ffi depersonalization

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					                               \¡ANTS OF AUSc:HWITZ                                                         , OR ON THE SUBJECT

   In tlre version recorded h the po"* At an IJaceftnin Hour,
the experieuce has the form not of a dream, but of a prophetic
                                                                                  cence of becoming    but, rather, a shame that is not only
   Sognavamo nelle        notti feroci                                            guiltbut even   without time.
   sogni densi e violenti
                                                                                                                                       shame is not a
   sognati con anima e colpo:                                                     3.8   Ântelme clearly bears witness to the fact that
   tornate, mangiare; raccontare.                                                 feelingof   guilt                                      ffi:i:;
   Finché suonava breve e sornmesso                                               has a different,
   il comando dell'alba:                                                          when the war was    nearingits
   "Wstawac';                                                                     fer prisoners from Buchenwal
              in petto il cuore.
   e si spezzava                                                                  qui*ly approaching, the      SS sh
   Ora abbiamo ribovato la casa,                                                  have slowed down tùe march be
   il nostro ventre     è sazio,                                                  At times the decimation would
   abbiamo       ffnito di racconta¡e.                                            sence of   anyvisible criterion.
   È    t"-po-presto udremo
   il   comando straniero:                                                           The SS continu es. " Du komme
                                                                                      column, a student from Bolo
                                                                                      Pink I look at him closelY. I
                                                                                      stands there at the side of tùe
                                                                                      with his hands. . .. He tu¡ned
                                                                                      þomme hier!" He must have
                                                                                      but yes, it was he who had be
                                     sr¡ss egain; our bellies aie full; we have       longer, he turned pink. The     SS

                                     time. Soon we will once again hear the             to kill, had formd him. And
                                         1988: S30).                                    He didn't ask himself: rilhY
                                                                                        Italian, having understood it
                                                                                        selection- He ilidn't wonder:
                                                                                        (Antelme 1992= 231-32'}

                                                                                      rt is ha¡d to forget the flusb        "1ù,:T1î;::itårÏ.ît;
                                                                                                                      last mlI
                                                                                   died during th. m"rch alone at the


                          !ANTS   OF AUSCHWITZ                                                               , OR ON THE SUBJECf

                                                                                    hom itself. If we experience shane in nudity' it
                                                                                                                                       is bcca¡se-
the road   $'iù
              his mu¡derer. ,{nd certainly the intimacy that one             break
                                                                             we cannot hide what we would like to remove from
                                                                                                                                      the field of
experiences before one's owrr unloown murderer is the most
exheme intimac¡ an inti-acy that can as such provoke shame.                  vision; it is because the unresfiainable irnpulse to
                                                                                                                                  flee from one-
                                                                             self is conf¡onted by an equally certain impossibility
                                                                                                                                       of evasion'
But whatever the cause of that flush, it is certain tl¡at he is not
ashamed for having su¡vived. Ratler, it is as if he were ashamed,            Just as we                    o*   -..,oiairrg and yet 'nzuppressibt"   PÏ-
                                                                                          "*p"ri"rr..                                       Levinas classi-
for having to die, for having been haphazardly chosen-he and                 €nce to ou¡selves in bodily n""d arrã rr"o'*, which
                                                                                                                                      we are
no one else to be killed. In the camps, t}is is the only sense that          fies alongside shame in a single diagnosis, so in shane
            -                                                                                                                        way dis-
                                                                             consigned to something frorn" ni"f, w" cannot in
the expression "to die in place of another', ca¡r have: ever)rone
dies and lives in place of another, witlout reason or meaning; the           tance ou¡selves.
camp is the place in whicÀ no one can truly die or survive in his
                                                                                'What                                 th
own place. AuschwiU also means this much: that man, dfng, can-                            appears    in   sha¡ne is
not ffnd any other ss¡5g in his death than this flush, this shame.              dnineil to oneself, tùe radical
   In any case, the student is not ashamed for having survived.                 oneself &om oneself, the
On the contrary, what suryives him is sha¡ne. Here, too, Kafka                  Nudity is shameful when it is
was a good prophet. At the end of The Tiial, at the moment in                   final intimacy- And tùe nuditY
which Josef K. is about to die like a dog," and in which the rnife               material thing that is
of the executioner turns twice in his heart, something                           entire Being, in all its pl
arises in him;    'itwas as if his shame were to suryive him j' What is          exptession, of which one
Josef  K. ashamed of? Why does the student from                                     Charlie Chaplin swallows in
                                                        Bologna blush?
It is as if the flush on his cheeks momentarily                                     of the brutal presence of his
                                                   betuayed   i-limit that
was reached, as                                                                     that allows one to laY bare the
touched upon in                                                                     legendary Charlot cloak b
fact to which he                                                                    intimacy, that is, out Presence
     have expressed     tb.ogh words. But in any case that flush                    ingness but the totalitY ofour
1þ                                                                      is
tY -"r:       aposhophe    flþg   througb            ¡each us, to bea¡              the Being that   disco; ftself (ævinas   19822   87)'
witness to him.                             "*;
                                                                                 Let us seek to deePen
                                        exemplary analysis of shame..         to be consþed to something
                                    s   not deriye, as the noral phi-         caûrotbe assumed isnot
                                    ciousness of an imperfection or           in our own intimacP it is what
                                     take distance. On the contrary,          Ple, our own physiological
                                    s incapacity                              its own passivity, its or¡vnrnost
                                                   to move away and

