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VIEWS: 11 PAGES: 17

									             UNESCO STRATEGY ON GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
               ANNEX I: UNESCO Climate Activities Overview 2007

I. ACTIVITY OVERVIEW

Climate research and assessments ……..…………………………………………………………….3
     World Water Assessment Programme
     Groundwater Resources Assessment under the Pressures of Humanity and Climate Change
     Quo Vadis Aquifers?
     Worldwide Hydrogeological Mapping and Assessments Program
     Hydrology for Environment, Life and Policy
     Flow Regimes from international Experimental and Network Data
     Ecohydrology
     World Climate Research Programme
     Global Coral Reef Targeted Research and Capacity Building Project
     Global Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics programme
     The Ocean in a High CO2 World
     Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Expert Group
     Study of Climate Change and the Evidence in the Geological Record
     Earth System Physics Climate Research (at ICTP)

Monitoring aspects of climate change………………………………………………………….…….7
   Global Ocean Observing System
   Global Sea Level Observing System
   GCOS-GOOS-WCRP Ocean Observations Panel for Climate
   International Ocean Carbon Coordination Project
   Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network
   Global Terrestrial Observing System
   Global Climate Observing System
   Global Earth Observation System of Systems

Adaptation actions………………………………………………………………………..……………9
    Groundwater for Emergency Situations
    Water Program for Environmental Sustainability: Towards adaptation measures to human and
       climate impact
    Integrated Urban Water Modeling and Management Under Specific Climates
    Water and Development Information for Arid Lands
    Sustainable Management of Marginal Drylands
    Global Change in Mountain Regions
    Adaptation to Climate and Coastal Change in West Africa
    Mainstreaming Awareness and Mitigation of Marine-Related Hazards and Risks within the
       Integrated Coastal Area Management Framework
    Climate Impacts on Coastal Biodiversity and Ecosystems
    World Heritage and Climate Change – protecting World Heritage sites from climate impacts.
    The Global Network of National Geoparks
    International Year of Planet Earth
    Natural Disaster Reduction Program
    Village-level Documentation and Transmission of Local Environmental Knowledge
    Indigenous People in Protected Areas
    Sandwatch: Science in Action
    University Consortium of Small Island States / Climate Curriculum
    Science and Technology within the Decade of Education for Sustainable Development



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      Climate within the Decade of Education for Sustainable Development
      Quranic Botanic Gardens Project
      The Camel Farm Project
      Reporting Climate Change

Mitigation actions…………………………………………………………………………………….16
     Renewable Energy Program
     Bio-Carbon Sequestration & Conservation to Combat Climate Change: Promoting Rural
        Development, Energy Solutions & Biodiversity
     Ocean Carbon Sequestration Watching Brief
     Technology and Climate Change: Challenges and Opportunities for Mitigation and
        Adaptation




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II. ACTIVITY DETAILS

A. Climate research and assessments

Groundwater Resources Assessment under the Pressures of Humanity and Climate Change
(GRAPHIC)
The GRAPHIC project seeks to improve our understanding of how groundwater contributes to
the global water cycle and thus how it supports ecosystems and humankind. In recent years, the
demands of a growing population have seriously degraded groundwater resources. In addition to
this, global warming will cause changes to groundwater recharge rates, and rising sea levels will
cause saltwater intrusion. These two influences decrease the amount of usable groundwater. Thus,
a comprehensive understanding of groundwater resources is needed for their sustainable use.
Specifically, an evaluation of the changes to groundwater composition, storage and groundwater
flux (recharge and discharge rates) should be made. This project will deal with groundwater
resource assessment and future forecasting under various population pressures and climate
change scenarios. UNESCO is establishing a regional network of experts in Africa to
work on the GRAPHIC project starting in 2008.
UNESCO Sector: Division of Water Sciences
Responsible Staff: Jose Luis Martin, Alice Aureli
More information: http://www.chikyu.ac.jp/USE/GRAPHIC/GRAPHIC.htm

Quo Vadis Aquifers?
The IPCC recognised that there has been very little research on the potential effects of climate change
on groundwater resources and that the panel could only present a series of hypotheses in its final 2001
Assessment (IPCC, 2001; p 199). Groundwater resources are a major source of freshwater for large
swaths of the planet‟s population but they are increasingly under threat from anthropogenic
activities. This compromises the sustainability of the resource and thus threatens human security.
What is the vulnerability of communities who rely on groundwater resources for their every day lives
in the short, medium and long terms? The answer to this difficult question will vary considerably from
location to location as many parameters interact to generate that vulnerability. This link between
groundwater degradation and human security needs to be addressed in a comprehensive manner and it
is for this reason that UNESCO-IHP and UNU-EHS have launched a programme named Quo Vadis
Aquifers? (QVA) to tackle this issue from research, capacity development and networking
perspectives.
UNESCO Sector: Division of Water Sciences
Responsible Staff: Jose Luis Martin, Alice Aureli
More Information: http://www.ehs.unu.edu/file.php?id=146

Ecohydrology Program
Ecohydrology is a new integrative science that involves finding solutions to issues surrounding water,
people, and the environment. One of the fundamental concepts involved in ecohydrology is that the
timing and availability of freshwater is intimately linked to ecosystem processes, and the goods and
services provided by fresh waters to societies. This means that emphasis is placed on the hydrological
cycle and its effects on ecological processes and human well-being. UNESCO‟s International
Hydrological Programme (IHP) and the Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) have played an
important role in defining the concept of ecohydrology and guiding its implementation since the late
1990s. In May 2006, the Scientific Advisory Committee (SAC) on UNESCO‟s ecohydrology
programme was reconstituted, and five task forces were officially launched. One of the task forces
focuses its work on assessing impacts of global change on aquatic systems.
UNESCO Sector: Division of Water Sciences
Responsible Staff: Lisa Hiwasaki
More information: http://typo38.unesco.org/en/about-ihp/associated-programmes/ecohydrology0.html



