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IV FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS In this the writer

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					                                      CHAPTER IV

                            FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS



       In this chapter the writer describes the findings and discussion of the study. In the

findings section she explains the result of the collected data. Meanwhile, the discussion

elaborates several parts, namely the frequency and the category of figures of speech, and

translation procedures that are applied in the translated novel as well.



4.1 The Findings

4.1.1 The Classification of Three Types of Figurative Language

       Based on the research procedures that are proposed in the previous chapters, the

first step is to analyze the types of figurative languages that are discussed in the novel. As

mentioned in the previous chapters, Moeliono (1979), as cited on Zaimar (2002)

classifies figurative languages into three types as follows:

       Majas dapat diklarifikasikan dalam beberapa kategori, antara lain:
       1. Majas perbandingan,
       2. Majas pertentangan, dan
       3. Majas pertautan.


       In line with Moeliono, Mezzo (1999) also classifies figurative languages into

three types. Figurative languages are classified into three types in order to differentiate

the functions of each figure of speech. The first type is the type of figurative comparison

(metaphor, simile and personification). Next is the type of figurative substitution

(metonymy and synecdoche). And the last is the type of figurative exaggeration

(hyperbole and litotes).




                                                                                           28
        The frequencies of each type of the figure of speech that are found by the writer

over all samples are presented in the following table:

                   Table 4.1 The Classification of Figurative Language

No.    Types of      Frequency Percentage          Figure of       Frequency Percentage
      Figurative                                 Speech Types
      Language
1                                                Metaphor              21         11.93%
      Figurative
                         76         43.18%       Simile                25         14.20%
      comparison
                                                 Personification       30         17.05%
2     Figurative                                 Metonymy              41         23.29%
                         59         33.52%
      substitution                               Synecdoche            18         10.23%
3     Figurative                                 Hyperbole             34         19.32%
                         41          23.3%
      exaggeration                               Litotes                7          3.98%
       Total             176         100%                             176          100%


        From the table given above, it can be seen that in analyzing the 176 samples as

data, the type of figurative comparison is the most frequent figurative language in the

novel with 76 items (43.18%) of figures of speech; 30 items (17.05%) of personification,

simile 25 items (14.20%), and 21 items (11.93%) of metaphor. Then, it is followed by the

type of figurative substitution with the total number of figures of speech 59 items

(33.52%); 41 items (23.29%) of metonymy, which is to be the most frequent figure of

speech that is found in the novel, and the total number of synecdoche 18 items (10.23%).

And the less frequent type of figurative language is the type of figurative exaggeration

with the total number of 41 items (23.3%), consists of 34 items of hyperbole (19.32%)

and litotes with only 7 items (3.98%). Litotes is the less frequent figure of speech that is

found in the novel. The distributions of the data above in the novel entitled “Confessions

of a Shopaholic” can be seen in the figure 4.1 and 4.2 below:




                                                                                         29
             T ypes of F ig urative L ang uag es

      23%

                                                         T ype of F igurative
                                             43%         C omparis on 43.18%
                                                         T ype of F igurative
                                                         S ubs titution 33.52%
                                                         T ype of F igurative
                                                         E xaggeration 23.30%

       34%



                  Chart 4.1 Types of Figurative Languages




             C ateg ories of F ig ures of S peec h
                      4%              12%
      19%
                                                                  Metaphor
                                                      14%
                                                                  S imile
                                                                  P ers onification
                                                                  Metonymy
                                                                  S ynecdoche
10%
                                                                  Hyperbole
                                                   17%            L itotes

                24%

                  Chart 4.2 Categories of Figures of Speech




                                                                                      30
4.1.2 Translation Procedures

        The procedures of translation have an important role in producing a good and

acceptable translation dealing with grammatical structure, cultural aspects, lexicon and

style of language or other difficulties. In this study, as stated in chapter II, the writer tries

to analyze the translation procedures that are proposed by Newmark namely: literal,

transference, naturalization, cultural equivalent, functional equivalent, descriptive

equivalent, synonymy, through-translation, transposition, modulation, recognized

translation, translation label, compensation, component analysis, paraphrase, reduction,

expansion, couplet, triplet and quadruplet, notes, addition, and glosses.

