SCHOOL HEALTH KINDERGARTEN. Kindergarten is an institution of preschool education. In Ukraine there are both types of kindergartens – private and governmental. They should be placed in the resident area far from sources of noise and pollution. Area size is defined from the number of children. If kindergarten has up to 160 children so area for each child should be 45 m2, if more –35. Kindergarten serving area has radius 300 m. Area is subdivided on these functional zones: economical (include storehouses, garage, boiler building, laundry, kitchen), zone of play grounds, zone of vegetations. Kindergarten area should have 2 entrances as minimum. Percentage of built area is not exceed 25%, minimal percentage of area occupied by vegetations is 55%. The maximal quantity of floors for kindergarten building is 2. Premises for young age children should be placed at the first floor. Kindergarten building should have centralized water supply (in the country – local water supply system), sewage disposal. They provide kindergarten with hot water (autonomic boiler or two independent intakes of hot water pipes. Main principle of building planning is ―group isolation‖. It’s mean that every age group has own set of premises. In the observation it makes possible do not close kindergarten. A set of premises includes dressing room, playing room (used as a dining-room also), bedroom, serving room and lavatory. Every ―group section‖ has two entrances – one to the street and another – to internal corridor of the kindergarten. If two groups has common exit they should use it by the schedule. Toys in the group room should accord to the children age. It’s prohibited to use toys from the group in other groups. Every week they wash all premises with disinfectants, regular cleaning is been making 3-4 times during a day. Disinfectants is changed every 7 days, laundry – every 10 days. They have in the group a stored drinking water for children, it’s forbidden to use for drinking tap water. Children eat in the group room, after every meal all dishes is washed and disinfected. Medical room should have isolator. It’s situated at the first floor and has separate exit to the street. If they inoculate children in the kindergarten (not in the policlinic) so all vaccines have to be stored in the refrigerator. The temperature inside a refrigerator should be not more +5°C, it’s been measuring daily and data is recorded in the special register. Also the nurse of kindergarten has a register of antropometry and complete set of medical documentation (individual charts of children and medical books of staff). Every morning before reception to the group the nurse inspects children on the presence of signs of infection (fever, coughing, rhinitis, rash etc). Data of examining is been recording in the register. Demands to personal hygiene of staff and children are very strict. A staff person shall ensure that a child's hands are washed before meals, snacks, after toileting and after being diapered. Cloth towels and washcloths shall be labeled with the child's name, used by only the named child and laundered weekly. The operator shall arrange a laundry schedule with the parent. Paper towels may be used as towels and washcloths. Paper towels shall be discarded after each use. If brushing teeth is a program activity, a child shall have a labeled toothbrush. Toothbrushes shall be stored with the bristles up and exposed to circulating air. Paper cups discarded after one use, or water fountains shall be used for between-meal drinking by children who are not bottle-fed. Lavatory for staff should be isolated from child lavatories. SCHOOL HEALTH Good health is essential for learning. Health is not only the absence of disease but also complete physical, mental, and social well-being. When school age children are not in good health, they become distracted, unable to concentrate in school, keep up with their demanding schedules, and sometimes even unable to attend school. Years ago the biggest threats to the health of school children came from contagious diseases such as tuberculosis, diphtheria, measles, mumps, and rubella. Today most health risks have their roots in social or behavioral conditions. When these problems emerge, they can disrupt students' lives, classrooms, and the school environment. When students are sick, distracted, or absent, schooling becomes ineffective. For students to become productive, responsible citizens, schools must help them develop health-promoting skills and behaviors and attend to the physical, mental, and social components of their lives. For the past decade, education and health experts have suggested that a coordinated school health program that goes beyond classroom instruction and integrates eight components in the most efficient way for schools to ensure the health of their students. There are: Comprehensive School Health Education. This classroom instruction addresses the physical, emotional, and social dimensions of health; develops health knowledge, attitudes, and skills, and its tailored to each age level. It is designed to motivate and assist students to maintain and improve their health, prevent disease, and reduce health related risk behaviors. Physical Education. This instruction that promotes lifelong, safe, physical activity. It is designed to develop basic movement skills, sports skills, and physical fitness, as well as to enhance social and emotional abilities. School Health Services. These are preventative services, education, emergency care, referral, and management of acute and chronic health conditions. They are designed to promote the health of students, identify and prevent health problems and injuries, and ensure care for students. School Nutrition Services. These services integrate nutrition education, nutritious and appealing meals, and an environment that promotes healthy dietary behaviors for all children. They are designed to maximize each child’s education and health potential for a lifetime. School Counseling, Psychological, and Social Services. These activities focus on the cognitive, emotional, behavioral, and social needs of individuals, groups, and families. They are designed to prevent and address problems and to facilitate learning and healthy behaviors and development. Healthy School Environment. This is the physical, emotional, and social climate of the school. Designed to provide a safe physical plant as well as a healthy and supportive environment that fosters learning. School-Site Health Promotion for Staff. This includes assessment, education, and fitness activities for school faculty and staff. It is designed to maintain and improve the health and well-being of school staff who serve as role models for students. Family and Community Involvement in Schools. These are partnerships among schools, families, and community groups and individuals. They are designed to share and maximize resources and expertise in addressing the healthy development of children, youth, and their families. Schools have evolved from purely educational facilities into sources of employment, social and health services, cultural opportunities, and recreation and entertainment for their surrounding communities. This increased burden has outmatched many communities' abilities to maintain many of the buildings. In fact, a recent U.S. General Accounting Office report indicates that the physical condition of over half the nation's schools presents an environmental health threat to students and staff. The physical decay jeopardizes not only the physical health of the students, but also permeates into the climate of the school's environment-- the expectations that the community places on the school, the self-esteem of the students, and the overall academic achievement of the student body. Coordinated School Health Programs Many policymakers acknowledge the intrinsic link between public education and public health. The federal government's Healthy People 2000 and Education Goals 2000 programs advocate a national campaign to promote good health and academic success. The two spotlight the important interrelationships between health and education for children and youth. At least 15 of the Healthy People 2000 objectives are directly achievable by schools. In addition, the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) believes that schools can play important roles in meeting nearly 100 additional Healthy People 2000 objectives (HHS, 1992). In part, this national initiative relies on the implementation of coordinated school health programs. There are eight components to