Infancy and Toddlerhood Physical Cognitive and Language Development

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Infancy and Toddlerhood Physical Cognitive and Language Development Powered By Docstoc
					            Infancy
Cognitive, Physical, Language
        Development




                                1
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              Neonates
• States of Arousal

• Reflexes

• Neonatal Assessment

• Learning and Habituation

                             3
           States of Arousal
           Peter Wolff (1966)
•   Waking activity
•   Crying
•   Alert inactivity
•   Drowsiness
•   Regular sleep
•   Irregular sleep

                                4
         Survival Reflexes
•   Breathing
•   Rooting
•   Sucking
•   Pupillary
•   Eye-blink

                             5
          Primitive Reflexes
•   Moro (startle)
•   Palmar
•   Plantar
•   Babinski
•   Stepping
•   Swimming
•   Tonic neck
                               6
Swimming   Startle (Moro)




                            7
Tonic Neck




             8
Babinski




           9
Plantar




          10
Stepping   Palmar




                    11
Brazelton’s Neonatal Behavioral
  Assessment Scale (BNBAS)


• An assessment measure that hospitals
  use the first few days of a baby’s life.
• 28 measures are grouped into 7 clusters
• Includes
  – Neurological examination
  – Assessment of social responsiveness
  – Assessment of behavioral capabilities
                                             12
Clusters of Brazelton’s Neonatal
 Behavioral Assessment Scale
•   Habituation
•   Orientation
•   Motor tone and activity
•   Range of State
•   Regulation of state
•   Autonomic stability
•   Reflexes

                               13
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     Habituation and Learning
       Habituation Method
• To study infant perceptual abilities,
  researchers habituate infants to certain
  stimuli and then change the stimuli.
• Examples
  – Habituating neonates to turn their heads to
    the left to obtain milk whenever a bell was
    rung
  – Neonates learned to turn on a light by turning
    their heads to the left.
                                                 15
    Erich Fromm

 Man is the only
animal that can be
      bored

                  16
Physical and Motor Development
• Erik Erikson
• First Psychosocial Stage


        Trust vs. Mistrust



                             17
First 4 Months
     doubled in weight
     eyes have begun to focus
     the 1st tooth is about to erupt
     most reflexes have disappeared
From 5 to Eight Months
     increasing competence in fine and
     gross motor skills
     playing games
     crawling, bearwalking, scooting

                                         18
From 9 to 12 Months
    about three times heavier than they
    were at birth
    may be walking
    can manipulate the environment
    using a pincer grasp
From 13 to 18 Months
    are walking on their own
    can stack blocks
    can feed themselves
    May be able to undress partially
                                          19
From 19 to 24 Months
    are called toddlers
    can pedal a tricycle
    can jump in place
    can climb stairs
    can scribble
    can dress and undress without
    assistance


                                    20
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      Sensory and Perceptual
          Development
• Sensation
The translation of a stimulus by a sense
  organ

• Perception
The complex process by which the mind
  interprets and gives meaning to sensory
  information
                                            22
     Studying Infant Perceptual
            Capabilities
• The novelty Paradigm
Closely related to habituation method
• The Preference Method
Gives a choice of stimuli to look at or listen to
• The Surprise Method
Relies on the fact that infants react with surprise
  when their expectations are violated
• Event-Related Potential Method
Provides the equivalent of a complex
  electroencephalograph

                                                      23
 Vision and Visual Perception
• Infants are born with a full intact set of visual
  structures.
• Newborns’ eyes are sensitive to brightness
• They have some control over eye movement
• Newborns focus optimally on objects at a range
  of 7 to 10 inches
• They look primarily at the edges and contours of
  objects
• Are responsive to human face and are able to
  imitate facial expressions
• By the first 4 to 6 months, infants can focus
  almost as well as adults, acuity sharpens, and
  they can discriminate between most colors
                                                  24
Visual Cliff




               25
 Depth and Distance Perception
• Because the newborn eyes are not well
  coordinated and the infant has not yet
  learned to interpret all of the information
  transmitted by the eyes.
• Early depth perception is probably not very
  sophisticated.
• Even when coaxed by their mothers,
  infants 6 months or over will not crawl over
  the edge of the visual cliff.
                                            26
       Auditory Perception
• Neonates can hear. They are startled by
  loud sounds
• Newborns are soothed by low-pitched
  sounds such as lullabies
• Infants seem able to localize sounds, and
  prefer human voices



                                              27
    Taste, Touch, and Smell
• They are fully operating at birth, and the
  sense of touch is well developed.




                                               28
      Sensory Integration and
       Intermodal Perception
• Research generally indicates that either
  the senses are integrated at birth or
  integration occurs early and rapidly.
• Behavior and emotion become integrated
  over time as a result of the interaction of
  experience and maturation