        In this research, not all Newmark’s translation procedures are applied by the

translator in translating the figurative languages that are found in the novel. The

classification of translation procedures that are applied by the translator and their

frequency can be seen in the following table:

   Table 4.2 The Frequency of Translation Procedures in Translating Figurative
                                   Language
                  Translation Procedures      Frequency     Percentage
        No
         1    Literal                             24          13.64%
         2    Transference                        21          11.93%
         3    Naturalization                       8           4.54%
         4    Synonymy                             3           1.70%
         5    Transposition                       28          15.91%
         6    Modulation                          12           6.82%
         7    Recognized                           2           1.14%
         8    Reduction                           16           9.09%
         9    Expansion                            2           1.14%
        10 Paraphrase                              5           2.84%
        11 Equivalence                             5           2.84%
        12 Addition                               14           7.95%
        13 Couplet                                34          19.32%
        14 Triplet                                 2           1.14%
                        Total                    176           100%



                                                                                              31
       Based on the table above, it is showed that the translator applies 14 procedures in

translating the figurative languages in the novel entitled “Confessions of a Shopaholic.”

Couplet is the most frequent procedure that is applied by the translator with 34 items

(19.32%). Transposition becomes the second most frequent procedure with the total

number of 28 items (15.91%). The next procedure is followed by literal procedure with

24 items (13.64%), then transference 21 items (11.93%), reduction 16 items (9.09%),

addition 14 items (7.95%), 12 items (6.82%) of modulation, and 8 items (4.54%) of

naturalization. Paraphrase and equivalence have the same total number; both procedures

have 5 items (2.84%) and synonymy procedure with 3 items (1.70%). The last and the

less frequent procedures are recognized, expansion and triplets, each of them consist of 2

items (1.14%). The data is presented through the figure below:



                       T rans lation P roc edures

                                                                    L iteral 13.64%
                                                                    T rans ference
                                                                    11.93%
                                                                    Naturalization 4.54%
                                                                    S ynonymy 1.70%
                                                                    T rans pos ition
                                                                    15.91%
                                                                    Modulation 6.82%
                                                                    R ecognized 1.14%
                                                                    R eduction 9.09%
                                                                    E xpans ion 1.14%
                                                                    P araphras e 2.84%

                   Chart 4.3 The Distribution of Translation Procedures




                                                                                           32
            Table 4.3 The Distribution of Translation Procedures Used in Translating Each

                                                                         Type of Figure of Speech


   Translation
   Procedures




                                                                                                                                                                                                              PERCENTAGE
                                                                                                              Naturalization
                                Transposition




                                                          Transference
                                                                                                                                                                                                        T




                                                                                                                                            Equivalence
                                                                                                 Modulation




                                                                                                                               Paraphrase




                                                                                                                                                                     Recognized
                                                                                                                                                          Synonymy




                                                                                                                                                                                  Expansion
                                                                          Reduction
                     Couplets




                                                                                      Addition
                                                                                                                                                                                                        O




                                                                                                                                                                                              Triplet
                                                Literal



                                                                                                                                                                                                        T
                                                                                                                                                                                                        A
                                                                                                                                                                                                        L
Types of
Figure of
Speech

Metonymy                                                                                                                                                                                                      23.29
                     17             2             1       13                3           0           1             1            0               1            0           1           0           1       41    %
Hyperbole                                                                                                                                                                                                     19.32
                       5        11                7          1              2           2           2             1            2               0            0           0           0           1       34
                                                                                                                                                                                                              %
Personification        5            2             3          0              3           5           6             2            2               0            1           1           0           0       30
                                                                                                                                                                                                              17.05
                                                                                                                                                                                                              %
Simile                                                                                                                                                                                                        14.20
                       3            4             3          3              5           1           0             2            0               0            2           0           2           0       25
                                                                                                                                                                                                              %
Metaphor                                                                                                                                                                                                      11.93
                       0            3             6          2              2           4           0             2            0               2            0           0           0           0       21
                                                                                                                                                                                                              %
Synecdoche                                                                                                                                                                                                    10.23
                       3            6             2          2              1           0           2             0            0               2            0           0           0           0       18
                                                                                                                                                                                                              %
Litotes              1          0               2         0               0           2          1                0            1               0            0           0           0           0        7    3.98%
Total                34         28              24        21              16          14         12               8            5               5            3           2           2           2       176
                     19.32%

                                15.91%

                                                13.64%

                                                          11.93%

                                                                          9.09%

                                                                                      7.95%

                                                                                                 6.82%

                                                                                                              4.54%

                                                                                                                               2.84%
                                                                                                                                            2.84%

                                                                                                                                                          1.70%

                                                                                                                                                                     1.14%

                                                                                                                                                                                  1.14%

                                                                                                                                                                                              1.14%           100%
Percentage




                  As mentioned earlier, translation procedures play an important role as a tool to

          transfer the meaning from source language into target language. In identifying the

          figurative languages and translating its figures of speech, the translator has to choose the

          appropriate procedure in order to gain the acceptable and understandable translation for

          the readers. And the table 4.3 above presents an easy way of identifying translation

          procedures that are applied in translating figures of speech in the novel “Confessions of a

          Shopaholic” written by Sophie Kinsela.