                                                                                                 SHAME'    OR ON THE SUBJECf

                                                                                                                         (Bdamin  1979:
and desubjectiffcation is also an exfreme and irreducible presence        akin to the admal that it might be recognized'
                                                                                                                    some way recognized
oftl¡e "I" to itself. It is as ifou¡ consciousness collapsed and, seek-   50). ïVhoever experiences disgust has in

ing to flee in all directions, were simultaneously summoneil by           himself   in
an irrefutable order to be present at its own defacemeng at the           tun. The
expropúation of rvhat is most its own. In shame, the subject thus         alterity th
has no other content than its own desubjectification; it becomes          an absolute desubi       ectifi cation-
wibess to its own disorder, its own oblivion as a subject, This              \4re     reciprocity of this
                                                                                    find     a
double movement, which is both subjectification and desubjecti-           Keren¡, more or less in the sam
fication, is shame.                                                       book, :{nciørt ße[i gion.      "The
                                                                          situation of the Greeks' religious
3.10 In his 1942-43 lecture   course on Parmeniãeq Heidegger              active vision and passive        vision'
was also concerned with shame ot, more precisd with the cor-               seenworld and the seeing worl
responding Greekterrn øidos, whichhe defined as "a frrndamental            tate....The Greek is not onlY '
word of authentic Greehess' (Heidegger 1992:74-75, fransla-                form ofhis existence is to be s
tion modified). According to Heidegger, shame is somettring                reciprocity of active and passive
more than "a feeling that man has,, (ibid., translation modifieQ;          rience ofbeing present at one's
instead, it is an emotive tonality that Þaverses a¡ld determines his       wiüressbywhat oue sees. Iike
whole Being. Shame is thus a kind of ontological sentiment that            bare chest ('Hector, my son, fe
has its cÌ¡aracteristic place in tüe encount". b"to"rn man and             rience-s sha¡ne       is overcome by
                                                                           rnust respond to what deprives
                                                                                        can the¡efore ProPose
                                                                            sbane.      Itis nothing less than th
                                                                            ø sub¡eæ,in the two apparentlY
                                                                            be subjected and to be s
                                                                            the absolute concomita¡rce of
                                                                            tion, self-loss and self-posses

                                                                            3.11 A specific domain exists
                                                                            ter of shaure is consciously
                                                                            into pleasure
                                                                                                 - in which     sha
                                                                             itself. This is the domain of sad
                                                                             ject, the masochist, is so

                                                                                                    HAME, OR ON THE

infìnitely   *m*.^:;m,        that he abdicates his condition      as a    slave   become wholly indistinguishable'
subject by frlly subjecting himself to another subject, the sadisr         pline anil enioyment,          in which the two subi
                                                                                                     rt-"-:   *.;    is this   t-:,i.t
Hence the ceremonial panoply of lace, contracts, metals, girdlo,           incide, is precisely
                                                                                                     recalls to his humorouspupr
sutures, a¡rd constrictions of all kinds through which the mæo-            *.rt", *itirru"lly                                             are the subiect
                                                                                                           ö;;Ñ"ditt            th"iyoo
chistic subject vainly fies to contain and ironically ffx the very         you ashaured?'      That is:
passivity which he cânnot assume and which everywhere exceeds              of   your own desub¡ectification?"
him. Only because the masochist's own suffering is ff¡st of all that
                                                                                                                   can be
of not being able to assume his own receptivity can his p.io be             l.l2     A perfect equivalent of shame
immediately tansfo¡med into delight. But what constitutes the               originari structurã of subiectivity that 1o
subtlety of the masochistic süategy and its al¡nost sarcastic pro-           øuø-ofiectionand that, from Kant onlvârG'
frodity is that the masochist is able to enjoy what exceeds him             ., ti*". According to Kant, what defines.                  inrrer
onþ on the condition of fmding outside himself a point in whiå              inuer sense, that is, "*:;;;;;of
                                                                                                                   o*t"l""t and of our
he can assume his own passivity and his orrn unassumable plea-              state" (Kant 19292 7
sure. This external point is the sadistic subject, the master.              formsthis actupon
    Sadomasochism thus appears as a bipolar system         in which   an     aretherefore justifie
infìnite receptivity the masochist encounters an equally ínfi-               by" (ibid.: 166) anil
                    -             -
nite impassivity-tl¡e sadist- and in which subjectification and              only as lye are
desubjectification incessantly circulate between two poles with,                Kant, a clear proof
out ProPeÙ belonging to eitüer. This indetermination, however,                  tuition of ourselves is tùat we car¡not -
invests subjects not merely with power, but also
                                                    with.lnowledge.             ilrawing a straight line in the imaginati
The master-slave dialectic here i, th" ,esult not                                                                        ge
                                                    of a battle for life        immeiliate trace of the auto'affective
and death, but nthe¡ of an infinite .,discipli.e,,'
                                                    a meticulous and             is auto-affection; but precisely for {s
interminable process of instruction and apgenticeship in which                  of a genuine'puradoi," *¡¡¿ consßs
the two subjects end by exchanging tt       ,ol"r.         th"                  behave toward. ourselves as Pas$ve \r'r
                                             "i,        ¡^*t ",
 masochistic subject cannot   *r*"      hi, pt             the mas-              Iaàøãverhalte¡ ø
                                           ".*" "*".pfio
 ter, so the sa$tic subject cannot recognize
                                              himself as such-can-                  How areweto
 not   assume his irnpassive knowledge                                                        with
                                             - if not by transhitting            be passive
                                                                                 receptivity, the
                                                 ction and Punishment'
                                                 his cruel training   bY         principle. Since
                                                                                   activity and pas
 and discipline and apprenticeslhip,
                                                                ffi:i              active   witl   resp
                                                                                   ten)'ag¡inst" its
                                     teacher     *d   pupil" måster aud

