressure went above 7.4 inches of Hg for 15
seconds, the amber light came on. If backpressure went above 7.4 inches of Hg for 60 seconds, the
orange light came on. The lights “latch”, that is, if the backpressure drops below the set point, the
lights will not go off until power is turned off at the ignition switch (see Figure 2-10).
BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                              2-16
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study




     Temperature and backpressure probes                 Engelhard warning and alarm lights
                             Figure 2-10: Pressure Monitoring Apparatus

In addition to the high-backpressure warning system, JM also included CRTdm™ data logger
modules for all of their retrofits to continuously sample and record exhaust temperature and
pressure via sensors installed in the exhaust system (see Figure 2-11). The modules record a high,
low, and average value every two minutes for both temperature and pressure. JM placed the
CRTdm’s in NEMA enclosures bolted to the vehicle. The modules had four internal lights that
indicated whether a pressure or temperature alarm was generated, or if a system problem had
developed. By connecting an RS 232 cable from a PC to the CRTdm module, the PC could extract
the recorded data. Software on the PC plots the data for review. The graphic representation of the
backpressure and temperature provided insight into the performance of the various installations
and help diagnose problems.




                JM CRTdm module                              JM warning and alarm lights

                              Figure 2-11: Johnson-Matthey Data Loggers

In May 2003, LACSD staff installed data loggers similar in design to the JM data loggers on their
Engelhard traps.




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                            2-17
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study



                                  3.      DEMONSTRATION RESULTS

3.1   HIGH-LEVEL SUMMARY OF DEMONSTRATION ACTIVITIES

During early 2002, filters were procured, fueling logistics were completed, and procedures for
collecting demonstration data were reviewed with host site participants.

In the spring of 2002, the filter manufacturers began developing the installation designs based on
the designated study vehicles. Baseline opacity testing was completed on several vehicles, and,
baseline fuel economy, oil consumption, and vehicle maintenance history data were also gathered.
Installation design efforts continued through the summer of 2002. In August, WVU recorded
transient engine operating data on equipment at LACSD to be used for developing the emissions
test cycle.

Shepherd Machinery also conducted dynamometer tests on an engine using both Engelhard and JM
filters. The Shepherd testing investigated the extent to which clean filters increased backpressure,
and looked at how increased backpressure affected engine performance. The backpressures
measured from the muffler, the JM filter and the Engelhard filter were 27″, 14″, and 15″ of water,
respectively. The exhaust temperatures were also recorded to determine validate sufficiently high
temperatures for regeneration. This test validated the traps installations themselves (when
new/clean) did not increase backpressure over the stock muffler. Installation designs were finalized
and mounting kits ordered at the end of August.

In October 2002, two of the filters to be mounted on field equipment were tested at the WVU
Engines and Emissions Research Laboratory (EERL). WVU conducted dynamometer tests on a
typical engine (3408) using transient and 8-mode steady state duty cycles. (See Appendix C,
Chapter 4, page 73 for a complete description of test cycles and procedures. Note: Appendix C is
provided under separate cover.) WVU performed baseline testing, and quantified the PM, CO, HC,
and NOx coming from filters of both manufacturers. Both JM and Engelhard filters significantly
reduced the CO and HC emissions. Neither filters significantly affected the NOx emissions.
However, PM emission levels were reduced 97 percent or more with these systems.

In October and November 2002, Shepherd installed the JM filters on the test vehicles. In January
2003, CARB conducted first round of on-board emissions testing using their TEV system. CARB
tests of the JM filters yielded a consistent 97 percent reduction in PM emissions on filters that had
accrued 300 hours of operation. Installation of Engelhard filters was delayed until
February/March. CARB later tested the Engelhard filters and found approximately 94 percent
reduction in PM on filters that had accrued 750 hours.

Exhaust from study vehicles was tested for opacity using the snap acceleration protocol. Most of
the older (pre-70s vintage) vehicles generated 95 to 99 percent opacity, but values of 60 percent to
70 percent were measured after timing, throttle (rack) and other engine parameters were adjusted.
The LACSD vehicle engines emitted less smoke, but in a wide range of opacities. Electronically
controlled engines mounted on the LACSD D9 dozers yielded opacity values between 1.1 percent
and 4.6 percent. After filters were installed, all vehicles gave readings below 1 percent.


BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                              3-1
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study


CSD operations recorded fuel and oil consumption along with hours of operation. This data could
not reliably demonstrate a change in fuel or oil consumption from the filters or from the use of the
ULSD.

Vehicle drivers were polled to assess how filters affected perceived vehicle performance. Drivers
did not report any noticeable impact on vehicle operation with these exceptions: (1) Where filters
blocked a portion of the visual field, the drivers were able to adapt, but the blockage was a
nuisance. (2) Filters that became clogged with soot increased backpressure and caused a loss of
power. The blockage and power loss only occurred where filters were experiencing problems as
noted below. Properly operating filters did not generate concerns for drivers.

JM installed data loggers connected to temperature and pressure sensors upstream of the filters.
The data provided valuable insight into the performance of the various installations. The devices
aided diagnosis of problems and indicated when filters needed to be cleaned.

Both JM and Engelhard filters performed very well in terms of reducing the PM emissions on 1996
or newer engines models. The Engelhard filters were also successful on the older style pre-
chamber combustion engines at Poss. The JM filters installed on the older Poss vehicles did not
successfully regenerate and developed high backpressure. Results indicated that the current JM
filter technology was not applicable for such older-style engines.

At LACSD, several of the 20x15 JM ceramic filter elements experienced “shifting” within the can,
causing flow blockage and high backpressure, and sometimes resulting in damage to the monolith
itself. Investigation by the can manufacturer Donaldson Co. showed that incorrect filter “banding”
(fixing ceramic filter element inside the CRT can), combined with high vibrations in the
application resulted in this problem. JM and Donaldson replaced or re-canned the problem
systems. Following this, the JM filter yielded low and stable backpressure and successfully
completed the rest of the demonstration. One Engelhard filter mounted to a track-style dozer was
damaged when the vibration and backpressure forced the catalyst against a retaining strut that
caused the catalyst to fracture.

The brackets and piping used to retrofit the filters experienced a variety of problems. These
vehicles, especially the track-type dozer, undergo extreme vibrations that require robust support.
Flex-pipes used to connect the exhaust piping to the trap tore open in the initial designs. In various
instances, ring clamps broke and seal clamps became torn. These clamps were used to connect
exhaust pipe elements. The jostling forces of the dozers also caused cracks in the material
supporting the exhaust stack. On the Poss scrapers, the welds on Engelhard brackets cracked apart,
and several joint locations lost bolts due to vibration or breakage. Some original vehicle exhaust
piping cracked due to greater stresses imposed by the added equipment.

3.1.1         Sequence of Events

Table 3-1 provides a history of the project’s key events.




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                             3-2
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study


                                   Table 3-1: Project Sequence of Events
        Date                                                          Event
     January 2002       Order PM traps from Engelhard & Johnson-Matthey.
                        Research equipment and develop logistics to supply fuel. Filter manufacturers evaluate
     February 2002
                        equipment for retrofit.
      March 2002        Obtain CARB operating permits for engine modifications.
       April 2002       Initial opacity testing. Engelhard ships filters.
                        Test opacity of POSS equipment. Engelhard ships remaining filters. Ship ULSD and CARB
       May 2002
                        fuel to WVU.
                        Engelhard and Johnson-Matthey develop installation designs. Ship engine and filters to
       June 2002
                        WVU for dynamometer testing. Conclude fueling agreements.
                        Stakeholders meet to evaluate backpressure estimates and installation designs. Shepherd
       July 2002
                        conducts backpressure dynamometer tests.
                        WVU records scraper transient duty cycle. LACSD approves installation designs. OEM’s
      August 2002
                        specify bracket kit elements.
                        POSS study site changed from Norco to Newport Coast. WVU records transient duty cycle
                        from LACSD scraper. Johnson-Matthey ships filters. Caterpillar reviews proposed
    September 2002
                        installation designs. LACSD begins fueling study vehicles with ULSD. Testing of fuel by
                        CARB begins.
                        West Virginia University completes first round of dynamometer testing. Shepherd installs
                        three Johnson-Matthey filters and LACSD places vehicles in service. C. W. POSS
     October 2002
                        purchases dedicated fuel tank to supply study vehicles with ultra low sulfur diesel. Exhaust
                        opacity of retrofitted vehicles is tested.
                        WVU issues results of the dynamometer testing. Shepherd installs remaining four
    November 2002
                        Johnson-Matthey filters. Engelhard internal procurement of parts delayed.
                        CARB conducts first round of on-board PM removal efficiency testing. Incidents begin to be
     January 2003       recorded on vehicles. Engelhard ships kits but kits are incomplete. Remaining parts are
                        expedited or improvised.
                        Shepherd completes installation of Engelhard traps on LACSD vehicles. Vehicle
     February 2003
                        modification permits renewed.

                        LACSD staff discovers one trap element has shifted within the can. Shifted filter element is
      March 2003
                        sent to Donaldson for re-canning.

                        A second Johnson-Matthey trap is removed for re-canning. Shepherd cleans filters on
       April 2003
                        POSS dozers to reduce backpressure.
                        Re-canned Johnson-Matthey filter replaced on LACSD scraper rear engine. LACSD dozer
       May 2003
                        filter removed for re-canning. Engelhard filter on LACSD D9 dozer #6654 found fractured.
                        Engelhard bracket welds fail on POSS scraper traps. Johnson-Matthey traps removed from
       June 2003
                        POSS dozers due to high backpressure. Flex pipe torn open on LACSD D9.
       July 2003        Vehicle inspections reveal various problems with brackets and piping.
      August 2003       Remaining POSS study vehicles are fueled with CARB diesel instead of ULSD.
                        CARB conducts PM removal efficiency testing on LACSD vehicles retrofitted with
    September 2003
                        Engelhard filters.
     October 2003       Shepherd ships Sukut’s engine to WVU for second round of Dynamometer testing.
    December 2003       Shepherd ships traps to WVU. Data collection on field demonstration is concluded.
     January 2004       WVU performs second round of dynamometer emission testing.


BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                                       3-3
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study




3.1.2         Summary of Hours Accumulated by Study Vehicles and Filters

Table 3-2 lists the study vehicles showing the filter installation or reinstallation date, the total
number of hours accrued by December 1, 2003, and the average hours per week that the vehicles
worked.

Both Poss and LACSD manually record hours of operation each day. These daily logs are used to
help schedule equipment maintenance and periodic servicing. Copies of daily log sheets were
provided to record and track equipment hours.


                        Table 3-2: Vehicles, Filter Types and Hours Accumulated


                                  Engine Type/     Engine                            Installation Date   Trap Hours as Avg Hours
  Opr      Equip Type      Eq#     Installation     year     Trap      DPF Type        (Reinstalled)       of 12/1/03   per week
 CSD    657E scraper     6604    3412 (Front)     1996      JM      15X15 CRT (2)    10/7/02             1403            23.4
 CSD    657E scraper     6604    3408 (Rear)      1996      JM      20X15 CRT        10/7/02             1179            23.4
 CSD    657E scraper     6605    3412 (Front)     1996      Eng     DPX 20X15 (2)    3/11/03             1134            29.6
 CSD    657E scraper     6605    3408 (Rear)      1996      Eng     DPX 20X15        3/11/03             1134            29.6
 CSD    657E scraper     6606    3412 (Front)     1996      Eng     DPX 20X15 (2)    3/7/03              1086            28.3
 CSD    657E scraper     6606    3408 (Rear)      1996      Eng     DPX 20X15        3/7/03              1086            28.3
 CSD    657E scraper     6607    3412 (Front)     1996      None    Control (CARB)   10/2/02             1277            21.0
 CSD    657E scraper     6607    3408 (Rear)      1996      None    Control (CARB)   10/2/02             1277            21.0
 CSD    657E scraper     6608    3412 (Front)     1996      None    Control (ULSD)   10/8/02             1414            23.6
 CSD    657E scraper     6608    3408 (Rear)      1996      None    Control (ULSD)   10/8/02             1414            23.6
 CSD    D9N dozer elec   6655    3408             2000      JM      20X15 CRT        5/23/03             877             32.0
 CSD    D9N dozer elec   6654    3408             2000      Eng     DPX 20X15        3/8/03              (381 by 5/22)   31.0
 CSD    D9N dozer elec   6653    3408             2000      None    Control (ULSD)   10/1/02             2123            27.5
 CSD    D9N dozer mec    6620    3408             1998      None    Control (CARB)   10/17/02            1847            33.0
 CSD    D9N dozer mech   6621    3408             1996      JM      20X15 CRT        6/17/03             556             28.6
 Poss   651B scraper     605     D346             2000      JM      20X15 CRT (2)    11/25/02            (386 by 4/22)   18.2
 Poss   651B scraper     625     D346             2002      Eng     DPX 20X15 (2)    3/11/03             856             25.6
 Poss   651B scraper     628     D346             2001      Eng     DPX 20X15 (2)    3/11/03             699             20.9
 Poss   824B dozer       407     D343             2001rb    JM      15X15 CRT        11/21/02            (766 by 6/26)   25.2
 Poss   825C dozer       415     D3406            2002      Eng     DPX 15X15        4/26/03             977             36.4
 Poss   834B dozer       409     3408             2002rb    JM      15X15 CRT        11/25/02            (675 by 6/26)   17.7


[Note: For dozers #6621 and #6655, the original ceramic filter elements (traps) were damaged
early in the demonstration and JM provided all-new traps that had been “re-canned” with more
internal matting to prevent shifting. (see section 3.5.3 for additional details). As these were all-new
traps, their re-installation date is at the beginning of June. Also, the Engelhard trap on the D9 dozer
#6654 fractured and was removed in late May, but was not replaced.]

3.2     REVIEW OF FILTER DURABILITY INCIDENTS

The following is a discussion of incidents related to the durability and reliability of the particulate
traps themselves—but not the physical mounting or installations. A review of incidents related to
installation hardware, brackets and exhaust system modifications is presented in Section 3.3.




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                                         3-4
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study


3.2.1         657E Scrapers

657E Scraper #6604 – On October 7, 2002, Shepherd and LACSD technicians installed three JM
particulate filters, two 15X15 CRTs in parallel on the front fender to the right of the operator, and
one 20X15 CRT on the rear fender standing upright. WVU had used the latter filter for the
dynamometer testing.

Rear Engine. After about four months of operation, the rear filter began to show increasing
backpressure. The data logger files showed 5 to 6.6″ Hg.—well above the maximum recommended
level of 3″ Hg. The engine was evaluated and the fuel injectors replaced. JM reviewed the data and
indicated cleaning the filter would not be appropriate because hours of operation were low at that
point.. The rear engine filter continued to register elevated backpressure and a more thorough set
of diagnostics were ordered and completed March 12. Although nothing significant was found,
LACSD staff replaced the fuel pump.

On March 21, the file from the data logger showed a spike in the backpressure, although the driver
did not notice a loss of performance. On March 31, the JM project engineer opened up the filter
canister. The catalytic trap element was found to have slipped past the glass fiber mat used to
anchor it in place, (in industry parlance, the ceramic trap had “shifted”).

                                                   The ceramic trap element is secured inside the
                                                   can using a fibrous glass material such as 3M’s
                                                   “Interam” or “Unifrax.” During the
                                                   manufacturing process, the trap element is
                                                   mounted inside the shell cushioned by the fibrous
                                                   mat and then heated. The heating process causes
                                                   the mat to try to expand and this serves to lock
                                                   the trap element in place. If the trap element
                                                   shifts within the canister, the fibrous mat
                                                   becomes exposed. The fibers break and
                                                   accumulate both inside the channels, and on the
  657E scraper #6604 rear engine trap element
                                                   facing surface of the trap. These fibers then create
                                                   a scaffold for soot and ash to avoid contact with
the catalytic surface and thus build up. Once the filter has shifted, backpressure can build up
rapidly.

CSD staff helped remove the trap and shipped it back to Donaldson for analysis. The LACSD staff
bolted the remaining filter assembly back together to enable the rig to run. Analysis by Donaldson
and JM showed that there was no damage to the ceramic trap element itself. They theorized that
the reason the trap had “shifted” was that insufficient matting material had been used to hold the
element in-place in the original design. This, in combination with the high vibration, resulted in the
filter brick coming loose. A decision was made to re-mount the original trap element into a new
canister using additional matting material to hold the filter in-place. The new “canned” 20 x15
CRT was reinstalled on the rear engine of scraper #6604 in late May 2003 the filter backpressure
remained acceptable for the remainder of the demonstration and there were no further incidents.

Front Engine. The two front filters performed very well through the entire demonstration, which
officially ended in November 2003. However, subsequent to the official end of the demonstration,
BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                             3-5
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study


these traps “shifted” within their canisters in a fashion similar to that of the rear trap (in April
2004).

657E Scraper #6605 – On March 8, 2003, Shepherd and LACSD technicians completed the
retrofit of this vehicle with three Engelhard 20X15 DPX filters. These filters completed the
demonstration period with no backpressure incidents. The rear filter was removed December 12,
2003.

 657E Scraper #6606 – On March 7, 2003, Shepherd and LACSD technicians finished installation
of three Engelhard 20X15 DPX filters on this vehicle. Two filters were placed in parallel on the
right front fender and the third next to the rear engine. The filters performed well throughout the
demonstration with no significant increase in backpressure.

3.2.2         651B Scrapers

651B Scraper #605 – On November 25, 2002, Shepherd retrofitted #605 with two parallel
mounted 20X15 CRTs (JM) on the cab roof.

                                                    On January 6, 2003, an examination of the data
                                                    logger files showed higher than normal
                                                    backpressure. The maximum backpressure
                                                    reading started at 4" of Hg, but it began to creep
                                                    upward in mid-December, 2002. When the
                                                    scraper returned to work on December 26,
                                                    backpressure rose as high as 9" Hg, but dropped
                                                    to 5" Hg the next day. On January 8, the engine
                                                    was run under a full load and only yielded 2 to 3″
                                                    Hg as shown both by the data logger and verified
                                                    with another diagnostic meter. Also, the POSS
                                                    mechanics checked the timing, the rack travel and
                                                    the compression ratio, all of which gave good
    651B scraper with Johnson-Matthey filter        readings. Poss staff then changed the air filters.

POSS supervision suggested that the driver might be the cause of the lagging performance. On
January 14, 2003, the backpressure maximum still showed around 5" Hg. By this time, the filter
had logged 111 hours. The JM representative expressed concerns about both the backpressure and
the relatively lower exhaust temperature, about 350 C, and recommended installing insulation to
boost the temperature and improve catalytic conversion. By comparison, both of the JM retrofitted
Poss dozers, 824B #407 and 834 #409 operate at about 450 C. The rig began operating with
insulation on February 21 but average backpressure remained around 4.5″ Hg.

On March 28, the data logger file revealed a steady increase over the previous week. On April 22,
Shepherd staff removed the two trap elements for examination. The trap nearest the inlet had
shifted approximately 2.5 inches within its canister, and the trap nearest the outlet shifted 1.75
inches. The ceramic filter was intact, but had cuts in the monolith from opposing reinforcing struts
of the outlet manifold, and a bruise from the internal portion of the outlet pipe. Also, material from
the Interam mat was layered on the trap surface as well as being inside the trap channels. Samples

BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                               3-6
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study


from the catalyst and oxide elements were collected for analysis. Shepherd removed the remaining
retrofit elements and reinstalled the muffler assembly. Also, one of the diesel oxidation catalyst
(DOC) elements also shifted slightly. It was 1/16” above the side of the flange on one side, and ¾”
above the other side.

A review of additional data logger data, as well
as an analysis of the damaged filter elements was
completed by JM engineers. JM concluded that
the high level of particulate matter emitted by the
older pre-chamber combustion engine (the
D346) was excessive and that resulted in filter
damage with high temperature exotherm. This
old equipment did not represent a good
application for their filters.

3.2.3   D9 Dozers

D9 Dozer #6621 – On October 18, 2002,                       651B Scraper, #605 Trap Elements
Shepherd technicians installed a single JM
20X15 CRT on the ROPs over the dozer cab.

The D9 dozers with CRT filters exhibited a brown plume from the exhaust due to excess NO2
production by the filter system. The filter itself performed well for six months, but backpressure
began to build in May 2003. On May 22, LACSD staff removed the JM filter installed on the D9
dozer #6621. Examination revealed that both the ceramic trap and the diesel oxidation catalyst
(DOC) element shifted out of place. Debris from the shifting damaged the ceramic trap and a
chunk of the ceramic trap broke loose. The ceramic element was removed and replaced three
weeks later.

The replacement unit included additional structural
matting to help secure the element in place. The
newly designed trap performed well after that. The
reason for both these catalyst and filter element
shifting was attributed to improper ceramic brick
banding. The DOC element slipped about seven
inches on one side. Uneven slipping of the diesel
oxide catalyst element was also observed on one of
the JM filters from the C. W. Poss 651B scraper
#605 installation.

D9 Dozer #6654 – On February 27, 2003 retrofit of
this vehicle with a single 20X15 DPX Engelhard                  D9 dozer #6621 trap element
filter was completed.

In Mid-May, the excessive exhaust smoke was observed coming from this unit. On May 22, 2003,
LACSD staff removed the filter outlet manifold. The trap inside the canning had shifted and was
partially broken up so that loose chunks were present. The filter did not appear to have cracked or

BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                             3-7
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study


melted due to high temperatures, but rather due to vibration. As no soot was observed on the outlet
channels, Engelhard technicians believed the filter did not experience burn-through.

Hypotheses are that (1) the canning of the filter
element may have been too loose, or (2) the
backpressure force against the upstream face caused
fracturing as the downstream facing surface contacted
the restraining crossbars. Engelhard reported:
    “…the outlet cone was removed from the center-
    body and visual inspection revealed that the
    substrate had become dislodged from the center-
    body and allowed to ‘beat’ itself against the outlet
    cross-members and the housing, resulting in
    substrate attrition and fracture. The major demise
    was due to mechanical stress. No sign was evident
    that the substrate experienced excessive                       D9 dozer #6654 trap element
    temperatures, local hotspots and/or chemical
    attack. The dislodging probably occurred from the combination of the substrate not being a
    hundred percent mounted correctly to the center-body and the complete unit being exposed
    to excessive vibration. These two factors created a rapid decline of the diesel particulate
    filter's (DPF) structure and performance.”

D9 Dozer #6655 – On December 2, 2002, Shepherd technicians completed the second retrofit of a
D9. On January 24, the driver noted a loss of power. Investigation revealed a severely clogged fuel
filter. However, this PM filter also began to build backpressure in April 2003. On April 8th, 2003,
the driver of dozer #6655 reported that the warning light became lit, but not the alarm light. The
datalogger file also showed a gradual increase of backpressure. JM advised LACSD to inspect the
internal filter elements.

On April 10, 2003, LACSD discovered that the filter element had shifted out of place in a manner
similar to that found for the filter on the rear engine of 657E scraper #6604. The ceramic trap
element was broken during the removal process when it grazed a nearby pipe. LACSD sent the
filter to Donaldson for analysis. On May 23, 2003, LACSD installed a replacement filter. The
replacement trap performed well after reinstallation.

3.2.4   Dozers at Poss

824B Dozer #407 – On November 25, 2002, Shepherd technicians installed a single 15X15 CRT
on the cab roof which doubles as the ROPS. Although this vehicle was from 1971, the engine was
rebuilt in 2001, and the high exhaust temperatures suggested that the filter had a good chance of
working.

On February 10, the 824B dozer #407 backpressure was consistently between 2 and 2.5″ Hg. The
rig was not operated for 10 days due to scheduling and weather. On February 20, the rig operator
reported that the backpressure warning light was lit, and said that the rig seemed to be sluggish.
Data logger files showed the backpressure rose from 3″ up to 7″ Hg, and stayed at that level after


BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                            3-8
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study


that. In both this case, and in the incident with 651B scraper #605, backpressure rose substantially
after the rig had sat idle for a couple of weeks.

