The Beginnings of Greek Civilization

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					The Beginnings of Greek
Civilization
   Aegean Area
       Minoans
       Mycenaean's
       Troy
       Myth Vs. reality
Geography
   Southern Balkan Peninsula
   Western Turkey
   Island of Crete
Crete - Minoans
   Knossos center of civilization
   palace of Minos
       labyrinth of rooms and passage ways
       plumbing
   palace murals show civilization
       gold jewelry
       fancy hair stylyes
       fond of dancing and sports
   worshiped mother goddess
       gave women a more important role
Crete II
   sea traders
   2000 BCE dominated eastern
    Mediterranean
   peaked at 1600 BCE
   earthquakes a frequent problem and
    may have destroyed the civilization
Story of Theseus and the
Minotaur
   Crete ruled Mediterranean and took
    Greek youth as part of tribute
   youth used in religious ceremonies
   danced with bulls - similar to today's
    bullfights
Theseus heir to Athens chosen
in lottery
   went to Crete as offering to the Minotaur- son
    of king Minos
       supposed 1/2 bull 1/2 human
       lived in the labyrinth (palace)
       Ariadne daughter of Minos falls in love with
        Theseus
       gives him a ball of string to enter the labyrinth
       he defeats the Minataur in battle and escapes by
        using the string path
   may be symbolic of the Greeks conquering
    the Minoans
Mycenaean
   Indo European
       Aryans
       Celts
       Persians
       Greeks
   entered Balkans abut 2000BCE
   intermarried with local Hellenes
   City States built around a royal fortress
   nobles lived on manors outside city
   slaves and tenants farmed land
Major cities
   Mycenae
       palace center of government and business
       products made in cities and laws inforced and
        taxes collected
       worship Minoan earth mother
       by 1400 controlled Crete and Balkans
       warfare among cities develop
       Invaded by Dorians and then Ionians
       Dark ages lost writing and crafts
Dark Ages
   poets and oral tradition
   Homer
       blind poet
       given credit for the epic poems
       Iliad - fall of Troy
       Odyssey - travels of Odysseus
Trojan War
   War between Myceaea and Troy
            Paris prince of Troy falls in love with Helen the sister in
             law of the of king of Mycenae
            Helen is kidnapped
            Mycenaeans lay siege toTroy for 10 years
                  heroes Achilles and Hector
                  Odysseus sends in a large wooden horse with soldiers
                   inside
                  Troy falls
       teach values of love of nature, husband wife
        relationships and loyalty among friends
Greek Religion
   Gods and Goddess have human forms
    and failings
       cause natural disasters
       individual was important and could treat as
        equals with Gods
       combined Minoan and Mycenean beliefs
            Goddess - Hera, Athena, Diana, Demeter,
             Aphrodite
            Gods-Zeus, Ares, Appolo, Posiedon, Dionysus
The City State - Polis
   geography caused the development of
    individual isolated cities
       mountains
       seas
   City
       vineyards
       farmlands
       fortified hill (acropolis)
       agora - public square
Citizens
       vote
       own property
       serve in government
       serve in army
   most not citizens
   women had no rights
Greek Colonies and Trade
   increases in population after 700BCE meant
    cities needed more food
   sent out citizens to establish colonies
   coasts of Mediterranean and Black sea
       Syracuse
   600 BCE replaced barter system with money
   purple cloth - item of trade
   pottery exported
Government
   first city states ruled by kings
   landholding aristocrats began to assume
    more power
   as need for foot soldiers grew more were
    given citizenship rights
   tyrannies arose - dictatorships
   500-336 BCE oligarchy (few wealthy people)
    became the rule
   2 democracies Athens and Sparta
Athens and Sparta
   Major rivals
   united by war with Persia
Sparta
   descendants of the Dorian invaders
   located in Peloponnesus
   economy was based on agriculture
   instead of colonies - invaded neighbors
   militaristic
   society on base of slaves - Helots
   slaves revolted in 650BCE and 30 year war
    resulted
Sparta - Military society
   all male citizens were soldiers
   only healthy new born allowed to live
   age 7 boys went to live in barracks
