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Good health is essential for learning



        Kindergarten is an institution of preschool education. In Ukraine there are both types of
kindergartens – private and governmental. They should be placed in the resident area far from
sources of noise and pollution. Area size is defined from the number of children. If kindergarten
has up to 160 children so area for each child should be 45 m2, if more –35. Kindergarten serving
area has radius 300 m. Area is subdivided on these functional zones: economical (include
storehouses, garage, boiler building, laundry, kitchen), zone of play grounds, zone of
vegetations. Kindergarten area should have 2 entrances as minimum. Percentage of built area is
not exceed 25%, minimal percentage of area occupied by vegetations is 55%. The maximal
quantity of floors for kindergarten building is 2. Premises for young age children should be
placed at the first floor.
        Kindergarten building should have centralized water supply (in the country – local water
supply system), sewage disposal. They provide kindergarten with hot water (autonomic boiler or
two independent intakes of hot water pipes.
        Main principle of building planning is ―group isolation‖. It’s mean that every age group
has own set of premises. In the observation it makes possible do not close kindergarten. A set of
premises includes dressing room, playing room (used as a dining-room also), bedroom, serving
room and lavatory. Every ―group section‖ has two entrances – one to the street and another – to
internal corridor of the kindergarten. If two groups has common exit they should use it by the
schedule. Toys in the group room should accord to the children age. It’s prohibited to use toys
from the group in other groups. Every week they wash all premises with disinfectants, regular
cleaning is been making 3-4 times during a day. Disinfectants is changed every 7 days, laundry –
every 10 days. They have in the group a stored drinking water for children, it’s forbidden to use
for drinking tap water. Children eat in the group room, after every meal all dishes is washed and
        Medical room should have isolator. It’s situated at the first floor and has separate exit to
the street. If they inoculate children in the kindergarten (not in the policlinic) so all vaccines have
to be stored in the refrigerator. The temperature inside a refrigerator should be not more +5°C,
it’s been measuring daily and data is recorded in the special register. Also the nurse of
kindergarten has a register of antropometry and complete set of medical documentation
(individual charts of children and medical books of staff). Every morning before reception to the
group the nurse inspects children on the presence of signs of infection (fever, coughing, rhinitis,
rash etc). Data of examining is been recording in the register.
        Demands to personal hygiene of staff and children are very strict. A staff person shall
ensure that a child's hands are washed before meals, snacks, after toileting and after being
diapered. Cloth towels and washcloths shall be labeled with the child's name, used by only the
named child and laundered weekly. The operator shall arrange a laundry schedule with the
parent. Paper towels may be used as towels and washcloths. Paper towels shall be discarded after
each use. If brushing teeth is a program activity, a child shall have a labeled toothbrush.
Toothbrushes shall be stored with the bristles up and exposed to circulating air. Paper cups
discarded after one use, or water fountains shall be used for between-meal drinking by children
who are not bottle-fed. Lavatory for staff should be isolated from child lavatories.
       Good health is essential for learning. Health is not only the absence of disease but
       also complete physical, mental, and social well-being. When school age children
       are not in good health, they become distracted, unable to concentrate in school,
       keep up with their demanding schedules, and sometimes even unable to attend
school. Years ago the biggest threats to the health of school children came from
contagious diseases such as tuberculosis, diphtheria, measles, mumps, and
rubella. Today most health risks have their roots in social or behavioral
conditions. When these problems emerge, they can disrupt students' lives,
classrooms, and the school environment. When students are sick, distracted, or
absent, schooling becomes ineffective. For students to become productive,
responsible citizens, schools must help them develop health-promoting skills and
behaviors and attend to the physical, mental, and social components of their lives.
For the past decade, education and health experts have suggested that a
coordinated school health program that goes beyond classroom instruction and
integrates eight components in the most efficient way for schools to ensure the
health of their students. There are:
Comprehensive School Health Education. This classroom instruction addresses
the physical, emotional, and social dimensions of health; develops health
knowledge, attitudes, and skills, and its tailored to each age level. It is designed to
motivate and assist students to maintain and improve their health, prevent disease,
and reduce health related risk behaviors.
Physical Education. This instruction that promotes lifelong, safe, physical
activity. It is designed to develop basic movement skills, sports skills, and
physical fitness, as well as to enhance social and emotional abilities.
School Health Services. These are preventative services, education, emergency
care, referral, and management of acute and chronic health conditions. They are
designed to promote the health of students, identify and prevent health problems
and injuries, and ensure care for students.
School Nutrition Services. These services integrate nutrition education,
nutritious and appealing meals, and an environment that promotes healthy dietary
behaviors for all children. They are designed to maximize each child’s education
and health potential for a lifetime.
School Counseling, Psychological, and Social Services. These activities focus
on the cognitive, emotional, behavioral, and social needs of individuals, groups,
and families. They are designed to prevent and address problems and to facilitate
learning and healthy behaviors and development.
Healthy School Environment. This is the physical, emotional, and social climate
of the school. Designed to provide a safe physical plant as well as a healthy and
supportive environment that fosters learning.
School-Site Health Promotion for Staff. This includes assessment, education,
and fitness activities for school faculty and staff. It is designed to maintain and
improve the health and well-being of school staff who serve as role models for
Family and Community Involvement in Schools. These are partnerships among
schools, families, and community groups and individuals. They are designed to
share and maximize resources and expertise in addressing the healthy
development of children, youth, and their families.
Schools have evolved from purely educational facilities into sources of
employment, social and health services, cultural opportunities, and recreation and
entertainment for their surrounding communities. This increased burden has
outmatched many communities' abilities to maintain many of the buildings. In
fact, a recent U.S. General Accounting Office report indicates that the physical
condition of over half the nation's schools presents an environmental health threat
to students and staff. The physical decay jeopardizes not only the physical health
of the students, but also permeates into the climate of the school's environment--
the expectations that the community places on the school, the self-esteem of the
students, and the overall academic achievement of the student body.
Coordinated School Health Programs
Many policymakers acknowledge the intrinsic link between public education and
public health. The federal government's Healthy People 2000 and Education
Goals 2000 programs advocate a national campaign to promote good health and
academic success. The two spotlight the important interrelationships between
health and education for children and youth. At least 15 of the Healthy People
2000 objectives are directly achievable by schools. In addition, the Department of
Health and Human Services (HHS) believes that schools can play important roles
in meeting nearly 100 additional Healthy People 2000 objectives (HHS, 1992). In
part, this national initiative relies on the implementation of coordinated school
health programs. There are eight components to coordinated school health
programs, each of which provides some direct or indirect link to the success of
initiatives like Education Goals 2000. In an article published in the Journal of
School Health (1987), D.D. Allensworth and L.J. Kolbe outlined the eight
components: health education; physical education; health services; nutrition
services; health promotion for staff; counseling, psychological, and social
services; healthy school environment, and parent and community involvement.