coordinated school health programs, each of which provides some direct or indirect link to the success of initiatives like Education Goals 2000. In an article published in the Journal of School Health (1987), D.D. Allensworth and L.J. Kolbe outlined the eight components: health education; physical education; health services; nutrition services; health promotion for staff; counseling, psychological, and social services; healthy school environment, and parent and community involvement. Healthy School Environment A healthy school environment encompasses both the physical and psychosocial surroundings in which students and school personnel are expected to work. It provides the connection between everything that is and everything that happens in, on, and around school grounds. Its importance, then, is integral. The Council of Chief State School Officers defines a healthy school environment as "the framework within which the other seven components of a coordinated school health program operate." At its core, a healthy school environment "protects students and staff against immediate injury or disease and promotes prevention activities and attitudes against known risk factors that might lead to future disease or disability," according to the American Academy of Pediatrics. Schools which make a concerted effort to promote a healthy school environment--in both the physical and social realms--see positive results. As outlined in Health is Academic: A Guide to Coordinated School Health Programs, a healthy school environment supports learning and contributes to students' health by: Minimizing distractions; Minimizing physical, psychological, and social hazards; Creating a climate in which students and school staff do their best work; Expecting that all students can succeed Implementing supportive policies. The physical school facility represents the external, tangible environment. Physical conditions can include school bus safety, adequate water and classroom supplies, physical security of the building, as well as acoustics, ventilation, heating and air conditioning, and lighting. As mentioned before, at least half of the nation's public schools contains an environmental hazard, such as asbestos, contaminated water, or poorly ventilated indoor air. Furthermore, the Children's Safety Network (USA) estimates that 10-25 percent of all injuries to children and adolescents occur in and around schools. Playgrounds incidentally account for half of the injuries which occur on school grounds. Schools, if they choose to, could integrate any number of changes to improve their physical surroundings-- including removing physical hazards, maintaining equipment and facilities, and imposing additional safety measures on existing equipment. Psychosocial conditions, on the other hand, encompass the attitudes, feelings, and values of the students and staff and may require more extensive changes. The presence of gang violence as well as weapons, drugs, alcohol and tobacco on school grounds contribute to this aspect of a school's environment. Class size and the availability of community-based extra-curricular activities also facilitate the psychosocial environment of a school. To ensure healthy development, a number of model health practices can be integrated into core curriculums. For instance, schools could promote participating in active lifestyles, eating well-balanced meals, abstaining from alcohol, tobacco and other active drug use, and minimizing risk-taking behaviors, including sexual activity. Equally important are student and staff perceptions of the interactions that take place within the school environment. This less tangible component of environmental health is frequently referred to as school climate. Climate encompasses both social and physical elements, and creates an infrastructure that makes physical, social and emotional health, as well as achievement, possible. The contributors to Health is Academic also recommend a series of "action steps" to achieve a healthy school environment. While not necessarily sequential, they suggest the following: 1. Develop and use a data collection system for assessing and monitoring the school environment. 2. Provide leadership and administrative support for creating and sustaining a healthy school environment. 3. Create a team to identify needs, set priorities, and identify resources. 4. Develop and implement a plan for creating and sustaining a healthy school environment. 5. Monitor implementation of the plan as well as the school environment. Ergonomic studies comprised scholar adaptability and scholar’s psycho-intellectual capacity, approaching issues of mental load and psychological fatigue. Specific investigation methodology was established and evaluation criteria of adaptability and mental fatigue were structured. Scholars’ psychological limits are conditioned by their functional particularities of nervous system and sensorial and motor abilities. Disregard of these limits makes improbable determination of scholar activity dysfunction. Studies carried on between 1994-1998 on secondary and high school pupils revealed that normal physically and psycho-intellectual developed students showed both objective (cardio- vascular, muscular, sensorial indicators) and subjective (health status self-evaluation) modifications that demonstrate scholar fatigue. Collective administration of anxiety test Cattel showed increased anxiety on the studied group diagnoses varied from mild anxious neurosis to severe anxious neurosis that requested psychiatric assistance. Relation between high school performance with high level of anxiety in schoolgirls has been demonstrated. Study of knowledge functional modifications indicators (attention tests, test on work capacity) has showed modifications in work capacity curve even in the conditions of reduction of working week from 6 to 5 days. Previous studies showed that performance increases Monday through Wednesday, under the new conditions Tuesday is the maximum, starting Wednesday performance decreases gradually, so that Friday end of the day is the lowest. Study of time allocation revealed manifestations of overload syndrome on the account of scholar manuals, subject’s planner both saturated with information, data, and inappropriate structure of scholar schedules. Another finding of our researches was scholar dis-adaptive syndrome considered as a form of social dis-adjustment that creates premises for further difficult integration. Children’s confrontation with scholar demands generates typical sets of attitudes that lay at the basis of behavioral changes, which the role of a pupil manifests through. The level and establishment of scholar education are significantly influenced by definitory variables for socio- familial environment especially cultural factors and mainly the level of parental instruction. The study on pupils who were institutionalized since pre-school period and now attending mass general schools, disclosed a decreased level of adjustment to scholar demands, situated 0-12 month below normal. Inclusion of these children into mass general schools has had an obvious benefic input towards their QIV which became 10-20 points greater than pre-school period scores (93,8 in first grade of school over 82,5 in pre-school). Acquisitions on speech level are shown by increased values of QIV in the first and second grade of primary school (97,2 and 92,8). Delayed behavior and psycho-intellectual development of institutionalized children are explained by the monotony of life conditions, lack of exercise, the absence of individualization in care and education, insufficient development of affective and social contact, lack of warmth from care staff, lack of contact between children who play one next to another and not one with other. Researches need to be orientated in the future, with priority, towards the activity that implies a high level of mental load and a high volume of abstract and creative thinking. School diseases: The top ranked diseases are: ocular chronic diseases, failure to thrive, rickets consequences, chronic disease of Waldayer lymph nodes, gained deformations of the spine. Studies found a high percentage of pupils with disharmonic development, weight deficit in pupils from all grades and all counties taken into study. Risk factors with impact on health status are: non-ergonomic school furniture, effort curve not taken into account, three shifts per day into same school, artificial illumination inappropriate in classrooms, craft rooms, laboratories, deficient potable water supply. Inappropriate