                            NANTS OF AUSCHWITZ                                                      SHAME, OÊ ON THE SUBJECT

merely receptive the photographic print sfruck by lighU or the                  that the ercmenosÃotexperience pleasure' Passivity' as the form
soft wax on which the image of the seal is imprinæd, we will then               wbjectivity, is ttus constitutively fractured into a purely recep-
give the name'þassive" only to what activeþ feels its own being                 tive pole (ùr" Mur"l^onn) and an actively passive Ptl"
                                                                                                                                           (q: Ï:-
passire, to what is afected b¡r its own rcceptivitl. As auto_affection,         o.o! bot in such a way that this fractu¡e neve¡   Ieaves itself' fully
passivity is thus a receptivity to tåe second degree, a receptivity             separating the two poles. On the contary, it always has the
that experiences itself, that is moved by its own
                                                  passivity.                    of o, ioi^acy, of being consigned to a passivity, to a making
                  on these pages of Kant, Heidegger deffnes time                self passive in which the two ierms are both distinct and insepara-
as 'þure auto-affection" that har the
                                       singular foã of a .,moving               ble.
from itself toward..3 that is at the                                                                                                   Spínoza illus-
                                           r.*ã ti-" a.looking
                                                             backl                     In his Conpen    grammaticus hinguae lrchroeae'
OnIy in this complicated gesture, in this                                       frates the concept of immanent cause-- that is, alr action
                                                                                                                                            in whic'h
                                          looking to oneseliin dis-
                                                                                                                                         the Hebrew
tancing oneself from oneself, can
                                   something ti" ," identical self              agent and   patient are one and the sârne Person - with
be constituted:                                                                           ot go.i.s of the active reflexive and the infinitive noun'
                                                                                "Lb"l                                                   infinitive
                                                                                "Since                      he writes, referring to the
                                                                                           it oit"o h"pp"rrs,"
    Time is not an active affection                                             noun, "that the agent and the p
                                    that strikes a¡r al¡eady 6¡çi5ting sub-
   ject. As pure auto-affection,                                                son, the Jews found it necessar
                                it forms the very essence of what      can be
   defmed as seeing oneselfin                                                   of infinitive with which to
                              general._.. Sut th" selfitselfthat, æ
        *o be seen by something is, in                                          agent and tle patient, an action
   ïù: as it
                                              essence, the ffnite subject.
               is prre auto-afrection, time forms the                           activity and a passivity.... It w
                                                      essential structure
   of zubjectivity. Only on the                                                  anotl¡er kind of infinitive, exp
                                 basis of this selfhood can finite Being
   be what it musr be: delivered                                                 agent as imrnanent cause.,.
                                    over to *.;*,     (Heidegger 1990:
   I 32-31, franslatio¡
                        modiÊed).                                                visit oneselfj   or'to      constitute
                                                                                 show oneselfas        visiting' (constit
    Here what is revealed is                                                             vMtrrlrtem)" (Spinoza.19
                             th                                                  bere se

l.:t-""^t*ed to a passiviry
indeed, then appears
                                                                                 of these verbal forms, Spinoza
                        ah" _o                                                   forrn "to visit oneself," and is c
                                    thing shameful in                            tagm "to constítute oneselfas
                                                             a   human being
                                    úolence; b¡rt if he takes pleasure           iting" (he could also have writt
                                    moved by his passivity-if, that              ¡c-¡bited'). Just      as   in ordinary
                                                                                 takes pleasure in undergoing s
                                        y tlren   c"t   one speak of shame.
                                        arated, in the homosexual rela-          accomplice  to this undergoin
                                          and the passive sabject (ero-          done' something (and not s
                                            of the relatíon, dema¡rded
                                                                                 him"), so the coincidence of