Healthy School Environment
A healthy school environment encompasses both the physical and psychosocial
surroundings in which students and school personnel are expected to work. It
provides the connection between everything that is and everything that happens
in, on, and around school grounds. Its importance, then, is integral. The Council
of Chief State School Officers defines a healthy school environment as "the
framework within which the other seven components of a coordinated school
health program operate." At its core, a healthy school environment "protects
students and staff against immediate injury or disease and promotes prevention
activities and attitudes against known risk factors that might lead to future disease
or disability," according to the American Academy of Pediatrics. Schools which
make a concerted effort to promote a healthy school environment--in both the
physical and social realms--see positive results. As outlined in Health is
Academic: A Guide to Coordinated School Health Programs, a healthy school
environment supports learning and contributes to students' health by:

      Minimizing distractions;

      Minimizing physical, psychological, and social hazards;

      Creating a climate in which students and school staff do their best work;

      Expecting that all students can succeed

      Implementing supportive policies.
The physical school facility represents the external, tangible environment.
Physical conditions can include school bus safety, adequate water and classroom
       supplies, physical security of the building, as well as acoustics, ventilation,
       heating and air conditioning, and lighting. As mentioned before, at least half of
       the nation's public schools contains an environmental hazard, such as asbestos,
       contaminated water, or poorly ventilated indoor air. Furthermore, the Children's
       Safety Network (USA) estimates that 10-25 percent of all injuries to children and
       adolescents occur in and around schools. Playgrounds incidentally account for
       half of the injuries which occur on school grounds. Schools, if they choose to,
       could integrate any number of changes to improve their physical surroundings--
       including removing physical hazards, maintaining equipment and facilities, and
       imposing additional safety measures on existing equipment.
       Psychosocial conditions, on the other hand, encompass the attitudes, feelings, and
       values of the students and staff and may require more extensive changes. The
       presence of gang violence as well as weapons, drugs, alcohol and tobacco on
       school grounds contribute to this aspect of a school's environment. Class size and
       the availability of community-based extra-curricular activities also facilitate the
       psychosocial environment of a school. To ensure healthy development, a number
       of model health practices can be integrated into core curriculums. For instance,
       schools could promote participating in active lifestyles, eating well-balanced
       meals, abstaining from alcohol, tobacco and other active drug use, and
       minimizing risk-taking behaviors, including sexual activity.
       Equally important are student and staff perceptions of the interactions that take
       place within the school environment. This less tangible component of
       environmental health is frequently referred to as school climate. Climate
       encompasses both social and physical elements, and creates an infrastructure that
       makes physical, social and emotional health, as well as achievement, possible.
       The contributors to Health is Academic also recommend a series of "action steps"
       to achieve a healthy school environment. While not necessarily sequential, they
       suggest the following:
       1. Develop and use a data collection system for assessing and monitoring the
       school environment.
       2. Provide leadership and administrative support for creating and sustaining a
       healthy school environment.
       3. Create a team to identify needs, set priorities, and identify resources.
       4. Develop and implement a plan for creating and sustaining a healthy school
       5. Monitor implementation of the plan as well as the school environment.
Ergonomic studies comprised scholar adaptability and scholar’s psycho-intellectual capacity,
approaching issues of mental load and psychological fatigue. Specific investigation methodology
was established and evaluation criteria of adaptability and mental fatigue were structured.
Scholars’ psychological limits are conditioned by their functional particularities of nervous
system and sensorial and motor abilities. Disregard of these limits makes improbable
determination of scholar activity dysfunction.
       Studies carried on between 1994-1998 on secondary and high school pupils revealed that
normal physically and psycho-intellectual developed students showed both objective (cardio-
vascular, muscular, sensorial indicators) and subjective (health status self-evaluation)
modifications that demonstrate scholar fatigue. Collective administration of anxiety test Cattel
showed increased anxiety on the studied group diagnoses varied from mild anxious neurosis to
severe anxious neurosis that requested psychiatric assistance. Relation between high school
performance with high level of anxiety in schoolgirls has been demonstrated.
       Study of knowledge functional modifications indicators (attention tests, test on work
capacity) has showed modifications in work capacity curve even in the conditions of reduction of
working week from 6 to 5 days. Previous studies showed that performance increases Monday
through Wednesday, under the new conditions Tuesday is the maximum, starting Wednesday
performance decreases gradually, so that Friday end of the day is the lowest.
        Study of time allocation revealed manifestations of overload syndrome on the account of
scholar manuals, subject’s planner both saturated with information, data, and inappropriate
structure of scholar schedules. Another finding of our researches was scholar dis-adaptive
syndrome considered as a form of social dis-adjustment that creates premises for further difficult
        Children’s confrontation with scholar demands generates typical sets of attitudes that lay
at the basis of behavioral changes, which the role of a pupil manifests through. The level and
establishment of scholar education are significantly influenced by definitory variables for socio-
familial environment especially cultural factors and mainly the level of parental instruction. The
study on pupils who were institutionalized since pre-school period and now attending mass
general schools, disclosed a decreased level of adjustment to scholar demands, situated 0-12
month below normal.
        Inclusion of these children into mass general schools has had an obvious benefic input
towards their QIV which became 10-20 points greater than pre-school period scores (93,8 in first
grade of school over 82,5 in pre-school). Acquisitions on speech level are shown by increased
values of QIV in the first and second grade of primary school (97,2 and 92,8). Delayed behavior
and psycho-intellectual development of institutionalized children are explained by the monotony
of life conditions, lack of exercise, the absence of individualization in care and education,
insufficient development of affective and social contact, lack of warmth from care staff, lack of
contact between children who play one next to another and not one with other. Researches need
to be orientated in the future, with priority, towards the activity that implies a high level of
mental load and a high volume of abstract and creative thinking.