microclimate, deficient ventilation and sometime lack of furniture, floors and toilets hygiene put pupils at risk for diseases. Epidemiological triage after holidays is an active surveillance method into schoolchildren collectivities that enables information on epidemiological potential and risk for health in school children. Diseases diagnosed at triage are found in 1,5‰ of scholar population and are mainly infectious, both contagious and parasitical. Incidence of angina is increasing so that in 2000 it reaches the value of 0,56‰. Pediculosis and scabies are at constant percentage: 0,03-0,07‰ scabies and 0,8-1,2‰ pediculosis. There are though differences between counties related to local/regional particularities. There is a need for hygienic and sanitary, epidemiological, education for health measures with national dimension aiming to reduce the incidence of these diseases and to eradicate scabies and lice. Further researches need to be developed through programs that aim at ontogenetic and psychosocial evolution of children and teenagers as well as provide fundament to individual learning (micro-learn) and social learning (macro-learn). Perspective to founding an integrative science concerning human development in childhood and teenage and that has as prime goal structuring a harmonic personality, human ontogenesis in a no risk relation with social, ecological environment, is opened. The State Education Department requires schools to provide certain health screenings to students in public schools. The screenings are done throughout the school year as time permits. Parents are notified if there are any abnormal findings. If you have a special concern about your child you may contact the school nurse. Health screenings are scheduled as follows: Growth: height and weight yearly K-12 Vision: distance — yearly K-12 Vision: near, color perception, and plus lens — once within six months of starting school Hearing — yearly grades K-7 and grade 10 Scoliosis (curvature of the spine) — yearly age 8-16 School physical — grades K, 1, 3, 7, 10 and new students The exam may be given by the student's own physician or by the school physician. If child is new to school he must provide staff with evidence that she or he has been fully immunized (including DPT, polio and MMR immunizations). Also every student entering seventh grade must present a physician's certificate or copy of an immunization. Exceptions are made only if a parent states in writing that such a vaccine conflicts with religious beliefs, or if the student's physician submits documentation that such a procedure is contraindicated School planning. School building should be placed in the resident area far from sources of pollution. The serving area has 500 m radius, for lyceum and colleges – without limits. School area has from 0.5 to 3 ha and subdivided on economic zone, zone of vegetation, zone of sport grounds and school building zone. Built area can occupy up to 25% of school area, vegetation takes 55% as minimum. Sport zone takes about 30% of the area. In Ukraine they establish maximal height of school building as 3 floors. School building has two or more entrances. They use the systems of school building: 1. centralized – all premises are situated in one building. It’s typical for the most urban schools. 2. decentralized – school has some buildings (for primary school grades, secondary school, catering unit, administrative unit, sport unit, dormitory (hostel) for board schools etc) 3. combined – has features of the both systems School is provided with systems of water supply, canalization, gas and electricity. Primary grades are placed at the first floor of the building. Their square is 1.25 m2 per a pupil. For secondary school this ratio is 1.5 m2. Height of school premises should be not less 3.5 m. For classrooms of chemistry, biology, informatics, physics they use two premises units. They consist of study room and laboratory (for IT class – server room). Chemistry classroom should be equipped with local exhaustion and be placed at the upper floor of the school building. School furniture. The school furniture should be ergonomic, e.g. accord to the height of the child. They use terms differentia (distance between table and chair by the vertical) and distance of the back support (between back edge of the desk table and back of the chair) and distance of sitting (between back edge of the desk table and front edge of the sit of chair). Differentia should be equal to level of the elbow of sitting pupil +5 cm). Distance of sitting should be negative -(2-3 cm). If distance of sitting is positive it can cause thoracic hyperkyphosis. High differentia cause right-side scoliosis, low differentia – left side scoliosis. In the West they use height of sit in inches (14‖, 16‖, 18‖ etc) as the desk size. Modern desk can be combined as a unit. It’s light, safe and ergonomic. In the Ukraine we use the system of sizes of desks marking by Cyrillic letters and color marks. This marks are used only for desks (1-4 grades). Pupils’ height Color mark (ring with D=25mm or strip with width = 20 mm) А Up to 130 сm 130 – 145 cm Б 145 – 160 cm В 160 – 175 cm Г Д 175 cm and more Ergonomic workplace for PC studies. Computers should accord to TCO 99 or TCO 95 (glare reducing screen, ergonomic monitor). Top of monitor screen is approximately on eye level. The best is use of indirect lighting. Keybord and mouse should be ergonomic. Elbow angle should be physiological (70-90°) and wrist angle not to exceed 10°. Chair should support right posture – thigh is horizontal, knee to bend at 90° or more. Feet should be flat on the floor or foot rest. School syllabus. The hygienic organization of the educational classes at school is aimed to saving the work ability during the whole day of study, to remove the fatigue i.e. to make this work hygienic and pedagogically effective. There are five school days in a school week. The weekly workload in periods for students shall be determined by the school curriculum. The maximum permitted workload shall be: 1) 20 hours in grade 1; 2) 23 hours in grade 2; 3) 25 hours in grades 3 and 4; 4) 28 hours in grade 5; 5) 30 hours in grades 6 and 7; 6) 32 hours in grade 8; 7) 34 hours in grade 9; 8) 35 hours in grades 10-12. Limit duration of a lesson in the first grade is up to 35 minutes. The best regimen for the first grade pupils is following: September-October –3 classes x 30 min; November – December – 4 classes x 30 minutes and from January – 4 classes x 35 minutes. For fatigue prevention they use little breaks in the lesson. The least ability to work is characterized Monday and Friday, the maximal – Wednesday. So they should exclude to use test papers on these days. It’s very important to change kinds of children activities from the intellectual work to the physical – from classes of mathematics, foreign language – to craft, drawing or music. It’s forbidden to place difficult subjects after sport classes. It’s necessary to avoid doubling lessons. The breaks between classes should be not less 10 minutes, for lunch children have 30 minutes break. For children rest should be organized recreation premises. The maximum number of students in a class shall be 36.If there are children in the class with mental handicaps, each of these shall be considered as 3 students, in determining the number in the class. In case of a small number of students, a composite class shall be formed of students from different classes. From grades 1-4, there may be up to 20 students in a composite class formed from 2 classes, from 3 classes up to 15, and from 4 classes up to 10 students. In grades 5-9, there may be up to 15 students in a composite class formed from 2 consecutive classes. There may be up to 30 students in a long day group. There may be up to 25 students in a group at a boarding school. Homework Policy Homework is an important part of the learning process, and you should expect to have homework assignments each day. On the average, students in grades 5 and 6 should expect 1 to 1.5 hours of homework each night; students in grades 7 and 8 should expect 2 to 2.5 hours of homework each night. Your parents should feel free to contact your teachers if they feel you are doing too much or too little homework. Summer reading assignments will be the only ones required during vacation time. Homework assignments may require reading and/or writing. Sometimes you will need to spend time reviewing classroom assignments material so that you are prepared for quizzes and tests. You will also be given some long-term assignments like