On March 7, the data logger file was downloaded.
The readings indicated that the average backpressure
reading dropped from 7″ Hg as seen on February 24
to 5″ Hg on March 5. The rig had not been operated
during that time due to rain. On March 28, JM
removed the trap for inspection. JM found that a few
cells or channels had burned through. This burning-
through effect is due to carbon buildup followed by
local burning and melting of the ceramic substrate.
In this case, only a few cells were lost. JM reversed
the filter in its housing and reinstalled it. While JM
expected some exhaust would escape through the
damaged cells, most of the exhaust would still be                   824B dozer with JM filter
catalytically filtered as intended.

After two months of increasing pressure, the trap was removed on June 26, 2003. Similar to the
651B scraper with a JM filter, it was concluded by JM that high particulate emissions from the
D343 pre-combustion chamber engine was excessive and not a good application for their filters.

834 Dozer #409 – The 15X15 CRT from JM was installed on November 25, 2002. This engine (a
3408 MUI), had been rebuilt in 2002. The trap performed well initially. In February, a check of
data logger files revealed that backpressure had been trending steadily higher since January 17.
The backpressure from this JM trap increased from 2.5″ to 4″ Hg with spikes above 5″ Hg.

On March 6, Poss maintenance reported that the backpressure warning light had come on. The data
logger file revealed that while the backpressure had started at 3″ Hg, the backpressure had spiked
up to 10″ Hg. After March 6, dozer #409 backpressure dropped down to 4 to 5″ Hg.




               834 dozer with JM filter                            Detail of JM brackets

On April 22, the filter was removed for inspection. The filter element may have moved slightly,
but the facing surface of the cells was still flush with the lip of the flange. Shepherd technicians
used compressed air to blow out the ash from the trap, then reassembled the filter and installed it.
BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                               3-9
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study


Cleaning the trap reduced the backpressure from around 7″ to 3″ Hg. In a few days, the
backpressure rose 1″ Hg. After that, backpressure gradually increased until it was back up to 6″ by
May 21, 2003.

On May 21, JM re-examined this filter and found that the accumulation of soot and uneven
oxidation of that soot had caused significant burn-through of the ceramic trap element. This trap
was also removed on June 26.

825C Dozer #415 – This vehicle was selected for retrofit with an Engelhard DPX 15 x 15 filter
when the previously selected vehicle was relocated. Although this dozer had been re-powered with
a 3406 EUI engine, the opacity was still approximately 20 percent. The filter performed well
throughout the demonstration.




        825C dozer with Engelhard filter                        825C dozer filter close-up

3.2.5   Summary of all Filter Durability-Related Incidents

Table 3-3 provides a high-level summary of all filter durability and reliability-related incidents for
the JM and Engelhard particulate filters. A more complete discussion of filter performance,
reliability and durability is presented in Sections 5.1 and 5.2 for the JM and Engelhard filters,
respectively.




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                             3-10
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study


              Table 3-3: Summary of Filter Durability-Related Incidents (as of 12/1/2003)
                                                        Johnson Matthey
 Location Unit #             Vehicle Type Engine EngYr.             Trap    Hours Major Filter Durability Incidents
   CSD    6604 R              657E scraper 3408   1996             20x15     571 Trap element shfited
   " "      " "                " "    " "   " "    " "               " "    1397 Cannister gasket torn
                                                                                 No incidents (both traps shifted 5
      " "       6604 F        " "       " "      3412   1996    (2) 15x15   1400
                                                                                 months after end of demo)
    CSD          6621          D9       dozer    3408   1996      20x15      898 Trap and DOC elements shfited
    CSD          6655          D9       dozer    3408   1996      20x15      774 Trap element shfited
   POSS           605         651E     scraper   D346   1973    (2) 20x15    386 Both Traps "shfited"
   POSS           407         824B      dozer    D343   1977      15x15      377 slight burn through of trap element
    " "           " "          " "       " "      " "    " "       " "       766 trap shifted; damages
   POSS           409          834      dozer    3408   2002*     15x15      561 trap shifted; damages
* rebuilt
                                                       Englehard
 Location       Unit #       Vehicle    Type Engine EngYr.     Trap         Hours  Major Filter Durability Incidents
   CSD          6605          657E     scraper 3408  1996     20x15               No incidents
                                                                            ~1150
   " "           " "           " "       " "   3412  1996   (2) 20x15             No incidents
   CSD          6606          657E     scraper 3408  1996     20x15               No incidents
                                                                            ~1100
   " "           " "           " "       " "   3412  1996   (2) 20x15             No incidents
   CSD          6654           D9       dozer  3408  1996     20x15          381 Trap element shfited; fractured
  POSS           625          651E     scraper D346 1973    (2) 20x15             No incidents
  POSS           628          651E     scraper D346 1976    (2) 20x15             No incidents
  POSS           415          825C      dozer  3406 1983*     15x15               No incidents
* rebuilt in 2002 with EUI




3.3         REVIEW OF TRAP INSTALLATION AND MOUNTING INCIDENTS
This section presents a detailed description of incidents that occurred on the test vehicles related to
the physical trap installation and mounting hardware and exhaust system configuration. Summary
observations and conclusions related to installation issues in presented in Section 5.3. Specific
installation incidents are discussed in the sections following.

3.3.1       Scraper Installation Incidents
657E Scraper #6604
On January 23, 2003, inspection revealed damage to the low-pressure line running along the hood
of the 657E scraper #6604. This line had been re-routed with the installation of the JM filters. The
low-pressure return line provides suction to the air inlet filter that removes heavy particulates
before they are caught by the air filter. The low-pressure line transports the particulates from the
inlet to the exhaust aspirator. This line was significantly crimped due to pinching by other vehicle
components.

The towing portion of the scraper can turn at a sharp 90 degree angle, and the towing yoke would
not normally impact the installed low-pressure line. This damage occurred when the scraper front
had turned in a sharp 90 degree angle, and was tilted up on the right side at the same time. The
combined angles enabled the pipes mounted to the yoke to pinch the low-pressure line.

On October 10, 2003, inspection revealed that exhaust was leaking in various locations on the rear
engine installation, and the exhaust elbow had disconnected due to vibration.

BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                                         3-11
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study


657E Scraper #6605
On August 22nd, the front engine exhaust stack of
657E scraper #6605 was bent backwards about 6
inches from the vertical position when it contacted
the overhanging portion of a green waste grinding
rig. The damage did not affect the performance of
the installation, although the thermocouple was
disconnected during the incident (and subsequently
replaced).

657E Scraper #6606
No significant installation related incidents
                                                                    657E scraper #6604
POSS 651B Scraper #605

On February 26, 2003, Poss staff noted that the flex pipe portion of the exhaust line had ripped
open during vehicle operation. The Poss mechanics at Newport obtained a replacement flex pipe
and welded it into place.

On February 20, the driver reported the insulation was giving off a burning smell that was
irritating. The insulation vender said that when the wrap was heated for the first time, some odor
might be noticed. The wraps consist of wire mesh, fiberglass matting and an exterior silicone
rubber impregnated cloth. On February 28, the driver again reported watery eyes and a scratchy
throat. Another driver was substituted, but after a few hours of operation, he also complained of
watering eyes, scratchy throat and headache. On March 10, inspection of the wrap revealed that
soot had blown through the area near the top 90-degree angle. The underside of the wrap was
coated with soot, indicating that exhaust was blowing through the length of the insulation. When
the engine was started, technicians discovered a leak at the bottom 90-degree elbow coming out of
the exhaust manifold. The shape of the leak and the wrap apparently directed exhaust vapors
toward the driver. The driver’s symptoms were due to the exposure to exhaust gas, and not to
burning of the insulation wrap. Poss staff repaired the 90-degree elbow resealing the exhaust flow.

POSS 651B Scrapers #625 and #628

On March 11, 2003, Shepherd technicians finished the duplicate installation of two 20X15 DPX
Engelhard traps mounted on the cab roof of both scrapers.




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                             3-12
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study




       651B scraper with Engelhard filter                 Detail of 651B scraper Engelhard filter cradle

On June 19, 2003, inspection of the two 651B scraper retrofits revealed weld breaks in various
support struts.

Scraper #628 has two Engelhard filters mounted in tandem on the cab roof. Two half-circle bands
that are clamped together encircle and support the filter. The lower half circle is welded onto two
flat straps of steel that extend down to an angle iron. These flat straps hold and suspend the filter
above the cab.

While the straps of steel were still welded to the cab-mounted angle iron, all eight of the welds
supporting the lower half-circles were broken. It is unclear whether the failures were due to faulty
welding or due to excessive strain. It may be that once one weld failed, the others failed in rapid
succession. Shepherd technicians did not weld these contacts; the brackets came pre-welded from
an Engelhard subcontractor.

Lacking the support of the vertical straps, the filters were resting on the surface of the cab or on the
angle irons. The straps still had enough strength to keep the filters in place. As the filters had
dropped about an inch from their previous position, several other attachment points were broken or
bent.




   651B scraper filter bracket with broken welds           651B scraper filter bracket with broken welds

Inspection of the duplicate installation on 651B scraper #625 revealed identical damage. A smoke
test of scraper #625 yielded zero percent opacity, indicated the traps were still functioning.
BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                                3-13
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Shepherd technicians replaced the steel straps with angle-iron type struts. These struts performed
well for the remainder of the study.

Identical filter brackets were installed for the filters on the 657E scrapers #6605 and #6606. None
of the straps failed on these vehicles during the study. The difference in survival is probably due to
the more difficult work cycle of the Poss scrapers.

3.3.2   Dozer Installation Incidents

CSD D9 Dozer #6654
Prior to March 20, the hose connecting the dust ejector low-pressure aspirator line had fallen off
twice from the dozer. When it fell off the third time, a tear in the main exhaust line was detected.
The tear was in the 90-degree elbow just downstream
from the weld to the main exhaust manifold. The
location of the tear indicated that the rupture was due
to the back-and-forth vibration stresses. The vertical
pipe experienced vibration relative to the static exhaust
manifold, and vibrated away from the weld joint. The
vertical pipe had a brace connecting to the nearby air
intake, but this may have acted as a fulcrum or pivot
for the vibration. Additional braces were installed to
prevent a recurrence.

On April 21, 2003, the seal clamp securing the exhaust
inlet to the trap had completely torn away from the
bolted portion of the clamp pinching the ends of the                  D9 dozer #6654 torn seal clamp
steel band.

CSD D9 Dozer #6621

In early March, excessive vibration caused a seal clamp to fail on the exhaust stack outlet side of
the JM filters.




                                 D9 dozer #6621 ring clamp break at bolt hole

BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                                3-14
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study




On April 21, 2003, inspection of the dozer revealed an unusually large vibration in the low-
pressure line suspended above the primary exhaust pipe leading to the filter. Closer examination
showed that the ring clamp had broken at the bolt hole where the bracket bends to go up toward the
low-pressure line.

On July 17, JM staff found the flex pipe had torn away from the seal clamp, presumably due to the
vibration. The flex pipe connects the exhaust piping to the filter inlet. Also, a supporting ring
clamp on the low-pressure return line was split open where the bar is pre-bent at a 90-degree angle.

In mid-October, the dozer was seen venting exhaust just in front of the flex pipe. Inspection
revealed that the seal clamp was not securely sealing the exhaust system with the result that when
the engine worked hard, exhaust could be seen blowing out through the gap. It was unclear when
the gap developed. Also, the copper tubing low pressure line was loose and a connector replaced.

CSD D9 Dozer #6655

On February 20, the dozer returned to the yard using a different route than normal. The exhaust
pipe, which is higher than the stock exhaust pipe, clipped the telephone lines leading to the
Mechanical Yard Supervisors Office.

In mid-April 2003 examination showed that the ring clamp supporting the low-pressure aspirator
line had broken at the bolt hole where the bracket bends to go up toward the low-pressure line.
(This is the same ring clamp that had failed on D9 dozer #6621.) Also, the steel band of the seal
clamp securing the inlet to the trap was completely torn away from the bolted portion pinching the
ends of the steel band. The mechanic replaced a similar seal on the D9 dozer #6654 exhaust.

When the D9s were retrofitted, LACSD staff relocated the air conditioners on the D9s from the
ROPS to the left fender to make room for the filters. In May, the air conditioner bolts on #6655
came loose.




                                    D9 dozer #6655 ring clamp break in ring




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                                 3-15
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study


On June 24, 2003, Shepherd sent a technician to repair a problem with the JM installation on the
LACSD D9 dozer #6655. The flex pipe connects the exhaust piping to the filter inlet. This flex
pipe was torn open on both ends, presumably due to vibration.

On July 17, 2003, JM staff noticed cracks developing in the dozer exhaust manifold. The filter
exhaust manifold is bolted to the filter can and supports the upright exhaust stack. The inertia of
the upright exhaust stack caused strain cracks in the nearby surface structure of the exhaust
manifold. Shepherd technicians welded these cracks closed and reinforced the surrounding metal.
During the month of September 2003, two additional incidents occurred: (1) the exhaust pipe was
reported loose and therefore the fitting was replaced; and (2) the copper tubing connector and
thermocouple were disconnected from the severe vibration—and were therefore replaced.

On October 14, 2003, observation of the dozer
revealed that the exhaust stack rising from the
filter outlet manifold was loose. Moreover, the
hose connecting the stack to the low pressure
return line was missing. Movement of the
stack probably caused the hose to fall off. The
stack had previously (July 17) caused strain
cracks to develop in the supporting exhaust
manifold connected to the end of the trap.
Welders had reinforced the metal around the
cracks. Along with this reinforcing, welders
added a large ring clamp around the stack and
this was bolted to a strut welded onto the
                                                    D9 dozer #6655 broken ring clamp on stack
manifold. A crack had developed in the ring
clamp and one fourth of the ring was missing. Enough of the ring was left to keep the stack in
place, but the stack was not secure.




   D9 dozer #6655 with loose exhaust stack;             D9 dozer #6655 with leaking seal clamp
      Aspirator indentations form Venturi
                  constriction

Poss Dozers #407, 409, and 415.
No significant installation incidents occurred on any dozers at Poss.


BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                            3-16
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study




3.3.3    Summary of Installation and Mounting related Incidents

Table 3-4 shows a summary of all incidents related to trap mounting and installations. As can be
seen from the data, the tracked dozers at LACSD presented the most server service environment
and resulted in the most incidents related to the mounting hardware. Rubber-tired dozers at Poss as
well as the rubber-tired scrapers at LACSD fared very well with little or no installation issues. The
scrapers at Poss also experience several incidents related to the installation hardware—possibly
because of the severe duty cycle these units experience. A more complete discussion of installation
incidents is presented in Section 5.3.

                 Table 3-4. Summary of Trap Installation and Mounting Incidents

                                                  Trap
 Location     Unit #     Vehicle      Type                                      Description
                                               Manufacturer

                                                              Low pressure return line crimped. Exhaust
  LASCD        6604       657E       scraper       JM         leaks found on rear engine installation.
                                                              Exhaust elbow disconnected.
  LASCD        6605       657E       scraper    Engelhard     No Installation Incidents
  LASCD        6606       657E       scraper    Engelhard     No Installation Incidents
                                                              Leaks at exhaust elbows; broken seal and
  LASCD        6654       D9N         dozer     Engelhard
                                                              flange clamps; low pressure line failures.
                                                              Flex line torn; seal clamp failures; numerous
  LASCD        6621       D9N         dozer        JM         exhaust leaks; copper tubing return line loose,
                                                              replaced connector.
                                                              Ring clamp failures; flex line torn; leaking seal
  LASCD        6655       D9N         dozer        JM         clamps; exhaust stack weld failures; copper
                                                              tubing return line loose/leaks.
  POSS         407        824B        dozer        JM         No Installation Incidents
  POSS         409         834        dozer        JM         No Installation Incidents
  POSS         415         825        dozer     Engelhard     No Installation Incidents
  POSS         605        651B       scraper       JM         Torn flex pipe; leaks at elbows, flange seal
  POSS         625        651B       scraper    Engelhard     Fractures in mounting bracket support struts.
  POSS         628        651B       scraper    Engelhard     Fractures in mounting bracket support struts.


3.4     OTHER INCIDENTS

3.4.1    Brown Exhaust Plume on JM LACSD Dozer Retrofits

Immediately after the first D9 dozers at LACSD were retrofitted with JM traps (units #6621 and
#6655, both configured with 20 x 15 CRTs), operators and technicians noted a brown plume
coming from the exhaust immediately after the engines would be put in high RPM (or under load)
following a half-hour or so of sitting idle. Drivers reported that the plume would be seen for a short
time (less than 1 minute). Initially, JM suggested that this may be part of the “de-greening” process
associated with new filters. However, the brown plume continued to be visible under the described


BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                               3-17
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study


conditions throughout the demonstration. It was also noted that when the Poss vehicles were
retrofitted with JM filters, a similar brown plume was not seen.

JM suggested that the plume was due to the generation of excess NO2. The oxide catalyst portion
of these filters had been formulated with a high level of catalytic activity. The LACSD vehicles did
not produce enough PM to consume the NO2 generated by the filter. The Poss vehicles did produce
sufficient PM to consume the NO2 and thus did not generate the brown plume.

3.4.2   Misfueling at Poss

On August 12, Poss advised project management that the remaining study vehicles were being
fueled with CARB diesel instead of the ULSD. Logistical issues required Poss staff to relocate the
fuel tanks used to supply diesel to the equipment. By this time, all of the JM traps had been
removed from the Poss equipment. The use of this fuel was not expected to cause any permanent
damage to the Engelhard traps. However, the supply of ULSD could not be re-established, and the
subsequent data from these vehicles was deemed to be outside the scope of the study.

3.4.3   Water in Fuel

On January 22, 2003, the driver of the D9N dozer #6655 informed LACSD Operations of a loss of
power. Maintenance investigated and concluded that either a problem developed with the trap or
that the rig developed a defect in the power train or problem in the fuel system. The rig had not
required special maintenance during the previous two years.

On January 24, Shepherd mechanics said that the injectors were plugged up and carbonized. Clogs
were said to contain both dirt and algae. The fuelers reported that the fuel tank contained a
significant amount of water. The fuelers suggested that the presence of the water developed due to
condensation inside the fuel tank which is caused from the use of a non-vented fuel cap. Normally,
the fuel cap has vents but the fuel cap used did not, thus causing the condensation problem. The
fuelers said the dozer tank contained 11 inches of water, or about 5 gallons. The water was
removed from the tank and the fuel injectors were replaced by LACSD staff.

The other vehicles in the program were checked to see if the water had contaminated the ultra-low
sulfur fuel supply. No significant amounts of water were found in the other vehicles.

On February 27, 2003, maintenance operations again detected the presence of water contaminating
the fuel. Water was visible in the bowl of the fuel-water separator element. About a gallon of water
was removed from the tank. While a significant amount of rain had fallen recently, water was not
found in any other tanks.

Further analysis by Shepherd mechanics suggested that deterioration of O-rings on the fuel
injectors allowed coolant to flow into the fuel tank through the injectors. Coolant contacts the
injectors, but the O-rings keep it from entering the fuel system. If the O-rings fail, under normal
circumstances, the fuel pressure is sufficient to prevent water from entering the fuel system.
Shepherd said that under some conditions, this coolant flow does take place.




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                            3-18
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study


3.4.4    “Varnish” on Engine Parts

On January 6, 2003, a Shepherd mechanic servicing the LACSD study vehicle 657E scraper #6605
found that the engine would not start. Further investigation indicated that the fuel plunger and
barrels appeared to be stuck due to the presence of a “varnish” or a thin gum deposit. The
technician said that he had similar previous experiences with rigs using low sulfur fuel use, and
that as this varnish develops, engine parts with close tolerances are affected.

LACSD staff also found the fuel pump for 657E scraper #6604 rear engine affected by this
varnish, and in need of reconditioning. On March 25, LACSD staff found the rack was frozen on
the rear engine of 657E scraper #6606. The varnish was again suspected as being responsible.

The Shepherd supervisor/engineer servicing LACSD said that this problem was seen almost
exclusively at the LACSD Puente Hills facility. Shepherd indicated that the problem pre-dated the
introduction of the ultra low sulfur fuel used for the current study, and has been seen in vehicles
running on CARB diesel. ULSD fuel has been used in a variety of studies without developing this
problem.

LACSD staff sent parts coated with varnish to BP-Arco laboratories for evaluation, but results to
date have been inconclusive. This problem appears to be restricted to LACSD vehicles, including
vehicles not using ULSD. It may be that the recycled oil used by LACSD inactivates the lubricity
packages added to the CARB and ULSD fuels.

3.5     SUMMARY OF ALL INCIDENTS BY VEHICLE

Tables 3-5 through 3-10 summarize all significant incidents related to the filter installations on
demonstration vehicles.




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                             3-19
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study


                        Table 3-5: Incident Summary: LACSD 657E SCRAPERS
               Unit #              6604
            Vehicle Type       657E Scraper
              Location            LACSD
               Filters       Johnson-Matthey
                             Approx. hours on
                Date                               Incident Description: Rear Engine
                                 vehicle
              10/7/2002             0              A single 20x15 CRT filter was installed for the rear engine
                                                   CARB on-board testing completing. More than 97 % PM
              1/24/2003               332
                                                   reduction efficiency found for both engines.
              3/21/2003               547          Back pressure found to have risen sharply.
                                                   Ceramic substrate found to have shifted within the trap
              3/31/2003               571          canister housing on the rear-engine filter. The ceramic
                                                   substrate itself (trap) was not damaged.
               4/7/2003               571          Trap ceramic was removed for "re-canning".
               5/7/2003               646          Rear engine trap element re-installed within a new canister.
                                                   Exhaust leaks found on rear engine; Exhaust elbow
             10/10/2003            1175
                                                   disconnected due to vibration.
             10/17/2003            1219            The rear engine trap was removed for final testing by WVU.
                                                   WVU discovers leak due to loss of gasket material
             11/25/2003            1397            separating the 1st stage "catalyst" section from the 2nd
                                                   stage "trap" section. Gasket material replaced.
                             Approx. hours on
                Date                               Incident Description: Front Engine
                                 vehicle
                                                    Two 15x15 CRT filters installed in parallel on the right
                                                   fender. Shepherd installs stop on the yoke to prevent the
              10/7/2002                0
                                                   driver from turning the cab so sharply that it contacts the
                                                   filters.
             12/23/2002               239          Low-pressure return line found partially crimped by yoke.
              12/1/2003            1397            Filters functioning properly at the end of demonstration.




              Unit #            6605
           Vehicle Type     657E Scraper
             Location           CSD
              Filters        Engelhard
                           Approx. hours on
               Date                             Incident Description: Rear Engine
                               vehicle
             3/7/2003              0            A single DPX 20x15 filter installed on the rear engine.
                                                Exhaust stack bent backwards 6 inches after contacting
             8/22/2003           681
                                                another piece of equipment.
                                                CARB on-board testing completing: PM reduction efficiency
             9/9/2003            742
                                                measured above 90 %.
             12/1/2003          1117            Filter functioning properly at the end of the demonstration.
                           Approx. hours on
               Date                             Incident Description: Front Engine
                               vehicle
                                                 Two DPX 20x15 filters installed in parallel on the right
             3/7/2003             0
                                                fender for the front engine.
                                                CARB on-board testing completing: PM reduction efficiency
             9/9/2003            742
                                                measured above 90 %.
             12/1/2003          1117            Filter functioning properly at the end of the demonstration.