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Worldwide Hydrogeological Mapping and Assessments Program (WHYMAP)
UNESCO launched the WHYMAP project in 1999 as a joint effort of UNESCO-IHP and BGR
(German Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources).The aims of the project are to:
summarize groundwater information on global scale, establish a database containing georeferenced
data, produce a groundwater map of the world, scale 1:25 million, and evaluate global recharge rates
under present climatic conditions and under future Climate Change scenarios. The knowledge of
groundwater recharge rates is of crucial importance in the framework of an Integrated Water Resource
Management. A WHYMAP Consortium was established and it comprises UNESCO (IHP and
IGCP), IAH (International Association of Hydrogeologists), CGMW (Commission for the Geological
Map of the World) and IAEA.
UNESCO Sector: Division of Water Sciences
Responsible Staff: Simone Grego, Alice Aureli
More information:
http://www.bgr.bund.de/EN/Themen/Wasser/Projekte/Berat__Info/whymap/whymap__projektbeschr.h
tml

Hydrology for Environment, Life and Policy / Water and Climate Program
Over the last decade much attention and many resources have been devoted to the documentation and
prediction of climate variability and change. Simultaneously, there has been rapid development in
advanced data capture and advanced data transfer technologies. Substantially less progress, however,
has been made towards translating technical and scientific advances into information useful to water
managers and policy makers world wide. Water resources and water resource systems are still
generally managed under a “business as usual” framework. HELP will complement the global data
that will be provided by the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) and the Climate
Variability and Predictability program (CLIVAR) of the World Climate Research Program by
providing simultaneous, in situ hydrological observations in representative research catchments
around the world. A particular focus of attention will be on extreme events (floods and droughts). An
education program is also required, to promulgate the use of modern hydrological monitoring and data
transfer techniques and to disseminate the understanding and application of the relationship between
global processes and regional hydrology.
UNESCO Sector: Division of Water Sciences
Responsible Staff: Siegfried Demuth, Guillaume Narnio
More information: http://typo38.unesco.org/en/about-ihp/ihp-partners/help00.html

Flow Regimes from International Experimental and Network Data
The FRIEND programme is an international collaborative study intended to develop, through the
mutual exchange of data, knowledge and techniques at a regional level and a better understanding of
hydrological variability and similarity across time and space. The advanced knowledge of
hydrological processes and flow regimes gained through FRIEND helps to improve methods
applicable in water resources planning and management. The scientific aspects of the FRIEND
projects include studies in: low flows, floods, variability among regimes, rainfall/runoff modeling,
processes of streamflow generation, sediment transport, snow and glacier melt and climate and land-
use impacts. FRIEND also provides support to researchers and operational staff of hydrological
services in developing countries, thereby contributing to their capacity to assess and manage their own
national water resources. It thus contributes to the goal of providing a reliable supply of fresh clean
water to the world‟s poor.
UNESCO Sector: Division of Water Sciences
Responsible Staff: Siegfried Demuth
More information: http://typo38.unesco.org/en/about-ihp/ihp-partners/friend.html

World Water Assessment Programme




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The growing global water crisis threatens the security, stability and environmental sustainability of
developing nations. Over the past few decades there has been an increasing acceptance that the
management of water resources must be undertaken with an integrated approach, that assessment of
the resource is of fundamental importance as the basis for rational decision-making and that national
capacities to undertake necessary assessments must be fully supported. Management decisions to
alleviate poverty, to allow economic development, to ensure food security and the health of human
populations as well as preserve vital ecosystems, must be based on our best possible understanding of
all relevant systems. Currently there is no global system in place to produce a systematic, continuing,
integrated and comprehensive global picture of freshwater and its management. The UN system has
the mandate, credibility and capacity to take on the task of systematically marshalling global water
knowledge and expertise to develop over time the necessary assessment of the global water situation,
as the basis for action to resolve water crises. The WWAP, building on the achievements of the many
previous endeavours, focuses on assessing the developing situation as regards freshwater throughout
the world. The primary output of the WWAP is the periodic World Water Development Report
(WWDR). UNESCO currently hosts the WWAP Secretariat and at its Headquarters in Paris.
UNESCO Sector: Division of Water Sciences
Responsible Staff: Olcay Unver
More information: http://www.unesco.org/water/wwap/index.shtml

World Climate Research Program
The objectives of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP) are to develop the fundamental
scientific understanding of the physical climate system and climate processes needed to determine to
what extent climate can be predicted and the extent of human influence on climate. The program
encompasses studies of the global atmosphere, oceans, sea and land ice, and the land surface which
together constitute the Earth's physical climate system. WCRP develops much of the scientific
evidence on climate change, including that assessed by the IPCC Working Group 1 and provides the
model simulations which form the basis of the IPCC Projections. These results underpin negotiations
for the mitigation of emissions under the UNFCCC. WCRP also provides the regional projections of
climate change which are essential underpinning for regional and local adaptation to climate
change. WCRP is co-sponsored by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the International
Council for Science (ICSU), and the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of
UNESCO.
UNESCO Sector: Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
Responsible Staff: Albert Fischer, Maria Hood
More information: http://www.wmo.ch/web/wcrp/wcrp-home.html

Global Coral Reef Targeted Research and Capacity Building Project (GEF)
Over the past ten years, an increasing awareness of the importance of coral reefs has been evident,
especially in light of their rapid decline in many regions and their significance to developing countries.
Corals are affected by heat stress, and a 1-2º C change in their local temperature above their normal
summer maximum temperatures can lead to a phenomenon called “bleaching”, whereby the corals
expel their vital algae, leaving coral tissues translucent. The Bleaching Working Group (BWG) of the
targeted research project was founded by the UNESCO / Intergovernmental Oceanographic
Commission (IOC) in 2001 to develop indicators specifically for coral bleaching, to examine specific
physiological mechanisms for coral bleaching, as well as the local ecological factors that cause
bleaching and its after-effects, and differences between direct human stresses and those related to
climate change.
UNESCO Sector: Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
Responsible Staff: Maria Hood, Christian Wild
More information: http://www.gefcoral.org/PublicHome/tabid/323/Default.aspx