special projects and reports. Learn to tackle these assignments by doing a little each day instead of waiting until the last minute. It would be helpful for you to block out your work time on a calendar for long-term projects. Budgeting and organizing your time are very important skills which you should develop during your middle school years General Health education in the developing countries. Health and Hygiene lessons It covers most of the tropical diseases found in the area, e.g. malaria, bilharzia, sexually transmitted diseases including HIV/AIDS. The lessons are structured to cover causes, symptoms, treatments and prevention of these diseases. The six child killer diseases are also covered in these lessons. Most of the family members have improved their living standard in the areas of health and hygiene. This is shown by decrease in malaria, diarrhoea, STDs cases in clinics. Through motivation, creativity and initiatives, self reliance has been promoted in the sense of income generating activities which address the problem of unemployment nationally and internationally through self-employment, as well as creating jobs for others. Sanitation. Families receive lessons and campaigns on the importance of sanitation. As a result of the lessons, families dig pits for latrines, mould bricks, pay the builders, while the project provides materials such as cement, mash-wire, reinforcement and fly-screen together with other NGOs. Physical education is one of the factors of external environment, which can strengthen a condition of health, raise stability of an organism to influence of the adverse factors. The basic way of physical education are the physical exercises and training of an organism. Under action of physical education in organism there are positive changes: 1) The metabolic processes are normalized; raises of immunological properties of an organism; 2) The functionalities of an organism are improved; 3) The coordination of movements is improved; 4) The endurance, stability to the factors of external environment is increased; 5) There are new conditionally - reflective connections, is improved nervous - emotional tonus, protective mechanisms. Basis of physical education the following principles should be fixed: 1) Systematic training; 2) Gradual training; 3) Integrated approach; 4) Taking of individual features of an organism in the account Medical control of physical education includes the following complex of measures: 1) medical supervision over a condition and dynamics of health; 2) study of reactions of an organism on physical loading; 3) participation in measures on preventive maintenance of traumatism during employment, in tourist campaigns; 4) sanitary supervision on places for physical education. Therefore before to begin physical education the doctor should: 1) carry out medical inspection of children; 2) allocate them on groups of health; 3) allocate them on groups for employment by physical culture; 4) define a kind of physical exercises and of training procedures shown one or another child. By condition of health and physical development children can be allocated on 3 groups. During scheduled physical examinations of the pupils allocate depending on a condition of health, training state, on three groups: basic, preparatory and special. THE BASIC GROUP includes healthy children with small functional deviations from heart- vascular systems or insignificant deviations in a physical development. It's possible to carry out all kinds of physical education. PREPARATORY GROUP – poor trained children, with functional deviations HVS; respiratory system, chronic bronchites transferred sharp infections. It’s necessary to observe moderation in dosage of physical loading, to limit run, jumps etc. SPECIAL GROUP - children with rheumatism, in 6-12 months after attack etc. The sport classes are limited or absolutely forbidden. For definition of a degree training state make special tests. At improvement of a condition of health and physical development of the child, the doctor after inspection can transfer him from the third groups in the second group, from second in the first. While transferring of children from one group of physical education in another the basic parameter should be research of functionalities of an organism with the help of functional tests on dosed muscle loading. For children of preschool age the Levi-Gorinevsky’s test -30 jumps for 20 seconds is used. Pulse rate, number of respiratory movements and size of arterial pressure are considered as parameters of functionality of the organism. Three types of reactions are observed. 1) reaction of a usual type: the pulse becomes frequent in first 10 s. On 1-6 beats; increase of amplitude of BP (blood pressure) on 5-10 mm of a mercury pole. 2) the insignificant deviations consist in increase of pulse and breath after received loading. The restoration of pulse is delayed about 3 minutes of seen infringements in state of health is not observed. 3) significant dyspnoe, deterioration of state of health, distortion of BP reaction: 1) Or maximal reduction) 2) or sharply minimal pressure falls. The restoration of pulse on the fourth minute, is worsened filling the rhythm is broken. In a task of the doctors working at school, enters also: 1) Scheduled primary and repeated surveys of children for allocating on groups of physical education. It’s necessary for the admission to lessons of physical education, employment in sports sections, to participation in competitions, in tourist campaigns, for a direction in sports schools); 2) Control of lessons of physical education, realization ―physical culture pauses‖, competitions etc., prevention of traumatism, advisory work with the teachers. The prevention of sport traumatism. IT IS FORBIDDEN: 1) the premature admission to employment of recovering children, suffering by chronic diseases, poor trained; 2) lengthening terms of training, infringement of rules of personal hygiene (exercise after meal, on an empty stomach, at poor sleeping, employment with children having damages, excoriations etc. The correctly constructed lesson consists of four parts: 1) Introduction - 5-7 min. 2) Preparatory - 12-15 min. Inclusion by all muscles 3) Basic - 20-25 min. 4) Final - 3-5 mines. Restoration of an organism to an initial condition. Physical loading should accrue to the basic part. The lessons of gymnastics are the basic form of organization of educational work on physical culture at school. The lessons will be carried out 1-3 times per a week under the educational programs authorized by the Ministry of education, in view of returnable groups and local conditions of work. The lessons are under construction under the standard circuit consisting of 3 parts: introduction, basic and final. Introduction exercises the following: serial exercises, front, walking, short run, jumps etc., The basic part of a lesson has tasks on general health promotion, should promote formation of a number applied. The main aim is creating of skills and to develop the basic physical quality speed, endurance, force and dexterity. Preparatory, general developing, corrigive exercises having the task here enter to make active all functions of an organism, to enter into a working condition all of muscle group and, at last to use exercises for strengthening muscles of a back and prelium abdominale. The jumps, throwing, climbing, walking, run; use of gymnastic shells, are mobile also of sports games are included into section of development of the basic physical qualities. Duration of this part of a lesson is about 35 minutes. Task of a final part of a lesson (3-5 minutes.) - reduction of an organism of the pupils in a condition of rest after previous, sated by physical exercises and emotions of a part of a lesson. The elementary exercises in a combination to respiratory exercises and emotions of a part of a lesson are applied. The elementary exercises in a combination to respiratory exercises, quiet walking, exercise on relaxation, on attention are applied. The employment are conducted 2-3 times per one week for 2 hours on the specially equipped bases. The sport for children and teenagers should be under construction in view of their anatomic - physiological features and require careful medical supervision over a condition of health borrowing (occupying, engaged). In the annual plan of training distinguish three periods: preparatory, basic and transitive. Before everyone training employment and competition owes to carry out the complex of exercises which are having for an object to prepare an organism