                                                                                                   SHAME'     OR ON THE SUBJECT

the form not of an inert identit¡ but of a complex movement of               4) The poeticexperience     is the shaøeJul lpyince oJ
                                                                          corion, of a tull and                   #pottiuiuty of responsibility
auto-affection in which the subject constitutes or shows - itself
                                                  -                       that involves
                                                                                                   ""t;r;;; *d thtt situates the would-be
                                                                                            eyery act of speech
as passive(or active), such that activity and passivity can neyer be                                                                                is a wretched
                                                                                                         a;J;;;tn"t          of               "It
                                                                          poet in       position
separated, revealing themselyes to be distinct in their impossible                  a
                                                                                                   "t"tit is- a very              "utt¿t"o:          tj}"iu:Ï:
                  t"$ The sellis what is produced as a remainder
in the double movement active and passive of auto-affection.
                                                                          thing to confess; but
                                                                                                        "î Ptl:::Ï iJ"t
                                                                          canbe taken for granted as an opinion growng
                          -                     -                                                                         When I arn in a
This is why subjectivity constitutiveþ has the form of subjectifi-        calnature-how can it, when I have no natu¡e?
                                                                                                                              on creations
cation and desubjectification; this is why it is, at bottom, shame.       roomwith People if I          free f¡om speculating
                                                                                               "";;; ttyt"ff go"t tt to myself: but the
Flush is the remainder that, in every subjectifìcation, betrays a         of my own brain, tùen
                                                                                                             "tt       b"git'
                                                                                                                                   so to press upon
                                                                                                                                                    me that
desubjectification and that, in every desubjectification, bea¡s wit-      identity of every one in the -oom                              it
                                                                                                                        only among Men;
ness to a zubject.                                                        I am in a very little time annihilated-not
                                                                          rvould be dre same in a Nursury of childrert'' Qhi¿')'    is im-
                                                                                                                 letter the                   confession
3.13  There is an exceptional docu¡nent of desubjectiffcation as                 But the   po"a"*ìI*"J*
                                                                                           at"r                                                           but also
a shameful and yet inevitable experience. It is the letter Keats
                                                                           mediately foll.*"d t".ï;;;;'iri"*-*.,1
                                                                                                             and unfailing               wril
sends   to John \Moodhouse on Ocbber 27,1818. The "wretc,hed               by the promise of an
                                                                           de"troy and renerrl itself day after day' It
confession'ofwhich the letter speaks concerns the poetic subject
himself, the incessant self-loss by which he consists solely in            and itezub¡ectification implicit in the
alienatíon and non-existence. The theses that the letter states in         secret beauty  that could only bring tne
the form of paradoxes are well krown:                                      wihess to his own alienation: "I will     ass
   l) The poetic "I" is not an,,f; it is not identical tn itselJ,As to     summit in Poetry as tle nerve bestowed
the poetical Character (I mean tlat sort of which, if I am any             feel assu¡ed I should write '. - eY€n if my
                                                                                                                       ni                                    eÍen
thing I am a Member...) it is not itself it has no self
                                                                 -it is           mo¡ning
                                                                            burnt every                                                                      char'
                                              -                             nowlamperhapsno
                                                                            acte¡ in whose soul          I

                                                                            3.14 In the lñest
                                                                            and, indeed, perhap
                                                                             desubjectification (
                                                                             *Muse"). t'An'I'$'
                                                                                in one ofher F¡an
                                                                                A star whose pos
                                                                                 and whose nucleu

                          NANTS OF AUSCHWITZ                                                       , OR ON THE SUBJECT

us.   It could be this: myriads of particles forming an .Ij But at tle   sound, who shall prepare hirnself to the battle? " '
                                                                                                                              So likewise
                                                                                                                          be understood'
                                                                         ye, except ye utter by the tongue words
                                                                                                                 "tty -t" speak into ùe
                                                                         how shall itbe hown w-hat is ipok"ne For ye shall
                                                                         air.... Wherefore let him that speaketh in an unlnown
                                                                                                          For if I      in an unlnown
                                                                                                                 understanding is lutfruiÚul"   "
                                                                                                                 ståaing'(14: S-20)'

