Programmatic CDM Project in Low and Middle income Housing in South Africa
Project Name Sectoral Baseline in Low and Middle Income
Brief Description of the Project: It is the aim of the project to develop a
programmatic CDM methodology allowing for
energy efficiency, water efficiency and
renewable energy interventions* in low-
income housing throughout South Africa to be
credited under the CDM.
The project currently comprises 1 750 housing
units in 3 different locations: Buffalo City,
Mitchell’s Plain and Mfuleni, with various
other projects joining the list of potential
* these include, but are not limited to: insulated ceilings, solar water
heaters, energy efficient lamps, dry sanitation systems and grey water
Project Type Mitigation using GS credited Programmatic
Is the project Mitigation, CDM, CDM.
Gold Standard, or Adaptation?
Nature of Climate Change benefit There will be a reduction of fossil based fuel
Briefly explain how the project will consumption, and hence CO2 emissions, for
reduce or avoid emissions; or how space heating and water heating and water-
the project will reduce the borne sewage service provision. This will be
vulnerability of the poor or improve achieved through the provision of interventions
their adaptive capacity that will improve the thermal efficiency of the
housing units, and provide energy efficient
lighting and solar water heating.
Current Project Status:
Please explain the current status of
the project in terms of:
1. approved by SSN board or Yes
2. funding available or not The Department of Science and Technology
has indicated a willingness to fund the
development of a model that will simplify the
calculation of emissions reductions. Other
funding sources for finalising the institutional
framework is currently being sought.
3. MOU signed or not No
4. implementation begun or No
Affected Community Mid to low-income households who qualify for
1. Which is the target national housing subsidy* in the 3 project areas
community that will benefit (currently 1 750 housing units).
from the project
There is a potential for replication and scaling
up through the use of Programmatic CDM
which would benefit many other communities.
* In South Africa the government subsidises housing under the
Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) whose target was
to provide one million houses within the first five years of democracy
and to continue in its efforts to provide housing for all in South Africa.
2. Explain the current position Currently beneficiaries have no access to
of the beneficiary formal houses and basic services such as
community sanitation and electricity. Fuel wood and
paraffin are the main sources of energy used
for cooking and space heating.
In the informal settlement where most of the
600 households of the Buffalo City Project are
currently residing, there is only one stand water
pipe to service all households.
In urban areas the new RDP house is a 36m²
built with water borne sewerage connection, an
on-site water pipe, a single electrical plug
point, incandescent light bulbs are used and
galvanised iron roof without any insulation.
Installation of ceilings and electricity geysers
will be left to the onus of the owner as part of
Many of the households may never be able to
prioritise electric geysers because of
constraints placed by their extreme poverty
levels. Therefore they will still rely on paraffin
and wood to heat their water. For space heating
electric bar heater are used. Those who cannot
afford bar heaters usually depend on coal and
3. Please how the project The communities will benefit as follows:
activities would benefit the • Improved health due to decreased air
• The elimination of waterborne
sewerage combined with grey water
treatment system allows for free basic
water allocation to be used for cooking,
drinking and washing and a second use
for garden irrigation.
• The minimisation of waste and
composting produces a resource that
could generate income or be used in
household gardens to grow vegetables.
• A community gardening project will
form part of the activity and this would
contribute positively to poverty
• Employment creation and training
• The mixed energy source use provided
by the project places the household in a
better position to make decisions
regarding use of their free basic
electricity service provided by
government, and to hedge against
fluctuations in fuel and energy prices
and qualities of supply.
• Reduced monthly energy bills.
• In the case of the Mitchell’s Plain
project the creation of a safe
environment with which people can
identify and feel proud of.
• Improving levels of comfort within the
1. Please explain how the • Reduced monthly energy bills.
project will improve • A community gardening project will
livelihoods of the poor form part of the activity and this would
contribute positively to poverty
• Employment creation opportunities
exist for the local manufacture and
installation of technologies and
associated infrastructure required for
full project implementation.