                                                29
     Cognitive Development
• The Active Mind
Infants take an active role in their cognitive
  development.
This was the basic position of Jean Piaget.
Infants possess mental structures called
  schemes that process and organize
  information.
This occurs in a series of stages.
                                                 30
Jean Piaget




              31
             Jean Piaget
1- Knowledge = motor behavior
2- Universal stages in a fixed order
3- Qualitative and quantitative acquisition
  of knowledge
4- Mental Structures or schemes
5- Two Principles:
     Assimilation
     Accommodation
                                          32
 1- Acquisition of Knowledge
• Action = Knowledge
• Infants attain understanding of the world
  by doing.
• Knowledge is a product of direct motor
  behavior
• Children don’t learn:
  – Through sensation and perception
  – From facts communicated by others
                                              33
      2- Piaget’s Stages of
     Cognitive Development
• Sensorimotor Stage
(birth – 2)
• Preoperational Stage
(2 – 7)
• Concrete Stage
(7 – 11)
• Formal Operations Stage
(12 – adulthood)
                              34
Piaget’s Cognitive Stages




                            35
        Sensorimotor Stage
            Substages
1- Simple Reflexes (first month)
Reflexes determine the infant’s interaction
  with world
2- First Habits & Primary Circular
  Reactions (1 – 4 months)
Coordination of actions
Repeating enjoyable actions on the infant’s
  own body
                                              36
        Sensorimotor Stage
            Substages
3- Secondary Circular Reactions (4 – 8)
Repeated actions meant to bring about
  desirable consequence on the outside
  world




                                          37
         Sensorimotor Stage
             Substages
4- Coordination of Secondary Circular
  Reactions (8 – 12)
          Goal Directed Behavior
Several schemes are combined and
  coordinated to generate a single act to
  solve a problem
           Object Permanence
The realization that people and objects exist
  even when they cannot be seen
                                            38
Object Permenence




                    39
          Sensorimotor Stage
              Substages
5- Tertiary Circular Reactions (12 – 18)
The deliberate variation of actions to bring
    desirable consequences
6- Beginning of Thought (18 – 24)
        Symbolic Representation
The use of a word, picture, gesture or other sign to
    represent past & present events, experiences,
    and concepts.
a. Understanding Causality
b. Deferred Imitation
                                                   40
     3- Quality and Quantity
• Until the 1930s, children were considered
  like miniature adults as far as intelligence
  was concerned.
• They were supposed to differ from adults
  in the quantity of knowledge they had
  managed to acquire.
• According to Piaget, children acquire
  knowledge in a qualitative and
  quantitative manner.
                                                 41
          Constructivism
• All we know is based on our mental
  construction or ideas.
• We don’t passively discover knowledge
  ready-made.
• We actively construct knowledge.
                 How?

                                          42
4- Schemes/Mental Structures
• Infants have mental structures or
  schemes:
(organized patterns of sensorimotor
  functioning)
         Sensorimotor Functioning
  Physical activity that changes with mental
                  development

                                               43
   5- Principles for Children’s
            Schemes
• 1- Assimilation



• 2- Accommodation


                                  44
    5- Principles for Children’s
             Schemes
1- Assimilation is when people understand
  an experience in terms of their current
  stage of cognitive development or way of
  thinking.
Example:
A flying squirrel = a bird
The child is assimilating his existing
  scheme of a bird.
                                         45
    5- Principles for Children’s
             Schemes
2- Accommodation is change in existing
  ways of thinking that occur in response to
  encounters with new stimuli or events.
Example:
A flying squirrel = a bird with a tail
The child is accommodating to new
  knowledge, modifying her scheme of
  “bird”
                                               46
 Criticism on Piaget’s Theory
• Piaget constructed his view by mainly
  observing his three children (not a
  representative population)
• A stable and differentiated perceptual
  world is established much earlier in
  infancy than Piaget envisioned
• Memory and other forms of symbolic
  activity occur by at least the second half of
  the first year.
                                              47
         Memory in Infancy
Infants as young as 3 months old show memory
  skills.
• The Large Black Boxes Study
Infants predicted a four-step sequence and most
  could remember it up to 2 weeks later.
• Carolyn Rovee-Collier
Infants can remember intricate material.
• Nancy Myers
 An infant’s experience at 6 months can be
  remembered 2 years later.
                                                  48
          Infants’ Memory
• Infantile Amnesia
The lack of memory for experiences that
  occurred prior to three years of age
Although memories are stored from early
  infancy, they cannot be easily retrieved.
Early memories are susceptible to
  interference from later events.
Memories are sensitive to environmental
  context.
                                              49
        Infants’ Intelligence
            1- Development Quotient
                 Arnold Gesell