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                                     3-20
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study


                        Table 3-6: Incident Summary: LACSD 657E Scraper

           Unit #              6606
        Vehicle Type       657E Scraper
          Location             CSD
           Filters          Engelhard
                        Approx. hours on
             Date                           Incident Description: Rear Engine
                            vehicle
           3/7/2003              0          A single DPX 20x15 filter installed.
                                            CARB on-board testing completing. More than 90 % PM
          9/11/2003             759
                                            reduction efficiency measured.
          12/1/2003            1086         Filter functioning properly at end of demonstration.
                        Approx. hours on
             Date                           Incident Description: Front Engine
                            vehicle
                                            Two DPX 20x15 filters installed in parallel on the right fender
           3/7/2003              0
                                            for the front engine.
                                            CARB on-board testing completing. More than 90 % PM
          9/11/2003             759
                                            reduction efficiency measured.
          12/1/2003            1086         Filters functioning properly at end of demonstration.



                          Table 3-7: Incident Summary: LACSD D9 Dozers

            Unit #             6621
         Vehicle Type      D9 Bulldozer
           Location            CSD
            Filters      Johnson-Matthey
                         Approx. hours on
             Date                           Incident Description:
                             vehicle
                                             A single 20x15 CRT filter installed on the ROPS above the
          10/18/2002             0
                                            driver cab.
                                            Brown plume first observed from exhaust due to excess
           11/1/2002             44
                                            NO2 production by filter.
                                            Seal clamp failure. Buildup of backpressure detected. Trap
           3/1/2003             556
                                            element removed.
                                            Ring clamp suspending the low-pressure return found
           4/21/2003            757
                                            broken at bolt hole.
                                            CSD staff remove rear manifold of filter and find that both
           5/22/2003            898         trap and oxide catalyst elements have shifted. Trap element
                                            removed for recanning.
           6/17/2003            1022        Recanned trap element reinstalled.
           7/17/2003            1104        Flex pipe torn. Heavy duty seal clamp installed.
           9/30/2003            1407        Copper tubing return line loose: replaced connector.
          10/23/2003            1527        Leakage past seal clamp detected.
          10/31/2003            1544        Rig out of service for unrelated repairs.
           12/1/2003            1564        Filter functioning properly at the end of the demonstration.




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                                3-21
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study


                          Table 3-8: Incident Summary: LACSD D9 Dozers

             Unit #             6654
          Vehicle Type      D9 Bulldozer
            Location          LACSD
             Filters         Engelhard
                          Approx. hours on
              Date                           Incident Description:
                              vehicle
                                             A single DPX 20x15 filter installed on the ROPS above the
            2/27/2003             0
                                             driver cab roof.
                                             Flexible tubing connecting aspirator with low pressure return
            3/1/2003              -
                                             line falls off twice in March.
                                             Flexible tubing falls off a third time. LACSD staff detect tear
            3/20/2003            88
                                             in 6" flex piping.
            4/21/2003            265         Steel band of seal clamp found torn from bolted portion.
            5/15/2003            343         Operator notices exhaust has become sooty again.
                                             Trap ceramic found to have shifted and fractured. Original
            5/22/2003            381
                                             exhaust system re-installed.



              Unit #            6655
           Vehicle Type     D9 Bulldozer
             Location           CSD
              Filters     Johnson-Matthey
                          Approx. hours on
               Date                          Incident Description:
                              vehicle
                                              A single 20x15 CRT filter installed on the ROPS above the
             12/2/2002            0          driver cab. Brown plume observed from exhaust due to
                                             excess NO2 production by filter.
             1/24/2003           101         Driver detects a loss of power due to plugged oil injectors.
                                             CARB on-board testing completing. More than 97% PM
             1/28/2003           110
                                             reduction efficiency measured.
             2/20/2003           146         Exhaust stack clips telephone lines.
             2/24/2003           158         Fuelers find 9 gallons of water in fuel tank.
             2/27/2003           167         Fuelers an addition gallon of water in fuel tank.
              4/8/2003           384         Backpressure warning light lit.
                                             CSD staff remove rear manifold of filter and find trap has
             4/10/2003           398         shifted. Trap ceramic was removed for "re-canning", but is
                                             cracked during the process of removal.
             4/21/2003           405         Ring clamp suspending the low-pressure return found broken.
             5/23/2003           517         Replacement ceramic trap element reinstalled.
             6/24/2003           674         Shepherd replaces flex pipe that had torn open.
             7/17/2003           765         Manifold that supports exhaust stack is found cracked.
             9/10/2003           ~900        Exhaust pipe fitting loose
             9/30/2003          ~1050        Copper tubing torn from exhaust due to vibration
            10/14/2003           1144        Inspection reveals ring clamp bracing exhaust stack failed.
             12/1/2003           1394        Filter functioning properly at the end of the demonstration.




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                                 3-22
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study


                              Table 3-9: Incident Summary: Poss 651 Scrapers

                  Unit #              605
               Vehicle Type       651E Scraper
                 Location        Poss-New port
                  Filters       Johnson-M atthey
                                Approx. hours on
                   Date                          Incident Description:
                                    vehicle
                 11/25/2002             0          Two parallel 20x15 CRT filters m ounted to driver cab ROPS.
                 12/13/2002             83            Backpressure increasing past 4 inches of Hg.
                                                      Backpressure spike up to 9 inches of Hg., but drops to 5
                 12/26/2002             90            inches of Hg the next day. Rig taken out of service for tire
                                                      repairs.
                  1/8/2003              101           Under full load, backpressure only reads 3 inches of Hg.
                                                      Operator com plains of lagging perform ance. Backpressure
                 1/14/2003              111
                                                      back up to 5 inches of Hg.
                 2/20/2003              264           Traps and exhaust lines insulated to im prove regeneration.
                 2/26/2003              271           Flex pipe portion of the exhaust line torn open.
                 2/28/2003              271           Operator com plains of odor and headaches.
                 3/10/2003              271           Inspection finds exhaust leak upstream of added piping.
                 3/12/2003              271           Mechanics tighten and seal exhaust m anifold.
                 3/28/2003              314           Backpressure is found to be rising steadily.

                                                      Technicians find that both traps and the upstream oxide
                 4/22/2003              386
                                                      catalysts have slipped within the cannisters. Traps rem oved.




                  Unit #            628
               Vehicle Type     651E Scraper
                 Location       Poss-Newport
                  Filters        Engelhard
                               Approx. hours on
                  Date                          Incident Description:
                                   vehicle
                                                   Two DPX 20x15 filters installed in parallel on the driver cab
                3/11/2003              0
                                                  roof ROPS.
                                                  Strut support bars for filter brackets found to be detached
                6/19/2003            330
                                                  due to failed welds. Shepherd makes repairs on 6/21/03.
                 8/1/2003             456            Rig fueled with CARB diesel instead of ULSD.
                11/5/2003             661            Filters removed prior to sale of vehicle.


                  Unit #            625
               Vehicle Type     651E Scraper
                 Location       Poss-Newport
                  Filters        Engelhard
                               Approx. hours on
                  Date                               Incident Description:
                                   vehicle
                                                      Two DPX 20x15 filters installed in parallel on the driver cab
                3/11/2003              0
                                                     roof ROPS.
                                                     Richard Zurbey of Engelhard conducts temperature and
                5/28/2003             221
                                                     backpressure testing.
                                                     Strut support bars for filter brackets found to be detached
                6/19/2003             324
                                                     due to failed welds. Shepherd makes repairs on 6/21/03.
                 8/1/2003             477            Rig fueled with CARB diesel instead of ULSD.
                11/7/2003             771            Filters removed prior to sale of vehicle.




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                                         3-23
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study




                        Table 3-10: Incident Summary: Poss 824/825/834 Dozers

             Unit #             407
          Vehicle Type     824B Bulldozer
            Location       Poss-Newport
             Filters      Johnson-Matthey
                          Approx. hours on
              Date                           Incident Description:
                              vehicle
           11/25/2002             0          A single 15x15 CRT filter installed.
                                             Warning light lit and operator reports sluggish engine
                                             response. Backpressure record shows a recent increase to
            2/20/2003           270
                                             7 inches of Hg. Filter is cleaned. Sensor shows some
                                             decrease in backpressure after cleaning.
             3/7/2002           293          Engine checks out as meeting Caterpillar specifications.
                                             Check of trap element reveals slight burn-through of trap
            3/28/2003           377
                                             element. Trap element reinstalled in reverse direction.
                                             Trap retrofit is removed after significant burnthrough and
            6/26/2003           766
                                             slippage found.


             Unit #              409
          Vehicle Type      834 Bulldozer
            Location       Poss-Newport
             Filters      Johnson-Matthey
                          Approx. hours on
              Date                           Incident Description:
                              vehicle
           11/25/2002             0          A single 15x15 CRT filter installed on driver cab ROPS.
                                             Backpressure begins to rise from 2.5 inches Hg to 4-5
            1/17/2003           113
                                             inches of Hg.
                                             High backpressure warning light lit. Backpressure spikes to
             3/6/2003           253
                                             a high level, but it drops in subsequent days.
                                             Trap cleaned, and check of sensor shows decrease in
            4/22/2003           405          backpressure from 7 to 3 inches of Hg. However,
                                             backpressure rises over the next couple of weeks.
            5/14/2003           511          Backpressure found to be registering up to 6 inches of Hg.
            5/21/2003           561          Check of trap shows significant burnthrough.
            5/26/2003           561          Trap removed and muffler restored.


             Unit #             415
          Vehicle Type     825C Bulldozer
            Location       Poss-Newport
             Filters         Engelhard
                          Approx. hours on
              Date                           Incident Description:
                              vehicle
                                             One DPX 15x15 filter installed in parallel on the cab roof
            4/26/2003             0
                                             ROPS.
             8/1/2003           452          Rig fueled with CARB diesel instead of ULSD.
                                             Filter performing well at end of demo. Filter remains
            12/1/2003           1184
                                             installed.




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                                  3-24
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study


3.6     SUMMARY OF EXHAUST TEMPERATURE AND BACK PRESSURE DATA

As previously noted, exhaust backpressures and temperatures were recorded for all JM-equipped
vehicles throughout the demonstration. In May 2003, LACSD also began recording this data on
vehicles with Engelhard filters. ( Instances of increasing backpressure for specific pieces of
equipment are described in detail in Section 3.4.) Average monthly backpressure and temperature
readings are summarized for all equipment in Table 3-11 (backpressure) and Table 3-12
(temperature). To generate these tables, recorded backpressure and temperature data files were
manually/visually examined and representative values determined for each engine based on typical
duty cycles. The data roughly represent “average peak” values for the month.

                   Table 3-11: Average Exhaust Backpressures During Demonstration
                                                   Approximate Average Exhaust Pressure in inches of Hg (mercury)
                                              Nov,    Dec,   Jan,   Feb,   Mar,   Apr,   May,    Jun,    Jul,    Aug, Sep,    Oct,   Nov,
  Opr       Eq#    Equipment Type     Trap
                                               02      02     03     03     03     03     03      03      03      03   03      03     03
CSD 6604F 657E scraper               JM        -       -      2      2      2      2      2       2    2          2     2      2      2
CSD 6604R 657E scraper               JM        -       -      3      4      5      1      1       2    2          2     2      2      2
CSD 6605F 657E scraper               Eng       -       -      -      -      -      -      -       2    2          2     2      2      2
CSD 6605R 657E scraper               Eng       -       -      -      -      -      -      -       2    2          2     2      2      2
CSD 6606F 657E scraper               Eng       -       -      -      -      -      -      -       -    -          -     -      -      -
CSD 6606R 657E scraper               Eng       -       -      -      -      -      -      -       2    2          2     2      3      2
CSD 6621 D9N dozer mec               JM        -       -      -      2      3      5      8       -    -          -     3      1      1
CSD 6654 D9N dozer elec              Eng       -       -      -      -      -      -      -       -    -          -     -      -      -
CSD 6655 D9N dozer elec              JM        1       1      1      2      3     n.a.   n.a.    n.a. n.a.        1     1      1      1
Poss 407       824B dozer            JM        2       2      2      6      5      3      4       5    -          -     -      -      -
Poss 409       834 dozer             JM        2       2      2      3      3      4      4       5    -          -     -      -      -
Poss 605       651B scraper          JM        2       3      4      4      5      5      -       -    -          -     -      -      -
Poss 415       825C dozer            Eng       -       -      -      -      -      -      -       -    -          -     -      -      -
Poss 625       651B scraper          Eng       -       -      -      -      -      -      -       -    -          -     -      -      -
Poss 628       651B scraper          Eng       -       -      -      -      -      -      -       -    -          -     -      -      -
"-" mean no data available


                   Table 3-12. Average Exhaust Temperatures During Demonstration
                                                     Approximate Average Exhaust Temperature in Degrees Centigrade
                                              Nov, Dec,      Jan,   Feb,   Mar,   Apr, May, Jun,        Jul,    Aug, Sep,    Oct, Nov,
      Opr    Eq#    Equipment Type     Trap    02   02        03     03     03     03   03   03          03      03   03      03   03
  CSD 6604F 657E scraper             JM         -     -    -    360 430 440 410                  410 430      -     -     -    400
  CSD 6604R 657E scraper             JM         -     -    -    500 530 410 390                  440 440 450 470 470            -
  CSD 6605F 657E scraper             Eng        -     -    -      -     -     -     -           (400) (400) (380) -       - (380)
  CSD 6605R 657E scraper             Eng        -     -    -      -     -     -     -           (460) (460) (430) (420) (460) (440)
  CSD 6606F 657E scraper             Eng        -     -    -      -     -     -     -            400    -     -     -     -     -
  CSD 6606R 657E scraper             Eng        -     -    -      -     -     -     -            470    -     -     -     -     -
  CSD 6621 D9N dozer mec JM                     -     -    -    460 470 480 520                  450    -     - (480) (520) (510)
  CSD 6654 D9N dozer elec Eng                   -     -    -      -     -     -     -             -     -     -     -     -     -
  CSD 6655 D9N dozer elec JM                    - (360) (360) (360) (400) 400       -            360 400 370 380 390 370
  Poss 407       824B dozer          JM         -   440 430 490 490 450             -             -     -     -     -     -     -
  Poss 409       834 dozer           JM       440 450 450 440 460 500               -             -     -     -     -     -     -
  Poss 605       651B scraper        JM       300 320 330 370 400 400               -             -     -     -     -     -     -
  Poss 415       825C dozer          Eng        -     -    -      -     -     -     -             -     -     -     -     -     -
  Poss 625       651B scraper        Eng        -     -    -      -     -     -     -             -     -     -     -     -     -
  Poss 628       651B scraper        Eng        -     -    -      -     -     -     -             -     -     -     -     -     -
  Note: Parenthesis indicate data is questionable based on quality of recorded data


The recorded backpressures for the larger 20X15 CRT JM traps at LACSD showed good
performance for a few months with a gradual build-up following slippage of the trap element.
BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                                          3-25
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study


After being replaced or re-canned, JM traps yielded low backpressure for the rest of the
demonstration (vehicles 6604, 6621 and 6655).

The JM traps on the older Poss vehicles showed a build-up of backpressure as the traps fouled due
to the high rate of soot generation.

In some instances, the logs showed fairly rapid changes both up or down without a known reason
as to why the change occurred. Some sudden increases were seen after the engines had been idle
for several weeks (due to rain). These sudden increases may have been caused by a prolonged
period of idling before the vehicles were put back into service. The backpressure usually improved
over a few days after the sudden increase, but it rarely returned to the previous low level.

The LACSD vehicles retrofitted with Engelhard traps and data loggers showed no significant
increase in backpressure during the demonstration.

Data loggers recorded progressively higher temperatures corresponding to the higher
backpressures generated as the shifted traps became blocked. Temperature excursions may be seen
for the rear engine of the 657E scraper #6604, the D9 dozer #6621, and the POSS engines.

In May 2002, Engelhard collected data from the Poss 651B scraper #625 to evaluate temperature
and backpressure. The data generated graph shown in Figure 3-1.

                 30

                 25

                 20               Pressure in inches of water

                 15

                 10
        Inches
          of      5
        Water
                  0
                      0       100         200   300        400   500     600      700      800
                          Temperature Degrees Fahrenheit


         Figure 3-1. Exhaust Backpressure versus Temperature for 651B Scraper #625

The curve illustrates the close relationship between exhaust temperature and backpressure. Up to
about 12 inches of water, temperature increases by about 75 degrees F for each inch of water.
Above 12 inches of water, the temperature increases at a much slower rate: about. 8.8 degrees F
for each additional inch of water.




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                               3-26
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study


3.7   FUEL ECONOMY IMPACTS

The study addressed whether fuel economy is impacted when a trap is installed in place of a
muffler, and whether fuel consumption is different for CARB diesel versus ULSD.

LACSD employs a subcontractor to fuel the vehicles and they record the fuel consumption for
each vehicle. For the purpose of this study, LACSD staff also recorded the daily fuel consumption,
the total hours operated, and any notable maintenance.

Poss normally uses a wet-hose subcontractor to fuel its vehicles in the field. The wet-hose
technician normally records the fuel used by each vehicle. However, Poss provided one of its own
fueling trucks to supply ULSD to the study vehicles. This was necessary to assure that the study
vehicles received ULSD during the noon fuel top-off, as well as during fueling after hours. As the
Poss fuel truck was not fitted with a flow meter, Poss staff could not record the quantity of fuel
supplied to the vehicles—and no fuel economy data is available from Poss. Poss staff painted and
stenciled their study vehicles to denote them as receiving ULSD fuel only.

Beginning in March 2002, LACSD staff began tracking fuel consumption and hours of use for the
study vehicles in order to establish baseline data (with CARB fuel) before traps were installed.
Baseline fuel use tracking on CARB diesel continued for approximately five months through the
beginning of September. All test vehicles were converted to ULSD during September 2002. The
JM filters were installed on the test scrapers and dozers at LACSD soon after the ULSD fueling
capability was available, therefore baseline fuel economy data for the JM test vehicles on ULSD
(but before the traps were installed) is not available. However, it should be noted that two 657E
scrapers and two D9 dozers were designated as “control” vehicles. As such these units provided
fuel consumption data on vehicles without traps, but operating on ULSD as well as CARB fuel.

It should also be noted that installation of the Engelhard filters at LACSD was delayed
approximately four months due to unavailability of the units from the OEM. During this time, the
scrapers and dozers targeted for installation with Engelhard filters continued to operate on ULSD.
These units (two scrapers: #6605 and #6606, and one dozer: #6654) operated approximately four-
and-a-half months on ULSD fuel and therefore provide additional baseline data on CARB versus
ULSD fuel economy. The results of the fuel economy data tracking effort are summarized in Table
3-13.

The fuel economy data shown in Table 3-13 do not appear to track with pre-demo hypotheses, nor
with conventional wisdom. Specifically, the fuel economy appears to have improved on all
vehicles after the particulate traps were installed. Also, for the D9 dozers, the fuel economy with
ULSD actually improved compared to CARB fuel, but CARB versus ULSD fuel efficiency was
essentially unchanged on 657E scrapers. It is also apparent that there are large differences in fuel
economy among like vehicles. For example, control scrapers 6608 and 6607 exhibited fuel
economy of 15.6 and 8.56 gallons per hour respectively while they were both operating on CARB
fuel—and, dozers 6621 and 6653 reported fuel economy of 5.7 and 10.6 gallons per hour
respectively before traps were installed and while still operating on CARB fuel.




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                            3-27
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study


                  Table 3-13: Summary of Fuel Economy Data for Study Vehicles




Further evidence of the variability in fuel use data can be seen by analyzing data from one specific
vehicle. An example of such data is shown in Figure 3-2 for a D9 dozer:


                                                    Daily fuel economy Distribution
                                                      (CSD D9 Bulldozer #6655)
                                       18

                                       16
                        Gallons/Hour




                                       14

                                       12
                                       10
                                        8

                                        6
                                            2   3      4   5   6     7    8   9   10   11   12

                                                           Hours Used Per Day

                   Figure 3-2: Example of Variability in Fuel Consumption Data

Each data point in Figure 3-2 represents the fuel economy on a particular day. As shown, most
days, the unit operated 8 or 9 hours. The fuel use data however (gallons per hour) is extremely
scattered, ranging from 6 gal/hr to 16 gal/hour for the very same piece of equipment. The
explanation is likely attributable to several factors including major differences in duty cycles due
to weather condition, work load, type of soil, location of operation, operator peculiarities, and/or
equipment condition. Also, it would appear that some data were unreported or inaccurately
reported, leading to a biasing on the low side. Typical fuel consumption for scrapers is 15 to 20
gallons per hour and 10 to 14 gallons per hour for the D9 dozers.



BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                                                3-28
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study


In our view, the data do not reliably show changes in fuel economy due to installation of PM
traps—or even due to a switch to ULSD. Any POSSIBLE change in real fuel economy due to the
addition of traps and/or the ULSD fuel is masked by normal variations associated with duty cycles,
operator influence, and, data collection reliability. In short, the quality of the data appears to be
comparatively weak—and no meaningful conclusions should be drawn from it.

Dynamometer Measured Fuel Consumption. During emissions testing of the Caterpillar 3408
engine at WVU, fuel consumption was also closely monitored. These tests are performed under
very controlled conditions and fuel economy is precisely measured. As a result, these tests provide
perhaps the most reliable estimates of the impact on fuel consumption of installing the particulate
traps. Fuel economy from the dynamometer emissions testing at WVU is shown in Table 3-14.

                         Table 3-14. Dynamometer Fuel Economy Test Data
                                          (transient test cycle, WVU)

                                                                        Fuel
                             Test Phase Fuel Type         Trap     consumption
                                                                    (lb/bhp-hr)
                              Pre Demo      CARB         no              0.41
                              Pre Demo      EDC1         no              0.41
                              Pre Demo       FT          no             0.437
                              Pre Demo      ECD1      Englehard         0.406
                              Pre Demo      ECD1         JM             0.402
                              Pre Demo       FT          JM             0.412
                             Post Demo      ECD1         no             0.393
                             Post Demo      ECD1      Englehard         0.397
                             Post Demo      ECD1         JM             0.397


As shown in Table 3-14, fuel consumption test data with and without a particulate trap is nearly
identical of each other—and within the statistical margin of error associated with these tests. This
test data confirms that there is no discernable impact on fuel economy from installation of the
particulate filters.

3.8   OIL CONSUMPTION IMPACTS

LACSD staff recorded additions of oil to the equipment on the same sheets used to record the fuel
use and hours of operation. Poss mechanics were interviewed on a periodic basis to determine if
any of the rigs were consuming unusual amounts of oil. ( Poss however did not keep detailed oil
consumption data.) LACSD used a recycled SAE 15W40 sold by Yankovitch Company. Poss
supplied its study vehicles with Chevron DELO 400 motor oil.

Excessive oil consumption is often a sign of a worn engine that effectively allows oil to “blow by”
the piston rings and into the combustion chamber—and eventually out the exhaust. Oil and oil
combustion products have been shown to damage (or reduce) the effectiveness of catalyzed
particulate traps and reduce durability. In very rare instances, the oil can rapidly burn and
destructively heat the catalyst.

BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                                3-29
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study


As with the fuel economy data, the oil consumption data appears to be inconclusive. Table 3-15
shows a summary of the average oil consumption for the test vehicles throughout the study period.

                Table 3-15: Summary of Oil Consumption Data for Study Vehicles




An examination of the data in Table 3-15 reveals no discernable trends. Average oil consumption
with traps installed appears to actually be less than with stock mufflers in nearly all cases. In any
event, there were no reported instances (either in the recorded data, or via interviews with
mechanics) of abnormally high oil usage on any of the engines under test. Neither LACSD nor
Poss vehicles exhibited significant changes in oil consumption following retrofit with PM traps
from either of the manufacturers.

3.9   OPERATOR INTERVIEWS

Project staff routinely polled both vehicle drivers and maintenance staff to assess any perceptible
change in vehicle performance, operation or other incidents.

Drivers did not report any noticeable change in vehicle performance after being retrofitted with
particulate traps. Drivers did remark positively regarding the loss of visible exhaust soot with the
traps—and that the elimination of the heavy smoke improved their overall work environment.
Drivers also found that vehicles with traps are slightly quieter than those without, with the
exception of the Poss 834 dozer that seemed to have some increased valve clatter.