Global Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics Programme




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The objective of the GLOBEC program is to understand how global change will affect the abundance,
diversity and productivity of marine populations comprising a major component of oceanic
ecosystems. The aim of GLOBEC is to advance our understanding of the structure and functioning of
the global ocean ecosystem, its major subsystems, and its response to physical forcing so that a
capability can be developed to forecast the responses of the marine ecosystem to global change. This
program has projects on Small Pelagic Fishes and Climate Change, Climate Impacts on Oceanic Top
Predators, Cod and Climate Change, Climate Change and Carrying Capacity, and Basin-Scale
Ecosystem Modeling.
UNESCO Sector: Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
Responsible Staff: Maria Hood
More Information: http://www.globec.org/

The Ocean in a High CO2 World (ocean acidification symposium series)
The ocean provides a valuable ecosystem service for climate by absorbing CO2 from the atmosphere,
thus reducing its impact on climate. However, this valuable service comes at a steep ecological cost -
the acidification of the ocean. How marine ecosystems, coral reefs, and fisheries will respond to the
current rapid acidification are unknown. The IOC and the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research
(SCOR) initiated a symposium series in 2004 to periodically assess what is known about ocean
acidification and to provide sound, unbiased scientific information to decision-makers and the general
public. The symposium results are compiled in a special issue of the scientific journal, The Journal of
Geophysical Research. The next assessment is scheduled for 2008.
UNESCO Sector: Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
Responsible Staff: Maria Hood
More information: http://ioc.unesco.org/ioccp/HighCO2/HighCO2World.htm

Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Expert Group
The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) was a four-year scientific assessment exercise
involving more than 1300 scientists worldwide and from different disciplines. The MA has concluded
that most of the twenty ecosystem services on which human well-being depends are being degraded or
lost. Although this is happening differently at different scales, this situation holds true for most
countries, developed and developing, in all regions of the world. The MA identified climate change as
a key driver of change in ecosystem services. UNESCO, as a co-sponsor of the MA, is now engaged
in a MA follow-up exercise, jointly with ICSU and UNU, on identifying knowledge gaps identified by
the MA and possible policy responses. UNESCO would also intend to pursue more specific expert
work aimed at developing policy advice for governments on mitigation and adaptation measures to
changes in ecosystem services that are key to human well-being due to climate change, in cooperation
with relevant partners, including UNFCCC and possibly also IPCC.
UNESCO Sector: Division of Ecological and Earth Sciences
Responsible Staff: Salvatore Arico
More information: http://www.unesco.org/mab/biodiv/biodivSC.shtml

Study of Climate Change and the Evidence in the Geological Record
One of the five thematic priorities of the International Geoscience Programme (IGCP) is „Global
change and life evolution‟. This relates to climate change impacts on water supplies, wildlife, the
environment, and human society. Understanding climate trends relies heavily upon the preserved
geological record of many rock types. By studying this record, Earth scientists are understanding how
the climate works, how it has behaved in the past and how it may behave in future. The project
consists of 16 international active IGCP research and capacity-building projects related to climate
change: Late Varsican Terrestrial Biotas and Palaeoenvironments; Deltas in the Monsoon Asia-Pacific
Region; Monsoon Evolution and Tectonic-Climate Linkage in Asia; Dating Caspian Sea Level
Change; Environmental Catastrophes; Middle Palaeozoic Vertebrate Biogeography; Palaeogeography
and Climate; The Rise and Fall of the Vendian Biota; Quaternary Land-Ocean Interactions; Devonian
land-sea interaction: Evolution of Ecosystems and Climate in the Devonian; Dryland Change: Past,



                                                                                                     6
Present, Future; Ordovician Palaeogeography and Palaeoclimate; Paleoclimates of the Cretaceous in
Asia; Neoproterozoic Ice Ages; Black Sea Mediterranean Corridor during the last 30 ky: Sea level
change and human adaptation; Reconstruction of the Past Coastal Environments and its Management;
Rapid Environmental/Climate Change in the Cretaceous Greenhouse World.
UNESCO Sector: Division of Ecological and Earth Sciences
Responsible Staff: Robert Missotten, Margarete Patzak
More information: http://www.unesco.org/science/earth/geo/globalChange.shtml

Earth System Physics Climate Research (at ICTP)
The ICTP has a long-standing tradition of carrying out educational and research activities in climate
science. The Earth System Physics division carries out research in 2 main areas: Climate Change and
Impacts, and Natural Climate Variability and Predictability. The Climate Change and Impacts line of
research aims at a) improving our understanding of climate change due to anthropogenic activities,
and b) studying the impacts of climate change on human societies and natural ecosystems. The
Natural Climate Variability and Predictability research line aims at improving our understanding of
natural variability and predictability at temporal scales from intra-seasonal/seasonal to multi-
year/multi-decadal.In terms of outreach in climate science, ESP has a number of activities, including
coordination of the Regional Climate Research Network for scientists mostly from developing
countries interested in regional climate research issues; maintenance of 2 regional climate models for
community use, freely available and with consulting as required; and maintenance of a range of
observations and model datasets for climate change and seasonal prediction research.
UNESCO Sector: International Centre for Theoretical Physics (sponsored by UNESCO and IAEA)
Responsible Staff: Filippo Giorgi
More information: http://ioc3.unesco.org/unesco-climate/ICTP_ESP.pdf and http://www.ictp.it/


B. Monitoring aspects of climate change

Global Ocean Observing System (UNESCO is Secretariat)
GOOS is a permanent global system for observations, modelling and analysis of marine and ocean
variables to support operational ocean services worldwide. GOOS provides accurate descriptions of
the present state of the oceans, including living resources, continuous forecasts of the future
conditions of the sea for as far ahead as possible, and the basis for forecasts of climate change. GOOS
is the ocean component of the Global Climate Observing System in support of the UN Framework
Convention on Climate Change.
UNESCO Sector: Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
Responsible Staff: Keith Alverson
More information: http://www.ioc-goos.org/

Global Sea Level Observing System (UNESCO is Secretariat)
The Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS) is an international program conducted under the
auspices of the Joint Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM) of
the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) and the Intergovernmental Oceanographic
Commission (IOC) of UNESCO to establish high quality global and regional sea level networks for
application to climate, and oceanographic and coastal sea level research.
UNESCO Sector: Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
Responsible Staff: Thorkild Aarup
More information: http://www.pol.ac.uk/psmsl/programmes/gloss.info.html