School diseases:
The top ranked diseases are: ocular chronic diseases, failure to thrive, rickets consequences,
chronic disease of Waldayer lymph nodes, gained deformations of the spine. Studies found a
high percentage of pupils with disharmonic development, weight deficit in pupils from all grades
and all counties taken into study.
        Risk factors with impact on health status are: non-ergonomic school furniture, effort
curve not taken into account, three shifts per day into same school, artificial illumination
inappropriate in classrooms, craft rooms, laboratories, deficient potable water supply.
Inappropriate microclimate, deficient ventilation and sometime lack of furniture, floors and
toilets hygiene put pupils at risk for diseases. Epidemiological triage after holidays is an active
surveillance method into schoolchildren collectivities that enables information on
epidemiological potential and risk for health in school children. Diseases diagnosed at triage are
found in 1,5‰ of scholar population and are mainly infectious, both contagious and parasitical.
Incidence of angina is increasing so that in 2000 it reaches the value of 0,56‰. Pediculosis and
scabies are at constant percentage: 0,03-0,07‰ scabies and 0,8-1,2‰ pediculosis. There are
though differences between counties related to local/regional particularities. There is a need for
hygienic and sanitary, epidemiological, education for health measures with national dimension
aiming to reduce the incidence of these diseases and to eradicate scabies and lice.
       Further researches need to be developed through programs that aim at ontogenetic and
psychosocial evolution of children and teenagers as well as provide fundament to individual
learning (micro-learn) and social learning (macro-learn). Perspective to founding an integrative
science concerning human development in childhood and teenage and that has as prime goal
structuring a harmonic personality, human ontogenesis in a no risk relation with social,
ecological environment, is opened. The State Education Department requires schools to provide
certain health screenings to students in public schools. The screenings are done throughout the
school year as time permits. Parents are notified if there are any abnormal findings. If you have a
special concern about your child you may contact the school nurse. Health screenings are
scheduled as follows:
      Growth: height and weight yearly K-12
      Vision: distance — yearly K-12
      Vision: near, color perception, and plus lens — once within six months of starting school
      Hearing — yearly grades K-7 and grade 10
      Scoliosis (curvature of the spine) — yearly age 8-16
      School physical — grades K, 1, 3, 7, 10 and new students
   The exam may be given by the student's own physician or by the school physician. If child is
   new to school he must provide staff with evidence that she or he has been fully immunized
   (including DPT, polio and MMR immunizations). Also every student entering seventh grade
   must present a physician's certificate or copy of an immunization. Exceptions are made only
   if a parent states in writing that such a vaccine conflicts with religious beliefs, or if the
   student's physician submits documentation that such a procedure is contraindicated
School planning.
                                     School building should be placed in the resident area far from
                                     sources of pollution. The serving area has 500 m radius, for
                                     lyceum and colleges – without limits. School area has from
                                     0.5 to 3 ha and subdivided on economic zone, zone of
                                     vegetation, zone of sport grounds and school building zone.
                                     Built area can occupy up to 25% of school area, vegetation
                                     takes 55% as minimum. Sport zone takes about 30% of the
                                     area. In Ukraine they establish maximal height of school
                                     building as 3 floors. School building has two or more
                                     entrances. They use the systems of school building:
    1. centralized – all premises are situated in one building. It’s typical for the most urban
    2. decentralized – school has some buildings (for primary school grades, secondary school,
        catering unit, administrative unit, sport unit, dormitory (hostel) for board schools etc)
    3. combined – has features of the both systems
School is provided with systems of water supply, canalization, gas and electricity.
Primary grades are placed at the first floor of the building. Their square is 1.25 m2 per a pupil.
For secondary school this ratio is 1.5 m2. Height of school premises should be not less 3.5 m.
For classrooms of chemistry, biology, informatics, physics they use two premises units. They
consist of study room and laboratory (for IT class – server room). Chemistry classroom should
be equipped with local exhaustion and be placed at the upper floor of the school building.
                                           School furniture.
                                           The school furniture should be ergonomic, e.g. accord
                                           to the height of the child. They use terms differentia
                                           (distance between table and chair by the vertical) and
                                           distance of the back support (between back edge of the
                                           desk table and back of the chair) and distance of sitting
(between back edge of the desk table and front edge of the sit of chair). Differentia should be
equal to level of the elbow of sitting pupil +5 cm). Distance of sitting should be negative -(2-3
cm). If distance of sitting is positive it can cause thoracic hyperkyphosis. High
differentia cause right-side scoliosis, low differentia – left side scoliosis.
In the West they use height of sit in inches (14‖, 16‖, 18‖ etc) as the desk size.
Modern desk can be combined as a unit. It’s light, safe and ergonomic.
In the Ukraine we use the system of sizes of desks marking by Cyrillic letters and
color marks. This marks are used only for desks (1-4 grades).
                       Pupils’ height            Color mark (ring with D=25mm or
                                                 strip with width = 20 mm)

     А                 Up to 130 сm

                       130 – 145 cm

                       145 – 160 cm

                       160 – 175 cm

     Д               175 cm and more

Ergonomic workplace for PC studies.
                            Computers should accord to TCO 99 or TCO 95 (glare reducing
                            screen, ergonomic monitor).
                            Top of monitor screen is approximately on eye level. The best
                            is use of indirect lighting. Keybord and mouse should be
                            ergonomic. Elbow angle should be physiological (70-90°) and
                            wrist angle not to exceed 10°. Chair should support right
                            posture – thigh is horizontal, knee to bend at 90° or more. Feet
                            should be flat on the floor or foot rest.

School syllabus.
The hygienic organization of the educational classes at school is aimed to saving the work ability
during the whole day of study, to remove the fatigue i.e. to make this work hygienic and
pedagogically effective. There are five school days in a school week. The weekly workload in
periods for students shall be determined by the school curriculum. The maximum permitted
workload shall be:
  1) 20 hours in grade 1;
  2) 23 hours in grade 2;
  3) 25 hours in grades 3 and 4;
  4) 28 hours in grade 5;
    5) 30 hours in grades 6 and 7;
    6) 32 hours in grade 8;
    7) 34 hours in grade 9;
    8) 35 hours in grades 10-12.
Limit duration of a lesson in the first grade is up to 35 minutes. The best regimen for the first
grade pupils is following: September-October –3 classes x 30 min; November – December – 4
classes x 30 minutes and from January – 4 classes x 35 minutes. For fatigue prevention they use
little breaks in the lesson. The least ability to work is characterized Monday and Friday, the
maximal – Wednesday. So they should exclude to use test papers on these days.
It’s very important to change kinds of children activities from the intellectual work to the
physical – from classes of mathematics, foreign language – to craft, drawing or music. It’s
forbidden to place difficult subjects after sport classes. It’s necessary to avoid doubling lessons.
The breaks between classes should be not less 10 minutes, for lunch children have 30 minutes
break. For children rest should be organized recreation premises.
The maximum number of students in a class shall be 36.If there are children in the class with
mental handicaps, each of these shall be considered as 3 students, in determining the number in
the class.
In case of a small number of students, a composite class shall be formed of students from
different classes. From grades 1-4, there may be up to 20 students in a composite class formed
from 2 classes, from 3 classes up to 15, and from 4 classes up to 10 students. In grades 5-9, there
may be up to 15 students in a composite class formed from 2 consecutive classes. There may be
up to 30 students in a long day group. There may be up to 25 students in a group at a boarding
Homework Policy
Homework is an important part of the learning process, and you should expect to have
homework assignments each day. On the average, students in grades 5 and 6 should expect 1 to
1.5 hours of homework each night; students in grades 7 and 8 should expect 2 to 2.5 hours of
homework each night. Your parents should feel free to contact your teachers if they feel you are
doing too much or too little homework.
Summer reading assignments will be the only ones required during vacation time. Homework
assignments may require reading and/or writing. Sometimes you will need to spend time
reviewing classroom assignments material so that you are prepared for quizzes and tests. You
will also be given some long-term assignments like special projects and reports. Learn to tackle
these assignments by doing a little each day instead of waiting until the last minute. It would be
helpful for you to block out your work time on a calendar for long-term projects. Budgeting and
organizing your time are very important skills which you should develop during your middle
school years