                                                                         3.15 The experience ofgloss
                                                                         ti$ing experience implicit in th
                                                                         linguistic theory maintains that
                                                                         two absolutely divided orders,
                                                                         ther tra¡rsition nor communic
                                                                         that if language (in the sense of
                                                                          a series of signs (for example,

                                                                          "Iìver'tto split," t'to seet'), n
                                                                         to foresee and understand how
                                                                         to form discourse. "The series
                                                                         ù-ogh the ideas that it evokes
                                                                         tlat another individual, in pron
                                                                         "The world of signs," Benvenist
                                                                         and developing Saussu¡e's antin
                                                                          the phrase there is no trans
                                                                          any other means. A hiatus sePar
                                                                             However, every language h

                                                                          individual to appropriate langu
                                                                          lvords, these signs do not Pos
                                                                          deffned in real terms; their me
                                                                          to the event of discou¡se in

                                 rr4                                                                            rr5

Benvcnisre ask,,     ",; i;          *-r            ;:;:         rerers? rt is soreþ              ,easot,
                                                                                            thx verl    :":;'*        ,:;:";:-::'n"               *, ,      nothins;
to   'reality of discourse,' and this is a very .t .og" thing. I cannot
                                                                                           he connot speak.
be defined except in terms of .locution,' not in terms of obþcts
                                                                                               "I speak' is therefore just as contadictory a statement as is
as a nominal sþ is. I signifìes .the person who is uttering the
                                                                                           "I am a poetl For not only is tåe *I" always already otå¿¡ with
present instance ofthe discourse containing                 I'   (Benveniste 1921:         resPect to the individual who lends it speec.h; it does not even
218).                                                                                      make sense to say that tl.frs l-other speals, for insofa¡ as it is solely
     Enunciation thus refers not to the           ¿ex¿   of what is stated, but to         zustained in apure eventof language, independent of everymean-
its taking place; the individual can put language into act only on                         ing, this l-other stands in an impossibility of speaking-he has
condition of identisinghimself with th" *y ã"ert of saying, anit                           nothing to say. In the absolute present of the event of discourse,
not with what is said in it. But then what dols it mean .to appro_
                                                                                           zubjectification and desubjectification coincide at every point,
priate language"? How is it possible to 'start to speak, in these                          and both the flesh a¡rd blood individual and the subject of enunci-
                                                                                           ation a¡e perfectly silent. This can also be expressed by saying
     When one looks closely,     tle       passage from language            to dis,        that the one who speaks is not the individual, but language; but
oourse            as a paradoxical act
         _appears                             that simultaneously ímplies                  this means nothing other than that an impossibility of speaking
both subjectifìcation and desubjectification.
                                              On the one hand, the                         has,in an unkrown way, come to speech.
psychosomatic indiridual must frrlly abolish
                                              himself and desubjec-                           It is therefore not surprising that in tle face of this intimate
ti$- himself as a ¡eal individual to úecome
                                            the subject of enuncia-                        exhaneousness implicit in the act of speech' Poets experill
          to identify himself with the pure shifter ..I,,,
                                                        wlúch ¡s                           something like .".p^orrsUitiay and shame. lhis is why Dante, in his
absolutlly rvithout any substantiality
                                       and content otler than its                          Vito nuovi,"oo,-.rrd"d theioet to how how 'to open by prose"
mere refe¡ence to the event ofdiscourse.
                                           But, once stripped ofall                        (øyireperptosa) the reasons of
                meaning and constitut"d a, subject of enuncia-
tion, the sub¡ect discovers tùat he          "
                                                                                           shamel Ard it is difrcult to
                                    has gained access      so mucl
                                                          not                              baud evoked his ea¡lier
to a p-ossibility of speaking                                                                                      )¡ears as
                                as   to an iÃpossibility of speaking-                      rvould have gone mad and, what
or, rather, that he has gained
                               access to       b"* J*"r,           already antici_
                                                                                           3.16 In twentieth-century po
                                                                                           ffcation,   th
                will allolv him to           into discou¡se. ,And yet, in
                                           pass                                            tion ground,'a¡rd its possible
saþg "Iro t'yoo," "thisr', .how...
                                       ,i h" o               of all refer-
ijtltjl'.l t:*"s T-'# b" á"ffoã "*o-on*"d ttre pure
ana empty relarion to
                        the event of disoourse. .íh,
                                                                                                                                                         He begins
                                                                                                                                                         cy toward
atio¿ is composeìI oJiliscourse
                                                                 ø¡å oJølrnci_
                                anil qisæ ¡n il*owse              h^í 4ut,¡*

