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The West, Industrialization, Immigration, and Urbanization Test 1. Frederick Jackson Turner’s “frontier hypothesis” focused on the importance of (A) the traditions of western European culture (B) the absence of a feudal aristocracy (C) Black people and Black slavery (D) the conflict between capitalists and workers (E) the existence of cheap unsettled land 2. Which of the following constituted a significant change in the treatment of American Indians during the last half of the nineteenth century? (A) the beginnings of negotiations with individual tribes (B) the start of removal policy (C) the abandonment of the reservation system (D) the admission of all American Indians to the full rights of United States citizenship (E) The division of the tribal lands among individual members 3. Historian Frederick Jackson Turner asserted that the frontier was important in American history for which of the following reasons? (I) It helped shape a distinctive American character (II) It enabled Eastern factory workers to escape bad economic conditions (III) It helped stimulate nationalism and individualism (A) I only (B) II only (C) I and II only (D) II and III only (E) I, II, and III 4. Helen Hunt Jackson’s A Century of Dishonor was significant because it aroused public awareness of the (A) injustice of having taken land from Mexico in the Southwest (B) need for reforms in federal land policy (C) wrongs that the federal government had inflicted on American Indians (D) hardships endured by Chinese laborers while building the transcontinental railroad (E) plight of sharecroppers in the Deep South 5. The intent of the Dawes Act of 1887 was to (A) assimilate American Indians into the mainstream of American farming culture (B) recognize and preserve the tribal cultures of American Indians (C) legally establish the communal nature of American Indian landholdings (D) restore to American Indians land seized unjustly (E) remove all American Indians to the Indian Territory (Oklahoma) 6. The year 1890 is significant in the history of the American West because the (A) last major gold strike occurred in the Black Hills (B) last massacre of American Indians occurred at Sand Creek (C) most devastating blizzard ever to hit the Great Plains ended the long cattle drives (D) transcontinental railroad was officially completed (E) federal Census Office reported that a frontier line no longer existed 7. The Dawes Severalty Act that was passed by the United States Congress in 1887 did which of the following? (A) Stopped all homesteading west of the Mississippi River (B) Extended voting rights to Native Americans (C) Resulted in the notorious Trail of Tears (D) Divided tribally held lands among individual Native Americans (E) Extended welfare assistance to Native Americans 8. The photograph above was probably taken in which of the following settings? (A) Massachusetts in the 1840’s (B) Kentucky in the 1850’s (C) Michigan in the 1860’s (D) Nebraska in the 1870’s (E) Hawaii in the 1890’s 9. The Morrill Land Grant Act provided (A) 160 acres of free land within the public domain to any head of household who would settle on it and improve it over a period of five years (B) large amounts of federal government land to states that would establish agricultural and mechanical colleges (C) 40 acres of land to former slaves (D) that the land of former Confederates should not be confiscated (E) large reservations for the Indians of the Great Plains 10. Government subsidies for the building of transcontinental railroads during the nineteenth century mainly took the form of (A) large cash payments based on the mileage of track built (B) a one-time blanket appropriation for the building of each separate transcontinental line (C) generous land grants along the railroad’s right-of-way (D) the option of drawing supplies and materials from government depots (E) the provision of large amounts of convict labor at no charge to the railroad company 11. The Homestead Act provided (A) that Indians should henceforth own their lands as individuals rather than collectively as tribes (B) 160 acres of free land within the public domain to any head of household who would settle on it and improve it over a period of five years (C) large amounts of federal government land to Great Plains cattle ranchers who would contract to provide beef for the Union army (D) 40 acres of land to each former slave above the age of 21 (E) that the land of former Confederates should not be confiscated 12. The most important factor in the destruction of the Plains Indians’ societies by whites in the late nineteenth century was (A) the use of modern weapons by white soldiers and cavalrymen (B) the destruction of the buffalo herds by whites (C)the introduction of alcohol by whites to Indian society (D) the encroachment of railroads onto Indian lands (E) the use of reservations by whites to limit the movements of Indians 13. The rapid growth of settlements in the West was stimulated most by (A) new and improved transportation from Chicago to San Francisco (B) the success of the Mormon settlement in Utah (C) the railroad companies promising free land (D) successful pacification of the native peoples (E) the discovery of precious metal deposits in Utah, Colorado, and California 14. The massacre at Wounded Knee in 1890 was the (A) result of gold being discovered in the Utah territory (B) work of Geronimo and his Apache bands in the Southwest (C) beginning