General Health education in the developing countries.
                               Health and Hygiene lessons
                               It covers most of the tropical diseases found in the area, e.g.
                               malaria, bilharzia, sexually transmitted diseases including
                               HIV/AIDS. The lessons are structured to cover causes, symptoms,
                               treatments and prevention of these diseases. The six child killer
                               diseases are also covered in these lessons. Most of the family
                               members have improved their living standard in the areas of
                               health and hygiene. This is shown by decrease in malaria,
                               diarrhoea, STDs cases in clinics. Through motivation, creativity
                               and initiatives, self reliance has been promoted in the sense of
                               income generating activities which address the problem of
unemployment nationally and internationally through self-employment, as well as creating jobs
for others.
Sanitation. Families receive lessons and campaigns on the importance of sanitation. As a result
of the lessons, families dig pits for latrines, mould bricks, pay the builders, while the project
provides materials such as cement, mash-wire, reinforcement and fly-screen together with other
Physical education is one of the factors of external environment, which can strengthen a
condition of health, raise stability of an organism to influence of the adverse factors.
          The basic way of physical education are the physical exercises and training of an organism.
Under action of physical education in organism there are positive changes:
1) The metabolic processes are normalized; raises of immunological properties of an organism;
2) The functionalities of an organism are improved;
3) The coordination of movements is improved;
4) The endurance, stability to the factors of external environment is increased;
5) There are new conditionally - reflective connections, is improved nervous - emotional tonus,
    protective mechanisms.
        Basis of physical education the following principles should be fixed:
1) Systematic training; 2) Gradual training; 3) Integrated approach; 4) Taking of individual
    features of an organism in the account
 Medical control of physical education includes the following complex of measures:
1) medical supervision over a condition and dynamics of health;
2) study of reactions of an organism on physical loading;
3) participation in measures on preventive maintenance of traumatism during employment, in
    tourist campaigns;
4) sanitary supervision on places for physical education.
    Therefore before to begin physical education the doctor should:
1) carry out medical inspection of children;
2) allocate them on groups of health;
3) allocate them on groups for employment by physical culture;
4) define a kind of physical exercises and of training procedures shown one or another child.
    By condition of health and physical development children can be allocated on 3 groups.
During scheduled physical examinations of the pupils allocate depending on a condition of health,
training state, on three groups: basic, preparatory and special.
         THE BASIC GROUP includes healthy children with small functional deviations from heart-
         vascular systems or insignificant deviations in a physical development. It's possible to carry
         out all kinds of physical education.
         PREPARATORY GROUP – poor trained children, with functional deviations HVS; respiratory
         system, chronic bronchites transferred sharp infections. It’s necessary to observe moderation in
         dosage of physical loading, to limit run, jumps etc.
         SPECIAL GROUP - children with rheumatism, in 6-12 months after attack etc. The sport
         classes are limited or absolutely forbidden.
         For definition of a degree training state make special tests.
          At improvement of a condition of health and physical development of the child, the
doctor after inspection can transfer him from the third groups in the second group, from second
in the first.
          While transferring of children from one group of physical education in another the basic
parameter should be research of functionalities of an organism with the help of functional tests
on dosed muscle loading. For children of preschool age the Levi-Gorinevsky’s test -30 jumps for
20 seconds is used.
          Pulse rate, number of respiratory movements and size of arterial pressure are considered
as parameters of functionality of the organism.
                   Three types of reactions are observed.
1) reaction of a usual type: the pulse becomes frequent in first 10 s. On 1-6 beats; increase of
     amplitude of BP (blood pressure) on 5-10 mm of a mercury pole.
2) the insignificant deviations consist in increase of pulse and breath after received loading.
     The restoration of pulse is delayed about 3 minutes of seen infringements in state of health is
     not observed.
3) significant dyspnoe, deterioration of state of health, distortion of BP reaction:
                          1) Or maximal reduction)
                         2) or sharply minimal pressure falls.
          The restoration of pulse on the fourth minute, is worsened filling the rhythm is broken.
          In a task of the doctors working at school, enters also:
1) Scheduled primary and repeated surveys of children for allocating on groups of physical
education. It’s necessary for the admission to lessons of physical education, employment in
sports sections, to participation in competitions, in tourist campaigns, for a direction in sports
2) Control of lessons of physical education, realization ―physical culture pauses‖, competitions etc.,
prevention of traumatism, advisory work with the teachers.
                  The prevention of sport traumatism.
1) the premature admission to employment of recovering children, suffering by chronic diseases,
     poor trained;
2) lengthening terms of training, infringement of rules of personal hygiene (exercise after meal, on
     an empty stomach, at poor sleeping, employment with children having damages, excoriations etc.
     The correctly constructed lesson consists of four parts:
1)         Introduction - 5-7 min.
2)         Preparatory - 12-15 min. Inclusion by all muscles
3)       Basic - 20-25 min.
4)       Final - 3-5 mines. Restoration of an organism to an initial condition.
     Physical loading should accrue to the basic part.
The lessons of gymnastics are the basic form of organization of educational work on physical culture
at school. The lessons will be carried out 1-3 times per a week under the educational programs
authorized by the Ministry of education, in view of returnable groups and local conditions of work.
The lessons are under construction under the standard circuit consisting of 3 parts: introduction, basic
and final. Introduction exercises the following: serial exercises, front, walking, short run, jumps etc.,
          The basic part of a lesson has tasks on general health promotion, should promote formation of
a number applied. The main aim is creating of skills and to develop the basic physical quality speed,
endurance, force and dexterity.
          Preparatory, general developing, corrigive exercises having the task here enter to make active
all functions of an organism, to enter into a working condition all of muscle group and, at last to use
exercises for strengthening muscles of a back and prelium abdominale.
          The jumps, throwing, climbing, walking, run; use of gymnastic shells, are mobile also of
sports games are included into section of development of the basic physical qualities. Duration of this
part of a lesson is about 35 minutes.
          Task of a final part of a lesson (3-5 minutes.) - reduction of an organism of the pupils in a
condition of rest after previous, sated by physical exercises and emotions of a part of a lesson. The
elementary exercises in a combination to respiratory exercises and emotions of a part of a lesson are
applied. The elementary exercises in a combination to respiratory exercises, quiet walking, exercise
on relaxation, on attention are applied.
          The employment are conducted 2-3 times per one week for 2 hours on the specially equipped
bases. The sport for children and teenagers should be under construction in view of their anatomic -
physiological features and require careful medical supervision over a condition of health borrowing
(occupying, engaged). In the annual plan of training distinguish three periods: preparatory, basic and
transitive. Before everyone training employment and competition owes to carry out the complex of
exercises which are having for an object to prepare an organism to performance of increased
requirements, training, showed in basically part.
The intense efforts should alternate with easy exercises not a relaxation, it is necessary to observe a
principle of alternation of loading separate of muscle groups etc. To the phenomena of reduction of
serviceability, to a condition of supertrained state concern: suspension of growth, sports achievement,
infringement of coordination of movements, change of the behavioral reactions (irritability, unbalance
of behavior), pallor, dyspnoe, occurrence be sick in the field of heart and right hypochondrium and
certain objective attributes on the part of functions of a number of bodies and systems. Observance of
a mode of day, sufficient sleep in the well aired room, establishment of constant time for reception of
food are especially important for the young sportsmen as means assisting general growth,
development of the young sportsman and his high sports serviceability. The measures on training in
conditions of school are:
Careful airing of school premises employment by physical culture in special clothes (cowards, T-short
and sport shoes).
         Sanitary - hygienic requirements to places of employment.
         The success of employment by physical exercises in many respects depends on conditions of
external environment, in which pass these employment. The control of the sanitary contents of all
sports structures is carried out by the doctors of sanitary – epidemiological stations. In a gyms on
everyone engaged for maintenance of freedom of movements the field is required 3 - 4 sq. m of the
area at height of a hall 5 - 6 m. The batteries of the central heating should settle down in niches under