GCOS-GOOS-WCRP Ocean Observations Panel for Climate (UNESCO is Secretariat)
The Ocean Observations Panel for Climate (OOPC) is a scientific expert advisory group charged with
making recommendations for developing and evaluating a system of sustained global ocean
observations for climate. The OOPC is the ocean component of the Global Climate Observing System


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in Support of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. The IOC of UNESCO serves as the
technical secretariat for this Panel.
UNESCO Sector: Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
Responsible Staff: Albert Fischer
More information: http://ioc3.unesco.org/oopc/

International Ocean Carbon Coordination Project (UNESCO is Secretariat)
The ocean has absorbed approximately 50% of the man-made CO2 released to the atmosphere since
the beginning of the industrial revolution, greatly reducing the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere
and attenuating its affect on climate. Understanding the processes of ocean CO2 uptake and how it
will behave in the future under a changed climate are critical to understanding climate and requires an
international effort. The International Ocean Carbon Coordination Project promotes the development
of a global network of ocean carbon observations for climate research through technical coordination
and communication services, international agreements on standards and methods, advocacy, and links
to the Global Climate Observing System. The IOCCP is co-sponsored by the Intergovernmental
Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO and the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR).
The IOC of UNESCO serves as the project office for this project. The IOCCP is the ocean component
of the Carbon Observation Office of the IGOS Partners, and the carbon component of the Ocean
Observations Panel for Climate.
UNESCO Sector: Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
Responsible Staff: Maria Hood
More information: http://www.ioccp.org

Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network (UNESCO is co-sponsor)
The Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network (GCRMN), co-sponsored by UNESCO's
Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, works to improve management and conservation of
coral reefs by providing manuals, equipment, databases, training, problem solving, and helps with
finding funds for reef monitoring - all coordinated in a global network. The project includes regular
global assessments of the Status of Coral Reefs of the World.
UNESCO Sector: Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
Responsible Staff: Maria Hood, Clive Wilkinson
More information: http://www.gcrmn.org/

Global Terrestrial Observing System (UNESCO is co-sponsor)
GTOS is a programme for observations, modelling, and analysis of terrestrial ecosystems to support
sustainable development. GTOS facilitates access to information on terrestrial ecosystems so that
researchers and policy makers can detect and manage global and regional environmental change. The
Terrestrial Observing Panel for Climate (TOPC) is part of the Global Terrestrial Observing System
and the Global Climate Observing System. TOPC liaises with relevant research and operational
communities to identify measurable terrestrial properties and attributes that control the physical,
biological and chemical processes affecting climate, are themselves affected by climate change, or
serve as indicators of climate change.
UNESCO Sector: Division of Ecological and Earth Sciences
Responsible Staff: Robert Missotten, Margarete Patzak
More information: http://www.fao.org/gtos/

Global Climate Observing System (UNESCO is co-sponsor)
The Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) was established to ensure that the observations and
information needed to address climate-related issues are obtained and made available to all potential
users. It is co-sponsored by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the Intergovernmental
Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
and the International Council for Science (ICSU). GCOS is intended to be a long-term, user-driven
operational system capable of providing the comprehensive observations required for monitoring the



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climate system, for detecting and attributing climate change, for assessing the impacts of climate
variability and change, and for supporting research toward improved understanding, modelling and
prediction of the climate system. It addresses the total climate system including physical, chemical
and biological properties, and atmospheric, oceanic, hydrologic, cryospheric and terrestrial processes.
UNESCO Sector: Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
Responsible Staff: Albert Fischer
More information: http://www.wmo.ch/web/gcos/gcoshome.html

Global Earth Observation System of Systems (UNESCO is co-chair of Capacity Building)
The GEOSS coordinates the development of an integrated observation system for the global
environment addressing a range of societal benefit areas, including climate change. UNESCO co-
sponsors GOOS and GCOS, which constitute the ocean and climate components of the GEO system.
UNESCO, as the co-chair for the Capacity Building activities of GEOSS, assisted in the development
of the GEOSS capacity building strategy, and carries out activities in fund-raising, coordination of
training activities and dissemination of information and teaching materials.
UNESCO Sector: Division of Ecological and Earth Sciences
Responsible Staff: Robert Missotten, Margarete Patzak
More information: http://www.earthobservations.org/index.html


C. Adaptation actions

Groundwater for Emergency Situations
Natural catastrophic/emergency situations caused by devastating geological or climatic events may
result in total dependence on groundwater resources for the sustenance of affected communities. Such
groundwater resources need to be identified, where possible replenished artificially, safeguarded and
developed as a supply source and its sustainability during emergency situations ensured. The aim of
the GWES project is to consider natural and man-induced catastrophic events that could adversely
influence human health and life and to identify in advance potential safe, low vulnerability
groundwater resources which could temporarily replace damaged supply systems. This requires a
special approach to the methods of project development. Water management projects normally
consider sustainable water development. The priority in emergency situations is risk management
with the objective of providing crucial first aid to the affected population.
UNESCO Sector: Division of Water Sciences
Responsible Staff: Annukka Lipponen, Alice Aureli
More Information: http://www.pwa-web.org/data/UNESCO/latest/UNESCO_01.asp

Water Programme for Environmental Sustainability: Towards adaptation measures to human
and climate impact
The Water Programme for Environmental Sustainability (WPA II) is an extrabudgetary IHP
programme funded by the Italian Ministry for Environment, Land and Sea now entered in its second
phase. The Programme is centered on the enhancement of integrated groundwater resources
management and protection as a remediation to the various climate change effects. It also sets up best
practices in response to climate variability and change impacts on water resources. Operating in Serbia,
North Africa, Vietnam and China on aquifers vulnerability, the WPA II focuses specifically on
Environmental Sustainability through adaptation measures to remediate human and climate impacts on
groundwater resources, with the aim to analyse the links and synergies between the Kyoto
mechanisms and groundwater hydrology. A further aim is to provide suitable methodologies to
evaluate the environmental and economic benefits of groundwater protection.
UNESCO Sector: Division of Water Sciences
Responsible Staff: Salvatore D'Angelo, Francesso Rizzo, Alice Aureli
More information: f.rizzo@unesco.org




