The Beginnings of Greek Civilization Aegean Area Minoans Mycenaean's Troy Myth Vs. reality Geography Southern Balkan Peninsula Western Turkey Island of Crete Crete - Minoans Knossos center of civilization palace of Minos labyrinth of rooms and passage ways plumbing palace murals show civilization gold jewelry fancy hair stylyes fond of dancing and sports worshiped mother goddess gave women a more important role Crete II sea traders 2000 BCE dominated eastern Mediterranean peaked at 1600 BCE earthquakes a frequent problem and may have destroyed the civilization Story of Theseus and the Minotaur Crete ruled Mediterranean and took Greek youth as part of tribute youth used in religious ceremonies danced with bulls - similar to today's bullfights Theseus heir to Athens chosen in lottery went to Crete as offering to the Minotaur- son of king Minos supposed 1/2 bull 1/2 human lived in the labyrinth (palace) Ariadne daughter of Minos falls in love with Theseus gives him a ball of string to enter the labyrinth he defeats the Minataur in battle and escapes by using the string path may be symbolic of the Greeks conquering the Minoans Mycenaean Indo European Aryans Celts Persians Greeks entered Balkans abut 2000BCE intermarried with local Hellenes City States built around a royal fortress nobles lived on manors outside city slaves and tenants farmed land Major cities Mycenae palace center of government and business products made in cities and laws inforced and taxes collected worship Minoan earth mother by 1400 controlled Crete and Balkans warfare among cities develop Invaded by Dorians and then Ionians Dark ages lost writing and crafts Dark Ages poets and oral tradition Homer blind poet given credit for the epic poems Iliad - fall of Troy Odyssey - travels of Odysseus Trojan War War between Myceaea and Troy Paris prince of Troy falls in love with Helen the sister in law of the of king of Mycenae Helen is kidnapped Mycenaeans lay siege toTroy for 10 years heroes Achilles and Hector Odysseus sends in a large wooden horse with soldiers inside Troy falls teach values of love of nature, husband wife relationships and loyalty among friends Greek Religion Gods and Goddess have human forms and failings cause natural disasters individual was important and could treat as equals with Gods combined Minoan and Mycenean beliefs Goddess - Hera, Athena, Diana, Demeter, Aphrodite Gods-Zeus, Ares, Appolo, Posiedon, Dionysus The City State - Polis geography caused the development of individual isolated cities mountains seas City vineyards farmlands fortified hill (acropolis) agora - public square Citizens vote own property serve in government serve in army most not citizens women had no rights Greek Colonies and Trade increases in population after 700BCE meant cities needed more food sent out citizens to establish colonies coasts of Mediterranean and Black sea Syracuse 600 BCE replaced barter system with money purple cloth - item of trade pottery exported Government first city states ruled by kings landholding aristocrats began to assume more power as need for foot soldiers grew more were given citizenship rights tyrannies arose - dictatorships 500-336 BCE oligarchy (few wealthy people) became the rule 2 democracies Athens and Sparta Athens and Sparta Major rivals united by war with Persia Sparta descendants of the Dorian invaders located in Peloponnesus economy was based on agriculture instead of colonies - invaded neighbors militaristic society on base of slaves - Helots slaves revolted in 650BCE and 30 year war resulted Sparta - Military society all male citizens were soldiers only healthy new born allowed to live age 7 boys went to live in barracks taught to read, write and use weapons 20 became soldiers 30 had to marry lived in barracks until age 60 Sparta - women child producers trained in gymnastics, wrestling, and boxing married at 18 given personal rights could own land but not allowed to participate in politics Sparta - government 2 kings led army conducted religious ceremonies Assembly of all men over age 20 made laws Assembly elected 5 overseers to administer public affairs Counsel of Elders proposed laws to Assembly Spartan culture endured 250 years not open to new ideas failed to progress exceptional athletes and won Olympic games Athens Attica descended from Mycenaeans city named for goddess of wisdom Athena Athens had an expanded definition of citizenship all free men were citizens regardless of class all could participated in Assembly Athens's Tyrants brought the change Draco’s Law (Draconian) improved code of laws penalties given to offenders were harsh written down so everyone knew them Solon canceled all land debts and freed debtors from slavery limited land one person could own promoted trade and growing of cash crops 2 house legislature landowner made up Assembly Council of 500 drafted laws for approval Tyrants II Peisistratus divided large estates among the landless extended citizenship to non land owners Organized a festival to Dionysus Began as a song sung by a choir of “goats” Stories added = Greek Drama Cleistheens democracy reorganized structure of government guaranteed freedom of speech Athenian Democracy Assembly all male citizens passed laws supreme court chose 10 generals to run the army and navy Athenian Democracy II Council of 500 administered laws collected taxes built public works members chosen by lottery jury ostracism - unpopular sent away for 10 years took 6000 votes Athenian Education every male registered with 1 week of birth sons were required to be educated girls learned household duties some private education for rich most educated in the agora through daily conversations and discussions entered school at age 7 graduated at 18 Iliad and Odyssey main books memorized arithmetic, geometry, drawing music and gymnastics War with Persia 500-479 Cyrus II conquered Greek City States in Turkey even though Persians were not bad conquerors they were resented Athens sent aid to try and overthrow Persia won and sent troops to punish Athens Marathon invasion point for Persians 25 miles north of Athens Athenians seemingly ignored them order to get back on boats while in water and in disarray Athens struck and Persians were defeated Salamis 480 BCE Xerxes invaded Greece 200,000 Greeks led by Themistocles delayed Persians at Themopylae under Spartans Persian fleet was engaged and defeated Golden age of Athens 461-421 BCE height of Greek Culture Pericles lead Athens rebuilt city after burning by Persians Parthenon Daily life homes 2 rooms main room wool room for women's work work day mornings given to work afternoon attended the assembly or gym heavy work done by slaves Peloponnesian war 431-404 War between Athens and Sparta clash of cultures Athens under Pericles took control of Delian League city states that worked together to oust Persians took control of funds on isle of Delos centered courts in Athens supported revolts in other city states Sparta led opposition 431 BCE to 404 BCE Sparta joined with Persians Athens hit by plague Spartans defeated Athens Civil war results power vacuum Thebes tried to rule and failed Macedonia became to rise in power and influence Bowman, J. (1980). Clash of East and West: Imperial Greece. New York: HBJ Press. Bowra. C. M. (1968) Classical Greece. New York: Time-Life Books. Pomeroy, S.B. (1995). Goddesses, Whores, Wives, and Slaves:Women in Classical Antiguity. New York: Schocken Books.