• Further employment benefits would
occur through the maintenance of the
2. Please explain how the • Beneficiaries will acquire new skills
project will improve human and education through energy
or institutional capacity of management and waste management
the poor training.
• The raised standard of living with
accompanying lower cost of living,
could enable community members to
access better learning possibilities.
• Access to new energy sources such as
solar will lead to unsuppressed demand
and open opportunities for small
• In the Mitchell’s Plain project, income
from the carbon credits will be
channelled back to the community. A
residential committee will be set up to
manage this process which will provide
the opportunity to learn new skills as
well as the possibility of hiring staff (a
social facilitator, maintenance team,
caretaker) and thereby create
employment opportunities within the
• The community gardening project will
provide skill development opportunities
and the possibility of generating extra
Sustainable Development Benefits • The development of these projects will
What sustainable development trigger the development of other similar
benefits will arise from the project projects under Programmatic CDM.
activities apart from poverty • The communities themselves will be
reduction? more sustainable through access to
better services, less health problems,
potential for increased income.
• Business opportunities relating to the
new technologies that will be used.
• Environmental benefits internally in
houses due to decreased use of paraffin
• Environmental benefits externally due
to the reduction of CO2 emissions.
• Greater community interaction.
Technology Transfer and Technologies employed in the project are solar
Receptivity water heaters for water heating, energy
1. Please explain any efficient lighting, insulated ceilings, urine
technology that will be diversion sanitation systems, grey water
involved in the project treatment systems.
2. Please explain the transfer • Pilots of demonstration houses will be
and reception steps in the run to test the technologies, provide
project activities capacity and transfer technology to the
households who are able to receive it. It
will also be used to show to municipal
officials and provincial stakeholders in
order to gain acceptance.
• Training will be provided to local
artisans, plumbers and households on
installation, operation and maintenance
of the technologies.
• An awareness raising campaign will be
conducted using the households to
share experience with other
• Training on composting and the use
thereof in the community garden
• Dry sanitation technology was
introduced to local authority officials,
politicians and the beneficiary
community. A pre-study was
undertaken to determine the
composition of the grey water and
behavioural patterns related to water
and wastewater generation in a
household from the surrounding formal
• An awareness campaign which
involved carrying out cost benefit
analysis with the community, ward
committees and politicians led to
beneficiaries choosing the technology
• The pilot housing will also play a
significant role to familiarise
households with the technology
operations and share the experience
• The beneficiary community has
participated in the design of the urine
• A pre study as been undertaken to
determine the acceptability of the
technology to the community.
3. Please explain how the The technology will benefit the community
transfer and reception of the through job creation, skills training and
project technology will economic savings in monthly municipal bills.
benefit the affected There are opportunities for entrepreneurial
community (poor activities in the maintenance and management
beneficiaries) of the technologies. The use of dangerous
sources of energy, resulting in high air
pollution, diseases and loss of property and
lives due to incidents of fire will be reduced.
The elimination of waterborne sewerage
combined with grey water treatment system
allows for free basic water allocation to be
used for cooking, drinking and washing and a
second use for garden irrigation. The
minimisation of waste and composting
produces a resource that could generate income
or be used in household gardens to grow
1. Please describe the capacity Training will be provided to local artisans,
building aspects of the plumbers and households on: installation;
project operation and maintenance of the technologies.
An awareness raising campaign will be
conducted using the households to share
experience with other communities.
In some instances residential committee will be
set up providing employment opportunities.
The capacity of the local municipalities and
housing developers will be built with regard to
climate change mitigation, the CDM and
integrating water and energy efficiency and
renewable energy into housing delivery.
2. Please describe whose The local communities, plumbers, local
capacity will be built artisans, local government.
through the project
3. Please explain the steps for Pilot housing will provide the opportunity for
capacity building in the training and to familiarise households with
project new technology. An awareness raising
campaign will be conducted using the
households to share experience with other
communities. Community Garden projects will
train the communities on the use of compost
and gardening skills.