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Integrated Urban Water Modeling and Management Under Specific Climates
The Integrated Urban Water Modeling and Management under Specific Climates: humid tropics (HT),
arid and semiarid climates (ASA), cold climates (CC) and temperate climates (TC) is one of the
projects under the IHP‟s Urban Water Management Programme. The Objective is strengthening the
analytical framework for integrated urban water management under specific climates, with a special
focus on developing countries. The expected results are a series of books addressing the specificities
of urban water management in each climate, modeling tools and teaching materials for each climate.
UNESCO Sector: Division of Water Sciences
Responsible Staff: Jose Luis Martin, Alice Aureli
More information: jl.martin@unesco.org

Water and Development Information for Arid Lands (GWADI)
The strategic Objective of the G-WADI network is to strengthen the global capacity to manage the
water resources of arid and semi-arid areas around the globe through a network of international and
regional cooperation. Aims of this program: Improved understanding of the special characteristics of
hydrological systems; The capacity building of individuals and institutions; The broad dissemination
of understanding of water in arid zones to the user community and the public, especially as a basis for
improved management; The exchange of experience; The sharing of data; Raising awareness; and the
promotion of integrated basin management.              GeoServer, developed by the Center for
Hydrometeorology and Remote Sensing at the University of California, Irvine provides access to
information on precipitation and aridity, and other web resources. In 2007 this hydrometeorology
module is to be upgraded by adding real-time, dynamically updated global high (0.04°) resolution
precipitation imagery.
UNESCO Sector: Division of Water Sciences
Responsible Staff: Annukka Lipponen, Alice Aureli
More information: http://www.gwadi.org/

Sustainable Management of Marginal Drylands (SUMAMAD)
Drylands are particularly vulnerable to climatic and human pressures, yet they constitute some of the
world's largest land reserves in terms of space and natural resources. Their increased productivity,
needed in times of population growth, needs to be embedded in wise practices that respect the
conservation of the environment, and provide improved and alternative livelihoods for dryland
populations. The project uses a harmonized approach for study sites to compare results and share
knowledge between countries. It targets:
      socio-economic surveys to identify people's adaptation and traditional knowledge in coping
         with dryland conditions;
      management approaches that promote economic sustainability and resource conservation, in
         particular of soils and water, fostering the rehabilitation of degraded drylands with
         community-based approaches;
      training, capacity building and interaction with landowners, farmers and other stakeholders,
         with a focus on sustainable and indigenous dryland management practices.
In this project scientists also work on the conservation of freshwater resources and biodiversity, which
has to be compatible with the needs of local populations to manage their natural resources in a
sustainable and income-generating manner.
UNESCO Sector: Division of Ecological and Earth Sciences
Responsible Staff: Thomas Schaaf
More information: http://www.unesco.org/mab/ecosyst/drylands.shtml

Global Change in Mountain Biosphere Reserves: Addressing impacts on people and the
environment
Many of the world's mountain ecosystems are undergoing important environmental change which
brings about economic changes that may affect the ability of mountain regions to provide critical
goods and services both to mountain inhabitants and lowland communities. This project uses


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biosphere reserves (a single ecological region with zones that are protected and zones with human
habitation) to detect and assess global changes in the biosphere, to define the environmental and
socio-economic impacts of these changes, and to develop management strategies at local and regional
levels. UNESCO acts for sustainable land, water, and resource management, through several
programs, including Global Change in Mountain Regions, Mountain Cloud Forest Initiative, and
Development of Cultural and Eco-tourism in the Mountainous Regions of Central Asia and the
Himalayas. Other related programmes include the Mountain Cloud Forest Initiative, and
Development of Cultural and Eco-tourism in the Mountainous Regions of Central Asia and the
Himalayas.
UNESCO Sector: Division of Ecological and Earth Sciences
Responsible Staff: Thomas Schaaf
More information: http://www.unesco.org/mab/ecosyst/mountains.shtml

Adaptation to Climate and Coastal Change in West Africa
ACCC is a GEF/UNDP project being implemented by UNESCO/IOC at the request of Cape Verde,
Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Mauritania and Senegal. It was initiated by the African Process and taken up
in the Action Plan for the Environmental Initiative of NEPAD. The objectives of the ACCC
project are to perform adaptation actions in pilot sites particularly vulnerable to natural climate
changes and to anthropogenic degradation in the short, medium and long term (erosion, mangrove
destruction,…). Another major objective of the project is to formulate national and regional strategies
of adaptation aiming at managing the impact of changes to the shoreline, in the framework of
Integrated Coastal Area Management. The ACCC project will run for 4 years [2007-2010], in the
form of 5 Medium Sized Projects (GEF MSP).
UNESCO Sector: Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
Responsible Staff: Julian Barbiere
More information: http://english.accc-afr.org/

Mainstreaming Awareness and Mitigation of Marine-Related Hazards and Risks within the
Integrated Coastal Area Management Framework
In the framework of the North Eastern Atlantic, Mediterranean and Connected Seas Tsunami Warning
System (NEAMTWS), which deals with “Advisory, mitigation and public awareness”, this project is
developing guidelines aimed at mainstreaming awareness and mitigation of marine-related hazards
and risks within the Integrated Coastal Area Management (ICAM) framework. The guidelines cover
Tsunamis and other marine-related hazards, notably storm surges and wind-forced waves, as well as
coastal erosion and sea-level rise, which are directly related to the climate change impacts.
UNESCO Sector: Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
Responsible Staff: Julian Barbiere
More information:
http://ioc3.unesco.org/icam/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=15&Itemid=30

Climate Impacts on Coastal Biodiversity and Ecosystems
Over 60 % of the world's people live within 60 kilometres of the sea. Coastal and marine environment
is strongly influenced by human activities, via local pressure or climate change. Yet ecosystems of
coastal areas, small islands and mangroves have a crucial value. UNESCO's Man and the Biosphere
Programme activities span protection, scientific research and human use.
UNESCO Sector: Division of Ecological and Earth Sciences
Responsible Staff: Miguel Clusener-Godt
More information: http://www.unesco.org/mab/ecosyst/islands.shtml