Drivers reported alarm lights due to high backpressure in a timely manner, and sometimes noted a
loss of power at the same time. Project staff followed-up on these reports by performing
inspections and downloading the backpressure logs.

BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                             3-30
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study


Drivers mainly reported problems with the retrofit when exhaust piping failures allowed exhaust to
escape through the various breaks and tears in the exhaust piping.

3.10 FUEL QUALITY SAMPLING DATA

During the demonstration, LACSD and Poss maintenance technicians sampled fuel from the study
vehicles. CARB analytical staff tested these samples for sulfur content to spot-check the proper
ULSD fueling of the study vehicles. The test frequency was reduced when the fueling was
routinely segregated. The fuel testing did not indicate accidental misfueling during the
demonstration phase.

The LACSD vehicles #6607 and #6620 fueled with BP’s CARB diesel show sulfur levels below
60 ppm of sulfur. BP does not normally sell CARB diesel with sulfur levels this low, but it does
occur. The Poss vehicles fueled with Phillips CARB fuel tested at 126 and 182 ppm sulfur. Fuel
sample data is summarized in Table 3-16

                        Table 3-16. Fuel Sample Results ( sulfur content ppm)
                                          10/7/02



                                                               11/1/02




                                                                                               1/3/03

                                                                                                        1/10/03

                                                                                                                  1/27/03

                                                                                                                             2/10/03

                                                                                                                                       2/27/03

                                                                                                                                                 3/28/03
                                                    10/18/02



                                                                         11/21/02

                                                                                    11/25/02




                                                                                                                                                           4/8/03

                                                                                                                                                                    6/4/03

                                                                                                                                                                              10/17/03
    Date that fuel was sampled-->

        Vehicle Description                            Diesel fuel sulfur content in parts per million (ppm)
 CSD 657E scraper #6604 JM                8               7         6 11                         10        11                                                                7
 CSD 657E scraper #6606 Eng               9               7         6     7                       6        10                                                                7
 CSD D9N dozer elec #6655 JM              8               7         7     7                       6        10                                                                7
 CSD D9N dozer mec #6621 JM               8               7         6     6                       5        10                                                                7
 CSD 657E scraper #6605 Eng                          8    7         6     7                       6        13                                                                7
 CSD D9N dozer elec #6654 Eng                       8     7         7 16                          6        10                                                                7
 CSD 657E scraper #6608 None                         7    7         6     6                                10                                                                7
 CSD D9N dozer elec #6653 None                      7     7         6     7                       6        10                                                                8
 CSD 657E scraper #6607 None                        25                                           46
 CSD D9N dozer mec #6620 None                       18                                           51
 Poss 651B scraper #605 JM                                     7          8   7    5 4                  5
 Poss 824B dozer #407 JM                                      28          8   7    5 5                  5                                                                    182
 Poss 834B dozer #409 JM                                                  7   7    5 5                  5                                                                    183
 Poss 651B scraper #625 Eng                                                                             5                                                                    182
 Poss 651B scraper #628 Eng                                                                             5                                                                    183
 Poss 825C dozer #415 Eng                                                                                                                                                    182
 Poss CARB diesel                                                                                                           126 126




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                                            3-31
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study




                                          4.   EMISSIONS TESTING

4.1   PRE-DEMONSTRATION TEST AT WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY

In October 2002, JM 20 x 15 CRT and Engelhard DPX 20 x 15 particulate filters were tested at the
Engines and Emissions Research Laboratory (EERL) of West Virginia University (WVU). This
pre-demonstration emissions testing was used to establish the baseline emissions reduction
potential of the filters in their “as new” condition. These same filter units were then to be installed
in test vehicles, operated for one year or 1,400 hours, and then retested by WVU to determine any
changes in emission reduction effectiveness.

West Virginia University staff conducted the dynamometer testing on a Caterpillar 3408 diesel
engine fitted with the traps from the two OEMs. Sukut Construction provided the 3408 engine for
testing. The Caterpillar 3408 is a V-8 turbocharged diesel engine that is used to power the D9
dozer and is also used in the rear engine of a 657E scraper.

The dynamometer test measured PM, NOx, CO, and HC emission rates (in grams per brake
horsepower-hour) under both standard 8-mode (steady state) as well as transient test cycles. The
transient cycle was derived based on actual torque and speed data obtained by monitoring the duty
cycle of a 3408 engine on a 657E scraper during normal operating conditions. The transient cycle
was then reproduced on the engine dynamometer and the engine emissions analyzed and averaged.
It should be noted that most industry experts are in agreement that transient cycle emissions testing
is much more representative of real-world emissions. For purposes of comparing impacts on
emissions of various fuels and/or the particulate traps, we therefore focus on analyzing the results
of transient testing rather than the 8-mode tests.

The Engine Emissions Research Center (EERC) at WVU uses state-of-the-art engine test
equipment and operates heavy-duty engines over transient as well as steady state cycles. WVU
conducted emissions testing on a 500 horsepower absorbing/motoring DC dynamometer. Engine
exhaust is ducted to an 18" diameter total exhaust double dilution tunnel based on the critical flow
Venturi-constant volume sampler (CFV-CVS) concept. Microprocessor controlled heated probes
and sampling lines are used to draw gaseous samples into the gas analysis bench.

Continuous sampling and analysis of the exhaust stream is done by non-dispersive infrared
analyzers (NDIR) for carbon monoxide (low and high) and carbon dioxide. A wet
chemiluminescent analyze is used for oxides of nitrogen and heated flame ionization detector
(HFID) for total hydrocarbons. Total particulate matter is sampled on a 70-mm fluorocarbon
coated glass fiber filters for subsequent gravimetric analysis. (See Appendix C for a detailed report
from WVU on the emissions testing procedures, methodologies, equipment, and dynamometer test
results).

The testing analyzed the engine exhaust emissions using CARB diesel, a ULSD fuel (BP-Arco’s
Emission Control Diesel-1, normally referred to as ECD1) and gas-to-liquid (GTL) diesel fuel.
CARB diesel had the highest sulfur content among the three test fuels, with 0.0216 percent by
weight, followed by ECD1 with 0.0014 percent by weight, and Fischer-Tropsch with 0.0010
percent by weight. The data obtained after testing both baseline and retrofit versions was compiled
in terms of cycle-averaged emissions.
BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                                4-1
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study


Table 4-1 lists the summary findings from the pre-demonstration emissions testing at WVU.
Percentage reduction calculations use ECD1 transient test results as the “baseline” since only
ULSD will be available in the near future in California, and, the transient cycle is more
representative of a real-world duty cycle.

                 Table 4-1: Pre-Demo Dynamometer Emissions Test Results
      (Overall Weighted Avg. Emissions for Steady State and Transient Duty Cycle tests)
                                              8-mode                       % Reduction in
                                                            Transient
              Emission                       Weighted                      Transient Test
                                 Fuel Type                    Cycle
               Type                           Average                     emissions versus
                                                            (g/bhp-hr)
                                             (g/bhp-hr)                    ECD1 Baseline
                           CARB Baseline             0.19         0.32          5.9%
                           ECD1 Baseline             0.20         0.34           0%
                  PM       EDC1- JM (CRT)            0.01        0.006         98.2%
                           EDC1- Eng (DPX)           0.01        0.005         98.5%
                           GTL - JM (CRT)            0.00        0.004         98.8%
                           CARB Baseline             7.43          6.98        -11.7%
                           ECD1 Baseline             7.18          6.25         0.0%
                 NOX       EDC1- JM (CRT)            9.21          7.00        -12.0%
                           EDC1- Eng (DPX)           8.24          6.33         -1.3%
                           GTL - JM (CRT)            8.78          6.54         -4.6%
                           CARB Baseline             1.14         0.21         27.6%
                           ECD1 Baseline             0.23         0.29          0.0%
                  HC       EDC1- JM (CRT)            0.11         0.02         93.1%
                           EDC1- Eng (DPX)           0.14         0.06         79.3%
                           GTL - JM (CRT)            0.09         0.02         93.1%
                           CARB Baseline             1.26         1.99          4.3%
                           ECD1 Baseline             1.23         2.08          0.0%
                  CO       EDC1- JM (CRT)            0.16         0.07         96.6%
                           EDC1- Eng (DPX)           0.07         0.73         64.9%
                           GTL - JM (CRT)            0.14         0.04         98.1%


Highlights of the findings are as follows:
    Both the JM and Engelhard filters achieved a 98 percent reduction in PM emissions over the
    baseline engine (without a trap).
    PM emissions with GTL (Fisher-Tropsch) fuel (combined with a particulate trap) were similar
    to ECD1.
    ULSD fuel decreased NOx emissions about 11 percent compared to standard CARB fuel.
    While both particulate filters affected NOx emissions, these changes were probably not
    meaningful, and due as much to measurement variability as to the performance of the filters
    The particulate filters also reduced hydrocarbon emissions by about 80 percent (Engelhard)
    and 93 percent (JM)
    Both filters substantially reduced carbon monoxide emissions; the JM filter was slightly more
    effective in reducing carbon monoxide.


BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                            4-2
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study


4.2     RESULTS OF POST-DEMONSTRATION TESTING

Pre-demonstration emissions testing took place in October 2002, and post-demonstration testing
occurred in January 2004. During that time, the engine used for the first round of testing was sent
back to California to serve as a stand-by replacement engine for Sukut Construction.
Unfortunately, this engine was needed to replace an engine that failed, and Sukut provided a
different rebuilt engine for the second round of testing. (This engine was also a Cat 3408 and
identical to the first engine.) WVU conducted a new set of baseline emissions tests on this second
engine to enable a comparison with the first round of testing. As noted, JM and Engelhard each
designated a 20X15 filter for dynamometer testing in accordance with the use of the 3408 test
engine. After the pre-demo testing, WVU sent the two filters to Los Angeles. LACSD staff
mounted the JM and Engelhard filters on the 657E scraper #6604 rear engine and on the D9 dozer
#6654, respectively.

The JM filter on the rear 657E scraper rear engine was the first filter that “shifted” during early
testing, but the ceramic trap was re-canned and reinstalled on the scraper. On October 17, LACSD
staff removed this filter for shipment back to WVU. The filter had accrued a total of 1,160 hours of
service by the time it was retested by WVU. When WVU installed this filter, the engineers found
that it had lost a portion of a seal between the diesel oxide catalyst and the trap portions of the unit.
WVU improvised a replacement seal and reinstalled the filter.

The Engelhard filter that WVU initially tested became fractured after 381 hours of service on the
D9 dozer. The filter mounted to the 657E scraper #6606 rear engine was selected to substitute for
the second round of WVU dynamometer testing. When LACSD staff removed this filter on
December 3, it had accrued 1,086 hours of service.

At the request of SCAQMD, WVU included an analysis of both the NOx and NO in the post-demo
testing. The amount of NO2 can be inferred by the difference. NO2 is of interest since it is a
particularly strong oxidizing and has adverse health effects on the respiratory system. NO2 is also
responsible for the brownish gas that is sometimes associated with diesel exhaust.

Highlights of the findings from the post-demo emission testing are as follows:
      Both the JM and the Engelhard filters reduced PM emissions by more than 90 percent in both
      the transient and the 8-mode duty cycles—thus showing little or no degradation in
      effectiveness from the beginning to end of the demonstration period. The PM emission
      reduction efficiency of the filters appears to nearly as high at the end of one year of operations
      as when the filters where new.
      Total NOx emissions showed little impact with the particulate filters. However, NO2 increased
      by about 400 percent and 300 percent for the JM and Engelhard filters, respectively, versus
      baseline (without a trap) emissions. This is likely what caused the reddish-brown smoke from
      some of the installations as detailed in Chapter 3. Further, these tests show NO2 emission rates
      to have a very strong dependence on the duty cycle with NO2 emissions being comparatively
      high at lower power levels (versus an engine without a trap). This was particularly true for the
      JM filter.
      The testing also showed reductions of 99 percent or more for hydrocarbon emissions—and
      about 90 percent reduction of CO.
BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                                4-3
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study


Table 4-2 lists a summary of results from the post-demo testing. For convenience, Table 4-3 shows
a comparison of emission testing results from before and after the in-use demonstration testing.

                    Table 4-2: Post-Demo Dynamometer Emissions Test Results
                                                       8-mode                      % Reduction
                                                                   Transient
                 Emission                             Weighted                     versus ECD1
                                    Fuel Type                        Cycle
                  Type                                 Average                       Baseline
                                                                   (g/bhp-hr)
                                                      (g/bhp-hr)                 (Transient Test)
                               ECD1 Baseline             0.17         0.33              0%
                    PM         EDC1- JM (CRT)            0.01         0.00            > 99%
                               EDC1- Eng (DPX)           0.01         0.03            90.9%
                               ECD1 Baseline             6.52         6.40             0.0%
                    NOX        EDC1- JM (CRT)            6.14         6.05             5.5%
                               EDC1- Eng (DPX)           5.96         5.96             6.9%
                               ECD1 Baseline             4.06         5.99             0.0%
                    NO         EDC1- JM (CRT)            3.66         3.98            33.6%
                               EDC1- Eng (DPX)           3.19         4.40            26.5%
                               ECD1 Baseline             2.46         0.41             0.0%
                  NO2 (by
                               EDC1- JM (CRT)            2.48         2.07           -404.9%
                 difference)
                               EDC1- Eng (DPX)           2.77         1.56           -280.5%
                               ECD1 Baseline             0.12         0.30              0%
                     HC        EDC1- JM (CRT)            0.00         0.00            > 99%
                               EDC1- Eng (DPX)           0.00         0.00            > 99%
                               ECD1 Baseline             1.31         2.10              0%
                    CO         EDC1- JM (CRT)            0.24         0.16            92.4%
                               EDC1- Eng (DPX)           0.03         0.21            90.0%


        Table 4-3: Comparison of Pre- and Post-Demo Dynamometer Emission Testing

                                                    Emission Test Results (grams/ hp-hr)
                                                     (all tests completed with ECD1 fuel)
                                                    8-mode                      Transient
                                          pre-demo       post demo      pre-demo      post demo
                  Baseline (no filter)            0.20        0.17         0.34           0.33
                  Johnson Matthey                 0.01        0.01        0.006         0.001
           PM     Englehard                       0.01        0.01        0.005           0.03
                  Baseline (no filter)            7.18        6.52         6.25           6.40
                  Johnson Matthey                 9.21        6.14         7.00           6.05
          NOX     Englehard                       8.24        5.96         6.33           5.96
                  Baseline (no filter)         (1)            4.06          (1)           5.99
                  Johnson Matthey              (1)            3.66          (1)           3.98
           NO     Englehard                    (1)            3.19          (1)           4.40
                  Baseline (no filter)         (1)            2.46          (1)           0.40
          NO2
                  Johnson Matthey              (1)            2.48          (1)           2.07
       difference
                  Englehard                    (1)            2.77          (1)           1.56
                  Baseline (no filter)            0.23        0.12         0.29           0.30
                  Johnson Matthey                 0.11          0         0.021         0.001
           HC     Englehard                       0.14          0          0.06         0.001
                  Baseline (no filter)            1.23        1.31         2.10           2.10
                  Johnson Matthey                 0.16        0.24        0.066           0.16
           CO     Englehard                       0.07        0.03         0.72           0.21
       (1) NOx speciation provided for post demo testing only


BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                                     4-4
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study


4.3     IN-USE EMISSION TESTING

4.3.1    Opacity Testing Results

Project staff (including technicians from the host-sites) conducted opacity testing on study vehicles
using a Wager Model 6500 Smoke Meter. The meter consists of a light source and light detector
that measures the absorbance of light in the exhaust stream. The determination of opacity follows
the protocol given in the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J1667 Recommended Practice,
“Snap Acceleration Smoke Test Procedure for Heavy-Duty Powered Vehicles.”

If the vehicle has not been running, the driver allows the engine to idle for 30 minutes prior to the
test. Once the engine has warmed up, the tester prepares the opacity meter. The opacity meter
electronics run through a baseline determination for each test. The light source and detector are
separate elements 8″ apart. The tester positions the sensor and light source between 4″ and 6″
above the lip of the exhaust and on either side of the exhaust stream. With the vehicle in neutral,
the driver performs a “snap acceleration.” As the exhaust exits, the soot in the exhaust absorbs the
light from the instrument light source. The procedure is repeated three times and the average of the
three tests is reported.

Opacity testing was conducted on test vehicles shortly after the project began, before and after
retrofit, and in conjunction with the CARB on-board testing. Additional tests were taken
periodically throughout the demonstration, depending on the availability of the vehicles.

Existing regulations specify that on-road diesels produce no more that 40 percent opacity, but do
not regulate the off-road diesel engines in the same manner.

Initial tests of 651B scrapers with D346 pre-chamber injection usually generated 99 percent plus
opacity. (see Table 4-4 for detailed opacity testing results). This amount of soot was deemed to be
potentially harmful to the soot filters. When vehicles selected for study registered high opacity
values, the POSS mechanics completed engine adjustments including resetting timing, rack travel
(fuel delivery), replacement of air and fuel filters, etc.. These steps generally helped to reduce
opacity to approximately 60 to 70 percent in most cases. A few of the 1996 657E scrapers also
generated opacity values above 40 percent, and these were also adjusted (see Table 4-5).

Leaning the fuel-to-air ratio (by reducing maximum fuel flow via adjustment of the rack position)
reduces the opacity reading to between 50 percent and 80 percent on the older machines. On the
newer post 1995 engines, opacity could go from 80 percent to below 15 percent by making such
adjustments. Mechanics expressed concern that when the ratio is too low, the driver is unable to
get as much power from the engine. Mechanics were careful to avoid reducing the ratio so much
that the study vehicles exhibited these problems.

The LACSD D9 dozer engines equipped with electronic ignition could generate opacity values
below 5 percent. The Poss 825C with a repowered 3406 EUI engine yielded about 20 percent
opacity. Engines on both the 824B (Cat D343) and 834 (Cat 3408) bulldozers had been rebuilt
within the last three years and also exhibited relatively low opacity readings (without a trap) of
21.2 and 11.7 percent respectively. Installation of particulate traps drastically reduced opacity
readings with most values below 5 percent.


BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                             4-5
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study


Static opacity testing may not be a reliable indicator of soot production under load. For example,
although Poss dozers 824B and 834 (both MUI engines) exhibited relatively modest opacity
readings, the two JM traps were still overwhelmed by the soot generated and experienced burn-
through. JM engineers had hoped that under heavy loads, these engines would generate
temperatures high enough to support adequate regeneration of the very high engine-out particulate
emissions. As discussed earlier however, the traps on these engines were unable to adequately
regenerate causing backpressures to rise. The traps were eventually removed at 560 hours (dozer
834) and 766 hours (dozer 824B). It should be noted that a check of the opacity from these two
dozers after the demonstration (fitted with DOCs only) yielded maximum opacity values. This
change in opacity may have been due to a change in the fuel-air ratio (initiated by Poss
mechanics).

                       Table 4-4: Exhaust Opacity Readings Summary, Part 1 of 2

                                                                           Date Trap   Opacity Test     Opacity
 Opr    Equip Type    Eq#     Engine   Eng Year   Trap      DPF Type       Installed      Date          Reading          Comment

                                                                                       4/12/02        40.5
                                                                                       9/11/02        28.1
CSD 657E scraper      6604 3412 F      1996
                                                  JM     15X15 CRT (2)   10/7/02       11/12/02       0.0         Filtered
                                                  JM     15X15 CRT (2)   10/7/02       10/10/03       0.0         Filtered
                                                                                       4/12/02        39.8
                                                                                       9/11/02        44.7
CSD 657E scraper      6604 3408 R      1996
                                                  JM     20X15 CRT       10/7/02       10/10/03       0.0         Filtered
                                                                                       10/10/03       22.0        Removed for WVU
                                                                                       4/9/02         45.1
    D9N bulldozer                                                                      9/11/02        45.2
CSD mechanical        6621 3408        1996       JM     20X15 CRT       10/18/02      10/24/02       0.0         Filtered, 1st Trap
    ignition                                      JM     20X15 CRT                     11/12/02       0.0         Filtered, 1st Trap
                                                  JM     20X15 CRT       6/17/03       10/10/03       0.0         Filtered, 2nd install
                                                                                       4/9/02         1.6
    D9 bulldozer                                                                       9/11/02        4.9
CSD electronic        6655 3408        2000                                            10/17/02       3.3
    ignition                                      JM     20X15 CRT       5/23/03       5/27/03        0.0         Filtered
                                                  JM     20X15 CRT       5/23/03       10/10/03       0.3         Filtered
                                                                                       11/19/02       21.2
                                                  JM     15X15 CRT       11/21/02      1/28/03        0.2         Filtered
Poss 824B bulldozer   407   D343       2001       JM     15X15 CRT       11/21/02      4/22/03        0.0         Filtered
                                                  JM     15X15 CRT       11/21/02      6/21/03        0.3         Filtered
                                                  JM     15" DOC         6/28/03       9/20/03        98.5        DOC only
                                                                                       11/19/02       11.7
                                                  JM     15X15 CRT       11/25/02      11/27/03       5.6         Filtered
Poss 834 bulldozer    409   3408       1971       JM     15X15 CRT       11/25/02      1/28/03        4.4         Filtered
                                                         15X15 CRT       11/25/02      6/21/03        6.7         Filtered
                                                  JM                                   10/10/03       99.9        DOC only
                                                                                       5/15/02        90.6
                                                                                       9/14/02        79.1
                                                                                       11/1/02        85.5
Poss 651B scraper     605   D346       1973
                                                                                       11/1/02        65.7        Fuel Adjusted
                                                  JM     20X15 CRT (2)   11/25/02      1/28/03        4.6         Filtered
                                                                                       4/23/03        63.4        No filter




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                                              4-6
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study




                          Table 4-5. Exhaust Opacity Readings Summary, Part 2 of 2

                                                   Engine                           Date Trap    Opacity Test     Opacity
       Opr     Equip Type     Eq#     Engine        year     Trap      DPF Type     Installed       Date          Reading          Comment

                                                                                                4/12/02         77.6
                                                                                                9/11/02         73.4
                                                                                                10/24/02        59.2
      CSD 657E scraper       6605 3412 F       1996
                                                            Eng     DPX 20X15 (2) 3/11/03       3/28/03         0.0         Filtered
                                                            Eng     DPX 20X15 (2) 3/11/03       6/17/03         0.0         Filtered
                                                            Eng     DPX 20X15 (2) 3/11/03       10/10/03        0.0         Filtered
                                                                                                4/12/02         35.3
                                                                                                9/11/02         55.1
                                                                                                10/24/02        38.7
      CSD 657E scraper       6605 3408 R       1996
                                                            Eng     DPX 20X15     3/11/03       3/24/03         0.5         Filtered
                                                            Eng     DPX 20X15     3/11/03       6/18/03         0.0         Filtered
                                                            Eng     DPX 20X15     3/11/03       10/10/03        0.0         Filtered
                                                                                                4/12/02         11.4
                                                                                                9/11/02         15.4
      CSD 657E scraper       6606 3412 F       1996         Eng     DPX 20X15 (2) 3/7/03        3/24/03         0.0         Filtered
                                                            Eng     DPX 20X15 (2) 3/7/03        6/18/03         0.5         Filtered
                                                            Eng     DPX 20X15 (2) 3/7/03        10/10/03        1.7         Filtered
                                                                                                4/12/02         58.7
                                                                                                9/11/02         23.5
      CSD 657E scraper       6606 3408 R       1996
                                                            Eng     DPX 20X15     3/7/03        3/24/03         0.0         Filtered
                                                            Eng     DPX 20X15     3/7/03        10/10/03        2.0         Filtered
                                                                                                4/9/02          4.0
          D9N bulldozer                                                                         9/11/02         12.9
      CSD electronic         6654 3408         2000                                             10/17/02        8.0
          ignition                                          Eng     DPX 20X15     3/8/03        3/24/03         0.0         Filtered
                                                                                                10/10/03        14.7        No filter
                                                                                                3/6/03          99          Estimated
                                                                                                3/6/03          65          Est after fuel adjusted
      Poss 651B scraper      625    D346       2002         Eng     DPX 20X15 (2) 3/11/03       4/23/03         0.2
                                                            Eng     DPX 20X15 (2) 3/11/03       6/18/03         0.0
                                                            Eng     DPX 20X15 (2) 3/11/03       9/20/03         0.0
                                                                                                3/6/03          99          Estimated
                                                                                                3/6/03          65          Est after fuel adjusted
      Poss 651B scraper      628    D346       2001
                                                            Eng     DPX 20X15 (2) 3/11/03       4/23/03         0.0
                                                            Eng     DPX 20X15 (2) 3/11/03       6/18/03         0.2
           825C bulldozer                                                                       4/26/03         20.2
      Poss electronic     415       D3406      2002         Eng DPX 15X15       4/26/03         6/21/03         0.0         Filtered
           ignition                                         Eng DPX 15X15       4/26/03         9/20/03         0.0         Filtered
                                                            None Control (CARB) 10/2/02         4/12/02         44.6
      CSD 657E scraper       6607 3412 F       1996                                             9/10/02         26.6
                                                                                                10/10/03        17.4
                                                            None Control (CARB) 10/2/02         4/12/02         31.3
      CSD 657E scraper       6607 3408 R       1996                                             9/10/02         34.2
                                                                                                10/10/03        32.7
                                                            None Control (ULSD) 10/8/02         4/12/02         28.0
      CSD 657E scraper       6608 3412 F       1996                                             9/11/02         19.7
                                                                                                10/10/03        42.2
                                                            None Control (ULSD) 10/8/02         4/12/02         86.7
                                                                                                9/11/02         80.8
      CSD 657E scraper       6608 3408 R       1996
                                                                                                9/11/02         12.0        After fuel adjusted
                                                                                                10/10/03        58.9
                                                            None Control (CARB) 10/17/02        4/9/02          55.9
             D9N bulldozer                                                                      9/11/02         46.8
      CSD                    6620 3408         1989
             mechanical                                                                         10/24/02        65.0
                                                                                                10/10/03        68.0
                                                            None Control (ULSD) 10/1/02         4/9/02          1.4
             D9N bulldozer                                                                      9/11/02         4.5
      CSD                    6653 3408         2000
             elec                                                                               10/17/02        5.1
                                                                                                10/10/03        7.0
                                                            None Control (ULSD) -               9/14/02         99.4
      Poss 651B scraper      629    D346       -
                                                                                                11/1/02         56.5




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                                                       4-7
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study



4.3.2         On-Board Testing Results by CARB

CARB completed a series of in-service emissions tests throughout the demonstration period on
selected vehicles retrofitted with traps . These tests were completed using CARB’s portable on-
board emissions testing system. (See Appendix A for a more detailed description of CARB Trap
Efficiency Verifier-TEV.)