                                                                                             SHAME'      OR ON THE SUBJECT
                          ANTS OF AUSCHW¡TZ
                                                                                                                    Caeiro' Forgive me
The origin of my heterouyms is basically an rispect of hysteria tbat      me    whon I named, from then on' Alberto
                                                                                                                      my master' Ttat was
exists witlin me, I don't how whether I an simply a hysteric or if I      absurdity of the sentence In me there
                                                                                                                  th"i"art"\           **: *tï
am more properly   a   neurasthenic hysteric_ I tend toward the second    my immediate       re""tioo' So
                                                                                                          ^o"l 'o more PaPer and wrote'Ïy*
                                                                                           written when I snatched
                                                                                                                                   Rain'" bI'
h¡pothesis, because tlere a¡e in me evidences of lassitude that hyste-    oilil poems
ria, properly speaking, doesn't eneompass in tle list of its symp-        without stopping,           ;;;;;;o"'titotiog "oblique               the ¡eilrn
toms. Be that as   it ma¡ the mental origin of heteronyms lies in a       Fernando Pessoa. So"iCht
                                                                                                    ""     t*ty *a    completely'   " ' It was
            and organic tendency ofmine to depersonalization and           of Fernando      po.o"/¡,tu'.r,o ã""i.o to       Fernando
                                                                                                                            against his nonexrs-
simulation. These phenomena fortunately for me and others                  better,   it        leactiori of Fernando Pessoa
                                                                                          was the
                                 -                                -
intellectualize themselves, I mean, they dont show up in rry practi-       tence   as Alberto Caeiro (ibid': 9)'

cal life, on the surface and in contact with otÀers; they explode
inside, and I live with them alone in me. . An urging of spirit came
                                                                           It is worth examining this inc
uPon me, absolutely foreig^, for one teason or alother, of that          heteronymic depersonalization-           N
rvhich I am, or whic"h I suppose that I am. I spoke to iÇ immediateþ     ffcation (the appearance of Alb
spontaneousl¡ as if ít were a certain friend of
                                                mine whose name I
                                                                         cation   (tÏe depersonalization of
inventqd, whose history I adapted, and
                                          whose ftgure_face, buld,
                                                                         himself to his teacher).        At the   s

clotles, and manner I immediateþ saw inside                                 implies a resubjectification:
                    -                           of me. And so I con-
                                                                         who reacts to his non-existence,
                                                                         in Alberto Caeiro.         It is as if the
                                                                         complex process that involved at
                                                                         thrree   different subiectifications-
                                                                         longer possible to speak of a
                                                                          all there is the psyùosomatic
                                                                          approaúes his desk on March 8
                                                                          this subject, the poetic act can
                                                                          tion, which coincides with the
                                                                          But a new poetic conscioumess'

                                                                          Poeryr begins once Ferna¡rdo
                                                                          depersonalization, returr\s to a
                                                                          the fì¡st subject. Then he rmd
                                                                           non-existence as Alberto Ca

                                 rrB                                                                                  rr9
                                                                                                       , OR ON THE SUBJECT

                ""- ;r;.
       Let us
                              ;;')J"o           ",restimony
                                                              in        moryris the one who beots witness ø a ilesabiectiJicatioo' Bu¡ this
                               ctic between the su¡vivor and the        expression holds only if it is not forgotten that "to bear
                                                                                                                                            of tes-
                               and the "complete wihess," tìe           to a desub¡ectification" can only           -"* th"," is no subject that
                              ony appears here      as a process tåat   timony ("I repeat, \,ve âte not.. - the true witnesses")
                               the first, the survivor, who can         evelv testimony is a field of forces incessantly br¿versed
                                resting to say; and the second,         rents of subjectification and desubjectification'
                                o thas touched bottom,', and                 Here   it   is possible to gage   tlr" i*,rfÊA""ty of the fwo opposed
                              cannot speak. Which of the two            theses   that di"id"                   of Auschwitz: the view of humanist
                                                                                                 "".orira",                        and
                              oJtestinony?                              discourse, which states that"all human beings are hlrman"
                              e   human, the survivor, who bea¡s        that of anti-huma¡rist discourse, which holds that 'only some
                              elmann. But if tåe survivor bea¡s         human beings are humanl' What testimony says is sometling
                               e technical sense of "on behalf
                                  their stead,
                                             by. proxy',)
                                  which the acts of tl-re delegated
                              in some way the .llluselmann who          rçitness to tl¡e inhumanl'
                              at the one who truly bears wit-
                              an;    itmeans that tÀe human is          3.18 Let us conside¡ the indivi
                                  e inhuman, the one who ler¡ds         the etymological sense, a being
                              that there is no one who claims           in   him-and for him-in the
                              speak, to bear wiEress, is tåus to        speak? We have seen that the '
                                   in which sometling sinks to          gains access, is a purely discursi
                                   and silenced, and sometlÍng          concept nor to a real individu
                                      anything to say ofits ovrrr       scendingthe multiple tôtality o
                              t actually experience,,). Testi-          Pernanence of what we call
                              chless one makes the speaking             the appearance in Being of an
                               speal<s bears the impossibility           Benveniste writes,         "[t is in the
                                   that the silent and the speak-        desþates the speaker that the
                                  ter into a zoDe of indistinction       'subjecd And so it is literallY
                                     e position ofthe subject, to        in the exercise of language" (
                                     tàe 'I'and, along witü it,          har-e analyzed the consequenc
This can also be                                                         intolanguage for the strircture
                 expressed by saying
                                     tbat the subject oftot¡_            subjectiftcation for the hving