World Heritage and Climate Change – protecting World Heritage sites from climate impacts
UNESCO recognizes the genuine concern surrounding the impact of climate change on both natural
and cultural heritage sites. To address these concerns, UNESCO's World Heritage Centre has
established a broad working group of experts to: a) review the nature and scale of the risks posed to



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World Heritage properties arising specifically from climate change; and b) jointly develop a strategy
to assist States Parties to implement appropriate management responses. Following endorsement of
this strategy by the World Heritage Committee (Vilnius, 2006), the Center organized a second expert
working group to develop a policy document. This document highlights synergies and linkages to
be investigated between the World Heritage Center and international bodies dealing with climate
change; identifies future research needs on the impact of climate change on cultural and natural World
Heritage Properties, and raises legal questions related to the role of the World Heritage Convention
in developing suitable responses to Climate Change.
UNESCO Sector: World Heritage Center
Responsible Staff: Cedric Hance, Kishore Rao
More information: http://whc.unesco.org/en/activities/&pattern=&search_theme=23

The Global Network of National Geoparks
The Global Network of National Geoparks provides a platform of active cooperation between experts
and practitioners in geological heritage. Under the umbrella of UNESCO, and through exchange
between the global network partners, important national geological sites gain worldwide recognition
and profit through the exchange of knowledge, expertise, experience and staff with other Geoparks. A
Geopark is an area with a geological heritage of significance, with a coherent and strong management
structure and where a sustainable economic development strategy is in place. A Geopark creates
enhanced employment opportunities for the people who live there bringing sustainable and real
economic benefit, usually through the development of sustainable tourism. In the framework of a
Geopark, geological heritage and geological knowledge is shared with the broad public and linked
with broader aspects of the natural and cultural environment, which are often closely related or
determined to geology and landscape. Since the launching of the Network in 2004, 52 selected high
quality National Geoparks from 17 countries are currently members (Austria, Brazil, China, Croatia,
Czech Republic, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Iran, Malaysia, Norway, Portugal, Rumania,
Spain, United Kingdom). In the framework of the Geoparks initiative, a major session theme for the
4th International UNESCO Geoparks Conference, to be held in June 2008 in Osnabrueck, Germany,
will be „Climate Change and Geoparks‟.
UNESCO Sector: Division of Ecological and Earth Sciences
Responsible Staff: Robert Missotten, Margarete Patzak
More information: http://www.unesco.org/science/earth/geoparks.shtml

International Year of Planet Earth
In 2008, UNESCO and the International Union of Geological Sciences will launch the International
Year of Planet Earth (IYPE). The IYPE was proclaimed for 2008 by the General Assembly of the
United Nations in its Plenary Session on the 22nd of December 2005. The aim of the IYPE is to
demonstrate new and exciting ways in which Earth sciences can help future generations meet the
challenges involved in ensuring a safer and more prosperous world. One of the 10 themes of IYPE is
dedicated to past and recent climate change. The achievement of this aim will be supported by two
major programmes: Outreach Programme including educational ventures at all levels; and Science
Programmes concentrating on 'big issues' of complex interaction within the Earth system, and its long-
term sustainability. The initiative will seek to raise the awareness of the contribution to, and role of
the Earth sciences in society in the minds of politicians, decision-makers, the media and the general
public. During the coming year, over 50 countries will organize information activities on the
geological and climatological evolution of our planet.
UNESCO Sector: Division of Ecological and Earth Sciences
Responsible Staff: Robert Missotten, Margarete Patzak
More information: http://www.unesco.org/science/earth/iype.shtml

Natural Disaster Reduction Program
The purposes of UNESCO in the field of natural disasters are: to promote a better understanding of the
distribution in time and space of natural hazards and of their intensity, to set up reliable early warning



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systems, to devise rational land-use plans, to secure the adoption of suitable building design, to protect
educational buildings and cultural monuments, to strengthen environmental protection for the
prevention of natural disasters, to enhance preparedness and public awareness through education and
training communication and information, to foster post-disaster investigation, recovery and
rehabilitation, to promote studies on the social perception of risks. The Organization plays an
advocacy role on the need for a shift in emphasis from relief and emergency response to prevention
and increased preparedness and education of potentially affected populations. The approach supported
by UNESCO stresses the merit of preventive approaches through the design and dissemination of
mitigation measures, proper information education and public awareness. UNESCO acts as a catalyst,
particularly in capacity building and in regional and international cooperation. UNESCO plays a
major role in the creation of scientific institutions and/or in the improvement of facilities of existing
institutions by strengthening their scientific infrastructure and access to information, as well as by
facilitating opportunities for training and research.
UNESCO Sector: Division of Basic and Engineering Science / Section for Disaster Reduction
Responsible Staff: Badaoui Rouhban and Kristine Tovmasjana
More information: http://www.unesco.org/science/disaster/index_disaster.shtml

Village-level Documentation and Transmission of Local Environmental Knowledge
An urgent task facing educational systems in developing parts of the world is to develop
environmental education programs that draw on locally relevant and economically important
knowledge to bridge the gap between village realities and traditional text book information. UNESCO
developed a multilingual book, Reef and Rainforest: An Environmental Encyclopedia of Marovo
Lagoon, which was used in education and training centers in the region to document local
environmental knowledge and to raise awareness of environmental issues in the region of both
ecological and socio-economic importance. This Pilot Project was intended as a practical
demonstration and testing of the role of educational material in vernacular language for fostering the
transmission and development of indigenous environmental knowledge. This project incorporates
knowledge systems that are seriously endangered yet have been repeatedly recognized as having
crucial ramifications for biodiversity conservation in these sites of global significance (including
several natural World Heritage sites).
UNESCO Sector: Division of Science Policy and Sustainable Development
Responsible Staff: Douglas Nakashima, Fathimath Ghina, Khalissa Ikhlef
More information: http://www.unesco.org/links