Essentially, the CARB system measures PM in the exhaust stream both before and after the filter
to determine PM reduction efficiency on a percentage basis. Heated lines conduct the exhaust gas
(both before and after the filter) at measured rates to pre-weighed filters. After a controlled period
of engine operation, the filters are reweighed. The amount of particulate collected before and after
the trap was then correlated to the recorded engine duty cycle.

The results given in Table 4-6 are in line with the findings from the WVU dynamometer testing.
Beginning January 24, 2003, CARB staff performed on-board testing of three JM filters while the
vehicles were in operation. During the week of September 8, 2003, CARB staff tested the
Engelhard filters retrofitted on the LACSD 657E scrapers.

               Table 4-6: CARB On-Board Particulate Matter Removal Efficiency
                                                                     PM Removal        Hours of
                             Vehicle                     Engine
                                                                      Efficiency       filter use
                                                         Front     97.4 %, 98.7 %        313
        LACSD 657E Scraper #6604 Johnson-Matthey
                                                         Rear          97.5 %            313
        LACSD D9N dozer #6655 Johnson-Matthey              -           98.9 %            102
                                                         Front         94.3 %            739
        LACSD 657E Scraper #6605 Engelhard
                                                         Rear          94.2 %            739
                                                         Front         91.1 %            757
        LACSD 657E Scraper #6606 Engelhard
                                                         Rear           91.3             757




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                             4-8
  SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study




                                5.      OBSERVATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS

  This section summarizes observations and conclusions regarding: the performance and durability
  of the traps on heavy duty construction equipment: trap installation and mounting issues; impacts
  of the traps on overall vehicle and engine performance; emissions testing results; and, provides a
  summary of likely life cycle costs for retrofitting traps on typical types of construction
  equipment and the expected emissions reduction benefits. The subsections include:
        Performance and durability of Johnson-Matthey traps
        Performance and durability of Engelhard traps
        Installation issues
        Vehicle and engine impacts of retrofitting construction equipment with particulate traps
        Cost-benefit analyses
        Conclusions

  5.1       PERFORMANCE AND DURABILITY OF JOHNSON-MATTHEY TRAPS

  The JM traps showed excellent PM emission reductions both on the dynamometer tests at WVU,
  and verified by in-use testing with CARB’s Trap Efficiency Verifier system. Both pre- and post-
  demonstration testing of the JM filter showed greater than a 97 percent reduction in PM
  emissions. CARB testing yielded almost identical reduction numbers.
  The JM filters however experienced significant internal structural problems during the
  demonstration period with nearly all of the ceramic filter elements “shifting” within the canister
  housing. Table 5-1 summarizes major JM filter-related incidents.

                       Table 5-1: Summary of Filter Incidents for Johnson-Matthey
 Location     Unit #    Vehicle Type Engine EngYr.                   Trap   Hours        Major Filter Incidents
   CSD        6604       657E scraper 3408   1996                   20x15    571 Trap element shfited
   " "         " "        " "    " "   " "    " "                     " "   1397 Cannister gasket torn
                                                                                  No incidents (both traps shifted 5
     " "       " "        " "         " "      3412   1996      (2) 15x15     ??
                                                                                  months after end of demo)
    CSD        6621       D9          dozer    3408   1996        20x15      898 Trap and DOC elements shfited
    CSD        6655       D9          dozer    3408   1996        20x15      398 Trap element shfited
   POSS        605       651E        scraper   D346   1973      (2) 20x15    386 Both Traps "shfited"
   POSS        407       824B         dozer    D343   1977        15x15      377 slight burn through of trap element
    " "         " "       " "          " "      " "    " "         " "       766 trap shifted; damages
   POSS        409        834         dozer    3408   2002*       15x15      561 trap shifted; damages
* rebuilt

  Investigation by the can manufacturer, Donaldson Co., showed that incorrect filter “banding”
  (fixing ceramic filter element inside the CRT can), combined with high vibrations in the
  application resulted in this problem. JM and Donaldson replaced or re-canned the problem
  systems. Following this, the JM traps yielded low and stable backpressure and successfully
  completed the rest of the demonstration.

  Poss Installations. The JM traps on the older Poss vehicles showed a build-up of backpressure
  as the traps “fouled” due to the high PM emission rates. In some instances the logs showed fairly
  rapid changes both up or down without a known reason as to why the change occurred. Some


  BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                                         5-1
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study



sudden increases were noted after the equipment had been inactive for several weeks (due to
work load, scheduling, or other logistics issues). These sudden increases may have been caused
by a prolonged period of idling before the vehicles were returned to service. The backpressure
usually improved over a few days after the sudden increase, but it rarely returned to the previous
low level.
When the backpressure rose on two Poss dozers and 651 scraper, JM arranged to clean these
traps. When these were opened up, some burn-through of the ceramic element was found.
Additionally, “shifting” incidents occurred on both the smaller (15x15) and larger (20x15) filters.
The increasing backpressures of the POSS retrofits led JM staff to conclude that these older
engines produced more PM emission than the trap could oxidize. Thus, these older engines were
deemed a problematic application of JM’s current CRT filter technology. During demonstration
vehicle selection, JM expressed concern that the traps would not be able to oxidize the higher
quantity of particulate coming from the pre-1980 engines

LACSD Installations. JM installations at LACSD initially performed well, but within 400 to
500 hours of operation, the backpressure began to rise on all units equipped with the larger
(20x15 CRT) filters. Inspection of the vehicles showed the ceramic trap elements had shifted at
400 hours on dozer #6655, at 570 hours on scraper #6604, and at 900 hours on dozer #6621. The
smaller traps on the 3412 scraper engine did not fail (shift) during the demonstration period. In
some cases, the oxidation catalyst mounted upstream on the JM traps also shifted slightly.
The ceramic trap element is secured inside the can using a fibrous glass material such as 3M’s
“Interam” or “Unifrax.” The trap element is mounted inside the shell cushioned by the fibrous
mat and then heated. The heating process causes the mat to try to expand and this serves to lock
the trap element in place. In several instances, the trap element shifted out of place. When this
happens, the fibrous mat becomes exposed. The fibers break and accumulate both inside the
channels, and on the facing surface of the trap. These fibers then create a scaffold for soot and
ash to avoid contact with the catalytic surface and thus build up. In addition, the shifted filter
element can also restrict exhaust flow out of the can. Thus, once the filter has shifted,
backpressure can build up rapidly.
For this program, it appears that Donaldson Co. used improper matting for such large catalyst
and filter elements. However, JM and Donaldson arranged for all the large LACSD filters to be
re-canned with the correct matting. After being replaced or re-canned JM traps yielded low
backpressure for the rest of the demonstration (Vehicles 6604R, 6621 and 6655). [Note:
approximately five months after the official end of the demonstration in December 2003, the
small 15x15 CRTs also were discovered to have “shifted” within their canister housings, and, the
previously re-canned/improved larger units also failed. Again, Donaldson and JM reviewed the
shifted filters and after thorough analysis, re-canned and reinstalled at their own expense, all the
filters at LACSD in November 2004.]

5.2   PERFORMANCE AND DURABILITY OF ENGELHARD TRAPS

The Engelhard filters demonstrated highly effective PM emission reductions. Pre-demonstration
testing of the Engelhard filter showed greater than 97 percent reduction in PM emissions,
whereas post-demo testing yielded about 91 percent PM emission reduction efficiency. In-field
CARB testing yielded very similar emission reduction numbers.


BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                             5-2
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study




The Engelhard filters also showed excellent durability and reliability throughout the
demonstration period with only a single “failure” on a D9 dozer. Table 5-2 summarizes filter
related incidents for Engelhard.

                              Table 5-2: Summary of Filter Incidents for Engelhard
 Location       Unit #       Vehicle    Type Engine EngYr.     Trap      Hours          Major Filter Incidents
   CSD          6605          657E     scraper 3408  1996      20x15             No incidents
   " "           " "           " "       " "   3412  1996    (2) 20x15           No incidents
   CSD          6606          657E     scraper 3408  1996      20x15             No incidents
   " "           " "           " "       " "   3412  1996    (2) 20x15           No incidents
   CSD          6654           D9       dozer  3408  1996      20x15      381    Trap element shfited; fractured
  POSS           625          651E     scraper D346 1973     (2) 20x15           No incidents
  POSS           628          651E     scraper D346 1976     (2) 20x15           No incidents
  POSS           415          825C      dozer  3406 1983*      15x15             No incidents
* rebuilt in 2002 with EUI

Both the LACSD and Poss vehicles retrofitted with Engelhard traps showed no
significant/sustained increases in backpressure during the demonstration. The Engelhard traps
were not monitored with data loggers for most of the demonstration, but were equipped with
high pressure warning lights. There were no instances of high pressure warnings on the
Engelhard installations.

The Engelhard trap failure on the D9 track style dozer is notable. The ceramic element was held
in place by a retaining strut or brace. Engelhard concluded that this damage was due a
combination of backpressure forcing the trap element against the brace and the severe vibration
coming from the vehicle treads. Also, Engelhard suggested that the “canning process” on this
unit may have been faulty (poor quality control).

5.3     INSTALLATION AND MOUNTING ISSUES

Equipment owners expressed concern regarding the survivability of the traps on construction
equipment that undergoes severe vibrations and physical shocks. OEM trap engineers (as well as
Shepherd who assisted with installation) had limited time to design brackets and other mounting
hardware once the overall installation configuration was approved. Moreover, these designs were
essentially a first pass at how to retrofit these vehicles.

As reviewed in detail in Section 3.6, the filter installations for both JM and Engelhard
experienced numerous incidents at both Poss and LACSD. Incidents included: loose and failed
seal rings and band clamps; torn flex pipes, fractured brackets; loose or broken support brackets;
and cracked and broken welds.

On many of the installations, the exhaust piping used seal clamps and band clamps to connect
one pipe to another—including flex tubing to solid tubing. The seal clamps generally worked as
intended, but in a few instances, the clamp broke at the 90° bend near the bolt hole. In these
cases, the failure was forgiving in that the shape of the clamp was sufficient to keep the piping in
place until repaired.




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                                      5-3
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study



In general, the D9 tracked dozer with its steel tread provided the most severe mechanical duty
cycle for the trap installation. When the treads beat against solid ground, severe vibrations are
generated within the vehicle structure—thus stressing all welded and bolted components. This
vibration is continuous even on soft ground, although less severe. The other study vehicles that
are supported by large rubber tires are better able to absorb physical shocks. (Dozers at Poss as
well as all scrapers, both the 657E and 651B, are rubber-tired). While scrapers are rubber-tired,
in the process of scraping up soil the blade encounters rocks and sandstone that can generate
significant jarring and vibration in the vehicle structure. Also, scrapers will sometimes require
the assistance of dozers to push from behind. Such arrangements induce additional (and large)
transient impacts in both machines. A summary of installation incidents is presented in Table 5-3

                Table 5-3. Summary of Trap Installation and Mounting Incidents

                                                Trap
 Location    Unit #     Vehicle     Type                                      Description
                                             Manufacturer

                                                            Low pressure return line crimped. Exhaust
  LASCD       6604       657E      scraper       JM         leaks found on rear engine installation.
                                                            Exhaust elbow disconnected.
  LASCD       6605       657E      scraper    Engelhard     No Installation Incidents
  LASCD       6606       657E      scraper    Engelhard     No Installation Incidents
                                                            Leaks at exhaust elbows; broken seal and
  LASCD       6654       D9N        dozer     Engelhard
                                                            flange clamps; low pressure line failures.
                                                            Flex line torn; seal clamp failures; numerous
  LASCD       6621       D9N        dozer        JM         exhaust leaks; copper tubing return line loose,
                                                            replaced connector.
                                                            Ring clamp failures; flex line torn; leaking seal
  LASCD       6655       D9N        dozer        JM         clamps; exhaust stack weld failures; copper
                                                            tubing return line loose/leaks.
  POSS         407       824B       dozer        JM         No Installation Incidents
  POSS         409        834       dozer        JM         No Installation Incidents
  POSS         415        825       dozer     Engelhard     No Installation Incidents
  POSS         605       651B      scraper       JM         Torn flex pipe; leaks at elbows, flange seal
  POSS         625       651B      scraper    Engelhard     Fractures in mounting bracket support struts.
  POSS         628       651B      scraper    Engelhard     Fractures in mounting bracket support struts.


As can be seen from the data, the tracked dozers at LACSD suffered the most incidents related to
the mounting hardware. Rubber-tired dozers at Poss as well as the rubber-tired scrapers at
LACSD on the other hand faired quite well with little or no installation issues. The scrapers at
Poss also experience several incidents related to the installation hardware—possibly because of
the severe duty cycle these units experience.

The designs from both filter manufacturers specified liberal use of flex pipes for connecting the
inlet and outlet of the traps to the existing exhaust systems, with the expectation that the flex ribs
would help absorb the vibration. However, in several instances the flex pipes tore at locations
very near the point at which they connected (using seal clamps) to solid (fixed) tubing.




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                                5-4
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study



The exhaust pipe clamps also proved to be problematic. Some of the thin sheet-metal-type seal
clamps tore, while the ring clamps would crack and split apart. In one case, while the seal clamp
was very strong, it was too stiff to provide a good seal for the exhaust. In some places band
clamps worked while in others, the metal is readily torn. Ring clamps also failed at the bolt hole
or where the metal is pre-bent. Flexible piping failures occurred on several rigs. The flexibility is
desirable, but too much flexing results in tearing.

Also, retrofit piping was generally not routed in a compact, efficient fashion as it might be in a
production situation. Rather, the piping tended to be routed in simple “right angle”
configurations that stuck out from the vehicle, (see various installation pictures in Chapter 2).
Such designs tended to exacerbate vibration.

It should be noted that while several of the test vehicles experienced significant and repeated
problems with the trap installations, nearly half of the installations experience little or no issues
including the scrapers at LACSD and the dozers at Poss. Given that installation designs were
developed under tight time constraints and executed in the field, and the fact that several of the
installations experience no failures, it is reasonable to assume that designs could likely be
improved and that commercially viable installation hardware and mounting systems could be
developed for these heavy-duty construction equipment applications.

5.4   VEHICLE AND ENGINE IMPACTS OF RETROFITTING WITH PARTICULATE TRAPS

Fuel Economy. The installation of particulate traps had no discernable impacts on fuel
consumption

Oil Consumption. The installation of particulate traps had no discernable impacts on oil
consumption

Exhaust Opacity. The particulate traps essentially eliminated all visible smoke on retrofitted
vehicles.

Maintenance. The filter manufacturers recommend cleaning the trap elements periodically.
Cleaning requires that the trap be removed and the accumulated ash blown out using compressed
air. Alternately, the trap is reversed and the ash is blown out while the trap is used. Some trap
manufacturers have developed devices to make the cleaning task easier.

For both Poss and LACSD, the level of engine maintenance did not increase for vehicles
retrofitted with PM traps in comparison to previous levels of maintenance, or to control vehicles.
Engine tune-ups, oil change frequency, air and fuel filter servicing all remained the same.

Engine Power. Vehicle operators were routinely asked to provide their own assessments of
equipment performance. Drivers did not report a noticeable change in performance for vehicles
retrofitted with properly functioning particulate traps. In those instances where a build-up of
backpressure developed, drivers reported some loss of power. The loss of power only became
perceptible to the drivers when the backpressure exceeded 5″ Hg. Filter installations that
developed backpressure above 5″ were either malfunctioning or acknowledged by the trap
manufacturers to be deficient for that service. Filters that performed for the duration of the
demonstration did not generate backpressures above 4″ Hg.


BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                              5-5
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study



Performance of Low-Line Aspirators. Low-line aspirators are an exhaust pipe that has dimples or
welded inserts to function like a nozzle. A small diameter pipe is inserted in the zone just after
the throat. The nozzle generates a low-pressure zone using the Venturi effect. Equipment
suppliers do not normally stock exhaust aspirators because they are usually integrated into the
OEM mufflers. Caterpillar and Donaldson manufacture exhaust aspirators. Shepherd staff
located these parts for this study. Shepherd technicians plumbed the low-line aspirators into the
exhaust stream and the low-line coming from the air filter. These aspirators successfully
functioned as designed. Maintenance staff did not observe a need to increase air filter
replacement frequency.

5.5     COST-BENEFIT ANALYSES

The particulate traps offered for use on this demonstration by JM and Engelhard were prototype
units fabricated specifically for this project. Likewise, the mounting brackets, piping, and
modified exhaust system designs were also unique to this project and required substantial “ad
hoc” engineering and reconfiguration. As noted in the text, the installation designs (trap
mounting locations and exhaust system routing) do not likely represent commercially viable
configurations. As such, developing estimates of actual (long term) production costs for
particulate traps and installation designs suitable for these construction equipment is very
difficult. Nevertheless, costs for the traps themselves as well as installation, maintenance and
other operating costs have been estimated for selected construction equipment types in an effort
to develop a very rough, high-level understanding of the total cost impacts on construction
equipment operators of installing and operating particulate traps. We have also estimated the
particulate emissions that would be reduced if traps were installed so that a rough “cost per ton”
of emissions reduced estimate can be developed. It should be understood that this cost/benefit
analyses is speculative since data was obtained from this single demonstration program—and the
equipment tested did not represent commercially available products.

To facilitate the analysis, we have selected the following two representative types of equipment:
      657E scraper: (with a Caterpillar 3412 front engine and 3408 rear engine)
      D9N dozer: (with a single Caterpillar 3408 engine)

The 657E and D9 represent newer model construction equipment (in contrast to the much older
651B scrappers and 824 series dozers), and therefore more likely to be candidates for retrofit.
Also, these units are typical of the scrapers and dozers used at several large construction sites in
California. Additionally, reliable emissions factors for the 3408 engine are available from the
testing done by WVU under this contract, thereby enhancing the reliability of the emission
inventory and emission reduction estimates needed to determine overall cost effectiveness. (The
emission factors for the 3412 engine can be reliably estimated since the overall engine design
and vintage is very similar to the 3408.)

5.5.1    Capital Costs

Particulate Traps: There were two principal sizes of traps used in this demonstration:
      A 20″ diameter by 15″ length (20″ x 15″), and
      A 15″ diameter by 15″ length (15″ x 15″)


BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                             5-6
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study




The Caterpillar 3412 requires two of the larger filters while the 3408 uses a single large filter.
(The smaller filters are used principally by JM on selected dozer applications). The pricing for
both sizes of traps was very similar from both manufacturers at about $19,000 for the larger filter
and $12,000 for the smaller filter. However, these filters were uniquely fabricated for this Study
using largely manual prototype processes rather than production assembly techniques. The
quantity of filters used also was quite small and did not allow for any economies of scale.
Discussions with filter OEMs suggest that the cost of the filters is likely to be reduced by 30 to
40 percent when a commercial market develops that would allow for actual production quantities
of filters to be assembled. For purposes of this economic analyses, the cost of the large 20″ x 15″
filter is therefore estimated at $13,000, or about two-thirds of current pricing.

Installation. As noted, installation of these experimental units was quite difficult due to required
on-site fabrication of various brackets and piping—and is not representative of long-term costs.
For example, direct installation costs (from Shepherd alone) averaged about $5,500 for the 657E
scrapers and about $3,000 for the D9N dozers. This excludes the in-kind contribution costs of
LACSD maintenance staff that assisted with the installations. It also excludes that cost of the
brackets and hardware that were supplied by the trap OEMs.

Discussions with trap OEMs, host site operators and other stakeholders suggest that in the long
run (and if the installation designs were developed and refined for commercial application), the
brackets, special piping, clamps and other mounting hardware might average about $1000 for a
single trap, and about $1500 for a two-trap configuration (as is needed for the 3412). It should be
noted that mounting designs to mitigate vibration could be more costly, but are unknown at this
point. Further, stakeholders suggested that the average install time might be about 12 hours for 2
technicians for a single trap, and 16 hours for a double-trap configuration. Again, the actual
installation time will depend on the final outcome of the production installation designs,
therefore, the figures mentioned are rough estimates for the purposes of this analyses.
Finally, it will be important to equip all installations with some type of backpressure warning
system. For purposes of this analysis, we will assume $500 for an exhaust pressure warning
system including installation. Based on the above estimates, the total capital cost for trap
purchase and installation for the 657E and D9N dozer are estimated in Table 5-4.