to performance of increased requirements, training, showed in basically part. The intense efforts should alternate with easy exercises not a relaxation, it is necessary to observe a principle of alternation of loading separate of muscle groups etc. To the phenomena of reduction of serviceability, to a condition of supertrained state concern: suspension of growth, sports achievement, infringement of coordination of movements, change of the behavioral reactions (irritability, unbalance of behavior), pallor, dyspnoe, occurrence be sick in the field of heart and right hypochondrium and certain objective attributes on the part of functions of a number of bodies and systems. Observance of a mode of day, sufficient sleep in the well aired room, establishment of constant time for reception of food are especially important for the young sportsmen as means assisting general growth, development of the young sportsman and his high sports serviceability. The measures on training in conditions of school are: Careful airing of school premises employment by physical culture in special clothes (cowards, T-short and sport shoes). Sanitary - hygienic requirements to places of employment. The success of employment by physical exercises in many respects depends on conditions of external environment, in which pass these employment. The control of the sanitary contents of all sports structures is carried out by the doctors of sanitary – epidemiological stations. In a gyms on everyone engaged for maintenance of freedom of movements the field is required 3 - 4 sq. m of the area at height of a hall 5 - 6 m. The batteries of the central heating should settle down in niches under windows not one planes with a wall and to be closed by demountable lattices. Temperature in a hall should be supported not yours 14 - 15 degrees. At temperature is lower than 12 degrees of employment are not permitted. Gymnastic hall should have a height – 6 m, area on a child - 4 m2, air cube - 28 m3. On the man, temperature of air 14 -15 hailstones., CNL - 5 % for top light, 1 - 1,5 % for lateral illumination. Light exposure -150 - 200 lx on a floor; the premise should be covered with balanced ventilation, which will ensure 3 multiple volumes of air at the rate of 80 m3 on a child. The floor of a hall should be wooden, it is the best a deck type of floor which is not having cracks. The fitted carpet is supposed at its duly repair. The walls of a hall should be equal, without ledges and ornaments. The bottom part of walls at height up to 2 - х of meters becomes covered by an oil paint. In a gyms that stock is placed only which is necessary for employment. In a warm season of employment by physical culture should be born on a platform near school at its appropriate equipment depending on presence of the free area. So, the sportgrounds for easy athletics and sports games can be organized. Type of school sportgrounds. Gymnastic sportground. The usual size of a gymnastic sportground 30x20 m, minimal - 20x15 m. The capital equipment of a platform is gymnastic place, consisting from two poles driven in ground on depth 1,8 m, and bars, to which are attached through metal hooks of the pendant shells: mobile and motionless poles, gymnastic rings, climbing rope. On each side of poles become stronger gymnastic bars, a beam for balance and inclined ladder. Except for specified place, the gymnastic platform should have: a place for free exercises, path for walking, gymnastic wall, place for basic jumps on gymnastic horse and buck , canopies for a storage of portable shells, bench for rest. Racing paths: a straight line by the size 115 - 3,6 m and circular size 250 - 2,6 м. They should have firm, it is good drained the basis, elastic, dense, not dusting and top layer, proof in relation to atmospheric precipitation. Before the beginning of competition the doctor is obliged: 1) to check up presence of the sanctions signed by the director of school and the doctor, to participation of the schoolboys in those or other measures; 2) to check up and to look after a sanitary condition of places of competitions and stock, and also meteorological conditions; 3) to ensure rendering medical assistance at traumas, diseases; 4) to not suppose to participation in competitions of children at presence of exhaustion and to keep up observance of intervals between performances of the separate participants; 5) to observe the sportsmen meal . The essence of functional changes in an organism occurs under influence training and, is reduced to the following: 1) there is a gradual fading of reflective-vascular reactions on a cold irritation on sites of a skin and mucous, not exposed to cooling; 2) amplify heat production, due to what temperature of a skin and internal bodies raises 3) at later stage of training the functional and morphological shifts on a place of cooling join. The comparison given about reaction on the move at of trained children in comparison with untrained shows faster restoration of skin temperature up to an initial level after short-term cooling, and also less sharp reduction of skin temperature on all sites. Alongside with it the reduction of a difference of temperature of a skin the closed and open sites. 4) the resistance of capillary vessels walls, in particular mechanical durability them (А.P Parfenov). 5) morphological changes of a skin expressing in a thickening of a layer epidermis. Thus, training is complex process, at which under influence of repeated irritations all protective mechanisms of an organism are made. The functional changes in an organism in training process are formed, are kept, are fixed only under certain conditions: 1) cold irritation should act regularly. The sensitivity to a cold is shown in 15-20 days after the termination of cold procedures. 2) force and the duration cold irritants should accrue gradually. Too strong irritations are dangerous. At realization training of procedures it is necessary to distinguish of a training measure in ordinary, daily life of children's establishment and special measures on training of the pupils to a cold. To the first group of measures concern: the organization of a so-called mode of open air ensuring presence of a dynamic microclimate in premises for long stay of children (class hours, in this case it is marked more high level of saturation of blood by oxygen kept all day. Special measures on training. In quality of means the natural training factors are usually used: a solar irradiation, air, water. The great importance in training by the sun belongs to ultra-violet rays. Now mechanism of action of a ultra-violet irradiation on an organism of the man, in particular training effect, is investigated rather full. The action of a ultra-violet irradiation on an organism is complex process. Under influence of a ultra-violet irradiation occurs denaturation of fiber, that causes increase of quantity of proteolysis products including histamine. The products of disintegration of fiber irritate the nervous terminations in a skin, vessels, that causes changes a functional condition of the nervous centers. It conducts to reflective reactions on the part of a number of bodies and systems. Alongside with it there is a thickening of a epidermis at the expense of a horn layer (in 16-18 days after an irradiation). The solar irradiation favorably influences on an organism. at diseases of blood, weakened children who have transferred infectious diseases. The solar baths for the pupil can be organized on a coast of reservoirs and in territory of the ground area in sun decks. The greatest pressure UV-radiation is observed at 12 PM. To avoid excessive strong action UV rays on a child organism, the best time for solar baths considers 9-10 hours After that pass to a direct solar irradiation in view of the following requirements: 1. The reception of solar baths is supposed only after 1,5 - two hours after meal and on an empty stomach. 2. Solar baths after significant physical loading: football, volleyball, employment by easy athletics, gymnastics, the works on self-service and in workshops, on studies-skilled sites etc. - are contra- indicated 3. Prior to the beginning and after termination a solar bath it is necessary to accept an air bath by duration in 15-20 min. 4. It is impossible to subject a solar irradiation a head (it is necessary shadow by an awning, canopy, or white head cover (cap)). 5. After a bath the bathing in the river or cool souls is recommended. 