windows not one planes with a wall and to be closed by demountable lattices. Temperature in a hall
should be supported not yours 14 - 15 degrees. At temperature is lower than 12 degrees of
employment are not permitted. Gymnastic hall should have a height – 6 m, area on a child - 4 m2, air
cube - 28 m3. On the man, temperature of air 14 -15 hailstones., CNL - 5 % for top light, 1 - 1,5 % for
lateral illumination. Light exposure -150 - 200 lx on a floor; the premise should be covered with
balanced ventilation, which will ensure 3 multiple volumes of air at the rate of 80 m3 on a child.
         The floor of a hall should be wooden, it is the best a deck type of floor which is not having
cracks. The fitted carpet is supposed at its duly repair. The walls of a hall should be equal, without
ledges and ornaments. The bottom part of walls at height up to 2 - х of meters becomes covered by an
oil paint.
         In a gyms that stock is placed only which is necessary for employment. In a warm season of
employment by physical culture should be born on a platform near school at its appropriate equipment
depending on presence of the free area. So, the sportgrounds for easy athletics and sports games can
be organized.
         Type of school sportgrounds.
Gymnastic sportground. The usual size of a gymnastic sportground 30x20 m, minimal - 20x15 m. The
capital equipment of a platform is gymnastic place, consisting from two poles driven in ground on
depth 1,8 m, and bars, to which are attached through metal hooks of the pendant shells: mobile and
motionless poles, gymnastic rings, climbing rope. On each side of poles become stronger gymnastic
bars, a beam for balance and inclined ladder. Except for specified place, the gymnastic platform
should have: a place for free exercises, path for walking, gymnastic wall, place for basic jumps on
gymnastic horse and buck , canopies for a storage of portable shells, bench for rest. Racing paths: a
straight line by the size 115 - 3,6 m and circular size 250 - 2,6 м. They should have firm, it is good
drained the basis, elastic, dense, not dusting and top layer, proof in relation to atmospheric
Before the beginning of competition the doctor is obliged:
1) to check up presence of the sanctions signed by the director of school and the doctor, to
     participation of the schoolboys in those or other measures;
2) to check up and to look after a sanitary condition of places of competitions and stock, and also
     meteorological conditions;
3) to ensure rendering medical assistance at traumas, diseases;
4)    to not suppose to participation in competitions of children at presence of exhaustion and to keep
     up observance of intervals between performances of the separate participants;
5) to observe the sportsmen meal .
          The essence of functional changes in an organism occurs under influence training and, is
reduced to the following:
    1) there is a gradual fading of reflective-vascular reactions on a cold irritation on sites of a skin
         and mucous, not exposed to cooling;
    2) amplify heat production, due to what temperature of a skin and internal bodies raises
    3) at later stage of training the functional and morphological shifts on a place of cooling join.
         The comparison given about reaction on the move at of trained children in comparison with
         untrained shows faster restoration of skin temperature up to an initial level after short-term
         cooling, and also less sharp reduction of skin temperature on all sites. Alongside with it the
         reduction of a difference of temperature of a skin the closed and open sites.
4)         the resistance of capillary vessels walls, in particular mechanical durability them (А.P
5)         morphological changes of a skin expressing in a thickening of a layer epidermis.
         Thus, training is complex process, at which under influence of repeated irritations all
         protective mechanisms of an organism are made.
         The functional changes in an organism in training process are formed, are kept, are fixed only
         under certain conditions:
    1) cold irritation should act regularly. The sensitivity to a cold is shown in 15-20 days after the
         termination of cold procedures.
    2) force and the duration cold irritants should accrue gradually. Too strong irritations are
    At realization training of procedures it is necessary to distinguish of a training measure in
    ordinary, daily life of children's establishment and special measures on training of the pupils to a
    To the first group of measures concern: the organization of a so-called mode of open air ensuring
    presence of a dynamic microclimate in premises for long stay of children (class hours, in this case
    it is marked more high level of saturation of blood by oxygen kept all day.
         Special measures on training.
     In quality of means the natural training factors are usually used: a solar irradiation, air, water.
     The great importance in training by the sun belongs to ultra-violet rays. Now mechanism of
     action of a ultra-violet irradiation on an organism of the man, in particular training effect, is
     investigated rather full.
     The action of a ultra-violet irradiation on an organism is complex process. Under influence of a
     ultra-violet irradiation occurs denaturation of fiber, that causes increase of quantity of proteolysis
     products including histamine. The products of disintegration of fiber irritate the nervous
     terminations in a skin, vessels, that causes changes a functional condition of the nervous centers.
     It conducts to reflective reactions on the part of a number of bodies and systems.
     Alongside with it there is a thickening of a epidermis at the expense of a horn layer (in 16-18
     days after an irradiation).
     The solar irradiation favorably influences on an organism. at diseases of blood, weakened
     children who have transferred infectious diseases.
The solar baths for the pupil can be organized on a coast of reservoirs and in territory of the ground
area in sun decks. The greatest pressure UV-radiation is observed at 12 PM. To avoid excessive
strong action UV rays on a child organism, the best time for solar baths considers 9-10 hours
         After that pass to a direct solar irradiation in view of the following requirements:
1. The reception of solar baths is supposed only after 1,5 - two hours after meal and on an empty
2.   Solar baths after significant physical loading: football, volleyball, employment by easy athletics,
    gymnastics, the works on self-service and in workshops, on studies-skilled sites etc. - are contra-
3. Prior to the beginning and after termination a solar bath it is necessary to accept an air bath by
    duration in 15-20 min.
4. It is impossible to subject a solar irradiation a head (it is necessary shadow by an awning, canopy,
    or white head cover (cap)).
5. After a bath the bathing in the river or cool souls is recommended.
6. The duration of solar baths should be strictly regulated.
    At children of the senior school age the first bath can be duration of 5-mines, with the subsequent
    daily increase for 5-min. The general duration of baths should not be more than 1,5-2 hours.
         At realization of solar baths it is necessary to supervise a condition of pulse and state of health
    of the pupils. Acceleration of pulse on 30 %, occurrence of a nausea, the headaches require the
    immediate termination of a solar bath.
         Contra-indication to reception of solar baths are decompensated defects of heart sharply
    raised nervous exciteness, the exsudative forms of a tuberculosis easy, tuberculosis of joints and
    glands accompanying in high temperature. It is necessary for children inclined to conjunctivitis,
    during reception of solar baths using of protective glasses.
        Artificial irradiation. The general irradiations begin from 1/8 biodozes, through each two
    sessions add on 1/8, by the end of a rate lead up to 5 biodozes. Distance from a source of an
    artificial irradiation - 100см. For evaluation of a biodoze use the following technique: on a skin of
    the child is being placed a plate (metal or from a black paper or oil-cloth), in which is cut out 6
    panes by size 1 cm2 everyone. Windows covered through a mobile tape. At first open one window
    and irradiate 1 min. Then 2, 3 etc. with the same interval of an irradiation. Thus duration of an
    irradiation of a skin in 1-st window – 6 min., in 2-nd 5 min., in 6-th 1 min. In day take into
    account results: the minimal duration of an irradiation causing erithema is considered as a
    biodose. The intensity of ultra-violet radiation can in parallel be registered with the help of the
    special device - ufimeter
    Water training. procedure.
         The properties of water promote training protective mechanisms and developments of the
conditionally - reflective reactions on the cold irritation, that allows for an organism quickly to react
to acting irritations.
         At action of water on a skin there is a significant loss of heat, the more considerable
difference between temperature of a skin and temperature of water and than longer cooling is more
than. Thereof there comes spasm of vessels - skin turns pale and casts by an internal body, then begins
amplified heatproduction and blood flows to a skin, that causes pleasant sensations of heat and
hyperemia of a skin. At long influence of water procedure due to significant cooling of deeper layers
of a skin and hypoderma comes secondary shiver (shakes) with vertigo occurred of a ―goose skin‖,
paleness of fingers it is natural by approach secondary shakes, it is impossible to suppose, the often
occurrence of secondary shakes can result in weariness, headache, infringement of sleep etc.
         Wiping has weaker training action in comparison with other water procedures. The especially
gentle influence wiping renders, if is made squeezed out from water glove or towel, - in the case of
heat looses of an organism it is much less than at pouring, where the skin adjoins to a plenty of water.
         Technique of wiping is next: wiping of a body is made by special gloves sewed from dense
fabric, towel or sponge. All accessories of children should be individual. The instructor offer to pupils
take out the clothes up to belts and wipe off wet, slightly by squeezed out towel or sponge of a hand,
neck, chest, stomach, a back and quickly wipe to dry, pounding thus a body before occurrence