                                                                                                                                                                                                        33
       Based on data presentation above, it is obvious that the most frequent figure of

speech is metonymy with 41 items (23.29%). This type of figure of speech belongs to the

type of figurative substitution. Some procedures are applied in translating the examples

of metonymy. For example, translation procedures which are placed in the first row of the

table; couplet with 17 items of couplet (41.46%), transference 13 items (31.71%),

reduction 3 items (7.32%), transposition 2 items (4.88%), it is followed by literal,

modulation, naturalization, equivalence, recognized and triplet 1 item for each (2.44%).

       The author uses metonymy in this novel because there are some words which are

substituted by another associated word, such as the labels of clothes, the names of hotels,

stores or restaurants, the title of TV shows, etc. For example “I walk down to High Street

Kensington, cross over the road, and hesitate in front of Marks and Spencer.” (p.71) or “I

think Alessi might even do one. (p.66)”, “By the time I join the queue at Starbucks, I feel

happier already. (p.152)” and “I saw you on Morning Coffee and I can’t believe my eyes!

(p.327).”

       The second most frequent figure of speech is hyperbole with 34 items (19.32%).

It can be horizontally seen from the second row that transposition is the most procedure

that is applied by the translator with 11 items (32.35%), 7 items (20.59%) of literal, 5

items (14.71%) of couplet, 2 items (5.88%) of reduction, addition, modulation and

paraphrase. And the smallest number procedure is transference, naturalization and triplet

with total 1 item (2.49%) for each.

       The third most frequent figure of speech is personification with 30 items

(17.05%). This type of figure of speech belongs to the type of figurative comparison.

There are 10 procedures that are applied by the translator in translating the examples of




                                                                                        34
personification. For instance, modulation is the most frequent procedure with 6 items

(20%), 5 items (16.67%) of couplet and addition, 3 items (10%) of literal and reduction, 2

items (6.67%) of transposition, naturalization and paraphrase, and the smallest

procedures are synonymy and recognized procedure with 1 item (3.33%) for each.

      The table above also shows other figure of speech like simile (25 items or 14.20%)

with 9 procedures of translation, such as 5 items (20%) of reduction, 4 (16%) items of

transposition, 3 (12%) items of literal, transference and couplet, 2 (8%) items of

naturalization, synonymy and paraphrase. And the less frequent procedure is addition

with total number 1 item (4%). There are also metaphor (21 items or 11.93%) with its 7

translation procedures and synecdoche (18 items or 10.23%) with also 7 translation

procedures. And the last figure of speech is litotes (7 items or 3.98%) with its 5

translation procedures.



4.2 Discussion

       To analyze the “Confession of a Shopaholic” novel, the writer applies descriptive

qualitative method to interpret the data collected. The method is considered to be the

appropriate method to elaborate the data based on the research questions which are

pointed out in the previous chapter. Therefore, the elaboration of the data collected is

described in detail under the three types of figurative languages with their seven figures

of speech.




                                                                                       35
4.2.1 The Type of Figurative Comparison

4.2.1.1 Metaphor

         The writer finds 21 items or 11.93% of metaphor in the novel. Furthermore, the

frequency and percentage of translation procedures in translating this figure of speech are

presented in the following table:

         Table 4.4 The Translation Procedures Used in Translating Metaphor

         No     Translation Procedures          Frequency            Percentage
          1   Literal                               6                 28.58%
          2   Addition                              4                 19.05%
          3   Transposition                         3                 14.29%
          4   Transference                          2                  9.52%
          5   Naturalization                        2                  9.52%
          6   Reduction                             2                  9.52%
          7   Equivalence                           2                  9.52%
                      Total                         21                 100%


         Metaphor belongs to the type of figurative comparison. The most frequent

translation procedure that is applied in translating the metaphor category is literal

procedure with the total number 6 items (28.58%), 4 items (19.05%) of addition

procedure, 3 items (14.29%) of transposition procedure, and transference, naturalization,

reduction and equivalence with 2 items (9.52%) for each translation procedure. Based on

the data presentation above, the translator applies literal procedure as the most frequent

procedure in translating this type of figure of speech in order to convert the grammatical

structure of the source language words and sentences to the nearest equivalence of the

target language equivalence. The examples of metaphor are presented through the table

below:




                                                                                        36
                           Table 4.5 The Examples of Metaphor

                                                                             Translation
       No                 SL                           TL
                                                                             Procedure
      1       “You’re a star.” (p.113)     “Kau memang bintang.”         Literal
                                           (p.154)
      2       God, I’m a disaster.         Ya Tuhan, aku ini             Literal
              (p.234)                      malapetaka. (p.316)


          The table above shows the examples of metaphor. Metaphor is indirect

comparison between two different things, and it could be explicit or implicit (x is y; x=y).