of a decade of Indian wars in the West (D) last armed resistance by Native Americans towards the U.S. government (E) final battle fought by the Nez Perce under Chief Joseph 15. Mining for gold and silver (A) forced Americans off of the Great Plains (B) destroyed large cities in the West (C) brought law-abiding citizens to California (D) encouraged great numbers of fortune seekers to move West (E) sent the United States off of the gold standard 16. A major problem faced by homesteaders on the Great Plains was (A) a lack of land (B) a shortage of rainfall (C) continued Indian attacks (D) the high price of land (E) too many settlers crowding the region 17. The horizontal integration of American industry (i.e., one firm acquiring control of other firms that produce the same product) that occurred at the end of the nineteenth century was primarily a response to (A) economic competition (B) high tariffs (C) powerful labor unions (D) federal monetary policy (E) federal regulation of business 18. The anti-combination laws passed by numerous states in the late 1880's were a response to which of the following organizational innovations? (A) The creation and growth of international cartels (B) The development of industry-wide trade associations (C) The joining of skilled and unskilled workers in industrial unions (D) The formation of agricultural marketing cooperatives (E) The use of stockholding trusts to create business oligopolies 19. Joseph Pulitzer achieved fame and wealth as a (A) radio commentator (B) political cartoonist (C) photographer (D) film producer (E) newspaper publisher E.C.20. Which of the following best accounts for the fact that Slavic immigrants in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries settled principally in mid-western cities like Pittsburgh, Detroit, and Chicago? (A) The immigrants' inability to speak English was a serious obstacle to securing work on the East Coast. (B) Housing was better and food cheaper in the newer cities of the Midwest. (C) Midwestern steel, meatpacking, and other mass production industries offered many unskilled jobs. (D) Immigration authorities subsidized rail fares for westward migrants. (E) Ethnic and religious prejudice was less widespread in the Midwest than in eastern cities. 21. Which of the following was true of the American labor movement in the late nineteenth century? (A) It was controlled by immigrant socialists and anarchists. (B) It was confined to factory workers. (C) It was protected from employer harassment by federal law and policy. (D) It was allied with the Democratic party. (E) It was involved in a number of violent strikes. E.C.22. Which of the following was the most persistent problem facing municipalities in the United States throughout the last quarter of the nineteenth century? (A) Decreasing municipal tax bases (B) Inadequate water and sewer systems (C) Deteriorating transportation systems (D) A decline in the number of manufacturing jobs (E) Gang violence among unemployed youths 23. The American Federation of Labor under the leadership of Samuel Gompers organized (A) skilled workers in craft unions in order to achieve economic gains (B) all industrial and agricultural workers in “one big union” (C)unskilled workers along industrial lines (D) workers and intellectuals into a labor for political action (E) workers into a fraternal organization to provide unemployment and old-age benefits 24. Social Darwinists believed that (A) there should be public ownership of the means of production (B) all men are created equal (C) society evolves in a cyclical fashion (D) man could, with proper effort, recover from any adversity in life (E) the theory of survival of the fittest explains individual success or failure in society 25. Which of the following was NOT a characteristic of American industrialization between 1840 and 1920? (A) Production increasingly by machines rather than by hand (B) Production increasingly located in large, systematically organized factories (C) Heavy dependence on foreign raw materials (D) Accelerated technological innovation with emphasis on new inventions and applied science (E) Enlarged markets stretching beyond local and regional limits 26. Most of the immigrants who came to the United States between 1880 and 1920 were from (A) Northern and Western Europe (B) China and Japan (C) Ireland (D) Latin America (E) Southern and Eastern Europe 27. Which of the following factors was NOT involved in the rise of political machines in nineteenth-century American cities? (A) The gap between the need for social services and the willingness of city governments to provide them (B) The increasing proportion of immigrant residents in American cities (C) Construction of public works on an unprecedented scale (D) The limitation of suffrage to property owners (E) The desire of numerous urban residents to circumvent legal restrictions on gambling and the sale of alcohol 28. The federal statute that declared illegal “every contract, combination in the form of trust, or otherwise, or conspiracy in restraint of trade among the several states” was the (A) Sherman Act (B) Taft-Hartley Act (C) Wagner Act (D) Norris-La Guardia Act (E) Landrum-Griffin Act 29. All of the following account for nativist sentiment against the “new immigrants” of the late nineteenth century EXCEPT that the immigrants (A) practiced different religions (B) had different languages and cultures (C) were willing to work for lower wages than were native-born workers (D) were not familiar with the United States political system (E) dominated the professions of law, medicine, and engineering 30. Which of the following labor organizations endorsed the philosophy of “bread and butter” unionism by concentrating on demands for higher wages, shorter hours, and improved working conditions? (A) The Knights of Labor (B) The Molly Maguires (C) The American Federation of Labor (D) The Industrial Workers of the World (E) The National Labor Union 31. All of the following statements about higher education in the United States from 1865 to 1917 are correct EXCEPT: (A) Many states established new institutions under the provisions of the Morrill Act (B) The teaching of religion became increasingly important at major northeastern institutions (C) An increasing number of institutions of higher education admitted women (D) Graduate programs were initiated to expand certain professions (E) Many industrialists and the wealthy endowed universities 32. The cartoon to the right is a commentary on late-nineteenth-century (A) municipal corruption (B) imperialism (C) labor unrest (D) business monopolies (E) civil-rights campaigns 33. Jacob Riis’s How the Other Half Lives is a study of (A) Jim Crow segregation and its effects on African Americans (B) The plight of Great Plains farmers in the 1890’s (C) Immigrant urban poverty and despair in the 1890’s (D) The corruption in city political machines in the 1890’s (E) The rise of industrial capitalists in the late nineteenth century 34. From the 1880’s to the beginning of the New Deal, the dominant American Indian policy of the United States government sought to (A) strengthen traditional tribal authority (B) relocate all American Indians to the Oklahoma territory (C) encourage American Indian emigration to Canada (D) encourage American Indians to preserve their languages and religions (E) break up tribal landholdings 35. The precipitating factor in the 1894 Pullman strike was Pullman’s (A) dismissal of union workers (B) introduction of scrip in part payment of wages (C) retraction of its promise to provide an employee insurance and retirement plan (D) employment of immigrant labor at less than a living wage (E) cutting of wages without proportionate cuts in company housing rents 36. When Mark Twain coined the phrase “the Gilded Age” to describe the United States of the 1870’s, he was referring to the (A) corruption and superficiality of life (B) progress of the arts since the Civil War (C) great wealth of the country (D) elaborate etiquette of public officials (E) reuniting of the North and the South E.C 37. United States Supreme Court decisions in the period 1877-1900 were effective in (A) ensuring racial equality (B) encouraging the growth of big business (C) providing relief for small farmers and sharecroppers (D) protecting the rights of labor unions in industrial disputes (E) guaranteeing civil liberties 38. Which of the following forms of transportation contributed most to changing residential patterns in American cities during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries? (A) Subways (B) Streetcars and bridges (C) Automobiles (D) Gasoline buses (E) Diesel locomotives 39. “My party’s in power in the city, and it’s going to undertake a lot of public improvements. Well, I’m tipped off, say, that they’re going to lay out a new park at a certain place. I see my opportunity and I take it. I go to that place and I buy up all the land I can in the neighborhood. Then the board of this or that makes its plan public, and there is a rush to get my land which nobody cared particular for before. Ain’t it perfectly honest to charge a good price and make a profit on my investment and foresight? Of course it is. Well, that’s honest graft.” 40. This statement was most likely made by (A) a populist (B) a machine politician (C) a mugwump (D) a tenement owner (E) an urban merchant 41. Louis Sullivan and Frank Lloyd Wright are best known for their work in (A) painting (B) poetry (C) science (D) architecture (E) philosophy 42. The Exclusion Act of 1882 prohibited the immigration of which of the following groups? (A) Irish (B) Mexicans (C) Eastern European Jews (D) Japanese (E) Chinese 43. Which of the following was a significant movement in American literature during the late nineteenth century? (A) Creationism (B) Modernism (C) Romanticism (D) Classicism (E) Realism E.C.44. Edward Bellamy’s Looking Backward, written in the 1880s, was a utopian reaction to which of the following? (A) The disillusionment with an increasingly competitive and industrial society (B) The plight of farmers who were driven off their land during the Great Depression (C) The disillusionment of the planter aristocracy in the post-Civil War era (D) The growing number of immigrants who regretted leaving their homes in Europe (E) Increasing concerns over the growth and power of labor unions in the railroad industry 45. The Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 sought to prevent (A) discrimination by the railroads against small customers (B) publication of railroad rate schedules (C) transportation of children across state lines for immoral purposes (D) shipment across state lines of goods produced in sweatshops (E) use of the federal mails for the dissemination of birth control information 46. Which of the following statements best represents the nativist attitude toward the influx of immigrants around 1900? (A) Slavs and Italians will be assimilated as easily into