hyperemia. The massage is necessary for making on a course of vessels from periphery to the center.
After that on the top part of a body it is possible put on underwear and to make massage and wiping
of the bottom part of a body in the same order.
          It is possible to recommend washing of a body by cold water up to belts during a morning
toilet. This procedure does not require additional time in a mode of day. To begin it, as well as all
water procedures, it is necessary in the summer and to continue further during round year.
          At presence in a premise of school shower room, certainly, quite accessible is pouring of a
body. This training procedure renders strong influence. Here joins still mechanical action of jets of
water, due to what pouring raises tonus of muscles, and consequently, and serviceability of the pupils.
          For pouring is recommended warm waters (of 30-32 oC) at temperature of air in a premise of
18-20 degrees. Everyone 2-3 days temperature of water is reduced on 1o, reaching till 19-20 for the
younger schoolboys and 17-16 - for the grown-up. Duration of taking shower - 1-2 min. After shower
is necessary carefully to wipe a body and massage it. The duration of all water procedures should be
no more 1-3мin. The especially strong influence is rendered by sea bathing in a combination with
swimming (temperature of water, movement of waves, chemical structure of water. All this causes
training mechanisms of thermoregulation simultaneously raising an exchange of substances,
promoting a deepening of breath, increase of pulse, increase of blood pressure, increase of red blood
cells quantity, training of nervous system.
          The swimming renders positive influence on physical development of the schoolboys,
salutarily influences work of heart, easy, joints and muscles, promotes development to correct
          To begin bathing it is necessary at temperature of water not below than 20 degrees.
          The duration of bathing per the first days should be no more 3-5мin. with subsequent
lengthening of term up to 20-30мin.
          The sanction for usage by a reservoir for bathing children give local of sanitary
epidemiological station. The depth of water in a place of bathing of the younger schoolboys should
not be more 1-1,5м. A place, up to which it is authorized to children to float follows, to designate by
identification marks. During bathing children the presence of the adults is necessary.
          As a method of training it is possible to recommend walking without shoes. It promotes a
thickening of a skin of a sole of legs and downturn its sensitivity to a cold. The circulation without
shoes, as well as everyone, other method training, should be subordinated to one of the basic trailers
of training- gradualness, therefore it is better for beginning in a summer season in a premise at
temperature of air of 18-20 degrees with 15 –30 min.
Technique training of children by air.
          Cool and cold air, being thermal both mechanical irritants of a skin and mucous environment
promotes of adaptive reactions of an organism.
          In this connection at schools boarding schools it is necessary widely to introduce day time
sleep on air at the pupil of the 1st-2nd forms.
         At these conditions the quantities and the duration of diseases have reduced, and tolerance to
         infectious diseases has increased . On fresh air children quickly fall asleep, due to what the
         duration of day time sleeping is increased. All this influences on a functional condition of
         nervous system and the quality of sleeping is improved. For organization of sleep in territory
         of the ground area should be built pavilions, which settle down directly on affinity to the
         sleeping case.
          The night sleep of children should be carried out in conditions wide aeration of a premise, that
as has the great importance. With this purpose at any time of year in a bedroom it is necessary to open
windows. The winter in bedrooms uses the special mode of airing: after children have gone to bad, a
room air on in 3-4 hours. Then airing stop and renew it 2-3 hours prior to rise, and for 1 hour before
rise the premise of a bedroom is not aired that temperature of air to time of awakening of children has
         To strengthen sanative and training of action morning exercises, it will be carried out during
all year on fresh air. In this case morning exercises get meaning of air baths in movement, which
duration gradually increases and leads up up to 15-20 min. The clothes of children thus are gradually
         Now is not present to the unified technique to an estimation of a training level of the child to
the various meteorological factors. Usually with this purpose use: an estimation of shifts by a
functional condition of separate bodies and systems of an organism of children, in particular of the
thermoregulation apparatus: changes in physical development and health of the schoolboys as general
reactions of an organism of the child on influence of training procedures.
         The first group of a method is rather extensive. A number of the authors offers methods based
on supervision over dynamics of reduction of temperature of a body under influence of cooling. The
researches have shown, that for the trained person marks a smaller degree of reduction of temperature
of a skin and mucous on a place of cooling and on the remote sites. So, on the Barton and Adholm
data, for the untrained to a cold man, under influence of cooling rectal temperature is reduced on 0,7
degrees, but for trained one - only on 0,2 degrees.
         For definition of a training level of children many researchers (I. Talanov, N. Lukash, M.
Synitzin etc.) offers to use other test, so-called cold test, which essence consists that temperature of
askin on a place of cooling comes to an initial level at trained to a cold organism faster, than at
untrained one. For local cooling of a skin use glass or metal cylinders filled by thaw ice.
         The technique of the test is very simple: measuring temperature of a skin (by skin
electrothermometer) on an internal surface of a forearm and on 30 s. Put the cylinder filled by ice.
After removal of the cylinder again measure temperature of a skin and on this site repeat measurement
of temperature in one minute before returning temperature to an initial level.
         In opinion of some authors N. Synitzin, for the cold tests should be measured temperature of a
skin in 1 min., after that through 3-5min., with the subsequent measurement everyone 5мин. in
current 20-30мин. On the data of the author, for small children trained to a cold fall of temperature of
a skin after cooling very insignificant (0,3-0,8градусов) and the restoration its up to an initial level
occurs in current 3-5 min.
         At children with less expressed adaptive of the thermoregulative apparatus temperature of a
skin after cooling is reduced on 0,9-1,1 degree and is restoared only in 10 min..
        At children who are not exposed with training, the fall of temperature after cooling reaches
        1,1-1,8 degrees, the restoration is marked in 15 mines and later. These data emphasize value of
        the cold test as accessible method for an estimation of training of the child to a cold.
        In A. Parfenov opinion a parameter of an organism training to a cold the changes of
        temperature of a mucous nose can serve at cooling stop, as for untrained people temperature of
        a mucous nose is reduced and at cooling stop is reduced, and for trained to a cold -it is not
        present. As indicative criterion the author considers also smoothing of a difference of
        temperature of the closed and open sites of a skin, which it is marked at the people habitual to
        the cold irritants. A rather simple method is the supervision over symmetry of an axilar
        temperatures. For trained to a cold children, temperature in armpits is identical, at children
        sensitive to a cold the difference to axilar temperature is marked. One of the widespread tests
        for study of efficiency of training are haemodinamics shifts in an organism. As shows research
        B. Koyransky, per the first days of training procedure cause usually increase of pulse (5-9
        beats in minutes.). On the data of other authors, the increase of blood pressure is marked. In
        process of training these shifts disappear.
        To an estimation of mechanical durability of capillaries apply the device arranged by a
        principle dry banks. Aspiration of air is made from a glass funnel with a diameter equal 1 сm,
        a syringe, dozator or mouth and is being dozated with mercury manometer. A technique of
        statement of test is next: the skin in a elbow bend of the child is slightly greased with
        vaselinum, put the funnel and aspirated air up to a raising of a mercury pole up to a label
        200мм is imposed. A funnel leave for one minute. After removal of a funnel count up quantity
        of petechias.
        On the T. Svidersky data, in the autumn children of school age marked on the average 10-11
        petechias, in the spring - 17-18, after an irradiation by an artificial source of ultra-violet
        radiation -7-8.
In process of training the parameters motor and of chronaxy vary. For poorly trained to cold
irritant of the people at cooling the parameters motor chronaxy are reduced, and touch
chronaxy are increased. The rate oftemepering procedures causes significant reduction of
shifts in parameters of chronaxy down to their complete liquidation. These data give the basis
to use a chronaxymetry as one of methods of an estimation of training of the child to a cold.
The second group of methods estimates efficiency of used ways of training till a means of
study of shifts in health and physical development of children.
The shifts in morbidity of children occurring under influence of training, are taken into
account on number of the misses of classes. The convincing data turn out at study of quantity
of the misses of children in connection with some diseases (catarrh of the top respiratory ways,
quinsy, laryngitis, tracheitis etc). For this purpose it is necessary to count up total of the misses
of classes in connection with caching cold diseases. Comparing the data on the misses at
children undergone and who have not undergone to regular influence of training procedures,
usually reveal considerably high morbidity of untrained to a cold children.
                                 Child policlinic (OPD)