                                                                                               SHAME'        OR ON THE SUBJECT

 l. 1,":"-u",... ;;;                 ;"";**         serr-presence            cerned   in the gaze sf   ¡[s   ani¡,.ah he must noü¡ turn his eyes in-
 T 'I," ^ speaker in the event of discourse, tlat the¡e can be in            rvard                                              This is whY subjectifica-
 the livingbeing something   like a unitary       , to which one             tion,                                              the event ofdiscourse' is
     refer lived experiences and a.t         ""ot
;11 oceans                              ,        point outside of            often   ahauma of wbir*rhumanb
the                                       "îrm
             ofsensations and psychic states.
                                              And Benveniste hæ              *hy th" fragile text of conscious
shown how human temporality
                                   is generated through the self-            enses itself,hinging to light the di
Plesence and presence to the wo¡lJthat the act of enrmciation                the constitutive desubjectification
makes possible, how human
                               beings in general have no way to              harilly astonishing that    it   was    pr
experience the "no#'otìer
                          than Uy                        it throughthe       Pronorm'I" in Husserl that Derr
insertion of discou¡se ir                  "oi.ai*tiog
pleciseryrorthis,"*""i        jhË''f"ääil',#Ë::î",i,i                        an   infinite deferral, an originary disjunction
                                                                             in the pure self-presence of consciousoess-)
                                                                                                                                    - writing-inscribed
than discourse, the   'ho#-* rí"*,          uy                  to   grasp        It is therefore not surprising that when something like con-
the present insta¡rt-is                     ""."y
                            marked ly .o #.Aoaùle"o"*pa
                                                  negtivity; pre-            sciousness (suaeidãsis, sunnoio)
cisely because consciousness
                               has no other consistency than lan_            of Greek tragedians and poets,
        ev:?thing that philosophy
Tage'                              and psychology believed then-             zone of non-consciousness          in
sclves to discern in consciousnles
an'Imagined zubstancel,
                                   i,   s-jy J"do* of language,              edge, n'hich has an ethical rath
                          r"U¡"*"ay-""ã "        loäo*orrr, in which         the beginning. Thus in Solon's
our culturc believed itseE
                           tã    n""    io"rrã   lo n _.* foundarion,        mute con-science (sigõsø sunoi
rcst on r.hat is most pre
     -p"".h:;;;.dï#:iiiff ii"H:ä*:,î,:îl.:*"Jil                              sciousoess can also be atfibute
"f                                                                           by definition, cannot speak the
                                         language into action in dis-        roclw sal'srn m Philocætus @f.
                                         as in speech given once and         iect appears for the fi¡st time a
                                                                             form of a disjunction between
     There is more: the
  -                      living being who has made himself ab_                rvho knows, it is felt as an imp
solutely present to
                    himserf in1]r. J"i;";;"oo.r,                   ,,I,,,
pushes his orvn lirrcd                                  i,, saying            rvho speaks,it is experienced as
                       experiences back into
can llo longer coincide                        a lirritless past and          know.
                         with them. m.
pure presencc of
                  discour trreparably     "",.f hnguage in the
                                       divides the                   of       3.19 In 1928, Ludwig Binsw
sensûtions an¿ exÞeriense                              seil]PÃence
                                                                              sþilicant title Tåe YiuI Fun
::;r_rîïiJ,.ilï.:,i"i::i,ö:äiåtT,ï,ïlî:                                       Introducing into psychiatric t
f""*;ì;;_-il;,üil.":ïi;iT;:.ä"îüff                                            rocabulary that
                                                                iJîi.:        a fundamental