It can be seen that in the example number 1 there is an indirect comparison between

“you” (human) and “star”. Star represents brightness. And the people who are clever or

talented can be called bright. In line with the example number 1, example number 2 also

shows the comparison between “I” and “disaster”. Disaster refers to misfortune, and “I”

in the novel is a person who has less of luck, and sometimes causing troubles. So, the

word “star” and “you” or “I” and “disaster” in the novel can have the same meaning.

          For the 2 examples above, the translator applies literal translation in translating

the source language, it can be seen from the grammatical structure and the meaning that

do not changing.



4.2.1.2 Simile

          Simile belongs to the type of figurative comparison. It is an indirect comparison

between two different things by using the word like or as (x is like y) or any other

equivalent terms such as than, similar to, or seems. There are 25 items (14.20%) of simile

category that are found in the novel. The frequency and percentage of translation

procedures in translating this figure of speech are presented in the following table:




                                                                                           37
            Table 4.6 The Translation Procedures Used in Translating Simile

       No       Translation Procedures              Frequency              Percentage
        1     Reduction                                 5                     20%
        2     Transposition                             4                     16%
        3     Literal                                   3                     12%
        4     Transference                              3                     12%
        5     Couplet                                   3                     12%
        6     Naturalization                             2                    8%
        7     Synonymy                                   2                    8%
        8     Expansion                                  2                    8%
        9     Addition                                   1                    4%
                      Total                             25                   100%


          Reduction seems to be the most frequent translation procedure in translating

simile category with the total number 5 items (20%), transposition procedure 4 items

(16%), it is followed by literal, transference and couplet procedures with 3 items (12%)

for each procedure, 2 items (8%) for naturalization, synonymy and expansion, and the

last is addition with the total number of 1 item (4%). Some examples of simile are

presented in the following table:

                               Table 4.7 The Examples of Simile

                                                                               Translation
       No                 SL                             TL
                                                                               Procedure
      1       She comes over and             Dia menghampiriku dan          Reduction
              starts tugging at the          mulai menarik-narik tali
              strings of the carrier, like   tas. (p.49)
              a kid. (p.33)
      2       When she’s wearing             Kalau dia memakai celana       Expansion
              black leggings she looks       ketat hitamnya, dia persis
              just like a spider. (p.39)     seperti labah-labah. (p.57)
      3       They’re churning round         Mereka berputar-putar di       Synonymy
              in my head, like a record      dalam kepalaku bagaikan
              that won’t stop, over          rekaman yang terus
              and over and over.             berulang dan berulang
              (p.235)                        dan berulang dan
                                             berulang. (p.316)




                                                                                             38
       The data in the table 4.8 indicates the examples of simile. The specific word such

as ‘like’ is used by the author to compare one thing to another. In the example number 1,

the word “she” is compared to “a kid”. In other words, the behavior of “you” is similar to

children’s behavior. And the example number 2 compares someone who wears black

leggings to “a spider”. The author uses the word “spider” as an analogy to the black-thin-

legs. Meanwhile, in example number 3, the author compares the word “they” to “a

record”.

           The translator applies reduction procedure in the example number 1. It can be

seen that the translator eliminates some part of the words. She didn’t translate “like a kid”

into a target language. Meanwhile, expansion procedure is applied by the translator in the

example number 2, because there is an addition of word class put in the target language.

The word “leggings” has the similar meaning to “trousers” which is “celana”. But in this

sentence, the translator translates it into “celana ketat”.

       And in the example number 3, the translator applies synonymy procedure.

Synonymy is the used of a near target language equivalent to a source language word in a

context. The translator translates the word “won’t stop” into “berulang” and the word

“over” into “berulang” too. In other words, “won’t stop” and “over” in the figure of

speech above have the same meaning.