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                             5-7
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study



                                Table 5-4. Particulate Trap Capital Costs
                                          (filters, brackets and installation)
                                                     657E Scraper
                                  description                   units            cost/unit        total
                                     Filters                       2             $13,000         $26,000
                              mounting hardware                    1              $1,500         $1,500
            3412 engine         Installation, two
                                                                  12               $100          $2,400
                             technicians (labor hrs)
                             pressure warning sys.                 1               $500           $500
             Total 3412                                                                          $30,400
                                     Filters                       1             $13,000         $13,000
                              mounting hardware                    1              $1,000         $1,000
            3408 Engine         Installation, two
                                                                   8               $100          $1,600
                             technicians (labor hrs)
                             pressure warning sys.                 1               $500           $500
             Total 3408                                                                          $16,100
           Total 657E Capital Cost                                                               $46,500

                                                     D9N Dozer
           Total D9N Capital Cost (same as '3408' engine)                                        $16,100


Annualized capital costs can be estimated based on the anticipated useful life of the filters, and
the purchaser’s cost of capital. The useful life of the filters is unknown at this juncture since
application on equipment of this size and duty cycle is somewhat unique, (although traps have
been successfully applied to numerous other types of construction equipment). Experience with
traps on other types of construction equipment, as well as experience gained from on-road
applications, suggests that a 5 to 10 year useful life is a reasonable estimate. The actual useful
life will greatly depend on how well the engine is maintained and serviced, and on the duty cycle
and operating environment of a particular type of construction equipment. For purposes of this
analysis only, we will assume a 7-year useful life and an 8 percent cost of capital. Based on these
estimates, the annualized capital cost is shown in Table 5-5.

                     Table 5-5: Annualized Capital Costs for Particulate Traps

                           Trap life Expectancy         Cost of Capital Annualized Capital Cost

             657 E                    7                         8%                    ($8,931)

              D9N                     7                         8%                    ($3,092)




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                                      5-8
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study



5.5.2   Operating Costs

The operating costs associated with particulate traps will consist of incremental fuel use, oil
consumption, engine maintenance, and of course direct maintenance on the trap itself. As noted
in Sections 3.10, 3.11, and 3.12, this field demonstration of particulate traps at LACSD and Poss
did not show any appreciable or identifiable impact on fuel consumption, oil consumption,
and/or engine maintenance requirements. The dynamometer testing at WVU (completed under
very controlled conditions) also showed no impacts of the traps on fuel economy. The
incremental fuel, oil, and/or engine maintenance costs are therefore assumed to have no
discernable impact.

However, throughout the demonstration the particulate traps themselves required significant
maintenance and repair. Traps experienced loose and failed seal rings and band clamps, torn flex
pipes, fractured brackets, loose or broken support brackets, and other installation-related
maintenance. Several of the filters experienced internal failures of the ceramic element support
system (i.e., the filter elements “shifted” within the canisters) and required subsequent
replacement. (Detailed descriptions of failures are presented in Chapter 3.) It is assumed
however, for purposes of this “long-term” cost impact analysis that such design, quality control
and installation issues would be addressed and corrected for commercial, production
applications. Indeed, if such design and installation deficiencies were not addressed, a viable
commercial market would not develop.

The remaining (long-term) operating cost associated with the traps would therefore be periodic
cleaning and servicing. Based on experience from other particulate trap demonstrations, and on
discussions with trap OEMs, it is reasonable to assume that the traps would need to be cleaned
once each year. Such cleaning may be required less frequently, and some fleets will only clean
traps if and when a high back pressure warning light comes on. However, for evaluation
purposes, we will assume a cleaning and adjustment process will be required once a year.
Cleaning entails removal of the trap from the canister and “reverse flowing” the unit using
compressed air. This process is conservatively estimated to take 2 technicians about 8 hours to
complete on a single trap installation (3408) and 12 hours to complete on dual-trap installation
(3412). This would include removal, cleaning, and reassembly of the trap. At a labor cost of
$75/hour, this would amount to $1,200 for a 3408 and $1,800 for a 3412.

 In addition to direct cleaning, it is further assumed that at least some periodic inspections,
readjustments, and/or minor repairs would be required of the trap installations even if the
previous described installation issues were addressed. For planning purposes, we have allotted an
additional 8 hours and 12 hours on a 3408 and 3412 engine respectively for miscellaneous
inspection and repair. At $75/hour labor, this amounts to $600 and $900 for the 3408 and 3412
engines respectively. Based on the above assumptions, the annual operating costs for the
particulate traps on the 657E and D9N dozer are summarized in Table 5-6.




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                            5-9
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study



             Table 5-6. Annual Operating Costs for Particulate Trap Installations

                Annual Operating Cost Element                3408   3412       657E Total D9N Total

                Incremental Fuel and Oil Cost                $0      $0           $0          $0
              Incremental Engine Maintenance                 $0      $0           $0          $0
                     Annual trap cleaning                $1,200     $1,800      $3,000       $1,200
             Annual inspection and maintenance               $600   $900        $1,500       $600

                      Total annual incremental operating cost                   $4,500       $1,800


Total Annualized Costs. The total (long-term) annualized capital plus operating costs for
particulate trap installations on the 657E scraper and D9N dozers are estimated in Table 5-7.

        Table 5-7. Total Annualized Capital plus Operating Costs for Trap Installations

                                                                     657E          D9N
                               Annualized Capital Cost                $8,931       $3,092
                                    Operating costs                    $4,500       $1,800
                                        Total                        $13,431       $4,892



5.5.3    Emission Reduction Benefits

The reduction in annual emission inventories resulting from the particulate trap installation can
be estimated based on:
    Results from the dynamometer emissions testing completed by WVU on a Caterpillar 3408
    engine with and without a trap. (These results are presented in section 4.2). Essentially, we
    have assumed a 90 percent reduction in particulate emissions over the life of the traps.
    Further, we assume that the emission factors for a 3412 engine are the same (on a gram per
    brake-horsepower basis) as for the 3408 engine. We have not assumed an explicit
    deterioration factor. Rather, the 90 percent reduction represents the average throughout the
    life of the traps. Testing at WVU showed that the initial particulate emission reduction
    potential for the traps is even higher—closer to 98 percent.
    Estimated annual run time for the various types of equipment. (We have assumed 1,600
    annual hours of operation for both the 657E and the D9N. This estimate is probably a bit low
    for operations at LACSD, but a bit high for normal commercial operations, e.g., Poss.)
    Estimated average load factor (or duty cycle) on the engines, combined with the maximum
    power rating in order to determine annual horsepower-hours for each engine and each type
    of equipment. We have assumed a load factor of 55 and 60 percent for the 3408 and 3412
    engines respectively as utilized in the D9N and 657E equipment. These load factors are
    consistent with industry averages for similar types of heavy duty construction equipment.




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                                   5-10
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study



Based on the above assumptions, the annual emissions (and emission reductions with filters) for
the 657E scraper and D9N dozer are presented in Table 5-8.

            Table 5-8. Annual Emission Inventory Reduction from Trap Installation
                                                          PM          NOX           HC          CO
             Engine-out Emission Factors
                     (grams/bhp-hour)                          0.34        6.25          0.29        2.08
        Percentage reduction With Trap Installed               90%          0%           80%         80%
         Emission Factors With Trap Installed
                     (grams/bhp-hour)                        0.03          6.25         0.06        0.42
        Maximum Engine horsepower (3408)                      400           400          400         400
        Maximum Engine horsepower (3412)                      550           550          550         550
                 Load factor (3408)                          55%           55%          55%         55%
                 Laod factor (3412)                          60%           60%          60%         60%
     Average annual equipment run time (hours)              1600          1600         1600        1600
       Total annual horse-power hours (3408)             352,000       352,000      352,000     352,000
       Total annual horse-power hours (3412)             528,000       528,000      528,000     528,000
        Total annual horse-power hours D9N               352,000       352,000      352,000     352,000
       Total annual horse-power hours 657E               880,000       880,000      880,000     880,000
   Annual D9N Emissions (pounds)
                                        Engine-out             264        4850           225       1614
                     With Particulate trap installed            26        4850            45        323
                         Annual pounds reduced                 237           0           180       1291
   Annual 657E Emissions (pounds)
                                        Engine-out             660       12125           563       4035
                     With Particulate trap installed            66       12125           113        807
                         Annual pounds reduced                 594           0           450       3228


5.5.4    Dollars per Ton of Emissions Reduced

The cost effectiveness of particulate filters as an emissions reduction control strategy for heavy
construction equipment can be calculated based on estimated annualized costs divided by the
annual pounds of PM reduced in order to arrive at a “dollars per pound of emissions reduced”
estimate. This calculation is shown for the 657E and D9N retrofits in Table 5-9.

                    Table 5-9. Cost Effectiveness of Particulate Trap Retrofits

                                                                      657E         D9N
                    Total Annualized Capital + Operating Cost         $13,431      $4,892
                    Pounds of PM reduced                                   594         237
                    Cost per pound of emissions reduced                   $23         $21
                    Cost per ton of emissions reduced                 $45,250     $41,205


At $20 to $25 per pound of PM reduced, the particulate trap control strategy for heavy-duty
construction equipment is cost effective. For example, based on CARB’s August 2003 report,
Proposed Diesel PM Control Measures for On-road HD residential and commercial Solid Waste
Collection Vehicles, the calculated cost effectiveness of Best Available Control Technology
(specifically, diesel particulate filters), was approximately $32 per pound of PM reduced. It


BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                                    5-11
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study



should be recognized that HC and CO emissions are also reduced (by about 80 percent) with this
control strategy.

5.6   CONCLUSIONS

The prototype traps from one manufacturer (Engelhard) completed the demonstration with only a
single failure, (out of a total of 12 traps). Preliminary analysis by Engelhard suggested that the
failure was due to poor assembly quality rather than any inherent design issues—however, a full
failure mode investigation was not completed. The traps from Engelhard, as of this writing,
continue to operate successfully at LACSD, and several traps have accumulated over 2,000 hours
of operation. The Engelhard traps installed on the older, high PM emitting (pre-combustion
chamber) engines at Poss also performed very well with no instances of high backpressure and/or
failed filter elements. These results would indicate that duty cycles (and overall operating
conditions) of high horsepower diesel construction equipment are indeed sufficient to support
frequent regeneration—and therefore represent a reasonable application for retrofit with self-
regenerating style particulate filters. It should be noted however, that the Engelhard traps on the
older Poss equipment were removed after about 1,000 hours, thus the durability/longevity of the
filters used in this older, high-PM emitting equipment is unknown.

The JM filters initially experienced failures associated with the ceramic trap elements “slipping”
inside the canister housings. Donaldson Company was contracted by JM to band the filter
element to the canister. The underestimation of vibration in these equipment coupled with design
flaws in the banding procedure caused these filter failures. However, the banding procedure was
re-evaluated and re-designed, and many of the filters elements were re-canned in new housings.
At the time of this report, the new filters with the new design have accumulated about 1,000
hours, and the original filters that have been re-canned have accumulated over 2,500 hours
without any failures.

While the basic particulate trap technology was validated for use on heavy-duty diesel
construction equipment, significant challenges still remain regarding installation and mounting
of the very large particulate filters on these types of equipment. The problem is exacerbated by
the fact that the higher horsepower engines (Caterpillar 3412s and D346s) require two of the
largest commercially available filters to adequately handle the high volume exhaust flow from
these engines. The installation designs and mounting configurations for this demonstration
proved to not be commercially viable. Exhaust leaks, safety issues (arising from loose filters as
well as mounting on the ROPS), operator visibility concerns, and other servicing issues need to
be addressed before such installations could be considered for widespread application on heavy-
duty construction equipment..

Various issues remain for future engineering and demonstration projects:

1. Where and how should PM filters be mounted? Factors that affect filter placement include:
   impact on visual field, impact on access to other equipment, relocation of existing equipment
   (height profile to go under bridges when transported on trailer), potential damage to retrofit
   equipment from the total range of motion, heat damage to nearby electrical equipment,
   obstruction of cooling if placed under the hood, modification of fiberglass hoods, contact



BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                            5-12
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study



    with other vehicles or equipment, and driver safety during a rollover. The retrofit installation
    configuration will also affect the cost to clean filters and repair the brackets.
2. Retrofitted vehicles will need backpressure monitoring, and the drivers trained to understand
   the meaning of these devices.
Although filter brackets and the mounting strategy need additional engineering, low-maintenance
brackets should be feasible. Bracket problems are likely to be greatly reduced if the filters can be
mounted closer to the original exhaust manifold, and, various “soft-mount” technologies are
utilized.




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                             5-13
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study




                                           Glossary

BP               British Petroleum (formerly ARCO), Also BP-Arco
CARB             California Air Resources Board
CE-CERT          Center for Environmental Research and Technology
CFR              Code of Federal Regulations
CIAQC            Construction Industry Air Quality Coalition
CO               Carbon Monoxide
CRT              Continuous Regenerating Trap
CRTdm            Type of data logger used to record exhaust pressure and temperature during
                 demonstration
CSD              County Sanitation District
DEP              Diesel Emission Particulate
DPF              Diesel Particulate Filter
DPM              Diesel Particulate Matter
ECD1             Emission Control Diesel-1
ECM              Electronic Control Module
EERL             Engines and Emissions Research Laboratory
EGR              Exhaust Gas Recirculation
FT               Fischer-Tropsch diesel, also known as GTL
GTL              Gas-to-liquid diesel fuel, also known as Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel.
HC               Hydrocarbons
Hg               Mercury, inches, 1” Hg =13.596 inches of water
HOCEV            Heavy-duty Off-road Construction Equipment Vehicles
Interam          Fiberglass-like mat material used to stabilize ceramic element within canister
LACSD            Los Angeles County Sanitation District
NEMA             National Electrical Manufacturers Association
OEM              Original Equipment Manufacturer (Filter manufacturers Johnson-Matthey and
                 Engelhard)
OSHA             Occupational Safety and Health Administration
PAH              Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
PC               Personal (portable) computer
PM               Particulate Matter
PNA              Polynucleated (Polycyclic) Aromatics
POSS             C. W. POSS Construction, study equipment owner
ppm              parts per million
ROPS             Roll-Over Protection Structure. Steel members prevent the cab from collapsing
                 in the event of a roll over. SCAQMD
SCR              Selective Catalytic Reduction
SFC              Supercritical Fluid Chromatography; a standard method to analyze aromatics in
                 diesel fuel


BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                              1
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study



SWRI             Southwest Research Institute

Transient
Cycle            Test period in which engine speed and torque are varied according to a
                 predetermined set of values
ULEV             Ultra-Low-Emission Vehicle
ULSD             Ultra-Low-Sulfur Diesel, diesel specified to have less than 15 ppm Sulfur
                 content.
USEPA            United States Environmental Protection Agency
WVU              West Virginia University




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                              2
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study




                                     Appendix A
                           CARB Trap Efficiency Verifier (TEV)




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                          3
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study                                                                                                                                                    Final Report




                                                        CARB On-Board Testing Equipment
                                                         PM Trap Efficiency Verifier (TEV)


                                                  Temperature
                                                                              Pressure                                                   Mass Flow Controller #2
                                                                                                                                                                                      Engine
                                                 Exhaust after filter for PM recovery                                                                 Filter
                                                                                                                  Dilution Air




                                                                                                > 1 sec delay
                                                Heated Sample Line @ 220 deg C
                                                                                                                                                     Exhaust
                                                             Temperature          Temperature                                                                                     Torque
                                                                                                                                                                                 Fuel Rate
                                                                                                                                                                                   RPM
                                    Particulate                                                                                                                             Throttle Position
                                      Matter            Pressure
                                       Trap                                                                                                                                            INVERTER




                                                                                                                M.F.C
                                                                                                                        Mass Flow
                                                                                                                        Controller #4                                                  INVERTER
                                                                                                                4
                                                                                                                                  Mass Flow                                   Power to unit
                                                  Temperature                                                                 Controller #1
                                                                                  Pressure                                                                         Filter
                                                                                                                                Dilution Air
                                                                                                                                                                               Ambient air
                    Exhaust from                    undiluted unfiltered exhaust




                                                                                                                         > 1 sec delay
                                                                                                                                                                Exhaust          Ambient air
                   engine exhaust                   exiting heated sample line @ 220 deg C
                        manifold

                                          Temperature             Temperature                Temperature



                               Pressure                                                                                                                        Drawing is not to scale




                                                                                                                                         M.F.C
                                                                                                                                         3
                                                Array used to capture and measure particulate                                            Mass Flow Controller #3
                                                                                                                                                                                                  10
                                                     matter in unfiltered exhaust stream




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                                                           1
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study                                                                                                             Final Report




                                                                 DATA FROM CARB TESTING OF PARTICULATE TRAP EFFICIENCIES

                                                                                                       Average     Max              Average      Max



                     Time

                             Manufacturer
                                                                                Avg      Max           Exhaust     Exhaust          Back         Back

                     Test




                                                  % Efficiency
                                                                                RPM      RPM     50%    Temp       Temp       50%   Pressure   Pressure 50%
                                                                                                                                          Engine Exhaust
            Test #


                                                                                    Revolutions Per        Temperature in Degrees         Backpressure in
                             Trap
  Date               (Min)                                       Description         Minute (RPM)             Fahrenheit (F)               Inches of H2O           Comments
                                                  97.            Scraper 6604                    165
1/23/03     1        115                                                        1623    2182           562         774        440   12       32         12
                                                  4              Front Engine                    0

                                                  98.            Scraper 6604                    170
1/24/03     2        207                                                        1667    2434           676         831        570   17       34         16
                                                  7              Front Engine                    0
                                Johnson-Matthey




                                                  97.            Scraper 6604                    280                                                               Low Battery
1/28/03     3        36                                                         2597    2999           *           *          *     31       62         26
                                                  5              Rear Engine                     0

                                                  99.                                            120
2/4/03      4        180                                         Dozer 6655     1229    2114           569         822        320   13       31         8          1 hour Idle
                                                  0                                              0

                                                  94.            Scraper 6605
9/9/03      5        129                                                        *       *        *     531         846        360   15       74         6          No RPM
                                                  3              Front Engine

                                                  94.            Scraper 6605
9/10/03     6        103                                                        *       *        *     552         943        340   14       43         10         No RPM
                                                  2              Rear Engine
                                Engelhard




                                                  91.            Scraper 6606
9/10/03     7        111                                                        *       *        *     649         896        440   22       72         18         No RPM
                                                  1              Front Engine

                                                  91.            Scraper 6606
9/11/03     8        91                                                         *       *        *     647         989        480   25       67         18         No RPM
                                                  3              Rear Engine
* == Data not available




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                                                                         2
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study                                                                    Final Report




                         Photos of CARB Trap Efficiency Verifier installed on a Caterpillar 657E Scraper




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                                      3
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study




                                  Appendix B
                Summary of Study Vehicle Maintenance and Service




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                             1
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study                                                                                                                                     Final Report



                               657E Scraper #6604                                          657E Scraper #6604                                   657E Scraper #6604
         Date      Material Used or Replaced                          Date      Material Used or Replaced                   Date      Material Used or Replaced
        01/18/01   Replace leaking seal on steering valve            01/04/03   Grease/ service/ oil added                 10/03/03   Daily service
        01/29/01   Replace front brake cans                          01/06/03   Rear engine starter wires replaced         10/04/03   Daily service
        01/08/01   Replace right gear brake can                      01/08/03   Daily service                              10/07/03   No differential lock
        01/20/01   rear transmission gear case - install new seals   01/15/03   Daily service                              10/11/03   Daily service
        01/30/01   Reseal transmission transfer gears                01/24/03   Install air monitor system                 10/17/03   Daily service, remove rear trap
        02/13/01   Repair leaking governor                           01/29/03   Daily service                              10/22/03   Grease Gooseneck
        02/15/01   Clean Transmission                                01/31/03   Daily service                              10/27/03   Daily service
        02/19/01   Repair dirt basket                                02/04/03   Daily service                              10/29/03   Daily service
        03/03/01   Replace up shift / downshift solenoid             02/06/03   Oil Change                                 10/31/03   Daily service
        04/13/01   New seat & seat base                              02/06/03   Repair air induction system                11/04/03   Daily service
        05/11/01   Replace broken window                             02/08/03   1 gallon to front engine, daily service    11/05/03   2 gallons oil,
        05/29/01   Repair lower door                                 02/11/03   Daily service                              11/08/03   Daily service
        08/07/01   Fix leaking air hose to rear engine throttle      02/13/03   Daily service                              11/10/03   Daily service
        08/27/01   Hydraulic leaks at hydraulic trunk                02/17/03   Daily service                              11/11/03   Daily service
        09/13/01   A/C, front brake spring broken, replace Brakes    02/20/03   Daily service                              11/13/03   1 gal to each engine
        09/17/01   R&R ejector wear strips                           02/27/03   Daily service                              11/18/03   Air leak for rear brakes
        10/03/01   Replace retarder control                          03/01/03   Daily service                              11/20/03   Daily service
        10/17/01   Screws on A/C, belly pan & clean                  03/04/03   Daily service                              11/24/03   Daily service
        10/30/01   Scraper PM - Major PM                             03/05/03   2 gallons to front engine                  12/01/03   Daily service
        11/13/01   Removed acc, repair ejector rollers               03/12/03   1 gallon to front engine, daily service                         657E Scraper #6605
        11/26/01   Brake Rt. Front hanging up                        03/19/03   Hydraulic leak                              Date                   Material Used or Replaced
        04/02/02   Broken hotwire                                    04/01/03   Exhaust filter clogged                     02/09/01   Replace alternator, mounting bunchets worn
        05/25/02   Front engine oil leak                             04/26/03   JD Smith                                   03/22/01   Install new planetary assembly, brake shoes
        06/12/02   1 gallon to rear engine                           05/08/03   Broken grease lines                        04/12/01   leak btw rear transmission & transfer gear
        06/18/02   3 gallons to front engine                         05/17/03   1 gallon to fron engine, daily service     04/18/01   Replace hydraulic lines on bail circuit
       07/08/02    Air leak                                          05/21/03   Grease daily/ gooseneck                    05/03/01   cushion hitch pump hose, retarder valve
       07/11/02    Seat air ride needs repair                        05/24/03   Seat pump repaired                         05/07/01   Troubleshoot gear-shift problem
       08/10/02    1 gallon to rear engine                           05/31/03   Daily service                              05/17/01   Cushion hitch pump seal replaced, look for leak
       09/16/02    Rear diff. Oil added 50 wt                        06/09/03   Daily service                              05/21/01   Wheel bearings replaced
       09/17/02    Check high opacity reading                        06/14/03   Daily service                              03/29/01   Replace rear belts
       09/23/02    Rear diff. And Transmission oil added             06/17/03   Daily service                              04/09/01   Replace transmission
       10/01/02    Daily service                                     06/23/03   Daily service                              07/02/01   Remove wire debris on spindles
       11/06/02    Daily service                                     06/30/03   Bail in bad order                          09/04/01   PM per list
       11/07/02    Daily service                                     07/08/03   Tuesday service                            11/29/01   Check air system - air leak at draft tube
       11/11/02    Daily service                                     07/19/03   Add transmission oil                       04/05/02   Wheel seal leaking
       11/15/02    Daily service                                     07/29/03   Daily service                              05/15/02   1 gal to front engine
       11/26/02    Daily service                                     07/30/03   Grease daily/ gooseneck                    05/22/02   1 gal to rear engine
       11/29/02    3 air filters                                     08/08/03   Daily service                              05/22/02   1 gal to front engine
       12/02/02    Daily service                                     08/14/03   Grease rear rollers                        06/13/02   Oil Change 30 gallons, oil and fuel filters
       12/08/02    Lights flashing, shorted from greenwaste          08/19/03   Daily service, change air filter           06/29/02   A/C repair
       12/11/02    Broken Door spring                                09/04/03   Grease fittings                            07/24/02   Oil Change
       12/11/02    Boost pressure reading 15 psi                     09/05/03   Change 3 primary air filters               08/13/02   Regular Maintenance
       12/12/02    Daily service                                     09/30/03   Cushion hitch bracket on accumulator B/O   08/15/02   Regular Maintenance
       12/19/02    3 Primary air filters                             10/01/03   Daily service                              08/17/02   Regular Maintenance
       12/19/02    Engine performance below minimum                  10/02/03   Daily service                              09/27/02   Daily Service




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                                                                    1
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study                                                                                                                                                  Final Report