                                  r22                                                                                     r21
                        :MNANTS OF AUSCHì,vITZ
                                                                                                                   OR ON THE SUBJECT
 and psychical vital
                     fr¡nctionsthat øke place    in                                                                                           that
 personal c¡nsciousness,
                                                      an organisrn andin           be    introduced   into the b
                         in which   th. liv.d                                                                                                 sub-
                                                er<periences of an indi_           at   te                the
                                                                                             point in which
the ol                                                                             ject, there is     som.ething
svyangel                                                                           series,    in which the    s
the "functional modalityof                                                         biological ftrnctions as
                            the psycho_somatic organism, on the
one hand, and tùe                                                                  ti$ himself with the
                  intemal li"t..y áf m";;;.                                                                                           of conscious-
                                             or̡erl This allows                   rlevelopment of bodily processes as in the series
l* l. escape tìe confusior, .,ú"t*".
runction and the soiri                                                             ness' intentional acts, nothing seems to consent
                                                                                                                                    to such a coin-
                       content of p
*h"h;;;ï;i.ï*:, tttthePsYchicte
                                                                                   ciilence. Indeed,    "I'   signifies pre
callyunsounda                                                                      between   vital functions and
                                                                                   being's becoming a speaking b
compates this                                                                      sation of itself as living. It is c
'""rrl*.;",;;iiïi,::'fräJff î",itrå'"ill
rvhere    is
                                                                                   Ilorr alongside one another in
                                                                                   macy. But is intiøacynot preciseþ the name
                                                                                                                                 t-hat we give to
    - 'life-function;'     waking, h"   ;;".lrf"                                                                                         that never
                                                        history.,   ..   . It is   proximity tlat also remains distant, to a promiscuity
                                the aftempt is made-to reduce
                                                                                    becoures identity?
                                etween life-frnction a¡¡d life-his-

                                                                                    3.20    The Japanese psychiatrist
î,älä*î,:'"""":äii:,n"-"ä::i,ïï11äi,ïff;                                            chiatric Hospital of Kyoto and
                                                                                    deepen Heid,egger's analysis of       t
                                                                                    reference      to a classification of
                                                                                    illness. To this end he made us
                                                                                    (iterall¡ "after the celeb
                                                                                        Past, an arrival at things
                                                                                        nefrically distinguished from

                                                                                        ab\   accomplished past with          r

                        ousness? .Where,
                                           arrd how, can a subject


                              EMNANIS     OF AUSCHWITZ
                                                                                                            OR ON THE SUBJECT

 thus a kind of consti
                             "n¡I1$oly'of human                                                        with the intention,        to speak, of procuring
 is always late   witå.,'i*: to itself, having always Dosein'
                                                                       which    tion of the sâme act                         so
 its ..celebrationÐ                                           already missed
    Anæþtan,*":Sî corresponds
                                   to the experience
            *ii"h the direction of the melancholic,s of rhe
 sctizophreni", io

ffi l:::#j:astisinverted.F"..h.;;h;;i.ï;i;":,f;                                 porality is even clearer in Kimura Bin's second example: epilepsy'
and the ,".tirop[.ä                                nething to be attained,      which he presents as the    "original landscape" of insanity    -   a

anticþation. "'Th";                                 s time in the fom of

"i, noì th" T'J;: ,                                t,'' Kimura Bin writes,
w1rds,     it is nor   thu   portÍotu^.I,
only be spoken
               of ¡ri t".ro, of a
                                   of rhe ,':r",:"ff          ïiffï;
                                  past and a debt.... Instead, the

(Kimura Bin 1992:

                                              precisely fo¡ this reason,
                                              always risks missing itself

                                                      of inttaJestuø to
                                                     's   ineparable self-
                                                    e at his owû cere-
                                                    allygain accessto
                                                   ut it is not so. The
                                                     des have
                                                   essive neu¡osis, tl¡e
                                                     obsessive reitera-


                                                                                 SHAME, OR ON THE SUBJECT

            ction with respect to himself and                  the uhõn,tle node of this having. How can a living be;mg hwe
           f living beings were constitutively
                                                               language?          it mean for a living being to speak?
                                                                           What can
           ecome speaking beings, of having
                                                                  The prece¡ìing analyses have sufüciently shown the sense in
                 otler    ttran   tle form   of this   dis_    úich   speaking is a paradoxical act that implie,s both subjectifica-
                              mastered only in the             tion and   desubjectiffcaEon, in whic.h the living individual appro-
                              decision, which rep-
                                  sustainingthe ecsta-
            epingitfrom cavingin on Being-
                 tz marks the irrecove¡able cri-
               e ver)r possibility of ..deciding,,
           e   absolute situation, is the end of              netaphysics and the'Western   reflection on language-if they are
           temporality, tlat is, of tle tem_                  bt_o   diff.t"ot things-have constantly sought to articulate t]he
           osition in space, of a п, In the                  rclation between the tiving                                   to con-
                                                                                          being and the speaking being,
           ast takes tàe   form ofan absolute
           f"t    ur, anticþation and succes-
                       otler. Waking is now for-
                   :   "Soon we will again hear /
           fy the sense in which shame is
                           suþectivity and
                                   vent ofenuncia-
           y has the form of being con-
               be assumed. To be conscious
           thing that ca¡¡rÌot be assumed.
                    encein Heidegerand

           deffn¡tion ofmau       as zloon logon
                       . The metaphysical tradi_              speeô.
                 regard both to the living                                                                                       in-
                                                                  It is in this non-place of articulation that deconstructiorr
           as remained unthought
                                   in it is                   scribes its "rrace' ;a'ï)tni;"nn, t" n'hich voice an¡l


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