4.2.1.3 Personification

       There are 30% (17.05%) of personification category in the novel. Personification

belongs to one of the types of figurative comparison. Personification is a comparison of

something not human to a human being, and it somehow gives something nonhuman the




                                                                                          39
characteristics of a human (x is a human being). Furthermore, the frequency and

percentage of translation procedures used in translating this figure of speech are

presented in the following table:

     Table 4.8 The Translation Procedures Used in Translating Personification

       No       Translation Procedures          Frequency           Percentage
        1     Modulation                            6                  20%
        2     Addition                               5               16.67%
        3     Couplets                               5               16.67%
        4     Literal                               3                  10%
        5     Reduction                             3                  10%
        6     Naturalization                         2                6.67%
        7     Transposition                          2                6.67%
        8     Paraphrase                            2                 6.67%
        9     Synonymy                               1                3.33%
       10     Recognized                            1                 3.33%
                      Total                         30                100%


          The most frequent translation procedure that is applied by the translator in

translating personification category is modulation procedure with total number 6 items

(20%), 5 items (16.67%) of addition and couplet, 3 items (10%) of literal and reduction,

and naturalization, transposition and paraphrase with 2 items (9.52%) for each translation

procedure. And the smallest parts are synonymy and recognized procedures with only 1

(3.33%) item for each procedure. The table below contains the examples of

personification category:

                        Table 4.9 The Examples of Personification

                                                                          Translation
       No                SL                         TL
                                                                           Procedure
      1       I scrabble in my bag for   Aku mengorek-ngorek isi      Couplet
              my purse, open it – and    tasku untuk mencari          (transference&
              there’s my VISA card,      dompet, membukanya –         paraphrase)
              staring up at me. (p.8)    dan kartu VISA-ku ada di
                                         depan mata. (p.17)
      2       My eye runs more           Pandanganku meneliti         Modulation


                                                                                        40
              carefully down the list      daftar itu lebih saksama,
              and suddenly stops in        dan tiba-tiba berhenti
              triumph. (p.75)              dengan penuh
                                           kemenangan. (p.105)
      3       She could have bumped        Mungkin saja dia bertemu      Transposition
              into him at the cinema,      dengannya di bioskop,
              whispers my brain.           bisik otakku. (p.187)
              (p.138)


          The figures of speech above belong to personification category. The figure of

speech number 1 represents that an inanimate object, “VISA card”, has the ability like

human being that is to stare. In line with the example number 2 and 3, “My eye runs more

carefully” and “whispers my brain”. The example number 1 represents that eye could run,

while the example number 3 represents that brain could whisper, as if the eye and brain

have the ability like human.

          In translating those figures of speech, the translator applies some procedures. For

instance couplet procedure, namely transference and paraphrase in the example number 1.

The translator does not translate the word “VISA”, that is why the procedure is called

transference. And “staring up at me” is translated into “ada didepan mata”. In this case,

the translator modifies the target language’s words but the meaning is still the same with

the source language.

          In the meantime, the translator applies modulation procedure in the example or

figure of speech number 2. The word “runs” is translated into”meneliti”. It means that

translator changes the perspective or viewpoint in translating the text. In other words, the

translator transfers the message from the source language into target language, in a way

that can be understood and comprehend by the reader. In line with the example number 1

and 2, the sentence “she could have bumped into him”, is translated into “mungkin saja




                                                                                          41
dia bertemu dengannya” in the target language. It can be seen that there is the changing

position of the word “she”.



4.2.2 The Type of Figurative Substitution

4.2.2.1 Metonymy

       Metonymy is a figure of speech that substitutes some words which are associated

with the term meant (y is substituted for x). That is why metonymy belongs to the type

of figurative substitution. The writer finds 41 items (21.29%) of metonymy category,

which tends to be the most frequent figure of speech in the novel. And the frequency and

percentage of translation procedures is presented in the following table:

       Table 4.10 The Translation Procedures Used in Translating Metonymy

       No      Translation Procedures            Frequency            Percentage
        1    Couplet                                 17                41.46%
        2    Transference                            13                31.71%
        3    Reduction                               3                  7.32%
        4    Transposition                           2                  4.88%
        5    Literal                                 1                  2.44%
        6    Modulation                              1                  2.44%
        7    Naturalization                          1                  2.44%
        8    Equivalence                             1                  2.44%
        9    Recognized                              1                  2.44%
       10    Triplet                                 1                  2.44%
                     Total                           41                 100%


       The most frequent translation procedure that is applied by the translator in

translating metonymy category is couplet procedure with the total number 17 items

(41.46%), next is transference 13 items (31.71%), 3 items (14.29%) of reduction

procedure, 2 items (4.88 %) of transposition procedure, and 1 item (2.44%) of literal,




                                                                                     42
modulation, naturalization, equivalence, recognized and triplet procedures. The examples

of metonymy are presented in the table below:

                        Table 4.11 The Examples of Metonymy

                                                                        Translation
      No                SL                          TL
                                                                         Procedure
     1       She reaches for her        Ia meraih bungkus Silk       Transference
             packet of Silk Cut and     Cut-nya dan menyulutnya.
             lights up. (p.37)          (p.55)
     2       …I stop at Lucio’s on      …aku mampir di Lucio         Couplet
             the way into work and      dalam perjalanan menuju      (transference&
             buy an extralarge          kantor dan membeli           naturalization)
             cappuccino and my last-    secangkir cappuccino
             ever chocolate muffin…     ekstra besar ditambah
             (p.65)                     muffin coklat… (p.91)
     3       When I get home that       Ketika malam itu aku tiba    Couplet
             night, there’s a pile of   dirumah, setumpuk surat      (transposition&
             post in the hall for me—   sudah menantiku di ruang     transference)
             but I ignore it because    depan—tapi aku tak
             my package from Fine       memedulikannya karena
             Frames has arrived!        bungkusanku dari Fine
             (p.136)                    Frames sudah datang!


         Metonymy has become the most frequent figure of speech in the “Confessions of

a Shopaholic” novel written by Sophie Kinsela. The data of the table above indicates the

examples of metonymy. As mentioned previously, metonymy is a figure of speech that

substitutes some words which are associated with the term meant (Mezzo: 1999). In the

example number 1, the word “Silk Cut” refers to the name or brand of cigarette, while the

word “Lucio’s” (example number 2) refers to a shop, and “Fine Frames” (example

number 3) refers to a frame company. From all those examples, it can be seen that the

author uses those words to describe something, or to substitute those words with another

associated word.




                                                                                       43
       The appropriate procedure in translating metonymy category could be

transference as can be seen in all examples. Couplet is the ideal translation procedure as

well, like the example number 2 and 3. Besides transference, naturalization is also

applied in the words “chocolate” that is translated into “coklat”. And in translating the

example number 3, the translator also applies transposition procedure. “When I get home

that night” is translated into “ketika malam itu aku tiba dirumah”. There is a changing

position of the word “that night”.



4.2.2.2 Synecdoche

       There are 18 items (10.23%) of synecdoche category. Synecdoche belongs to type

of figurative substitution. Synecdoche is a figure of speech that states the part for the

whole or vice versa. The writer finds that there are 7 translation procedures is applied by

the translator in translating them and briefly presented in the table below:

      Table 4.12 The Translation Procedures Used in Translating Synecdoche

       No      Translation Procedures             Frequency            Percentage
       1     Transposition                             6                 33.33%
       2     Couplet                                  3                 16.67%
       3     Literal                                  2                 11.11%
       4     Transference                             2                 11.11%
       5     Modulation                               2                 11.11%
       6     Equivalence                               2                11.11%
       7     Reduction                                1                  5.56%
                     Total                            18                 100%


       Transposition seems to be the most frequent translation procedure in translating

synecdoche category with the total number 6 items (33.33%), couplet procedure 3 items

(16.67%), it is followed by literal, transference, modulation and equivalence procedures




                                                                                        44
with 2 items (11.11%) for each procedure, and 1 item (5.56%) of reduction. Here are

some examples of synecdoche that are presented in the following table:

                        Table 4.13 The Examples of Synecdoche

                                                                          Translation
      No                SL                           TL
                                                                          Procedure
     1       I never received any bill   Saya belum pernah            Literal
             from your company.          menerima tagihan apapun
             (p.10)                      dari perusahaan anda.
                                         (p.20)
     2       “Head-to-head with the      “Langsung berhadapan         Equivalence
             enemy. It’ll make great     dengan musuh.pasti jadi
             television!” (p.290)        tontonan yang hebat!”
                                         (p.392)


         The two figures of speech above are the examples of synecdoche category. In the

example number 1, there is a whole signifying a part in the word “company” or

“perusahaan” in target language. The word “company” in the source language refers to a

worker who writes or sends any letters or bills. And in the example number 2, there is a

part signifying for the whole. Head is a part of human’s body. And the author uses the

word “head-to-head” to signify person to person.

         Some procedures are applied in translating the figures of speech above. As can be

seen in the example number 1, the translator applies literal procedure because there is no

grammatical changing in transferring source language into the target language. While in

the example number 2, equivalence procedure is applied to translate “head-to-head” into

“langsung berhadapan”. The word “head-to-head” is simply referring to notices, familiar

alternatives phrases and idioms.