                                                                  Medical dispensary on
Department of                                                     physical culture
 School committee of                                                Pedagogical Council

                                       School nurse
 Medical benefits:                                            Sanitary-hygienic measures:
 1. medical                                                   1. control of sanitary state of
    examinations of                                              the school
    children                                                  2. develop sanitary regimen
 2. medical examination                                          of the school
    of staff                                                  3. control on the syllabus
 3. medical-sanitize                                          4. health promotion
    measures                                                  5. control on the work of
 4. antiepidemic                                                 volunteers of Red Cross
 5. medical control on
    physical education
 6. medical control on
    school meal

                   Figure. School physician activities in the prevention of
                   child morbidity.
Criteria of readiness of the six-year children for studies in the secondary school
                                                  Characteristic of criteria
Medical-biological                                -teeth age (permanent dentition)
                                                  -physical development
                                                  -health state (status praesens and diseases in last year)
Psychophysiological                               -quality of articulation
                                                  -results of Kern-Irasek’s test
The indications to a delay for acting to school:
-Absence of the permanent teeth
-Body length less than M-1σ (by local standards)
-Increase of the growth less 4 cm in year
-infectious hepatitis
-pyelonephritis, diffuse glomerulonephritis
-myocarditis (nonrheumatic)
-epidemic meningitis, meningoencephalitis
-rheumatic fever
-blood diseases
-often respiratory viral diseases (more 4 times in year)
-vegetative dystonia (hypotonic or hypertonic type)
-valvular defect (congenital or rheumatical)
-chronic bronchitis, bronchial asthma, chronic pneumonia (if it’s exacerbation or no steady
remission in the year)
-ulceric diseases of the stomach or duodenum, chronic gastritis, chronic gastroduodenitis (in
aggravation stage, with often recidives and with uncompleted remission)
-anemia (Hb8.0-10.7 g%)
-adenomatous vegetation of III degree, chronic adenoides
-hypertrophy of faucial tonsils (of III degree)
-endocrinopathy, the goiter, diabetes mellitus etc
-neuroses (logoneuroses, hysteria etc)
-retardation of the mental development
-child cerebral paralysis
-trauma of the cranium (accident in the year)
                                                   -exema, neurodermitis (if there are widespread
                                                   skin leisure)
                                                   -myopia with trend to progress (>2.0D)
                                                   Methodic of Kern-Irasek’s test:
                                                   Equipment: sheet of the paper (A4), cards 7-
                                                   8*13-14 cm with the inscription: ―He ate a
                                                   soup‖ and grouped points. (The inscription has
                                                   vertical size of the letters –1 cm, capital letter
                                                   has size 1.5 cm; the points have diameter 2
                                                   mm, distance between the points by horizontal
                                                   and vertical –1cm)
                                                   1. Draw a man, please.
                                                   2. Copy the writing sentence
                                                   3. Copy the points
Evaluation: the best result is 1, the worst –5 scores (by every subtest). If the child has more than
9 scores he’s unready to school.