                               657E Scraper #6605                                         657E Scraper #6605                                             657E Scraper #6606
           Date                   Material Used or Replaced          Date                    Material Used or Replaced               Date                   Material Used or Replaced
          10/02/02   Daily Service                                  10/29/03   Grease gooseneck                                     02/04/03   Daily service
          10/25/02   Water leak on rear engine thermostat           10/30/03   Daily Service                                        02/05/03   Front engine fuel system clogged
          10/30/02   Daily Service                                  11/11/03   Daily Service                                        02/21/03   No throttle-adjust cable
          11/06/02   Front, rear water filters. Cond (3) to front   11/12/03   Repair wipers, light                                 03/07/03   1 gal to rear engine
          11/06/02   Radiator leak                                  11/14/03   1 gal to each engine, Daily Service                  03/08/03   Daily service
          11/14/02   Oil Change                                     11/15/03   Daily Service                                        03/15/03   Daily service
          11/21/02   Daily Service                                  11/21/03   Daily Service                                        03/19/03   Daily service
          11/26/02   Daily Service                                  11/22/03   Add hydraulic fluid, daily service                   03/22/03   Rear engine fuel pump repaired
          11/30/02   Daily Service                                  11/24/03   Daily Service                                        03/26/03   Daily service
          12/06/02   Daily Service                                  11/25/03   1 gal to each engine, Daily Service                  04/02/03   Daily service, grease gooseneck
          12/17/02   Daily Service                                  11/28/03   Daily Service                                        04/02/03   Door stop strap repaired
          12/18/02   2 gallons to the rear engine                                         657E Scraper #6606                        04/05/03   1 gallon to front engine
          12/10/02   Debris in transmission area removed             Date                    Material Used or Replaced              04/11/03   5 gallons of hydraulic fluid
          12/31/02   Fuel pump racks shaking                        01/03/01   Repair rear bail hook, bail seals                    04/30/03   Greas gooseneck, daily service
          01/28/03   1000 hour service                              01/23/01   Fix thermostat control, A/C                          05/03/03   Daily Service
          02/04/03   Daily Service                                  02/02/01   Fix A/C                                              05/07/03   Front windshield replaced
          02/13/03   Seat to be fixed                               05/03/01   Rear transmission switch replaced                    05/30/03   Lost steering, oil leak
          03/08/03   Daily Service                                  05/09/01   Oil hose on rear engine, filter base to oil cooler   06/02/03   1 gallon to front engine
          03/13/03   Hydraulic Oil, Grease, daily service           07/05/01   Main discharge hose, repair left fender skirt        07/31/03   Daily Grease
          03/14/03   Daily Service                                  08/08/01   Tractor bail pilot hose replaced                     08/20/03   Daily service
          03/18/03   Daily Service                                  10/03/01   Wear plate on right side of scraper can              08/21/03   Daily service
          03/21/03   Daily Service                                  10/11/01   Replace drive ring. Rebuild converter & pump         08/22/03   Daily service, change air filter
          03/26/03   150 hour oil change                            10/23/01   Retarder valve. Install new air regulator,           08/25/03   Daily service
          03/28/03   1 gallon 30 weight                             11/07/01   Roll bearing in rear engine                          09/03/03   Engine door latch repaired
          04/01/03   5 gallons of 10 weight                         02/23/01   Wipers, rear fan belt, tighten alternator belt       09/08/03   Daily service
          04/26/03   Daily Service                                  03/27/01   Leaking governor fixed (Low air pressure)            09/09/03   Daily service
          05/08/03   Ejector board roller bad                       04/11/01   Install can on right front brake                     09/20/03   Daily service
          06/09/03   Daily Service                                  06/27/02   Oil Change 30 gallons                                09/26/03   Front engine governor repaired
          06/11/03   Stinger air leak                               07/30/02   Oil Change 30 gallons                                09/26/03   Daily service
          06/27/03   Opacity test                                   07/27/02   3 gal to front engine                                09/27/03   Daily service
          07/08/03   Door latch bad                                 07/30/02   Oil Change 30 gallons                                09/30/03   5 qts hydraulic oil and daily service
          07/11/03   Rear 1 gallon, Change 3 air filters            08/15/02   Repair ejector roller                                10/01/03   Grease fittings
          07/22/03   Front transmission overheating                 09/20/02   1 gallon (front)                                     10/02/03   11 gals oil and 8 qts hydraulic oil
          08/12/03   Fix A/C                                        09/25/02   Rear engine exhaust leak                             10/03/03   Daily service
          08/21/03   1 gallon to front engine                       09/25/02   Cushion hitch inoperable                             10/04/03   5 qts oil to front, 3 qts to the back. Daily service
          09/03/03   Grease fittings                                10/10/02   Oil Change 30 gallons                                10/06/03   Daily service
          09/06/03   Daily Service                                  10/14/02   Air dryer door bolts broken                          10/09/03   Daily service
          09/16/03   Daily Service                                  10/21/02   Check engine crankcase                               10/11/03   8 qts hydraulic fluid added
          09/22/03   Daily Service                                  10/23/02   Wednesday service                                    10/13/03   Add water conditioner to each radiator
          09/23/03   Daily Service                                  11/11/02   1 gal to front engine                                10/14/03   Repairs to restore power to computer
          09/26/03   1 gal to front engine, daily service           11/19/02   Daily service                                        10/17/03   Daily service
          09/30/03   8 quarts of Hydraulic fluid, Daily service     11/22/02   1 gal to front engine, and daily service             10/23/03   Daily service
          10/02/03   1 gal to front engine, daily service           12/04/02   1 gal to front engine, and daily service             11/06/03   Daily service, grease rear, 50 wt to rear diff.
          10/04/03   Daily Service                                  12/31/02   Replace broken glass, damaged blade                  11/07/03   Daily service
          10/11/03   8 quarts of Hydraulic fluid, Daily service     01/06/03   No air pressure buildup                              11/11/03   Daily service
          10/14/03   Daily Service                                  01/13/03   1 gal to front engine                                11/14/03   Daily service, 3 air filters
          10/16/03   Daily Service                                  01/17/03   1 gal to front engine                                11/18/03   Daily service
          10/22/03   Grease gooseneck                               01/21/03   Oil leak                                             11/22/03   Daily service
          10/24/03   Check bent exhaust stack                       02/01/03   Clean hitch area                                     11/24/03   Daily service




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                                                                   2
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study                                                                                                                                         Final Report


                               657E Scraper #6607                                              657E Scraper #6607                                  657E Scraper #6607
           Date                   Material Used or Replaced                Date                   Material Used or Replaced    Date                   Material Used or Replaced
          08/20/01   Fix A/C                                              07/19/02   1 gal to rear engine                     08/14/03   Hydraulic and air leaks
          03/14/01   Leaking pivot hydraulic                              07/22/02   2 gal to rear engine                     09/05/03   Change 3 primary air filters
          08/04/01   Replace seat                                         08/23/02   Rear air leak                            09/10/03   Rear engine won't start
          05/22/01   Remove trapped debris                                09/02/02   Add new top wear plates                  09/17/03   Daily service
          07/10/01   Replace tilt hoses                                   09/04/02   Right front wheel seals broken           09/26/03   Add water to front engine
          07/19/01   Pivot Shaft leak fixed                               09/09/02   Daily maintenance                        10/04/03   Daily service
          08/30/01   Regrouser track pad (shoes)                          09/12/02   Change front tire                        10/29/03   Daily service
          06/06/01   Tighten clamp on exhaust                             09/16/02   Daily maintenance                                             657E Scraper #6608
          11/22/00   Fix left front track roller                          09/24/02   1 gal of 30wt to rear engine              Date                   Material Used or Replaced
          02/08/01   Clean tracks                                         09/26/02   Reseal front engine governor             01/11/01   Fuel filters replaced
          10/27/00   Fix coolant gauge                                    09/26/02   Front engine coolant leak                02/17/01   Fixed A/C
          09/27/01   Belly pad guards replaced                            10/01/02   Loss of transmission shifting            02/21/01   Backup alarm, lights, wipers fixed
          10/24/00   Hydraulic leak fixed                                 10/04/02   Rear brakes not releasing                04/23/01   Right side pivot shaft seal leak
          09/16/00   Hydraulic leak fixed                                 10/14/02   Rear brakes locked                       06/21/01   Fan belt repaired
          08/23/00   Remove trapped debris                                10/18/02   Daily service                            07/10/01   Engine oil leak fixed
          08/09/00   Rear lights replaced                                 10/21/02   Door stuck                               08/02/01   Exhaust clamp to air cleaner fixed
          12/11/00   Fix engine cover                                     10/28/02   2 gal to rear engine                     10/06/01   Tilt line repaired
          08/12/00   Hydraulic leak fixed                                 11/21/02   Tranmission locked up, oil leak          10/15/01   Repair side screens
          04/13/00   Recondition blade                                    11/29/02   3 air filters                            10/19/01   Replace rear lights
          04/30/01   Coolent leak fixed                                   12/03/02   Leak in rear oil pan                     10/24/01   Regrouse track pad
          01/02/01   Clean left track                                     12/13/02   3 gal                                    11/06/01   Remove debris
          01/11/01   Temp gauge cleaneed to stop heating                  12/14/02   1 gal                                    11/16/01   Fix light bracket
          01/16/01   New seat installed                                   12/30/02   2 gal                                    11/24/01   Repair brace on intake
          01/20/01   Fan drive belts                                      01/06/03   Repair bail pin                          11/29/01   Fix oil leak
          02/07/01   Fix windshield                                       01/15/03   Daily service                            09/03/00   Fix A/C
          02/14/01   Clean tracks                                         01/17/03   2 gals to front engine                   09/16/00   Fix A/C
          02/22/01   Remove wire debris                                   01/18/03   Daily service                            09/26/00   Tilt cylinder leak fixed
          03/07/01   Left door glass replaced                             01/21/03   Daily service                            10/06/00   Clean tracks
          11/06/00   Rear engine bearings. oil pump, rod bearings         01/22/03   Daily service                            12/01/00   Roll-in bearings
          11/11/00   Thermostatic switch. Install new gauges              01/27/03   Daily service                            12/08/00   Fan belts
          11/20/00   R&R hydraulic oil seals on hydraulic pump            01/28/03   Daily service                            12/13/00   Coolant temp gauge
          12/20/00   Install new cover                                    01/29/03   Daily service                            12/22/00   Remove wire debris
          01/17/01   Fix oil leak at fly-wheel housing                    02/04/03   Daily service                            05/21/01   Oil hose replaced to fix oil leak
          02/05/01   Tighten loose air hose                               02/18/03   Clean and drain oil.                     07/05/01   Leak in belly pan, seals, batteries replaced
          12/02/01   Fix bottom door window                               03/26/03   Loss of transmission power               07/10/01   Bearings, oil pump, turbo & water pump
          12/12/01   Fix rear lights                                      03/27/03   Replace fuel/air ratio diaphragm         07/23/01   Hydraulic leak on cylinder valve
          03/20/02   Fuel rack sticking                                   04/26/03   Daily service                            09/19/01   Replace wiring harness on timer
          06/28/01   Cut pipe from left front tire                        04/29/03   Daily service                            11/26/01   Pre-lube on front engine - Replace timer switch
          08/01/01   R&R apron cylinder                                   05/01/03   Broken grease lines                      07/16/01   Loose track pad
          08/14/01   Replace cover springs                                05/05/03   Front engine overhaul.                   07/18/01   Fix A/C
          08/17/01   Front brake shoes of oil, install new wheel seals    06/18/03   Rear engine pressure oil light on        08/17/01   Fan belt replaced and new guard
          09/14/01   Replace one front oil filter & one rear oil filter   06/19/03   Daily grease                             04/04/02   Adjust front and rear brakes
          03/29/02   Clean hitch area                                     06/20/03   Daily grease                             07/15/02   Rear engine coolant flow switch
          04/24/02   Air leak                                             06/23/03   Daily service                            07/24/02   Replaced oil filter
          04/30/02   Oil Change                                           06/25/03   Daily grease                             08/15/02   Rear brakes locked up
          05/14/02   Cushion hitch repaired                               07/26/03   Daily service                            08/19/02   Rear transmission rebuilt
          06/05/02   Hydraulic leak by left front tire                    07/29/03   Rear engine overheating                  09/30/02   Air leak on brakes
          06/27/02   2 gal to front engine                                07/31/03   Daily service                            10/29/02   2 gal to rear engine 30W
          07/06/02   2 gal to rear engine                                 08/14/03   Daily service                            11/12/02   Rear engine coolant leak




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                                                                        3
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study                                                                                                                                              Final Report


                               657E Scraper #6608                                                  D9 Bulldozer #6620                                 D9 Bulldozer #6620
           Date                   Material Used or Replaced                    Date                  Material Used or Replaced    Date                  Material Used or Replaced
         11/20/02   1 gal to rear engine                                      01/05/01   Transmission cooler                     08/22/02   Repair alarm, wipers, front lamps
         11/20/02   Rear transmission hot                                     01/08/01   Sump, gasket, seal                      08/26/02   Track pad bolts replaced
         12/17/02   Daily service                                             01/16/01   Gaskets, seals, hose                    09/11/02   Changed oil
         12/20/02   2 gallons to rear only                                    03/23/01   Seals, valve                            09/17/02   Investigate poor starting
         12/20/02   2 gal to rear engine 30W                                  10/10/00   Replace seat                            09/25/02   Replace batteries
         12/26/02   Replaced ejector wear strips                              01/11/01   Replace air filters                     10/04/02   50? To pivot shaft reservoir
         01/23/03   Rear overheating                                          02/06/01   Fix A/C                                 10/08/02   Pivot shaft seal leak
         01/31/03   Daily service                                             02/07/01   Remove debris                           10/15/02   2 gallons oil
         02/17/03   Rear transmission shifting into neutral                   02/23/01   Replace seals                           10/17/02   Adjust tracks, add oil to pivot shaft reservoir
         02/26/03   Repair step                                               04/20/02   Tilt leak                               10/18/02   1 gal oil to pivot, engine each
         02/27/03   Daily service                                             05/31/01   Radiator grill fixed                    10/23/02   Replace broken glass
         03/01/03   Daily service                                             06/11/01   Fix A/C                                 10/29/02   Add water, 50 to pivot shaft
         03/06/03   150 hour maintenance work                                 07/13/01   Fix A/C                                 11/08/02   Remove cable from treads
         03/06/03   Radiator leaking from top seals                           07/23/02   Mag screen, cleaned bolt holes          11/13/02   1 gallon oil
         03/12/03   Grease daily/gooseneck                                    08/13/01   Plug on inlet assembly replaced         11/20/02   Oil changed
         03/13/03   Daily service                                             09/22/01   Replace rear lights                     11/20/02   Repair track guides, grill
         03/15/03   Daily service                                             10/01/01   Fix A/C                                 11/27/02   Remove wire debris
         03/19/03   Grease daily/gooseneck                                    10/10/01   Replace lights and wipers               12/04/02   50 wt to PSR
         03/22/03   Daily service                                             10/16/01   Replace light                           12/10/02   50 wt to PSR
         04/23/03   Apron switch repaired, oil cooler leaking                 04/06/01   Backup alarm fixed                      12/11/02   Daily service
         05/07/03   1 gal to rear eng, daily svc, grease gooseneck            03/20/01   Fix A/C                                 12/27/02   Replace lost track guides
         05/16/03   Daily Service, Primary air filter                         10/05/01   Fix Brake                               01/07/03   Oil changed, 12 gallons
         05/22/03   2 qts Hydraulic fluid                                     09/20/01   Replace seals                           01/09/03   Replace missing track guides
         05/24/03   Daily Service                                             09/28/01   Fix A/C                                 01/13/03   1 gallon
         06/14/03   Rear transmission overheating                             10/10/01   Replace lights & wipers                 01/30/03   Change batteries
         07/02/03   Daily service/ grease gooseneck                           10/02/01   Fix A/C                                 02/03/03   Fix air conditioning
         07/14/03   Daily service                                             10/19/01   Replace lights & wipers                 02/26/03   Oil changed, 12 gallons
         07/26/03   Daily service                                             03/19/01   Fix A/C                                 02/28/03   Blade float repaired
         08/02/03   Daily service                                             03/30/01   Fan belts                               03/08/03   1 gallon
         08/05/03   Transmission switch sticking                              04/21/01   Pressure hoses                          03/12/03   Fix air conditioning
         09/11/03   Clean air filter                                          04/28/01   Battery cable                           03/29/03   Water temperature gauge
         09/20/03   Daily service                                             05/11/01   Batteries replaced                      04/03/03   Repair tilt line leak
         09/25/03   Daily service                                             05/22/01   Coolant temperature gauge fixed         04/11/03   Recharge air conditioning
         09/29/03   Daily service                                             06/14/01   Fix A/C                                 04/24/03   Repair lights
         09/30/03   Daily Service, Primary air filter                         06/22/01   Rebuilt radiator for leak               04/29/03   Filter piping repair
         10/02/03   Daily service                                             07/10/01   Pivot shaft seal                        05/02/03   Repair broken glass
         10/03/03   Daily service                                             09/05/01   Belts replaced                          05/03/03   Replace one bad battery
         10/11/03   Daily service                                             09/13/01   Repair tilt line                        05/05/03   Daily service
         10/17/03   3 air filters                                             10/24/01   Regrouser track pad                     05/09/03   Fix seat cushion
         10/24/03   Add water to front engine, daily service                  11/08/01   Fix A/C                                 05/17/03   Fix starter
         10/30/03   Daily service                                             11/20/01   Fix catwalk to the rear of the cab      05/19/03   Daily service
         10/31/03   Replace 3 air filters                                     11/23/01   Fix A/C                                 05/28/03   Repair right side track adjuster
         10/04/03        1 gal 30wt to front, 50wt to rear diff, daily serv   05/15/02   1 gallon to front engine                05/29/03   Daily service
         10/06/03   Daily service                                             05/22/02   1 gallon to rear engine                 05/31/03   Daily service, 1 gallon oil
         11/01/03   Daily service                                             06/11/02   2 gal 50W at pivot                      06/06/03   Daily service
         11/25/03   Daily service, 6 gals to transmission                     06/11/02   1 gal 50wt left side differential       06/13/03   Idler making noise
         11/25/03   Daily service, 3 gals to transmission                     06/12/02   1 gal 50wt pivot                        06/18/03   Replace broken hard bar, pivot
         12/01/03   Daily service                                             06/13/02   1 gal 50wt pivot                        07/01/03   Add water, replace air filter
                                                                              07/03/02   Fix air conditioning                    07/02/03   Daily service
                                                                              07/11/02   Replace track segments                  07/07/03   Transmission suction chamber cleaned




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                                                                            4
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study                                                                                                                                              Final Report


                                D9 Bulldozer #6620                                        D9 Bulldozer #6621                                          D9 Bulldozer #6621
           Date                   Material Used or Replaced          Date                   Material Used or Replaced             Date                   Material Used or Replaced
          07/07/03   Fix air conditioning                           01/02/01   Fix A/C                                           12/18/02   Repair lights & wipers
          07/14/03   Replace right front tire                       01/09/01   Fan belts                                         12/24.02   Tuesday service
          07/16/03   Replace broken tilt lines                      01/11/01   Fix wiring                                        12/26/02   Weekly greasing
          07/30/03   Replace alternator belt                        01/31/01   Replace belt                                      12/31/02   Adjust left track
          08/04/03   Repair sensor line                             01/31/01   Fix hydraulic leak                                01/03/03   Chage primary air filter
          08/10/03   Replace front grill                            03/03/01   Alternator                                        01/04/03   1 gal 30wt to engine, .5 gal 50 wt to PSR
          08/14/03   Fix air conditioning                           04/13/01   Clean & fix batteries                             01/14/03   Clean secondary air filter, adjust right hand track.
          08/20/03   Reposition left track                          04/16/01   Oil leak-cylinders on blade                       01/23/03   Support strap fatigued/brokeon on small tubing
          08/21/03   Replace undergear, regrouser track pad         08/03/01   Roller cap                                        02/22/03   Alternator belt replaced
          09/05/03   Fix alternator belt                            08/11/01   Fix A/C                                           03/03/03   Turbo housing leaking
          09/06/03   Daily service                                  08/16/01   Coolant leak checked                              03/05/03   Right front idler making noise
          09/11/03   Repair air conditioner                         08/28/01   Clean belly pan                                   03/10/03   starting problems, batteries replaced
          09/12/03   Add 3 water conditioners                       09/01/01   Fix A/C                                           03/19/03   Exhaust stack repaired
          09/15/03   Daily service                                  09/10/01   Coolant leak                                      03/20/03   1 gallon of 30 wt & Daily service
          09/17/03   Add 1 gallon of 30 wt engine oil               09/12/01   Fix A/C                                           03/27/03   Daily, grease
          10/04/03   2 qts engine oil, 3 qts water, daily service   09/20/01   Repair left track                                 03/28/03   Noise from bottom rollers, repair side screen
          10/08/03   Check water leak, rear radiator                10/10/01   Lights & wipers, A/C                              04/08/03   Replace radiator coolant
          10/18/03   Daily service                                  10/19/01   Light replaced                                    04/23/03   Adjust tracks, 50 wt to pivot reservoir
          10/21/03   Air filter changed, daily service              10/20/01   Fix A/C                                           04/24/03   Clean tracks
          10/29/03   Daily service                                  11/21/01   Fix A/C                                           05/05/03   Left fron idler serviced
          11/03/03   Daily service                                  06/03/02   2 gallons                                         05/06/03   Repair track idler
                                D9 Bulldozer #6621                  06/10/02   Cut hole in track shoe                            05/12/03   Daily Service
           Date                   Material Used or Replaced         06/17/02   Replace twisted belt, headliner                   05/16/03   2 gallons of 30 wt, Daily service
          04/13/01   Hose, seals                                    06/11/02   1 gallon                                          05/20/03   Tuesday service
          04/25/01   Cusshion, cap, gasket, seals, adapter          06/18/02   Oil Change 12 gallons                             05/22/03   Grease
          05/09/01   Wiring, brackets, bolt, backup alarm           07/02/02   1 gallon 30 wt                                    06/07/03   Saturday service
          04/27/01   Seal, hose, 2 hose lines                       07/04/02   Fix air conditioner                               06/10/03   Right idle noisy
          07/01/01   Turbocharger                                   08/28/02   Add hydraulic fluid                               06/26/03   Replace seal suspension
          08/01/01   Seals80                                        08/22/02   Clean tracks                                      07/04/03   Daily service
          09/09/01   Grommet, clip, damper, tube, gasket            08/24/02   1 gallon 30 wt                                    07/07/03   Daily service
          09/10/01   2 Tires                                        08/28/02   2 gallons of hydraulic fluid                      07/09/03   Blade control jammed
          09/19/01   Left Front Tire                                08/30/02   Replace glass                                     07/15/03   Bogie pins replaced
          08/28/02   Right front Tire                               09/07/02   Tilt leak                                         07/29/03   A/C cleaned primary air
          11/01/02   Muffler, hose, tube, hose, clip                09/12/02   1 gallon                                          08/02/03   Daily service
          12/30/02   Seals                                          10/05/02   2 gallons                                         08/04/03   Low batteries
          01/02/03   Broken wheel                                   10/09/02   START TESTING                                     08/08/03   Daily service
          01/30/03   Seal kit                                       10/17/02   A/C, Coolant leak, steering went out              08/14/03   Grease, Daily service
          02/02/03   Repair of split bellows pipe going to trap     10/22/02   Change oil and filter, clean primary air filter   08/15/03   Primary air filter
          02/04/03   Repair to hydraulic cylinder                   10/23/02   Fix air conditioner                               08/20/03   Daily service
          02/04/03   Flex pipe                                      10/31/02   Check & mount electronics                         08/21/03   Grease, adjust track
          02/25/03   Rod pin                                        11/06/02   CRT box broken off                                09/11/03   Clean air filter
          04/08/02   Swap out rollers                               11/09/02   Daily service for Saturday                        09/12/03   Daily service
          04/20/02   Replace glass                                  11/12/02   Clear air filter                                  09/13/03   Grease
          05/01/02   Hydraulic leak                                 11/12/02   EWS light-bad switch replaced                     09/20/03   Daily service
          05/16/02   Install wear track guards                      11/14/02   Grease fan, idler                                 09/22/03   Daily service
          06/06/02   Fix air conditioning                           11/14/02   Cut cable from tracks                             10/01/03   Daily service
          06/13/02   Daily service                                  11/29/02   Daily service                                     10/24/03   Air filter, daily service
          06/13/02   Daily service                                  12/05/02   Radiator leak, clean tracks                       10/31/03   3 air filters, daily service
          06/14/02   Daily service                                  12/18/02   Daily service                                     11/01/03   Down for gummed up fuel pump