   2- Bayley Scales of Infant Development
               Nancy Bayley

Are useful in identifying infants who are significantly
                   behind their peers
     Are not good for predicting future behavior

                                                          50
       Development Quotient
          Arnold Gesell
• An overall developmental score that
  relates to performance in 4 areas:
1- Motor Skills (balance and sitting)
2- Language Use
3- Adaptive Behavior (alertness &
  exploration)
4- Personal-Social (feeding and dressing)

                                            51
 Bayley’s Scales of Infant Development
             Nancy Bayley
• A measure that evaluates an infant’s
  development from 2 to 3 months
• It focuses on 2 areas:
1- Mental Scale
Senses, perception, memory, learning, problem
  solving, language
2- Motor Scale
Gross motor skills
Fine motor skills
                                                52
  Contemporary Approaches to
   Assess Infant Intelligence
• Visual-recognition Memory


• Cross-modal Transference

    Measure how quickly infants process
                 information
These measures correlate moderately well with
        later measures of intelligence
                                            53
 Visual-Recognition Memory
Measures how quickly an infant can retrieve
  previous experiences of a stimulus from
  memory
1- Measures how quickly infants lose
  interest in stimuli that have already been
  seen
2- Measures their responsiveness to new
  stimuli.
                                           54
  Cross-Modal Transference
• Measures the ability to identify a stimulus
  that has previously only been experienced
  through one sense by using another
  sense.
Example
Identifying a screw driver that she has only
  previously touched, but not seen


                                            55
   Other Criteria in Determining
        Adult Intelligence
• The degree of environmental stimulation
• Intelligence measured by IQ tests relates
  to a particular type of intelligence, one that
  emphasizes abilities that lead to academic
  success but not artistic or professional
  success.
• So, predicting that a child will do well on
  IQ tests does not necessarily indicate
  success in life.
                                               56
         Linguistic Competence
Phonemes     Basic sounds of
             language

Morphemes    words, suffixes,
             prefixes

Semantics    Rules that govern
             the meaning of words

Syntax       How words are combined into meaningful
             statements

Pragmatics   The use of language in
             context

                                                      57
12 weeks cooing, smiles when talked to
16 weeks turns head in response to human voice
20 weeks makes vowels and consonant sounds
6 months babbling (all sounds)
8 months repeat certain syllables (ma-ma)
12 months understands and says some words
18 months can produce up to 50 words
24 months more than 50 words, two-word phrases
30 months about 100 words, phrases of 3-5 words
36 months vocabulary of about 1,000 words
48 months most basic aspects of language are
  well established
                                             58
                 Terms
Holographic Speech the use of single
  words to convey complete thoughts
Overextensions the tendency to
  overgeneralize words
Telegraphic Speech omitting the less
  significant words and including the words
  that carry the most meaning
Pivot Grammar action words + nouns (see
  Daddy)
                                              59
 A Different Language for Boys
            and Girls
• Girls                • Boys
Hear twice as many     • Don’t hear as many
  diminutives            diminutives
Parents respond with   • Parents respond
  a soft answer          with a firm “no”
Are exposed to         • Hear clearer
  warmer phrases         language
                       • As adults they tend
                         to be more assertive

                                            60
       Language Acquisition
 Cognitive     Rationalist    Social    Behaviorist
  Piaget       Chomsky       Learning    Skinner

-Mental       -Innate     -learned      -Acquired
schemes       tendency to -imitation    by
that child    acquire                   consequen-
can apply a   language                  ces or by
linguistic    -Innate                   reinforce-
label to it   acquisition               ment
              device


                                                 61
      Information Processing
            Approaches
• Encoding    Recorded in memory
              (Keyboard)

• Storage     Saved in memory
              (on hard drive)

• Retrieved   Brought into awareness
              (on screen)
                                       62
       Information-Processing
           Automatization
1- Knowledge acquisition is automatic when
  processes require little attention
Children are automatically aware of how often they
  have encountered people.
Automatically, children develop an understanding
  of concepts, categorizations of objects, events,
  or people.
2- Knowledge is deliberate and controlled when
  processes require large amounts of attention.

                                                 63
      Information Processing
            Approaches
         Cognitive Architecture
Determines the specific steps through
 which material is processed as it travels
 through the human mind.
Assume that the basic architecture of
 information-processing systems is
 constant over the course of development,
 although the speed and capacity of the
 system are thought to grow.
                                         64
Prelinguistic Communication
2 – 3 months to 1 yr.   babbling
10 – 14 months          holophrases
15 months               15 words
16 – 24 months          100 words
18 months               telegraphic speech
19 months               first sentence


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