Indigenous People in Protected Areas
Today there is recognition of the need for local-community involvement in the conservation of
cultural landscapes and natural heritage. With their unique knowledge, skills and traditions, local
communities have much to contribute to the management of these areas. However, when regulations
are introduced that restrict their ability to maintain their traditional culture and lifestyle, this raises
serious concerns. To address these concerns affecting the Surin Islands‟ Moken community, an
appraisal of the issues was initiated, followed by a series of workshops during which concerned
stakeholders developed conservation activities to exploring sustainable development options with the
Moken that allow them to maintain and enhance their lifestyle while conserving the biodiversity of the
Surin Islands. The project activities include resource assessments based upon scientific and Moken
ecological knowledge, preparation of reading material for Moken children, handicraft learning, basic
health and welfare training, turtle conservation and giant clam mariculture. Across the region, and in
many other parts of the world, finding sustainable solutions that benefit indigenous communities and
the environment, while meeting national tourism and development objectives, has become a priority.
The outcome of this project may serve as a model for the region and beyond.
UNESCO Sector: Division of Science Policy and Sustainable Development
Responsible Staff: Douglas Nakashima, Fathimath Ghina, Khalissa Ikhlef
More information: http://www.unesco.org/links




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Sandwatch
As small islands and countries around the world struggle with the consequences of global warming, it
has been observed that beaches and coasts are among the ecosystems already experiencing the impacts
of climate change. Sandwatch provides a framework whereby students, teachers and communities can
learn firsthand about the direct and indirect impacts of climate change on their beaches and coasts –
impacts such as rising sea levels, increasing temperatures, and more intense
hurricanes/cyclones/typhoons – and how they can work together to devise and implement approaches
and projects to cope with these changes. With a strong field monitoring component, Sandwatch tries
to make science 'live' yet remains inter-disciplinary. Through the United Nations Decade of
Education for Sustainable Development (2005-2014), Sandwatch provides a practical „hands-on‟
approach to integrating the values inherent in sustainable development into all aspects of learning,
thereby empowering citizens to act for positive environmental and social change. Sandwatch also
contributes to the further implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable
Development of Small Island Developing States. There are currently 37 countries participating in this
activity.
UNESCO Sector: Division of Science Policy and Sustainable Development
Responsible Staff: Douglas Nakashima, Fathimath Ghina, Khalissa Ikhlef
More information: http://www.sandwatch.org

University Consortium of Small Island States
The Consortium is a collaborative effort of the University of Malta, University of Mauritius,
University of the South Pacific, the University of the West Indies and the University of the Virgin
Islands, to enhance the capacity of higher education institutions in small island states, to provide
practical, high quality training, research and outreach to assist these Member States with the
institutional and systematic capacity needed to implement the Barbados Programme of Action for the
Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States (BPOA) and Mauritius Strategy.
Technical and financial support was provided to the UNESCO-UNITWIN partnership with
Consortium, formalized early 2007 to establish a Cooperation Programme to promote an integrated
system of research, training, information and documentation of activities in the fields of climate
change, natural and environmental disasters, waste management, resources management, culture, and
sustainable living and development.
UNESCO Sector: Division of Science Policy and Sustainable Development
Responsible Staff: Douglas Nakashima, Fathimath Ghina, Khalissa Ikhlef
More information: http://www.myucsis.com/

Science and Technology within the Decade of Education for Sustainable Development
Promoting the goals of a transition to sustainability is a major challenge for science and technology.
Housing natural, social and human sciences under one roof, UNESCO promotes multidisciplinary and
interdisciplinary approaches to the wise use of natural resources and to the improved understanding of
human-environment relationships. UNESCO helps inform sustainable development policies and
practices.
UNESCO Sector: Division of Science Policy and Sustainable Development
Responsible Staff: Mario Bertero
More information: http://www.unesco.org/science/psd/sd/sd.shtml

Education for Sustainable Development – Climate Change
Climate change is one of the key themes of the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development
(DESD). During the extensive consultations with United Nations agencies, national governments,
civil society organizations and NGOs, experts and specialists for the drafting of the International
Implementation Scheme for the DESD (http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001486/148650E.pdf),
the issue of climate change emerged as one of the strategic perspectives to inform education and
learning for sustainable development during the Decade. Global warming is a "modern" problem --
complicated, involving the entire world, tangled up with difficult issues such as poverty, economic



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development, and population growth. At the 2nd meeting of the High-Level Panel on the UN DESD
(Flash           Info       N°          017-2007           -       http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-
URL_ID=36744&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html), the Panel acknowledged that
climate change is a world concern that needs to be part of awareness, learning and education for a
sustainable future, and making sure that sustainable behaviours become daily habits. Education for
Sustainable Development (ESD) must bring to the awareness of both individuals and learners the
crucial need to limit damage to the atmosphere and check harmful climate change, as well as inform
them on conventions and international agreements related to climate change. Furthermore, ESD is a
key means to build a global lobby for effective action, showing people that their actions can contribute
to lasting solutions.
UNESCO Sector: Education for Sustainable Development
Responsible Staff: Bernard Combes
More information: http://portal.unesco.org/education/en/ev.php-
URL_ID=32521&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html

Quranic Botanic Gardens Project
The truly interdisciplinary Quranic Botanic Gardens Project was conceived to facilitate linkages
between respect for natural habitats, the cultures inspired by the Holy Book of Islam, protection of
environment and biological diversity. Furthermore, the project makes possible the development of
shared strategies and programmes focused on the enhancement of science education and
environmental awareness in the Arab Gulf countries, and in the Arab region more generally. It is
hoped that an ethic of stewardship based on local cultural traditions will take root and reinvigorate the
study of natural sciences. Climate change will undoubtedly affect the coastal regions of the Gulf
States, and improved knowledge of living natural resources, such as native plants for fodder or
landscaping, will be instrumental for the region to adapt. Since the Islamic garden tradition was born
in arid and semi-arid lands, lessons in traditional adaptations to these conditions may also be shared
with other regions where such conditions may prevail in future. Having the genetic information of
indigenous plant species will be of major importance for the future of the human population living in
arid regions. This is due to the connection between people and nature, in view of food, security,
productivity, culture and conservation.
UNESCO Sector: Natural Sciences, UNESCO Office in Doha
Responsible Staff: Benno Boër, Guido Licciardi
More information: http://www.unesco.org/mab/biodiv/q_botanicgardens.shtml