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                                                                   5
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study                                                                                                                                                Final Report




                               D9 Bulldozer #6653                                            D9 Bulldozer #6653                                           D9 Bulldozer #6653
           Date                  Material Used or Replaced              Date                   Material Used or Replaced              Date                   Material Used or Replaced
          01/19/01   Gaskets, lock                                     01/06/03   2 gallons, daily service                           08/25/03   Daily service
          01/31/01   Breaker, pump, gasket                             01/06/03   2 gallons                                          08/29/03   Daily service
          07/07/01   Gasket & Seal kit                                 01/07/03   Right water temperature guage fixed                09/04/03   Daily service
          07/20/01   Guage                                             01/09/03   Daily service                                      09/09/03   Daily service, Change air filter, blow out A/C
          08/08/01   Battery                                           01/15/03   1 Gallon                                           09/11/03   Transmission leak
          04/02/02   Brake shoes & drums                               01/17/03   2 Gallons                                          09/20/03   Daily service, grease.
          09/12/02   Drive gear for pump failure                       01/20/03   Replace right door glass                           09/26/03   Daily service, grease.
          09/12/02   Engine rebuilt, (Not repowered)                   01/21/03   12 gal oil change                                  09/27/03   Daily service, add water
          09/12/02   Torque converter and transmission oil pump        01/23/03   fuel leak on tank                                  09/30/03   Daily service
          09/12/02   Transmission overhaul, seals and bearings         02/28/03   Tilt cylinder hose fixed, pivot shaft              10/01/03   Daily service
          10/17/02   Bolts, washers, bracket, union, gaskets, hoses,   01/30/03   1 gallon                                           10/02/03   Daily service
          10/21/02   Hose                                              02/08/03   4 gallons of transmission oil                      10/04/03   Daily service
          03/05/03   Steering cable                                    02/17/03   Added 1 gal hydraulic oil                          10/06/03   Daily service, change air filters
          03/11/03   Seals                                             02/24/03   Pivot Shaft leak                                   10/11/03   2 qts, 8 qts H20
          04/10/03   Brake job, alarm, switch                          02/26/03   Daily service                                      10/21/03   Daily service, air filter
          04/23/03   Radiator leak. Replaced                           03/08/03   Daily service                                      10/23/03   Daily service
          10/24/01   Regrouser track pad                               03/10/03   Daily service                                      10/24/03   Daily service, Change air filter
          11/06/01   Fix A/C                                           03/15/03   1 Gallon 50W, 1 gallon Trans oil                   10/28/03   Daily service, daily greasing, change air filter,
          05/20/02   Oil Change                                        03/17/03   1 gallon 50W, 2 Gallons Trans oil                  10/29/03   Daily service, Blow AC
          08/16/02   Oil Change, 12 gal                                03/19/03   12 Gallons for oil change                          10/30/03   Daily service
          08/07/02   2 gallons                                         03/24/03   Fix air conditioner                                10/31/03   Daily service
          08/10/02   1 gal 30 wt                                       03/26/03   1 gallon                                           11/01/03   Daily service
          08/21/02   2 gallons                                         04/03/03   5 gallons, 5 gals trans                            11/04/03   Daily service, Change filter, grease, blow AC
          08/29/02   2 gallons                                         04/08/03   Replace right door glass                           11/05/03   Daily service
          12/05/01   Repair tilt line                                  04/12/03   Add hyd oil to pivot shaft reservoir               11/06/03   Daily service
          11/28/01   Replace rear glass                                04/15/03   150 hour service                                   11/08/03   Daily service, 2 gals engine oil
          10/10/01   Fix Transmission leak                             04/18/03   2 gals trans                                       11/10/03   Daily service, 1 gal 30wt, 3 bottles H20 additive
          09/15/01   Fix throttle switch                               05/03/03   2 gals of engine oil                               11/12/03   Daily service
          10/02/01   Fix hydraulic leak                                05/09/03   Daily service                                      11/13/03   Daily service
          04/08/02   Swap rollers                                      05/13/03   Repair air conditioner                             11/14/03   Daily service
          05/15/02   Oil Change                                        05/24/03   3 gallons of engine oil                            11/15/03   Daily service
          06/19/02   Grease fittings                                   06/05/03   1 gallon of engine oil                             11/22/03   Daily service
          06/28/02   2 Gallons                                         06/14/03   Daily service                                      11/23/03   Daily service
          07/10/02   Clean tracks                                      06/02/03   Right hydraulic cylinder leaking                   11/29/03   Daily service, 1 gal 40wt to engine
          07/23/02   2 gallons                                         06/17/03   Pivot shaft & hydraulic leaks                      11/30/03   2 gallons
          07/29/02   Not starting                                      06/25/03   Recondition lift hoist cylinder                                         D9 Bulldozer #6654
          08/06/02   2 gallons                                         06/26/03   Daily grease and 1 gallon of engine oil             Date                   Material Used or Replaced
          08/06/02   Regrouser track pad (shoes)                       06/27/03   1 gallon of engine oil                             01/11/01   Fuel filters replaced
          08/21/02   Repair alternator wiring                          07/02/03   Repair hand holds                                  02/17/01   Fixed A/C
          08/28/02   Replace tongue & hoses                            07/26/03   Daily service                                      02/21/01   Backup alarm, lights, wipers fixed
          08/31/02   Repair air conditioner                            07/30/03   Daily service                                      04/23/01   Right side pivot shaft seal leak
          09/13/02   Down 9/13/02 to 10/2/02                           07/31/03   Daily service                                      06/21/01   Fan belt repaired
          10/01/02   2 gallons                                         08/02/03   1 gallon of engine oil, Daily service              07/10/01   Engine oil leak fixed
          11/07/02   Fix Rear transmission cover                       08/12/03   Add water, replace air filter                      08/02/01   Exhaust clamp to air cleaner fixed
          12/02/02   Replace left final drive                          08/13/03   Daily service, check fir extinguisher              10/06/01   Tilt line repaired
          12/18/02   Oil Change 12 gallons                             08/14/03   Daily service, change oil, oil and water filters   10/15/01   Repair side screens
          12/24/02   Left side screen replaced                         08/20/03   Daily service                                      10/19/01   Replace rear lights
          12/26/02   Hydraulic leak fixed                              08/21/03   Daily service                                      10/24/01   Regrouse track pad
          01/02/03   New alternator belt                               08/23/03   Daily service                                      11/06/01   Remove debris




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                                                                      6
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study                                                                                                                                  Final Report


                                 D9 Bulldozer #6654                                   D9 Bulldozer #6654                                   D9 Bulldozer #6654
           Date                    Material Used or Replaced    Date                    Material Used or Replaced      Date                   Material Used or Replaced
          11/16/01   Fix light bracket                         01/11/03   Not used                                    10/03/03   Daily service
          11/24/01   Repair brace on intake                    01/12/03   Not used                                    10/04/03   Daily service
          11/29/01   Fix oil leak                              01/20/03   1 gallon, Daily Service                     10/16/03   Daily service, 1 gal 50 wt oil added
          04/08/02   Swap out rollers                          01/22/03   Dozer arm bolts loose                       10/17/03   Daily service, 1 gal 50 wt oil added
          04/20/02   Replace glass                             02/04/03   Daily service                               10/21/03   Daily service, 1 gal 50 wt oil added
          05/01/02   Hydraulic leak                            02/08/03   Daily service                               10/23/03   Daily service, 1 gal 50 wt oil added
          05/16/02   Install wear track guards                 02/13/03   Clean belly pans                            10/24/03   Daily service, 1 gal 50 wt oil added
          06/06/02   Fix air conditioning                      02/18/03   Daily service                               10/27/03   Daily service
          06/13/02   Daily service                             02/20/03   Mount exhaust filter                        10/28/03   Daily service
          06/13/02   Daily service                             02/26/03   Repair air conditioning                     11/05/03   Daily service, 1 gal 50 wt oil added
          06/14/02   Daily service                             03/06/03   Daily service                               11/06/03   Coolant loss. Replace alternator belt
          06/14/02   Daily service                             03/20/03   Exhaust repaired                            11/08/03   Daily service
          06/18/02   Change air filter                         03/20/03   Repair ejector turbo                        11/10/03   Daily service
          06/18/02   Change air filter                         03/27/03   1 qt 30W                                    11/11/03   Daily service, 1 gal 50 wt oil added
          06/19/02   Grease fittings                           04/05/03   1qt 30W                                     11/12/03   Daily service, 1 gal 50 wt oil added
          06/27/02   Replace sprocket segment                  04/08/03   1qt 30W                                     11/13/03   Daily service, 1 gal 50 wt oil added
          07/16/02   Oil Change                                04/09/03   1 gal 50W                                   11/14/03   Daily service, 1 gal 50 wt oil added
          07/18/02   Left blade lift cylider repaired          04/14/03   1 gal 50W                                   11/15/03   Daily service, 1 gal 50 wt oil added
          07/25/02   Bad backup alarm                          04/15/03   Tilt line repaired                          11/18/03   Daily service, 1 gal 50 wt oil added
          07/26/02   1 gallon                                  04/29/03   Repair engine oil leaks                     11/19/03   Daily service, 1 gal 50 wt oil added
          07/27/02   5 gallons                                 05/03/03   1 gal 50W                                   11/20/03   Daily service, 1 gal 50 wt oil added
          07/31/02   1 gallon                                  05/05/03   Fix coolant light                           11/25/03   Daily service, 1 gal 50 wt oil added
          08/08/02   1 gallon                                  05/06/03   Tighten water hose clamps                   11/26/03   Daily service, 1 gal 50 wt oil, 1 gal 15-40wt
          08/16/02   1 gallon                                  05/14/03   1 gal 50W                                   11/28/03   Daily service, 1 gal 50 wt oil added
          08/17/02   Regular service                           05/22/03   Repair exhaust filter                       11/19/03   Daily service, 1 gal 50 wt oil added
          08/21/02   Complete under gear swing frames          06/11/03   Fix air conditioning                        11/20/03   Daily service, 1 gal 50 wt oil added
          08/23/02   1 gallon                                  07/01/03   Coolant leak                                11/25/03   Daily service, 1 gal 50 wt oil added
          09/02/02   Repair bent grill                         07/25/03   Change air filter                           11/26/03   Daily service, 1 gal 50 wt oil, 1 gal 15-40wt
          09/03/02   Oil pressure light on                     07/26/03   Daily service                               11/28/03   Daily service, 1 gal 50 wt oil added
          09/05/02   2 gallons                                 07/31/03   Exhaust elbow loose                                              D9 Bulldozer #6655
          09/10/02   Oil Change 12 gallons                     08/05/03   Steering clutch control valve repaired       Date                   Material Used or Replaced
          10/09/02   Repair left front final leak              08/07/03   Daily service, grease                       03/08/01   Block bolt
          10/22/02   1 gallon                                  08/15/03   Daily service                               03/23/01   Gasket, nut, rod, seal
          11/02/02   2 gallons                                 08/18/03   Fix air conditioning                        03/20/01   Install lift Cylinder
          11/04/02   Not used                                  08/20/03   Daily service                               03/26/01   Cap, bolt, trunion
          11/07/02   Down 11/7/02 to 11/19/02                  08/23/03   Daily service                               04/02/01   Cartridge, shaft, bearing, wiper, seal
          11/08/02   Caught fire in belly pan                  08/28/03   Daily service                               04/19/01   Turbopump
          11/11/02   Clean from debris fire                    09/06/03   Daily service                               07/05/01   Seal
          11/19/02   Oil Change 12 gallons                     09/08/03   Daily service                               07/09/01   Seals
          11/22/02   2 gallons                                 09/10/03   Add 50 wt oil & pivot shaft oil             07/09/01   Radiator
          11/27/02   Repair air conditioning                   09/17/03   Daily service                               07/10/01   Tube seal, screen
          11/30/02   1 gallon                                  09/18/03   Daily service                               07/12/01   hydraulic hose
          12/10/02   1 gallon                                  09/19/03   Daily service, air filter                   07/13/01   Gaskets, seal
          12/13/02   Exhaust to intake bracket repaired        09/20/03   1 gal hydraulic oil & 1 gal 50 wt           07/25/01   Hose, shaft, seals, bearings
          12/17/02   Not used                                  09/22/03   Replace left door handle                    08/03/01   Tube, fittings, nut
          12/18/02   Arm broke off, repaired                   09/25/03   1 gal engine oil added                      08/15/01   Seal
          12/19/02   2 gallons                                 09/29/03   Daily service, 1 gal 30 wt oil added        08/20/01   Gasket, bolt, seal glow plugs
          12/21/02   Water separator cleaned                   09/30/03   Daily service, Primary air filter changed   08/20/01   Replace head, wter on #2 piston right side
          01/10/03   1 gallon




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                                                              7
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study                                                                                                                                           Final Report


                                D9 Bulldozer #6655                                         D9 Bulldozer #6655                                          651B Scraper #605
           Date                   Material Used or Replaced           Date                   Material Used or Replaced          Date                     Material Used or Replaced
          09/06/02   1 gallon                                        07/14/03   Daily service                                  01/02/03   Broken wheel
          09/07/02   2 gallons                                       07/18/03   Coolant temp light on                          01/30/03   Seal kit
          05/29/02   2 gallons                                       08/01/03   Replace air filters                            02/02/03   Repair of split bellows pipe going to trap
          06/12/02   2 gallons                                       08/02/03   Daily service                                  02/04/03   Repair to hydraulic cylinder
          06/19/02   Oil Change                                      08/08/03   Daily service, change air filter               02/04/03   Flex pipe
          06/26/02   2 gallons                                       08/09/03   Daily service                                  02/25/03   Rod pin
          07/04/02   2 gallons                                       08/16/03   Oil added to pivot shaft reservoir             03/10/03   Rod pin
          07/09/02   2 gallons                                       08/18/03   Add conditioner to radiator                    04/10/03   Stinger
          07/10/02   Fix air conditioning                            09/02/03   Install clean air filter, add 1 gallon oil                           834B Bulldozer #407
          07/17/02   Repair tilt line                                09/10/03   Daily service                                   Date                    Material Used or Replaced
          07/23/02   Mag screen, cleaned bolt holes                  09/24/03   Add 50 wt engine oil                           03/22/00   About 30 parts
          08/15/02   Fix air conditioning                            09/26/03   150 hour service protocol                      12/19/00   Seal, gasket
          09/18/02   1 gallon 30 wt                                  09/27/03   Daily service                                  12/19/00   Gasket, seal, pin
          09/23/02   1 gallon                                        10/02/03   Daily service                                  01/19/01   Gaskets, lock
          10/11/02   2 gallons                                       10/03/03   Daily service                                  01/31/01   Breaker, pump, gasket
          10/19/02   2 gallons                                       10/08/03   Fix air conditioning                           04/03/01   Edge, bit, nut
          10/25/02   1 gallon                                        10/18/03   Daily service                                  05/16/01   2 "bits", 20 nuts, "edge"
          10/31/02   2 gallons                                       10/22/03   Daily service                                  06/05/01   Rebuild alternator
          11/12/02   Hydraulic control fixed                         10/31/03   Daily service                                  07/09/01   Spring, seal, piston, disc, plate
          12/30/02   Check water leak                                11/01/03   Daily service                                  07/09/01   Engine installed- disk, seal, spring
          01/22/03   Sediment in fuel filter                         11/05/03   Daily service                                  07/10/01   Torque converter seals
          01/31/03   Oil Change 12 gallons                           11/06/03   Daily service                                  07/13/01   Gasket kit
          02/03/03   Repair air conditioning                         11/12/03   Daily service                                  07/16/01   D343 parts
          02/17/03   Daily service                                   11/14/03   Daily service, air filter, water conditioner   07/24/01   Gasket, damper, belt, cap
          02/19/03   Hydraulic cylinder broken, blade won't go up.   11/15/03   2 gals engine oil, 1 qt 50wt                   07/25/01   Seals, bearings & hose
          03/11/03   B/O engine compartment                          11/17/03   1 gal engine oil                               07/25/01   Seal kit
          03/12/03   Daily service                                   11/24/03   1 gal 50 wt                                    07/30/01   Seal kit
          03/18/03   Replace door glass                              12/01/03   1 gal 50 wt                                    07/31/01   Rings replaced
          03/20/03   Daily service                                                          651B Scraper #605                  08/02/01   Rebuild fan
          03/22/03   Daily service                                    Date                    Material Used or Replaced        08/08/01   Injector pump
          04/01/03   1 gallon 30 wt                                  07/18/00   Fan Drive                                      08/10/01   Fittings, seals, hose, gasket
          04/03/03   1 gallon 30 wt                                  01/05/01   Transmission cooler                            08/15/01   Elbow
          04/04/03   1 gallon 50 wt                                  01/08/01   Sump, gasket, seal                             08/02/02   Rebuild fan, ring
          04/05/03   Daily service                                   01/16/01   Gaskets, seals, hose                           08/15/02   Spring, shim, o-rings
          04/08/03   Daily service                                   03/23/01   Seals, valve                                   09/17/02   Washer, pivot
          04/14/03   Air fuel filters changed                        04/27/01   Seal, hose, 2 hose lines                       10/22/02   R-front tire
          05/06/03   Check hydraulic fluids                          07/01/01   Turbocharger                                   10/28/02   Gasket & seals
          05/22/03   1 gallon 40 wt                                  08/01/01   Seals80                                        11/04/02   Gasket & seals
          06/03/03   Fix A/C, adjust tracks                          09/09/01   Grommet, clip, damper, tube, gasket            11/24/02   Nut, bolt, washer
          06/06/03   Change air filter                               09/10/01   2 Tires                                        12/02/02   Kit, drum, seal, tube
          06/12/03   Daily grease                                    09/19/01   Left Front Tire                                12/30/02   2 indicators
          06/13/03   Air cleaner                                     08/28/02   Right front Tire                               01/10/03   Seal kit
          06/16/03   Daily service                                   10/22/02   R-front tire                                   03/10/03   2 tires
          06/17/03   Daily service                                   10/28/02   Gasket & seals                                 04/23/03   Transmission failure
          06/26/03   Daily service                                   11/01/02   Muffler, hose, tube, hose, clip
          07/08/03   Tuesday service                                 11/04/02   Gasket & seals
          07/09/03   Daily service                                   12/30/02   Seals
          07/11/03   Repair grill




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                                                                    8
SCAQMD Construction Off-Road Trap Study                                                                                                                                           Final Report


                               834B Bulldozer #409                                         651B Scraper #625                                       825C Bulldozer #415
           Date                   Material Used or Replaced            Date                  Material Used or Replaced          Date                  Material Used or Replaced
          04/03/99   Cleaned, resealed, new bearings                  08/26/02   Clamp, bolt, washer                           09/10/02   Hoses
          05/26/00   Hydraulic pump                                   10/03/02   Seals, gaskets, hoses, clamp                  09/19/02   Finger, bolt, nut, washer, bar
          04/13/01   Hose, seals                                      10/07/02   Radiator, after cooler, transmission cooler   10/04/02   Bar, belt, bolt, washer, nut
          04/25/01   Cusshion, cap, gasket, seals, adapter            10/10/02   Hose Gasket, block, seals                     10/24/02   Tubes, harness & hose assemblies
          05/09/01   Wiring, brackets, bolt, backup alarm             10/18/02   Union, cable, governor, bolt, washer vent     10/28/02   Support, retainer, bolts, nut, washer, cushion
          07/07/01   Gasket & Seal kit                                12/03/02   Regulator, gasket                             11/01/02   Bearings, bolts
          07/20/01   Guage                                            12/30/02   Seals                                         11/05/02   Radiator
          08/08/01   Battery                                          01/09/03   Repair leak                                   11/06/02   Battery
          04/02/02   Brake shoes & drums                              03/25/03   Seals                                         11/21/02   Engine repower, radiator repair
          09/12/02   Drive gear for pump failure                      04/08/03   Rebuild 2 D346 heads                          12/06/02   Kit
          09/12/02   Engine rebuilt (Not repowered)                                        651B Scraper #628
          09/12/02   Torque converter and transmission oil pump        Date                  Material Used or Replaced
          09/12/02   Transmission overhaul, seals and bearings        12/15/99   Unit bought at auction- 6 cylinders bad
          10/17/02   Stem, bolts, washers, bracket, gaskets, hoses,   03/13/00   Gearbox repaired
          10/21/02   Hose                                             08/22/00   Rebuilt engine installed
          03/05/03   Steering cable                                   03/08/01   Block bolt
          03/11/03   Seals                                            03/23/01   Gasket, nut, rod, seal
          04/10/03   Brake job, alarm, switch                         04/25/01   Slide, washer, screw
          04/23/03   Radiator leak. Replaced                          05/09/01   Gasket, seal, bearings
                                651B Scraper #625                     05/11/01   Repair retarder cooler
           Date                   Material Used or Replaced           05/14/01   Tachometer, pump, lockwaher, gaskets
          09/18/00   Drop valve, Install head piston liner & turbo    07/16/01   Seal, cam
          12/21/00   Gear, seal kit, washers                          07/23/01   Seal kit, seals
          12/29/00   Gear, washers                                    08/09/01   Seal kit
          03/09/01   Head                                             08/12/02   Transmission rebuild
          03/14/01   Fuel pump                                        09/10/02   Gasket, silicone
          03/20/01   Install lift Cylinder                            09/18/02   Bolt, nut, washer
          03/26/01   Cap, bolt, trunion                               11/19/02   Spring
          04/02/01   Cartridge, shaft, bearing, wiper, seal           11/27/02   Gasket
          04/19/01   Turbopump                                        01/17/03   Tire
          07/05/01   Seal                                             01/28/03   Rebuild Alternator
          07/09/01   Seals                                            02/05/03   Indicator
          07/09/01   Radiator                                         09/20/03   Repairs to fuel tank
          07/10/01   Tube seal, screen                                                     825C Bulldozer #415
          07/12/01   hydraulic hose                                    Date                   Material Used or Replaced
          07/13/01   Gaskets, seal                                    09/07/99   Reskin wheels, rebuild cylinders
          07/25/01   Hose, shaft, seals, bearings                     02/21/00   Seals, gaskets, guard, back cylinder,
          08/03/01   Tube, fittings, nut                              12/19/00   Switch
          08/15/01   Seal                                             01/19/01   Gasket, starter
          08/20/01   Gasket, bolt, seal glow plugs                    06/07/01   Bolt, hut, washer
          08/20/01   Replace head, wter on #2 piston right side       06/26/01   Seal, bearing
          08/27/01   Knob bolt, washer                                07/06/01   Seal kit
          05/31/02   Rebuilt Steering                                 08/02/01   Transmission overhaul
          08/20/02   Left steering hydraulic cylinder                 08/17/01   Install Transmission
          08/21/02   Tube, gaskets, seals, clamps                     08/20/01   Cushion, tube, hose




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON                                                                    9
                    Appendix C

Detailed Description of Dynamometer Emissions Testing
                     Completed by
               West Virginia University

           (provided under separate cover)

								
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