                                                                                        45
4.2.3 The Type of Figurative Exaggeration

4.2.3.1 Hyperbole

       Hyperbole seems to be the second most frequent translation procedures appears in

the novel, with its 34 items (19.32%). Hyperbole is used for emphasis or effect, also

called overstatement (x>y). The author uses this figure of speech because the main

character of the novel is very imaginative. Thus, the frequency and percentage of

translation procedures that are used in translating this figure of speech are presented in

the following table:

       Table 4.14 The Translation Procedures Used in Translating Hyperbole

       No      Translation Procedures           Frequency           Percentage
        1    Transposition                          11               32.35%
        2    Litotes                                 7               20.59%
        3    Couplet                                 5               14.71%
        4    Reduction                               2                5.88%
        5    Addition                               2                 5.88%
        6    Modulation                              2                5.88%
        7    Paraphrase                              2                5.88%
        8    Transference                            1                2.94%
        9    Naturalization                          1                2.94%
       10    Triplet                                 1                2.94%
                                                    34                100%


       The most frequent translation procedure in translating hyperbole category is

transposition with total number 11 items (32.35%). 7 items (20.59%) of litotes and it is

followed by couplet procedure with 5 items (14.71%), 2 items (5.88%) of reduction,

addition, modulation and paraphrase, and the last is transference, naturalization and

triplet with the total number of 1 item (2.94%). Some examples of simile are presented in

the following table:




                                                                                       46
                          Table 4.15 The Examples of Hyperbole

                                                                          Translation
       No                SL                          TL
                                                                          Procedure
      1       I say in a suddenly        Ujarku, lalu memeluknya       Reduction
              thickened voice and as I   erat-erat. (p.57)
              give her a big hug I can
              feel tears jumping into
              my eyes. (p.39)
      2       Even better, Image Store   Bahkan lebih baik lagi,       Couplets
              is all the way over in     Image Store terletak jauh     (transference&
              Noting Hill Gate, so you   di Noting Hill Gate, jadi     modulation)
              can legitimately take      kau bisa menghalalkan
              ages getting there and     waktu berjam-jam untuk
              back. (p.69)               pergi dan pulang dari sana.
                                         (p.96)
      3       My heart stops. (p.210)    Jantungku berhenti. (p.283)   Literal


          The figures of speech above belong to hyperbole category. It can be seen in the

example number 1, “I can feel tears jumping into my eyes”. There is expression of

exaggeration in the sentence, like tears that jump into the eyes. While in the example

number 2, the word “ages” refers to the time that has been spent. And in the example

number 3, there is also an exaggeration expression in “my heart stops”. It does not make

sense that that someone’s heart could stop while she/ he is still alive. This is only the

author’s style in rendering her thoughts through her writing.

          Reduction is applied by the translator as one of the translation procedures in

translating figure of speech number 1. The translator deletes some part of the text. “I say

in a suddenly thickened voice and as I give her a big hug I can feel tears jumping into my

eyes.” that is only translated into “Ujarku, lalu memeluknya erat-erat.”

          Meanwhile, couplet procedure, namely transference and modulation is applied by

the translator in translating figure of speech number 2. Transference procedure is applied

in the word “Image Store” and “Notting Hill Gate”, and modulation is applied in the


                                                                                        47
word “ages“, that is translated into “berjam-jam” , the writer concludes that there is a

change viewpoint or perspective.



4.2.3.2 Litotes

          Litotes is an understatement of the literal (x<y). In the novel, litotes is the figure

of speech which has the smallest numbers with only 7 items (3.98%). And the writer

finds 5 translation procedures are applied by the translator in translating the source

language into the target language. Those procedures are literal, addition, modulation,

paraphrase and couplet. The frequency and percentage of translation procedures in

translating this figure of speech are presented in the following table:

           Table 4.16 The Translation Procedures Used in Translating Litotes

       No        Translation Procedures             Frequency             Percentage
        1      Literal                                  2                  28.57%
        2      Addition                                 2                  28.57%
        3      Modulation                               1                  14.29%
        4      Paraphrase                               1                  14.29%
        5      Couplet                                  1                  14.29%
                       Total                            7                   100%


          Literal and addition seem to be the most frequent translation procedure in

translating litotes category with the total number 2 items (28.57%) for each procedure,

and 1 item (14.29%) of modulation, paraphrase and couplet. The examples of litotes are

presented in the table below:

                             Table 4.17 The Examples of Litotes

                                                                             Translation
       No                 SL                             TL
                                                                              Procedure
      1        People at the bus stop       Orang-orang yang               Addition
               know more about finance      menuggu bus tahu lebih
               than me. Schoolchildren      banyak tentang keuangan


                                                                                             48
              know more than me.         daripada aku. Anak-anak
              (p.11)                     sekolah tahu lebih banyak
                                         daripada aku. (p.22)
      2       “It’s not so bad,” says    “Tidak terlalu buruk,” ujar   Literal
              Lucy. (p.149)              Lucy. (p.202)


          The two figures of speech above are the examples of litotes category. The

understatement is found in each sentence. For instance, in the figure of speech number 1

“people at the bus stop know more about finance than me” or “schoolchildren know more

than me” have the effect of understatement. It means that the author tries to explain the

opposite situation of the text. While in the figure of speech number 2, there is also an

expression of understatement. It can be seen in the phrase “It’s not so bad”. The author is

attempted to use more polite expression instead of using negative expression.