6. The duration of solar baths should be strictly regulated. At children of the senior school age the first bath can be duration of 5-mines, with the subsequent daily increase for 5-min. The general duration of baths should not be more than 1,5-2 hours. At realization of solar baths it is necessary to supervise a condition of pulse and state of health of the pupils. Acceleration of pulse on 30 %, occurrence of a nausea, the headaches require the immediate termination of a solar bath. Contra-indication to reception of solar baths are decompensated defects of heart sharply raised nervous exciteness, the exsudative forms of a tuberculosis easy, tuberculosis of joints and glands accompanying in high temperature. It is necessary for children inclined to conjunctivitis, during reception of solar baths using of protective glasses. Artificial irradiation. The general irradiations begin from 1/8 biodozes, through each two sessions add on 1/8, by the end of a rate lead up to 5 biodozes. Distance from a source of an artificial irradiation - 100см. For evaluation of a biodoze use the following technique: on a skin of the child is being placed a plate (metal or from a black paper or oil-cloth), in which is cut out 6 panes by size 1 cm2 everyone. Windows covered through a mobile tape. At first open one window and irradiate 1 min. Then 2, 3 etc. with the same interval of an irradiation. Thus duration of an irradiation of a skin in 1-st window – 6 min., in 2-nd 5 min., in 6-th 1 min. In day take into account results: the minimal duration of an irradiation causing erithema is considered as a biodose. The intensity of ultra-violet radiation can in parallel be registered with the help of the special device - ufimeter Water training. procedure. The properties of water promote training protective mechanisms and developments of the conditionally - reflective reactions on the cold irritation, that allows for an organism quickly to react to acting irritations. At action of water on a skin there is a significant loss of heat, the more considerable difference between temperature of a skin and temperature of water and than longer cooling is more than. Thereof there comes spasm of vessels - skin turns pale and casts by an internal body, then begins amplified heatproduction and blood flows to a skin, that causes pleasant sensations of heat and hyperemia of a skin. At long influence of water procedure due to significant cooling of deeper layers of a skin and hypoderma comes secondary shiver (shakes) with vertigo occurred of a ―goose skin‖, paleness of fingers it is natural by approach secondary shakes, it is impossible to suppose, the often occurrence of secondary shakes can result in weariness, headache, infringement of sleep etc. Wiping has weaker training action in comparison with other water procedures. The especially gentle influence wiping renders, if is made squeezed out from water glove or towel, - in the case of heat looses of an organism it is much less than at pouring, where the skin adjoins to a plenty of water. Technique of wiping is next: wiping of a body is made by special gloves sewed from dense fabric, towel or sponge. All accessories of children should be individual. The instructor offer to pupils take out the clothes up to belts and wipe off wet, slightly by squeezed out towel or sponge of a hand, neck, chest, stomach, a back and quickly wipe to dry, pounding thus a body before occurrence hyperemia. The massage is necessary for making on a course of vessels from periphery to the center. After that on the top part of a body it is possible put on underwear and to make massage and wiping of the bottom part of a body in the same order. It is possible to recommend washing of a body by cold water up to belts during a morning toilet. This procedure does not require additional time in a mode of day. To begin it, as well as all water procedures, it is necessary in the summer and to continue further during round year. At presence in a premise of school shower room, certainly, quite accessible is pouring of a body. This training procedure renders strong influence. Here joins still mechanical action of jets of water, due to what pouring raises tonus of muscles, and consequently, and serviceability of the pupils. For pouring is recommended warm waters (of 30-32 oC) at temperature of air in a premise of 18-20 degrees. Everyone 2-3 days temperature of water is reduced on 1o, reaching till 19-20 for the younger schoolboys and 17-16 - for the grown-up. Duration of taking shower - 1-2 min. After shower is necessary carefully to wipe a body and massage it. The duration of all water procedures should be no more 1-3мin. The especially strong influence is rendered by sea bathing in a combination with swimming (temperature of water, movement of waves, chemical structure of water. All this causes training mechanisms of thermoregulation simultaneously raising an exchange of substances, promoting a deepening of breath, increase of pulse, increase of blood pressure, increase of red blood cells quantity, training of nervous system. The swimming renders positive influence on physical development of the schoolboys, salutarily influences work of heart, easy, joints and muscles, promotes development to correct bearing. To begin bathing it is necessary at temperature of water not below than 20 degrees. The duration of bathing per the first days should be no more 3-5мin. with subsequent lengthening of term up to 20-30мin. The sanction for usage by a reservoir for bathing children give local of sanitary epidemiological station. The depth of water in a place of bathing of the younger schoolboys should not be more 1-1,5м. A place, up to which it is authorized to children to float follows, to designate by identification marks. During bathing children the presence of the adults is necessary. As a method of training it is possible to recommend walking without shoes. It promotes a thickening of a skin of a sole of legs and downturn its sensitivity to a cold. The circulation without shoes, as well as everyone, other method training, should be subordinated to one of the basic trailers of training- gradualness, therefore it is better for beginning in a summer season in a premise at temperature of air of 18-20 degrees with 15 –30 min. Technique training of children by air. Cool and cold air, being thermal both mechanical irritants of a skin and mucous environment promotes of adaptive reactions of an organism. In this connection at schools boarding schools it is necessary widely to introduce day time sleep on air at the pupil of the 1st-2nd forms. At these conditions the quantities and the duration of diseases have reduced, and tolerance to infectious diseases has increased . On fresh air children quickly fall asleep, due to what the duration of day time sleeping is increased. All this influences on a functional condition of nervous system and the quality of sleeping is improved. For organization of sleep in territory of the ground area should be built pavilions, which settle down directly on affinity to the sleeping case. The night sleep of children should be carried out in conditions wide aeration of a premise, that as has the great importance. With this purpose at any time of year in a bedroom it is necessary to open windows. The winter in bedrooms uses the special mode of airing: after children have gone to bad, a room air on in 3-4 hours. Then airing stop and renew it 2-3 hours prior to rise, and for 1 hour before rise the premise of a bedroom is not aired that temperature of air to time of awakening of children has risen. To strengthen sanative and training of action morning exercises, it will be carried out during all year on fresh air. In this case morning exercises get meaning of air baths in movement, which duration gradually increases and leads up up to 15-20 min. The clothes of children thus are gradually facilitated. Now is not present to the unified technique to an estimation of a training level of the child to the various meteorological factors. Usually with this purpose use: an estimation of shifts by a functional condition of separate bodies and systems of an organism of children, in particular of the thermoregulation apparatus: changes in physical development and health of the schoolboys as general reactions of an organism of the child on influence of training procedures. The first group of a method is rather extensive. A number of the authors offers methods based on supervision over dynamics of reduction of temperature of a body under influence of cooling. The researches have shown, that for the trained person marks a smaller degree of reduction of temperature of a skin and mucous on a place of cooling and