The Camel Farm Project: From Tradition To Modern Times
This project was initiated to develop a possible solution to halt the continuing effects of desertification
and overgrazing. Procedures are described to stop the progress of land degradation and to develop
major steps in conservation and sustainable management of land and water resources of desert
ecosystems. This activity will contribute to reduce the number of livestock, and allow deserts to
recover. The deserts then can be used for the re-introduction of captive bred endangered species. It
will produce meat and milk using much less freshwater than cows and conventional fodder crops. This
is in line with the UNESCO global network of Biosphere Reserves, which aims to provide models for
sustainable living. The project should encourage governments to reduce the total number of livestock
in the desert rangelands and keep them below the ecological carrying capacity. Scientific studies,
documenting how this can assist combating desertification, and reduce the amount of freshwater being
used for fodder and milk production, are carried out in the farm. The outcome of these studies will be
a more stable ecosystem and enhancement of the desert environments. Once the advantages of the
farm are visible the Camel Farm can be replicated in countries with similar ecological conditions and
problems, as in the Arabian Peninsula.
UNESCO Sector: Doha Office
Responsible Staff: Dr Benno Böer
More information: http://www.unesco.org/mab/biodiv.shtml




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Reporting Climate Change
The role of mass media for an engaged discussion on mitigating the impact of and adaptation to
climate change is a vital element. Two actions that UNESCO implements within its core mandate to
promote free-flow of information are much relevant in this connection. UNESCO has produced a
model curricula and syllabi for journalism education at diploma, undergraduate and post-graduate
level that includes a module on “Reporting climate change: assessing coverage past and present;
issues of balance and expertise in climate change debate.” UNESCO has also distributed high-quality
BBC science documentaries to 49 broadcasters in the developing countries with support to
voiceover/subtitle them into local languages. A number of programmes distributed from BBC Horizon
series are related to climate change issues.
UNESCO Sector: Communications and Information
 Responsible Staff: Wijayananda Jayaweera
More information: http://portal.unesco.org/ci/en/ev.php-
URL_ID=1657&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html


D. Mitigation actions

Renewable Energy Program
UNESCO work in renewable energy focuses on human resources development geared to promoting
large scale use of sustainable and renewable energies, energy diversification and efficiency, with
emphasis on improving the living conditions in rural areas of poor countries, especially in the
developing countries and small islands states. The Global Renewable Energy Education and Training
(GREET) Program specifically works to improve capacity of developing countries to use, maintain
and manage local solar energy projects.
UNESCO Sector: Division of Basic and Engineering Sciences
Responsible Staff: Osman Benchikh
More information:
http://portal.unesco.org/sc_nat/ev.php?URL_ID=1490&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=20
1&PHPSESSID=2873ed0e41832d5ba26ccf953a43a2bf

Bio-Carbon Sequestration & Conservation to Combat Climate Change: Promoting Rural
Development, Energy Solutions & Biodiversity
Emerging policy and market frameworks to mitigate climate changes provide exciting opportunities
for linking a number of interconnected objectives, including climate change mitigation (United
Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, UNFCCC) biodiversity conservation
(Convention on Biological Diversity, CBD) and poverty reduction (Millennium Development Goals,
MDGs). By recognizing the sequestration potential or “sink” effects that enable removal of
greenhouse gases resulting from land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) under the
UNFCCC, and its clean development mechanism (CDM), and the possibility that such effects be
eligible in carbon emission trading schemes under the Kyoto protocol, a strong connection is already
being established between the climate change and biodiversity agendas. This program brings together
experts from climate change research, ecological sciences, finance and the biodiversity conservation
community, to explore policy options, research requirements and pilot case studies for the effective
linking of the objectives of the UNFCCC, the CBD and relevant MDGs through bio-carbon
sequestration projects and associated emission trading schemes.
UNESCO Sector: Division of Ecological and Earth Sciences
Responsible Staff: Peter Dogse
More information: http://www.unesco.org/mab/climat/carbon.shtml

Ocean Carbon Sequestration Watching Brief
Human activities have profoundly altered the Earth's global carbon cycle. These alterations are linked
to globally rising temperatures, increases in severe weather events, and an ever-shifting and currently


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unpredictable pattern of droughts, floods, famine, and disease. Transitioning away from fossil fuel use
and finding viable alternatives will be difficult, costly, and long. We are now faced with a scientific
and societal challenge of daunting proportions - determining if and how humans can "manage" the
global cycle of one of the Earth's key elements. One strategy being investigated is to enhance the
ocean's natural capacity to absorb and store atmospheric CO2, either by inducing and enhancing the
growth of carbon-fixing plants in the surface ocean, or by speeding up the natural, surface-to-deep
water transfer of dissolved CO2 by directly injecting it into the deep ocean. Determination of the
feasibility, efficiency, and environmental consequences of this process involves significant
technological, economic, legal and scientific investigation. UNESCO's Intergovernmental
Oceanographic Commission monitors developments in ocean CO2 sequestration and maintains an
annual watching brief of the environmental and science implications.
UNESCO Sector: Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
Responsible Staff: Maria Hood
More Information: http://ioc3.unesco.org/unesco-climate/Ocean Carbon Sequestration Watching
Brief.pdf

Technology and Climate Change: Challenges and Opportunities for Mitigation and Adaptation
Many key mitigation and adaptation issues depend critically on technologies and associated practices,
including energy supply, efficiency and conservation, transport, building construction, industry,
agriculture and forestry. The ability to reduce greenhouse gas emissions depends on the development
and availability of more efficient technologies and the promotion of research, development,
demonstration and investment in new technologies, including carbon capture and storage technologies.
UNESCO is developing an international conference that will bring together leading specialists, policy
makers and planners to explore the challenges and opportunities regarding the use of cleaner and more
efficient technologies and research, development and innovation of new and improved technologies.
The conference will address the link between technology and social sciences, and the need for change
in human attitudes and behavior for climate change mitigation and adaptation measures to be effective.
UNESCO Sector: Basic and Engineering Sciences
Responsible Staff: Tony Marjoram
More Information:
http://portal.unesco.org/sc_nat/ev.php?URL_ID=1493&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=20
1&PHPSESSID=58b7d9e13596f7b142ccfd02ccc37336




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