   taught to read, write and use weapons
   20 became soldiers
   30 had to marry
   lived in barracks until age 60
Sparta - women
   child producers
   trained in gymnastics, wrestling, and
    boxing
   married at 18
   given personal rights
   could own land
   but not allowed to participate in politics
Sparta - government
   2 kings
   led army
   conducted religious ceremonies
   Assembly of all men over age 20 made laws
   Assembly elected 5 overseers to administer
    public affairs
   Counsel of Elders proposed laws to Assembly
Spartan culture endured 250
years
   not open to new ideas
   failed to progress
   exceptional athletes and won Olympic
    games
Athens
   Attica
   descended from Mycenaeans
   city named for goddess of wisdom Athena
   Athens had an expanded definition of
    citizenship
       all free men were citizens regardless of class
       all could participated in Assembly
Athens's Tyrants brought the
change
   Draco’s Law (Draconian)
          improved code of laws
          penalties given to offenders were harsh
          written down so everyone knew them
   Solon
          canceled all land debts and freed debtors from slavery
          limited land one person could own
          promoted trade and growing of cash crops
          2 house legislature
          landowner made up Assembly
          Council of 500 drafted laws for approval
Tyrants II
   Peisistratus
            divided large estates among the landless
            extended citizenship to non land owners
            Organized a festival to Dionysus
                 Began as a song sung by a choir of “goats”
                 Stories added = Greek Drama
       Cleistheens
            democracy
            reorganized structure of government
            guaranteed freedom of speech
Athenian Democracy
   Assembly
       all male citizens
       passed laws
       supreme court
       chose 10 generals to run the army and
        navy
Athenian Democracy II
   Council of 500
       administered laws
       collected taxes
       built public works
       members chosen by lottery
       jury
       ostracism - unpopular sent away for 10
        years took 6000 votes
Athenian Education
   every male registered with 1 week of birth
   sons were required to be educated
   girls learned household duties
   some private education for rich
   most educated in the agora through daily
    conversations and discussions
   entered school at age 7 graduated at 18
       Iliad and Odyssey main books
       memorized
       arithmetic, geometry, drawing
       music and gymnastics
War with Persia 500-479
   Cyrus II conquered Greek City States in
    Turkey
   even though Persians were not bad
    conquerors they were resented
   Athens sent aid to try and overthrow
   Persia won and sent troops to punish
    Athens
Marathon
    invasion point for Persians
    25 miles north of Athens
    Athenians seemingly ignored them
    order to get back on boats
    while in water and in disarray Athens
     struck and Persians were defeated
Salamis
   480 BCE
   Xerxes invaded Greece
   200,000
   Greeks led by Themistocles
   delayed Persians at Themopylae under
    Spartans
   Persian fleet was engaged and defeated
Golden age of Athens
   461-421 BCE height of Greek Culture
   Pericles lead Athens
       rebuilt city after burning by Persians
       Parthenon
Daily life
     homes
          2 rooms
               main room
               wool room for women's work
     work day
          mornings given to work
          afternoon attended the assembly or gym
     heavy work done by slaves
Peloponnesian war 431-404
   War between Athens and Sparta
       clash of cultures
       Athens under Pericles took control of Delian League
           city states that worked together to oust Persians

           took control of funds on isle of Delos

           centered courts in Athens

           supported revolts in other city states

       Sparta led opposition
       431 BCE to 404 BCE
       Sparta joined with Persians
       Athens hit by plague
       Spartans defeated Athens
Civil war results
   power vacuum
   Thebes tried to rule and failed
   Macedonia became to rise in power and
    influence
   Bowman, J. (1980). Clash of East and West: Imperial Greece.
    New York: HBJ Press.
   Bowra. C. M. (1968) Classical Greece. New York: Time-Life
    Books.
   Pomeroy, S.B. (1995). Goddesses, Whores, Wives, and
    Slaves:Women in Classical Antiguity. New York: Schocken
    Books.