on the remote sites. So, on the Barton and Adholm data, for the untrained to a cold man, under influence of cooling rectal temperature is reduced on 0,7 degrees, but for trained one - only on 0,2 degrees. For definition of a training level of children many researchers (I. Talanov, N. Lukash, M. Synitzin etc.) offers to use other test, so-called cold test, which essence consists that temperature of askin on a place of cooling comes to an initial level at trained to a cold organism faster, than at untrained one. For local cooling of a skin use glass or metal cylinders filled by thaw ice. The technique of the test is very simple: measuring temperature of a skin (by skin electrothermometer) on an internal surface of a forearm and on 30 s. Put the cylinder filled by ice. After removal of the cylinder again measure temperature of a skin and on this site repeat measurement of temperature in one minute before returning temperature to an initial level. In opinion of some authors N. Synitzin, for the cold tests should be measured temperature of a skin in 1 min., after that through 3-5min., with the subsequent measurement everyone 5мин. in current 20-30мин. On the data of the author, for small children trained to a cold fall of temperature of a skin after cooling very insignificant (0,3-0,8градусов) and the restoration its up to an initial level occurs in current 3-5 min. At children with less expressed adaptive of the thermoregulative apparatus temperature of a skin after cooling is reduced on 0,9-1,1 degree and is restoared only in 10 min.. At children who are not exposed with training, the fall of temperature after cooling reaches 1,1-1,8 degrees, the restoration is marked in 15 mines and later. These data emphasize value of the cold test as accessible method for an estimation of training of the child to a cold. In A. Parfenov opinion a parameter of an organism training to a cold the changes of temperature of a mucous nose can serve at cooling stop, as for untrained people temperature of a mucous nose is reduced and at cooling stop is reduced, and for trained to a cold -it is not present. As indicative criterion the author considers also smoothing of a difference of temperature of the closed and open sites of a skin, which it is marked at the people habitual to the cold irritants. A rather simple method is the supervision over symmetry of an axilar temperatures. For trained to a cold children, temperature in armpits is identical, at children sensitive to a cold the difference to axilar temperature is marked. One of the widespread tests for study of efficiency of training are haemodinamics shifts in an organism. As shows research B. Koyransky, per the first days of training procedure cause usually increase of pulse (5-9 beats in minutes.). On the data of other authors, the increase of blood pressure is marked. In process of training these shifts disappear. To an estimation of mechanical durability of capillaries apply the device arranged by a principle dry banks. Aspiration of air is made from a glass funnel with a diameter equal 1 сm, a syringe, dozator or mouth and is being dozated with mercury manometer. A technique of statement of test is next: the skin in a elbow bend of the child is slightly greased with vaselinum, put the funnel and aspirated air up to a raising of a mercury pole up to a label 200мм is imposed. A funnel leave for one minute. After removal of a funnel count up quantity of petechias. On the T. Svidersky data, in the autumn children of school age marked on the average 10-11 petechias, in the spring - 17-18, after an irradiation by an artificial source of ultra-violet radiation -7-8. In process of training the parameters motor and of chronaxy vary. For poorly trained to cold irritant of the people at cooling the parameters motor chronaxy are reduced, and touch chronaxy are increased. The rate oftemepering procedures causes significant reduction of shifts in parameters of chronaxy down to their complete liquidation. These data give the basis to use a chronaxymetry as one of methods of an estimation of training of the child to a cold. The second group of methods estimates efficiency of used ways of training till a means of study of shifts in health and physical development of children. The shifts in morbidity of children occurring under influence of training, are taken into account on number of the misses of classes. The convincing data turn out at study of quantity of the misses of children in connection with some diseases (catarrh of the top respiratory ways, quinsy, laryngitis, tracheitis etc). For this purpose it is necessary to count up total of the misses of classes in connection with caching cold diseases. Comparing the data on the misses at children undergone and who have not undergone to regular influence of training procedures, usually reveal considerably high morbidity of untrained to a cold children. Child policlinic (OPD) Medical dispensary on Department of physical culture Child&Adolescent Hygiene School physician School committee of Pedagogical Council parents School nurse Medical benefits: Sanitary-hygienic measures: 1. medical 1. control of sanitary state of examinations of the school children 2. develop sanitary regimen 2. medical examination of the school of staff 3. control on the syllabus 3. medical-sanitize 4. health promotion measures 5. control on the work of 4. antiepidemic volunteers of Red Cross measures 5. medical control on physical education 6. medical control on school meal Figure. School physician activities in the prevention of child morbidity. Criteria of readiness of the six-year children for studies in the secondary school Characteristic of criteria Medical-biological -teeth age (permanent dentition) -physical development -health state (status praesens and diseases in last year) Psychophysiological -quality of articulation -results of Kern-Irasek’s test The indications to a delay for acting to school: -Absence of the permanent teeth -Body length less than M-1σ (by local standards) -Increase of the growth less 4 cm in year -infectious hepatitis -pyelonephritis, diffuse glomerulonephritis -myocarditis (nonrheumatic) -epidemic meningitis, meningoencephalitis -tuberculosis -rheumatic fever -blood diseases -often respiratory viral diseases (more 4 times in year) -vegetative dystonia (hypotonic or hypertonic type) -valvular defect (congenital or rheumatical) -chronic bronchitis, bronchial asthma, chronic pneumonia (if it’s exacerbation or no steady remission in the year) -ulceric diseases of the stomach or duodenum, chronic gastritis, chronic gastroduodenitis (in aggravation stage, with often recidives and with uncompleted remission) -anemia (Hb8.0-10.7 g%) -adenomatous vegetation of III degree, chronic adenoides -hypertrophy of faucial tonsils (of III degree) -endocrinopathy, the goiter, diabetes mellitus etc -neuroses (logoneuroses, hysteria etc) -retardation of the mental development -child cerebral paralysis -trauma of the cranium (accident in the year) -epilepsy -enuresis -exema, neurodermitis (if there are widespread skin leisure) -myopia with trend to progress (>2.0D) Methodic of Kern-Irasek’s test: Equipment: sheet of the paper (A4), cards 7- 8*13-14 cm with the inscription: ―He ate a soup‖ and grouped points. (The inscription has vertical size of the letters –1 cm, capital letter has size 1.5 cm; the points have diameter 2 mm, distance between the points by horizontal and vertical –1cm) Instructions: 1. Draw a man, please. 