the American way of life as were earlier immigrant groups (B) Ellis Island should be enlarged to accommodate the huge influx of immigrants who do not speak English (C) Immigrants will work for low wages and break strikes, which will hurt all American workers (D) Native-born Americans should organize to help find jobs and homes for new immigrants so that they can become citizens as quickly as possible (E) Political machines in the large cities must be responsible for providing immigrants with food, shelter, and jobs in return for their votes 47. Which of the following best describes the urban political machines of the late nineteenth century? (A) Organizations created by native-born Americans to combat the political influence of immigrants (B) Organizations controlled by politicians who dispensed jobs and other patronage in return for political support (C) Organizations working for civil service reform to ensure sound municipal government (D) Organizations of reformers working to combat urban poverty by establishing settlement houses (E) Organization of conservative elites seeking to maintain control of politics 48. The cartoonist for Harper’s Weekly who played a major role in turning public sentiment against New York City’s Boss Tweed was (A) Grant Wood (B) Winslow Homer (C) Matt Morgan (D) Thomas Nast (E) Norman Rockwell 49. Immigrants coming to America during the late nineteenth century were most likely to (A) settle in large cities in the Northeast or Midwest (B) settle on farms in the upper Midwest (C) seek to file on homesteads on the Great Plains (D) migrate to the South and Southwest (E) return to their homelands after only a brief stay in the U.S. 50. The settlement-house movement drew its workers primarily from which of the following groups? (A) Young, affluent and middle class, college-educated women (B) Poor Eastern European immigrants (C) Disabled veterans of the Spanish-American War (D) Idealistic young men who came to the city largely from rural areas (E) Often illiterate members of the urban working class 51. The “yellow journalism” of the late nineteenth century might best be described as (A) focusing on the influx of Chinese immigrants to the West Coast and calling for restrictions on such immigration (B) attempting to alarm the public about the supposed “yellow peril” of Japan’s growing naval and industrial might (C) focusing exclusively on corruptions and abuses in government and big business (D) reporting the news in an exaggerated, distorted, and sensationalized manner (E) dominated by the funding of large corporations so as to take a stance consistently favorable to big business 52. The only dominant, broad-based labor union in the United States from 1870-1890 was the (A) National Labor Union (B) Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) (C) American Federation of Labor (AFL) (D) Congress of Industrial Organization (CIO) (E) Knights of Labor 53. The political machines, such as Tammany Hall, which ran American cities at the turn of the century, derived their strongest support from (A) industrial leaders and business elites (B) organized religion (C) wealthy landowners living in rural areas outside the cities (D) the middle class (E) poor immigrants and ethnic communities in the inner city 54. The combination of European musical influences with African musical influences came together in 1890’s New Orleans to form the foundations of a new distinctly American musical style called (A) gospel (B) jazz (C) folk (D) country (E) blues 55. One reason for the lagging industrialization of the New South from the 1870’s to the 1890’s was (A) the lack of tax incentives by the state governments (B) the logging boom that took place after the war (C) the continued reliance on cotton as a cash crop (D) a large under-educated and unskilled workforce (E) a surplus of investment capital 56. City governments between 1870 and 1900 often came under the control of political “machines” because (A) upper class Americans were concerned about the treatment of new immigrants by existing city administrations (B) political machines provided urban dwellers in rapidly growing cities with services that previous city governments were not effectively providing (C) federal officials took control of chaotic municipal governments (D) there was so much political corruption that new methods were needed to reintroduce honesty in government (E) city government had come under the control of big business and the bankers 57. All of the following describe the majority of immigrants who came to the United States between 1880 and 1920 EXCEPT? (A) They were unskilled and undereducated when they arrived (B) They were generally young (C) They came to urban areas (D) They were Protestant (E) They were from Southern and Eastern Europe th 58. Which of the following statements is true of immigrants who came to the United States in the late 19 century? (A) Most came from Asia and the Pacific Islands (B) Many could neither read nor write in English (C) Most settled in rural and agricultural areas of the country (D) A large majority of these immigrants were women (E) Most settled in suburbs on the outskirts of America’s major cities E.C. 59. Attempting to deal with prejudice and poverty, the Irish organized which secret union for Irish Pennsylvania coal miners? (A) Know Nothings (B) Molly Maguires (C) Ancient Order of Hibernians (D) Shamrock Society (E) Orange and Greens
"The West_ Industrialization_ Immigration_ and Urbanization Test"