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					                            PROJECT PIN:
Programmatic CDM Project in Low and Middle income Housing in South Africa




Project Name                           Sectoral Baseline in Low and Middle Income
                                       Housing Project
Brief Description of the Project:      It is the aim of the project to develop a
                                       programmatic CDM methodology allowing for
                                       energy efficiency, water efficiency and
                                       renewable energy interventions* in low-
                                       income housing throughout South Africa to be
                                       credited under the CDM.

                                       The project currently comprises 1 750 housing
                                       units in 3 different locations: Buffalo City,
                                       Mitchell’s Plain and Mfuleni, with various
                                       other projects joining the list of potential
                                       participants.

                                       * these include, but are not limited to: insulated ceilings, solar water
                                       heaters, energy efficient lamps, dry sanitation systems and grey water
                                       recycling.
Project Type                           Mitigation using GS credited Programmatic
Is the project Mitigation, CDM,        CDM.
Gold Standard, or Adaptation?
Nature of Climate Change benefit       There will be a reduction of fossil based fuel
Briefly explain how the project will   consumption, and hence CO2 emissions, for
reduce or avoid emissions; or how      space heating and water heating and water-
the project will reduce the            borne sewage service provision. This will be
vulnerability of the poor or improve   achieved through the provision of interventions
their adaptive capacity                that will improve the thermal efficiency of the
                                       housing units, and provide energy efficient
                                       lighting and solar water heating.

Current Project Status:
Please explain the current status of
the project in terms of:
    1. approved by SSN board or        Yes
       not
    2. funding available or not        The Department of Science and Technology
                                       has indicated a willingness to fund the
                                       development of a model that will simplify the
                                       calculation of emissions reductions. Other
                                       funding sources for finalising the institutional
                                       framework is currently being sought.
   3. MOU signed or not                No
   4. implementation begun or          No
       not
Affected Community                     Mid to low-income households who qualify for
   1. Which is the target              national housing subsidy* in the 3 project areas
       community that will benefit     (currently 1 750 housing units).
       from the project
                                       There is a potential for replication and scaling
                                       up through the use of Programmatic CDM
                                       which would benefit many other communities.

                                       * In South Africa the government subsidises housing under the
                                       Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) whose target was
                                       to provide one million houses within the first five years of democracy
                                       and to continue in its efforts to provide housing for all in South Africa.


   2. Explain the current position     Currently beneficiaries have no access to
      of the beneficiary               formal houses and basic services such as
      community                        sanitation and electricity. Fuel wood and
                                       paraffin are the main sources of energy used
                                       for cooking and space heating.

                                       In the informal settlement where most of the
                                       600 households of the Buffalo City Project are
                                       currently residing, there is only one stand water
                                       pipe to service all households.

                                       In urban areas the new RDP house is a 36m²
                                       built with water borne sewerage connection, an
                                       on-site water pipe, a single electrical plug
                                       point, incandescent light bulbs are used and
                                       galvanised iron roof without any insulation.
                                       Installation of ceilings and electricity geysers
                                       will be left to the onus of the owner as part of
                                       home improvements.

                                       Many of the households may never be able to
                                       prioritise electric geysers because of
                                       constraints placed by their extreme poverty
                                       levels. Therefore they will still rely on paraffin
                                       and wood to heat their water. For space heating
                                     electric bar heater are used. Those who cannot
                                     afford bar heaters usually depend on coal and
                                     paraffin stoves.

   3. Please how the project         The communities will benefit as follows:
      activities would benefit the       • Improved health due to decreased air
      community                            pollution.
                                         • The     elimination     of    waterborne
                                           sewerage combined with grey water
                                           treatment system allows for free basic
                                           water allocation to be used for cooking,
                                           drinking and washing and a second use
                                           for garden irrigation.
                                         • The minimisation of waste and
                                           composting produces a resource that
                                           could generate income or be used in
                                           household gardens to grow vegetables.
                                         • A community gardening project will
                                           form part of the activity and this would
                                           contribute positively to poverty
                                           alleviation.
                                         • Employment creation and training
                                           opportunities.
                                         • The mixed energy source use provided
                                           by the project places the household in a
                                           better position to make decisions
                                           regarding use of their free basic
                                           electricity    service    provided    by
                                           government, and to hedge against
                                           fluctuations in fuel and energy prices
                                           and qualities of supply.
                                         • Reduced monthly energy bills.
                                         • In the case of the Mitchell’s Plain
                                           project the creation of a safe
                                           environment with which people can
                                           identify and feel proud of.
                                         • Improving levels of comfort within the
                                           home.

Poverty Reduction
   1. Please explain how the             • Reduced monthly energy bills.
      project will improve               • A community gardening project will
      livelihoods of the poor              form part of the activity and this would
                                           contribute positively to poverty
                                           alleviation.
                                         • Employment creation opportunities
                                           exist for the local manufacture and
                                           installation of technologies and
                                           associated infrastructure required for
                                         full project implementation.
                                       • Further employment benefits would
                                         occur through the maintenance of the
                                         technologies.