2. Copy the writing sentence 3. Copy the points Evaluation: the best result is 1, the worst –5 scores (by every subtest). If the child has more than 9 scores he’s unready to school. Glossary: Adolescence Developmental transition between childhood and adulthood entailing major physical, cognitive, and psychosocial changes. Adolescent growth spurt Sharp increase in height and weight that precedes sexual maturity. Adolescent rebellion Pattern of emotional turmoil, characteristic of a minority of adolescents, which may involve conflict with family, alienation from adult society, and hostility toward adults' values Acceleration - Faster presentation of content to more closely match the speed at which gifted students learn. Compare with grade skipping. See pacing, compacting. Alternative schools - Schools designed with more flexible programs for exceptional learners or with an educational philosophy different from regular public education. Assessment - Assignment of value. Academically, this usually means grades. In psychology, it means comparing the tested measures of a subject’s mental characteristics (e.g., intelligence, personality, self-esteem) to a norm, or average. See grading, standardized test, authentic assessment, reliability, validity, and IQ. Average - See normal, statistics, mean, median and mode. Battery - Multiple tests to assess functioning in a variety of psychological areas such as intelligence, achievement, personality, and self-esteem. Behavior modification - Changing the environment and using reinforcers (or their absence) to control the behavior of others. Practitioners set up the environment to prompt a behavior, then reward the desired behavior and/or punish undesired behavior in that specific situation. The absolute control of reinforcers, the maintenance of the behavior when environmental controls are removed, and the generalization of the behavior to other situations are problematic. It tends to be used to produce conformity and obedience. See behaviorism, mental health. Development - Cognitive (intellectual), emotional and physical growth. See asynchronous development. Deviance - Behavior outside a norm. Displaying gifted behaviors is, by this definition, deviance. See normal, social control. Diagnostic test - An assessment prompted by a perceived problem in order to determine current level of functioning. Test results are then used to prescribe a solution. Educational reform - Popularly used to describe efforts to increase standanrdized test scores of public school students. As such, it is more a description of assessment reform than a change of educational philosophies or methods, although a back to basics philosophy is often implied. In Ukraine children go to the secondary school at 6 (before reform they do at 7), school education has 12 grades and they use 12 scores system of assessment by the newest reform. Intelligence quotient (IQ) - A quantitative representation of cognitive ability which results from testing a sample of cognitive skills. The formula is intellectual age divided by chronological age, times 100. For example, someone 10 years old with an intellectual age of 13 would have an IQ of 130. This is called the "ratio IQ." The scales of different IQ tests vary slightly due to differences in test construction and the sample which provided the norm. Variation in scores is described by the standard deviation. Assuming that intelligence is normally distributed, the IQs of about 95 percent of the population are between 70 (about 2 standard deviations below the mean) and 130 (about 2 standard deviations above the mean). Below 70 is considered retarded, and above 130 is considered gifted. Individual tests such as the WISC and Stanford-Binet are considered the most reliable, but no published test since the older Stanford-Binet Form LM (1972) is valid above 160. Most IQ tests since 1960 have reported IQ as "deviation IQ," which adjusts the ratio IQ scale slightly based on the different means and standard deviations of each age group in the sample used to construct the test. Ratio and deviation IQ's seldom differ by more than 4 points. See levels of giftedness, ceiling effect, multiple intelligences. Learning - An increase in knowledge or skill. Learning disability - A deficit in a specific area, such as word decoding or arithmetic computation, which is out of line with overall intellectual ability. Some learning disabilities may interfere with proper measurement on conventional IQ tests, so a learning disabled student might be considered gifted with an IQ test score significantly lower than the usual 130 cut-off. Least restrictive environment (LRE) - School placement where the student’s needs can be met which most closely approximates the regular classroom. Levels of giftedness - According to IQ measurements, the following labels are generally accepted: Bright - 115 and above Gifted - 130 and above Highly gifted - 145 and above Exceptionally gifted -160 and above Profoundly gifted - 175 and above Because of measurement error and ceiling effect, the exceptionally and profoundly gifted labels are often used interchangably. Mean - Arithmetical average. Median - A measure of central tendancy where half the scores are above and half below. Mental health - A concept based on socially acceptable behavior and subjective feeling. Simplified, here are two competing philosophies: (1) People need to have their natural, selfish impulses controlled in order to fit into society, or (2) Like physical health, mental health is something people grow toward naturally. Mode - The most frequent score. Montessori method - An educational philosophy based on the ideas of Italian physician/educator Maria Montessori (1870 - 1952). Although originally developed with students labeled "mentally defective" her tremendous successes led her approach to be widely embraced, especially in upper class pre- and elementary schools world-wide. Montessori saw students' learning as the result of innately self-motivated activity. The teacher's job, then, is to supervise and guide rather than transmit knowledge. Many private and a few public schools in the U.S. call themselves "Montessori," however there is no official body to regulate use of the name and actual teaching practices vary considerably. Odessa kindergarden #19 uses this method. Multiple intelligences - Constructs of intelligence that include more aspects of mental ability than the conventional concept of intelligence. Howard Gardner proposed seven intelligences: musical, bodily-kinesthetic, logical-mathematical, linguistic, spatial, interpersonal, and intrapersonal. He recently added an eighth: naturalist. Conventional IQ tests measure mainly logical-mathematical and linguistic intelligence. Intellectual profile illustration. Norm - (1) In sociology, a culturally relative guideline for social behavior. (2) In testing, a statistical measure of central tendency, as a mean, median, or mode. Normally distributed - Statistically symmetrical around an average, represented graphically by a bell curve. In a normal distribution, the mean, median, and mode are all equal. Pretest - A test given before instruction to determine current level of performance in a specific skill. Psychometrics - The quantitative measurement of mental characteristics, as in IQ. School psychologist - The person who gives diagnostic tests to students and acts as a consultant to teachers, counselors, and administrators. Like teachers and counselors, they often have special training in disabilities but little or no training in giftedness. Self-contained - A classroom is self-contained if the students in it spend the entire day (or the bulk of the day) with the same teacher. Elementary education is almost always conducted in self- contained classrooms. Self-contained programs can also be geared toward grouping by ability, disability, or other labels placed on students, such as the label "gifted." Self-esteem - A subjective feeling of self-worth built from the respect and sense of worth reflected back on the person from significant others. Can be altered by labeling and social interaction. Serious emotional disturbance (SED) - A special education category under IDEA. The terms ―behavior disorder‖ or ―emotional/behavior disorder‖ are synonymous with SED. A student may be identified as having SED for not having ―satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers‖ or for displaying ―inappropriate types of behavior or feelings.‖ The characteristics of the gifted combined with the subjectivity of these criteria may lead educators to mislabel some gifted children as SED. See labeling theory. Social control - Formal and informal enforcement of social norms and values. See behavior modification, discipline, deviance, mental health, normal. Socialization - Acquiring the cultural values, knowledge and skills which allow one to function productively in a society. Pro-inclusion and anti-homeschooling arguments are often based on the socialization value of the heterogeneous classroom. However, there is no empirical evidence that ability grouped or homeschooled students have poorer social skills. Standard deviation - A statistical measure of variability from the mean. To calculate it, find the difference of each and every score from the mean, square each difference, average them, then take the square root. For IQ tests, the mean is designed to be 100, and the standard deviation is calculated to be about 15 or 16. Standardized test - A test taken by many students under identical conditions which allows results to be compared statistically to a standard such as a norm or criteria.
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