          Addition procedure is applied by the translator in translating those figures of

speech. In the example number 1, the word “menunggu” is added in the target language,

but it does not change the meaning of the source language. And in the example number 2,

the translator applies literal procedure. It can be seen from the grammatical structure,

words and the meaning that are not transformed by the translator.



4.2.4 The Quality of Translation

          The research also investigates the quality of translation in Confessions of a

Shopaholic Novel written by Sophie Kinsela. To investigate the quality of translation, the

testing is done by reviewers including the writer. The first reviewer is an English student

from UPI, while the second reviewer is the writer as the key of instrument. The writer

compares her judgment to another reviewer’s judgment. The indicators for each quality

category as follows:



                                                                                        49
  Aspects         Score       Level                          Qualification
                                         Semantically misleading and incomprehensible,
                    1       Bad          unclear meaning, the presence of some
                                         grammatical errors and deviation of meaning.
                                         Correct meaning, minimum redundancy and
                    2       Fair
Accuracy                                 grammatical errors.
                                         Correct meaning, no omission, addition or any
                    3       Good
                                         changes of meaning.
                                         Accurate, clear, no omission, addition or any
                    4       Excellent
                                         changes of meaning.
                                         Stylistically awkward, structurally burdensome,
                    1       Bad
                                         poorly structured diction and mechanical errors.
                                         Complex syntax but understandable meaning and
                    2       Fair
                                         some diction that have mechanical errors.
Clarity
                                         Appropriate words, phrases and grammar and also
                    3       Good
                                         clear meaning.
                                         Easy to be understood, correct words, phrases and
                    4       Excellent
                                         grammar, and no ambiguity.
                                         Unnatural forms, awkward language, linguistically
                    1       Bad
                                         unnatural, stylistically awkward.
                                         Makes sense and minimum unnatural words,
                    2       Fair
                                         grammar, phrases and idioms.
Naturalness                              Correct meaning, appropriate idioms, and words
                    3       Good
                                         but there are some syntactic structure errors.
                                         Makes sense and read naturally (written in
                    4       Excellent    ordinary language, common grammar, proper
                                         idioms and words).


          Consequently, based on the qualifications above, the two reviewers fill in the

questionnaires. Then, the total judgment of valuation of accuracy, clarity and naturalness

from two reviewers can be seen in the following table:



            Table 4.18 Total Valuation of Accuracy, Clarity and Naturalness

                                   Grade of Translation Quality
   Reviewer                 1            2             3              4          Total
                         (Bad)         (Fair)       (Good)      (Excellent)
  1st                      23           103           307            95           528
                        (4.35%)      (19.51%)      (58.14%)       (17.99)
  2nd                      21           105           390            12           528
                        (3.98%)      (19.89%)      (73.86%)       (2.27%)


                                                                                         50
  Total                 44              208            697             107            1056
                     (4.17%)         (19.69%)       (66.01%)        (10.13%)


       From the table above, the results shows that the highest quality of figurative

languages translation is in grade 3 or in “Good” level with 697 points (66.01%).

Therefore, the valuation of accuracy, clarity and naturalness is generally “Good”. In

addition, the results also indicate the quality of figurative languages in the Confessions of

a Shopaholic novel is “Good”. In order to make a clear description, the total percentages

of the figurative languages translation quality are presented below:


          700
          600
          500                                                                  Bad
          400                                                                  Fair
          300                                                                  Good
          200                                                                  Excelent

          100
            0




          Chart 4.4 Total Percentages of the Figurative Languages Translation Quality



       Regarding to the findings, the figurative languages translation in the novel

Confessions of a Shopaholic is categorized as “Good” level (66.0%), it is followed by

“Fair” level (19.69%), “Excellent” level (10.13%), and “Bad” level (4.17%). It means

that the translator has knowledge about figurative language and grammatical competence

of source and target language. The writer doesn’t feel any obstacle when reading the

original and translated version of the novel.




                                                                                             51
4.2.5 Concluding Remark

       This chapter reports the results and analysis of the study related to the research

questions from the previous chapter of the study about the types of figurative languages,

the translation procedures and also the translation quality. In the following chapter, the

writer will explain the conclusions and suggestions related to the study.




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