Adolescence Developmental transition between childhood and adulthood entailing major
physical, cognitive, and psychosocial changes.
Adolescent growth spurt Sharp increase in height and weight that precedes sexual maturity.
Adolescent rebellion Pattern of emotional turmoil, characteristic of a minority of adolescents,
which may involve conflict with family, alienation from adult society, and hostility toward
adults' values
Acceleration - Faster presentation of content to more closely match the speed at which gifted
students learn. Compare with grade skipping. See pacing, compacting.
Alternative schools - Schools designed with more flexible programs for exceptional learners or
with an educational philosophy different from regular public education.
Assessment - Assignment of value. Academically, this usually means grades. In psychology, it
means comparing the tested measures of a subject’s mental characteristics (e.g., intelligence,
personality, self-esteem) to a norm, or average. See grading, standardized test, authentic
assessment, reliability, validity, and IQ.
Average - See normal, statistics, mean, median and mode.
Battery - Multiple tests to assess functioning in a variety of psychological areas such as
intelligence, achievement, personality, and self-esteem.
Behavior modification - Changing the environment and using reinforcers (or their absence) to
control the behavior of others. Practitioners set up the environment to prompt a behavior, then
reward the desired behavior and/or punish undesired behavior in that specific situation. The
absolute control of reinforcers, the maintenance of the behavior when environmental controls are
removed, and the generalization of the behavior to other situations are problematic. It tends to be
used to produce conformity and obedience. See behaviorism, mental health.
Development - Cognitive (intellectual), emotional and physical growth. See asynchronous
Deviance - Behavior outside a norm. Displaying gifted behaviors is, by this definition, deviance.
See normal, social control.
Diagnostic test - An assessment prompted by a perceived problem in order to determine current
level of functioning. Test results are then used to prescribe a solution.
Educational reform - Popularly used to describe efforts to increase standanrdized test scores of
public school students. As such, it is more a description of assessment reform than a change of
educational philosophies or methods, although a back to basics philosophy is often implied. In
Ukraine children go to the secondary school at 6 (before reform they do at 7), school education
has 12 grades and they use 12 scores system of assessment by the newest reform.
Intelligence quotient (IQ) - A quantitative representation of cognitive ability which results from
testing a sample of cognitive skills. The formula is intellectual age divided by chronological age,
times 100. For example, someone 10 years old with an intellectual age of 13 would have an IQ
of 130. This is called the "ratio IQ." The scales of different IQ tests vary slightly due to
differences in test construction and the sample which provided the norm. Variation in scores is
described by the standard deviation. Assuming that intelligence is normally distributed, the IQs
of about 95 percent of the population are between 70 (about 2 standard deviations below the
mean) and 130 (about 2 standard deviations above the mean). Below 70 is considered retarded,
and above 130 is considered gifted. Individual tests such as the WISC and Stanford-Binet are
considered the most reliable, but no published test since the older Stanford-Binet Form LM
(1972) is valid above 160. Most IQ tests since 1960 have reported IQ as "deviation IQ," which
adjusts the ratio IQ scale slightly based on the different means and standard deviations of each
age group in the sample used to construct the test. Ratio and deviation IQ's seldom differ by
more than 4 points. See levels of giftedness, ceiling effect, multiple intelligences.
Learning - An increase in knowledge or skill.
Learning disability - A deficit in a specific area, such as word decoding or arithmetic
computation, which is out of line with overall intellectual ability. Some learning disabilities may
interfere with proper measurement on conventional IQ tests, so a learning disabled student might
be considered gifted with an IQ test score significantly lower than the usual 130 cut-off.
Least restrictive environment (LRE) - School placement where the student’s needs can be met
which most closely approximates the regular classroom.
Levels of giftedness - According to IQ measurements, the following labels are generally
      Bright - 115 and above
      Gifted - 130 and above
      Highly gifted - 145 and above
      Exceptionally gifted -160 and above
      Profoundly gifted - 175 and above
Because of measurement error and ceiling effect, the exceptionally and profoundly gifted labels
are often used interchangably.
Mean - Arithmetical average.
Median - A measure of central tendancy where half the scores are above and half below.
Mental health - A concept based on socially acceptable behavior and subjective feeling.
Simplified, here are two competing philosophies: (1) People need to have their natural, selfish
impulses controlled in order to fit into society, or (2) Like physical health, mental health is
something people grow toward naturally.
Mode - The most frequent score.
Montessori method - An educational philosophy based on the ideas of Italian
physician/educator Maria Montessori (1870 - 1952). Although originally developed with
students labeled "mentally defective" her tremendous successes led her approach to be widely
embraced, especially in upper class pre- and elementary schools world-wide. Montessori saw
students' learning as the result of innately self-motivated activity. The teacher's job, then, is to
supervise and guide rather than transmit knowledge. Many private and a few public schools in
the U.S. call themselves "Montessori," however there is no official body to regulate use of the
name and actual teaching practices vary considerably. Odessa kindergarden #19 uses this
Multiple intelligences - Constructs of intelligence that include more aspects of mental ability
than the conventional concept of intelligence. Howard Gardner proposed seven intelligences:
musical, bodily-kinesthetic, logical-mathematical, linguistic, spatial, interpersonal, and
intrapersonal. He recently added an eighth: naturalist. Conventional IQ tests measure mainly
logical-mathematical and linguistic intelligence. Intellectual profile illustration.
Norm - (1) In sociology, a culturally relative guideline for social behavior. (2) In testing, a
statistical measure of central tendency, as a mean, median, or mode.
Normally distributed - Statistically symmetrical around an average, represented graphically by
a bell curve. In a normal distribution, the mean, median, and mode are all equal.
Pretest - A test given before instruction to determine current level of performance in a specific
Psychometrics - The quantitative measurement of mental characteristics, as in IQ.
School psychologist - The person who gives diagnostic tests to students and acts as a consultant
to teachers, counselors, and administrators. Like teachers and counselors, they often have special
training in disabilities but little or no training in giftedness.
Self-contained - A classroom is self-contained if the students in it spend the entire day (or the
bulk of the day) with the same teacher. Elementary education is almost always conducted in self-
contained classrooms. Self-contained programs can also be geared toward grouping by ability,
disability, or other labels placed on students, such as the label "gifted."
Self-esteem - A subjective feeling of self-worth built from the respect and sense of worth
reflected back on the person from significant others. Can be altered by labeling and social
Serious emotional disturbance (SED) - A special education category under IDEA. The terms
―behavior disorder‖ or ―emotional/behavior disorder‖ are synonymous with SED. A student may
be identified as having SED for not having ―satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers
and teachers‖ or for displaying ―inappropriate types of behavior or feelings.‖ The characteristics
of the gifted combined with the subjectivity of these criteria may lead educators to mislabel some
gifted children as SED. See labeling theory.
Social control - Formal and informal enforcement of social norms and values. See behavior
modification, discipline, deviance, mental health, normal.
Socialization - Acquiring the cultural values, knowledge and skills which allow one to function
productively in a society. Pro-inclusion and anti-homeschooling arguments are often based on
the socialization value of the heterogeneous classroom. However, there is no empirical evidence
that ability grouped or homeschooled students have poorer social skills.
Standard deviation - A statistical measure of variability from the mean. To calculate it, find the
difference of each and every score from the mean, square each difference, average them, then
take the square root. For IQ tests, the mean is designed to be 100, and the standard deviation is
calculated to be about 15 or 16.
Standardized test - A test taken by many students under identical conditions which allows
results to be compared statistically to a standard such as a norm or criteria.

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