   2. Please explain how the           •   Beneficiaries will acquire new skills
      project will improve human           and     education     through      energy
      or institutional capacity of         management and waste management
      the poor                             training.
                                       •   The raised standard of living with
                                           accompanying lower cost of living,
                                           could enable community members to
                                           access better learning possibilities.
                                       •   Access to new energy sources such as
                                           solar will lead to unsuppressed demand
                                           and open opportunities for small
                                           business development.
                                       •   In the Mitchell’s Plain project, income
                                           from the carbon credits will be
                                           channelled back to the community. A
                                           residential committee will be set up to
                                           manage this process which will provide
                                           the opportunity to learn new skills as
                                           well as the possibility of hiring staff (a
                                           social facilitator, maintenance team,
                                           caretaker)     and     thereby      create
                                           employment opportunities within the
                                           community.
                                       •   The community gardening project will
                                           provide skill development opportunities
                                           and the possibility of generating extra
                                           income.

Sustainable Development Benefits       •   The development of these projects will
What sustainable development               trigger the development of other similar
benefits will arise from the project       projects under Programmatic CDM.
activities apart from poverty          •   The communities themselves will be
reduction?                                 more sustainable through access to
                                           better services, less health problems,
                                           potential for increased income.
                                       •   Business opportunities relating to the
                                           new technologies that will be used.
                                       •   Environmental benefits internally in
                                           houses due to decreased use of paraffin
                                           and kerosene.
                                       •   Environmental benefits externally due
                                           to the reduction of CO2 emissions.
                                       •   Greater community interaction.
Technology Transfer and             Technologies employed in the project are solar
Receptivity                         water heaters for water heating, energy
   1. Please explain any            efficient lighting, insulated ceilings, urine
      technology that will be       diversion sanitation systems, grey water
      involved in the project       treatment systems.

   2. Please explain the transfer      •   Pilots of demonstration houses will be
      and reception steps in the           run to test the technologies, provide
      project activities                   capacity and transfer technology to the
                                           households who are able to receive it. It
                                           will also be used to show to municipal
                                           officials and provincial stakeholders in
                                           order to gain acceptance.
                                       •   Training will be provided to local
                                           artisans, plumbers and households on
                                           installation, operation and maintenance
                                           of the technologies.
                                       •   An awareness raising campaign will be
                                           conducted using the households to
                                           share      experience     with     other
                                           communities.
                                       •   Training on composting and the use
                                           thereof in the community garden
                                           projects.

                                       Dry Sanitation:
                                       • Dry       sanitation   technology      was
                                          introduced to local authority officials,
                                          politicians     and    the     beneficiary
                                          community.         A    pre-study     was
                                          undertaken        to    determine      the
                                          composition of the grey water and
                                          behavioural patterns related to water
                                          and wastewater generation in a
                                          household from the surrounding formal
                                          settlement.
                                       • An awareness campaign which
                                          involved carrying out cost benefit
                                          analysis with the community, ward
                                          committees and politicians led to
                                          beneficiaries choosing the technology
                                          type.
                                       • The pilot housing will also play a
                                          significant      role    to    familiarise
                                          households with the technology
                                          operations and share the experience
                                          with others.
                                       • The beneficiary community has
                                          participated in the design of the urine
                                             diversion units.
                                         •   A pre study as been undertaken to
                                             determine the acceptability of the
                                             technology to the community.

   3. Please explain how the          The technology will benefit the community
      transfer and reception of the   through job creation, skills training and
      project technology will         economic savings in monthly municipal bills.
      benefit the affected            There are opportunities for entrepreneurial
      community (poor                 activities in the maintenance and management
      beneficiaries)                  of the technologies. The use of dangerous
                                      sources of energy, resulting in high air
                                      pollution, diseases and loss of property and
                                      lives due to incidents of fire will be reduced.

                                      The elimination of waterborne sewerage
                                      combined with grey water treatment system
                                      allows for free basic water allocation to be
                                      used for cooking, drinking and washing and a
                                      second use for garden irrigation. The
                                      minimisation of waste and composting
                                      produces a resource that could generate income
                                      or be used in household gardens to grow
                                      vegetables.

Capacity Building
   1. Please describe the capacity    Training will be provided to local artisans,
      building aspects of the         plumbers and households on: installation;
      project                         operation and maintenance of the technologies.

                                      An awareness raising campaign will be
                                      conducted using the households to share
                                      experience with other communities.

                                      In some instances residential committee will be
                                      set up providing employment opportunities.

                                      The capacity of the local municipalities and
                                      housing developers will be built with regard to
                                      climate change mitigation, the CDM and
                                      integrating water and energy efficiency and
                                      renewable energy into housing delivery.

   2. Please describe whose           The local communities,        plumbers,    local
      capacity will be built          artisans, local government.
      through the project
   3. Please explain the steps for    Pilot housing will provide the opportunity for
      capacity building in the        training and to familiarise households with
      project                         new technology. An awareness raising
                                      campaign will be conducted using the
households to share experience with other
communities. Community Garden projects will
train the communities on the use of compost
and gardening skills.

				
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